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Sample records for beta-gamma contaminated solid

  1. Vitrification of transuranic and beta-gamma contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1980-06-01

    Vitrification of solid transuranic contaminated (TRU) wastes alone and with high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) was studied. Homogeneous glasses containing 20 to 30 wt % ash were made by using glass frits previously developed at the Savannah River Plant and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. If the ash is vitrified along with the HLLW, 1.0 wt % as can be added to the waste forms without affecting their quality. This loading of ash is well above the loading required by the relative amounts of HLLW and TRU ash that will be processed at the Savannah River Plant. Vitrification of TRU-contaminated electropolishing sludges and high efficiency particular air filter materials along with HLLW would require an increase in the quantity of glass to be produced. However, if these TRU-contaminated solids were vitrified with the HLLW, the addition of low-level beta-gamma contaminated ash would require no further increase in glass production

  2. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft 3 per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage

  3. Management of defense beta-gamma contaminated solid low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    In DOE defense operations, approx. 70,000 m 3 of beta-gamma low-level radioactive waste are disposed of annually by shallow land burial operations at six primary sites. Waste generated at other DOE sites are transported on public roads to the primary sites for disposal. In the practice of low-level waste (LLW) disposal in the US, the site hydrology and geology are the primary barriers to radioactive migration. To date, little emphasis has been placed on waste form improvements or engineered site modifications to reduce migration potential. Compaction is the most common treatment step employed. The performance of ground disposal of radioactive waste in this country, in spite of many practices that we would consider unacceptable in today's light, has resulted in very little migration of radioactivity outside site boundaries. Most problems with previously used burial grounds have been from subsidence at the arid sites and subsidence and groundwater contact at the humid sites. The radionuclides that have shown the most significant migration are tritium, 90 Sr, and 99 Tc. The unit cost for disposal operations at a given DOE site is dependent on many variables, but the annual volume to be disposed is probably the major factor. The average cost for current DOE burial operation is approximately $170/m 3 . 23 figures

  4. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K A; Hagsgaard, S [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  5. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S.; Swensson, A.

    1966-11-01

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the β γ-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other β γ-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier

  6. Beta, gamma contamination analysis of thermo luminescence dosimeter cassettes using Geiger Muller counting set up and gamma spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.K.; Sudheer, T.S.; Sahoo, L.; Vinayagam, Bhakti; Kamble, Mahesh; Khuspe, R.R.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Verma, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Β-γ contamination cheek up of TLD cassettes were carried out and the isotopes found were 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 144 Ce and 95 Nb with activity per square cm varying from 0.05-4.70 Bq/cm 2 with median value 1.3. The assessed dose in TLD was in the range of 2.10 mSv to 22.05 mSv for beta, 0.05 mSv to 5.25 mSv for gamma. The beta doses have median value of 6.19 mSv. This contamination may be due to active water contamination on TLD's of personnel working for irradiated fuel handling or work in fuel rod (under water) storage area. This gives a method to estimate skin exposure of personnel due to skin contamination during work. Chances of getting TLD's contaminated due to various reasons were studied. Contamination was found maximum inside the cassette box having area 16 cm 2 . In case of plastic pouch of TLD disc contamination was detected in three cases. Contamination level on TLD cassettes using GM counter was found in the range of 0.30-3.6 Bq/cm 2 for cassettes. By opening the window of the surveymeter contamination and field of these cassettes in closed condition were found to increase by 20% due to the measurement of beta dose. With the same condition contamination of TLD cassette in open condition was found five times more. This is due to the a-contamination which is five times more than a contamination, The most prominent isotope 137 Cs in common chemical forms are soluble in water and if inhaled or ingested are rapidly and completely absorbed in the lungs and across the gastrointestinal tract. Thus a skin contamination of most prominent isotope 137 Cs can lead to intake in addition to skin dose. Fading studies of contamination of TLD cassettes were carried out. It was found negligible after counting with GM counting set up after a period of 3 months. But one of the TLD cassettes was showing an 80% reduction of contamination after 3 months with GM counting set up, the contaminants being 141 Ce, 103 Ru and 95 Nb. The gamma peaks in the external exposure

  7. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Design and operation of a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Makohon, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale test incinerator has been built at the Savannah River Laboratory to provide a design basis for a radioactive facility that will burn low-level beta-gamma contaminated waste. The processing steps include waste feed loading, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Both solid and liquid waste will be incinerated during the test program. The components of the solid waste are cellulose, latex, polyethylene, and PVC; the solvent is composed of n-paraffin and TBP. A research program will confirm the feasibility of the design and determine the operating parameters

  9. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  10. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  11. {beta} {gamma} porch detector; Detecteur portique {beta} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This device is to be placed at the outside of reactors, hot laboratories and others where radioactive products are treated; it is intended to give the alarm when someone, passing through the porch is greatly contaminated, or carries, without his knowing, a radioactive substance. Being to be used in places where there might be an important ground noise, this device is provided with an automatic offset of this noise; an adjusting system of sensitivity allows to obtain a 15 {mu}Ci in {gamma} and 10 {mu}Ci in {beta} radioactive source, passing through the porch at the normal speed at which man is walking. A battery, set in buffer, allows working of the device, even when current is off. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a etre place a la sortie des reacteurs, laboratoires chauds ou autres laboratoires travaillant sur des produits radioactifs; son but est de donner une alarme lorsque quelqu'un, passant sous le portique, presente une forte contamination, ou surtout transporte par inadvertance un corps radioactif. Cet appareil devant etre utilise dans les lieux ou peut regner un bruit de fond important, possede une compensation automatique de ce bruit de fond; un reglage de la sensibilite permet d'obtenir au mieux un declenchement pour une source. de 15 {mu}Ci en {gamma} et 10 {mu}Ci en {beta} passant sous le portique a la vitesse normale d'un homme qui marche. Une batterie montee en tampon permet a l'appareil de fonctionner meme en cas de coupure de courant. (auteur)

  12. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  13. Skin dose assessment in routine personnel beta/gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (Publication 26) has recommended a tissue depth of 5 to 10 mg.cm -2 for skin dose assessments. This requirement is generally not fulfilled by routine monitoring procedures because of practical difficulties in using very thin dosemeters with low sensitivity and therefore a high minimum detectable dose. Especially for low-energy beta-ray exposures underestimations of the skin dose by a factor of more than ten may occur. Low-transparent graphite-mixed sintered LiF and Li 2 B 4 0 7 : Mn dosemeters were produced which show a skin-equivalent response to beta and gamma exposures over a wide range of energies. These have found wide-spread application for extremity dosimetry but have not yet been generally introduced in routine personnel beta/gamma monitoring. The following adaptations of existing routine monitoring systems for improved skin dose assessments have been investigated: 1) Placement of a supplementary, thin, skin-dose equivalent dosemeter in the TLD badge to give additional information on low-energy exposures. 2) Introduction of a second photomultiplier in the read-out chamber which enables a simultaneous determination of emitted TL from both sides of the dosemeter separately. This method makes use of the selfshielding of the dosemeter to give information on the low-energy dose contribution. 3) By diffusion of Li 2 B 4 0 7 into solid LiF-dosemeters it was possible to produce a surface layer with a new distinct glow-peak at about 340 deg C which is not present in the undiffused part of the LiF chip, and which can be utilized for the assessment of the skin-dose. Data on energy response and accuracy of dose measurement for beta/gamma exposures are given for the three methods and advantages and disadvantages are discussed (H.K.)

  14. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  15. Alpha-beta-gamma spectrometer as an aid in directing decontamination of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This technique permits rapid assessment of alpha-beta-gamma-emitter contamination in soils at sufficiently low concentrations to direct field operations. Of particular importance is its applicability during initial decommissioning and decontamination surveys when characterization of alpha and beta contamination in the presence of a high gamma background is necessary. This system has not yet been made portable for in-situ use, but it is expected that results willbe favorable when operated as a field instrument, resulting in simplified standard decontamination operation

  16. Photocatalytic remediation of contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J R; Scrudato, R J [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Results of various experiments to utilize photocatalysis to photodegrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticide-contaminated sediments and soils in slurry suspensions, were discussed. The mechanism of the reaction, i. e. simultaneously bringing together the catalyst, contaminant and light through mixing or overturn of the material, was explained. Potential advantages of the method (on-site treatment, simultaneous degradation of multiple contaminants, low energy requirements, no emission of toxic effluents, reusable inert catalyst, no landfilling or future liability, etc.,) were reviewed. A pilot-scale test is planned for the near future to provide performance data needed for eventual commercialization. 8 refs.

  17. Y-formalism and curved {beta}-{gamma} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio [DISTA, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino (Italy)], E-mail: antonio.pietro.grassi@cern.ch; Oda, Ichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Tonin, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Padova, INFN, Sezionedi Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-01-01

    We adopt the Y-formalism to study {beta}-{gamma} systems on hypersurfaces. We compute the operator product expansions of gauge-invariant currents and we discuss some applications of the Y-formalism to model on Calabi-Yau spaces.

  18. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  19. Beta-gamma counting system for Xe fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A beta-gamma coincidence counting system has been developed for automated analysis of Xe gas samples separated from air. The Xe gas samples are contained in a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell located between two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The X-ray and gamma spectra gated by coincident events in the plastic scintillator cell are recorded for each NaI(Tl) crystal. The characteristic signatures of the 131m Xe, 133g Xe, 133m Xe, and 135g Xe isotopes of interest for nuclear test-ban verification as well as the procedures and results of absolute efficiency measurements are described. A NaI(Tl) crystal with provision for 4 sample cells has been implemented for the system to be deployed in the field. Examples of data on ambient air samples in New York City obtained with the field prototype are presented. (author)

  20. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  1. Perturbed beta-gamma systems and complex geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, Anton M. [Department of Mathematics, Yale University, 442 Dunham Lab, 10 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)], E-mail: anton.zeitlin@yale.edu

    2008-05-11

    We consider the equations, arising as the conformal invariance conditions of the perturbed curved beta-gamma system. These equations have the physical meaning of Einstein equations with a B-field and a dilaton on a Hermitian manifold, where the B-field 2-form is imaginary and proportional to the canonical form associated with Hermitian metric. We show that they decompose into linear and bilinear equations and lead to the vanishing of the first Chern class of the manifold where the system is defined. We discuss the relation of these equations to the generalized Maurer-Cartan structures related to BRST operator. Finally we describe the relations of the generalized Maurer-Cartan bilinear operation and the Courant/Dorfman brackets.

  2. Hanford beta-gamma personnel dosimeter prototypes and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Holbrook, K.L.; Soldat, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    Upgraded and modified Hanford dosimeter prototypes were evaluated for possible use at Hanford as a primary beta-gamma dosimeter. All prototypes were compatible with the current dosimeter card and holder design, as well as processing with the automated Hanford readers. Shallow- and deep-dose response was determined for selected prototypes using several beta sources, K-fluorescent x rays and filtered x-ray techniques. All prototypes included a neutron sensitive chip. A progressive evaluation of the performance of each of the upgrades to the current dosimeter is described. In general, the performance of the current dosimeter can be upgraded using individual chip sensitivity factors to improve precision and an improved algorithm to minimize bias. The performance of this dosimeter would be adequate to pass all categories of the ANSI N13.11 performance criteria for dosimeter procesors, provided calibration techniques compatible with irradiations adopted in the standard were conducted. The existing neutron capability of the dosimeter could be retained. Better dosimeter performance to beta-gamma radiation can be achieved by modifying the Hanford dosimeter so that four of the five chip positions are devoted to calculating these doses instead of the currently used two chip positions. A neutron sensitive chip was used in the 5th chip position, but all modified dosimeter prototypes would be incapable of discriminating between thermal and epithermal neutrons. An improved low energy beta response can be achieved for the current dosimeter and all prototypes considered by eliminating the security credential. Further improvement can be obtained by incorporating the 15-mil thick TLD-700 chips

  3. Alpha/beta(gamma ray) discrimination and spillover quantification with a BaF2 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple pulse shape discrimination technique was used to separate alpha and beta(gamma ray) interactions in a BaF 2 scintillator. The separation was not ideal, resulting in a 5.1% spillover of alpha interactions into the beta(gamma ray) channel and 11.9% spillover of beta(gamma ray) interactions into the alpha channel for a set pulse shape discriminator. The misclassification of events was reduced by post-processing the data using either a simple analytical technique or a more complex linear least squares technique. Both techniques typically reduced the difference between the expected and calculated interaction rates to <10% when the ratio of beta(gamma ray) to alpha count rate was less than 100 : 1. ((orig.))

  4. Prolixe-prototype reprocessing unit for irradiating wastes contamined with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Sontag, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large number of hot cells are employed for research on nuclear fuel reprocessing and the production of isotope of transuranium elements. These activities generate solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters. The Prolixe hot cell was built in order to: 1/ reprocess the solid wastes contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters produced in the Radiochemistry building: 2/ produce package wastes storable in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ develop a process sufficiently flexible to make it applicable to waste produced in other installations. The process is based on waste leaching after grinding. Depending on the type of wastes the leaching reactant will have a different composition 1/ nitric acid solution for cellulose waste: 2/ nitric solutions containing Ag(II) for other material. The complete process should achieve: 1/ a high waste volume reduction factor: 2/ the production of immobilized waste packages storage in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ the recycling of transuranium elements: 4/ the generation of a minimal volume of effluents. This process can be considered as an alternative process to incineration for the reprocessing of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters

  5. Low level GAMMA0 spectrometry by beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry has a wide application, especially in environmental monitoring. Two variants, based on a beta-gamma coincidence technique, were studied. The equipment was composed of a beta detector and a Ge(Li) gamma detector (6% - relative efficiency), with the associated electronics. The gamma rays are recorded by the multichannel analyzer (4096 channels) only if the associated beta particles, which precede the gamma transitions, are registered in coincidence. Two types of beta detectors were used: plastic and liquid scintillators. In both cases, an external lead shield of 5 cm thick was used. The integral gamma background (50-1700 KeV) was reduced about 85 and 50 times, respectively. The corresponding MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) values decreased about 1.5 and (3-7) times, respectively. The 2π sr plastic beta detector was placed on top the Ge(Li). The sample was inserted between the two detectors. The measurement time was 10 4 s. A 4π sr detector, built of the same material, was also studied, but it proved to be less advantageous because the background was reduced only 16 times; for a MDA reduction similar with that of the 2π sr variant, a longer measurement was needed (3.10 4 s). The other type of beta detector used, was a liquid scintillator. The dissolving of the samples in scintillator ensures a 4π sr measurement geometry. The vials with scintillator (10 ml volume) were placed on top the Ge(Li) and visualised by the photocathode of a phototube. This setup was surrounded by an enclosure which prevent the light penetration. The measurement time was 10 4 s. The only difficulty encountered in this low level measurement method is the accurate determination of the beta efficiency. A limitation is the possibility to measure only small mass samples. These variants are more simple and cheaper than others, previously studied. The advantage of the method is obvious when, instead of low MDA values, shorter measurement times are preferred. The

  6. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme. Progress Report for 1983/84 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated material (PCM) is a generic term applied to a wide variety of materials which have become contaminated by plutonium compounds, by virtue of their use inside the primary containment of fuel cycle plants, but which generally have low beta gamma content. The report falls under the headings: introduction; organisation and role of the PCMWP; management practices; 1983/84 progress report (a) reduction of arisings; (b) plutonium measurement; (c) treatment of solid PCM; (d) treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes; (e) actinide chemistry; (f) engineering objectives. (U.K.)

  7. Analysis method for beta-gamma coincidence spectra from radio-xenon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjing; Yin Jingpeng; Huang Xiongliang; Cheng Zhiwei; Shen Maoquan; Zhang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Radio-xenon isotopes monitoring is one important method for the verification of CTBT, what includes the measurement methods of HPGe γ spectrometer and β-γ coincidence. The article describes the analytic flowchart and method of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra from β-γ systems, and analyses in detail the principles and methods of the regions of interest of coincidence spectra and subtracting the interference, finally gives the formula of radioactivity of Xenon isotopes and minimum detectable concentrations. Studying on the principles of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra, which can supply the foundation for designing the software of β-γ coincidence systems. (authors)

  8. ORNL shielded facilities capable of remote handling of highly radioactive beta--gamma emitting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, W.R.

    1977-09-01

    A survey of ORNL facilities having adequate shielding and containment for the remote handling of experimental quantities of highly radioactive beta-gamma emitting materials is summarized. Portions of the detailed descriptions of these facilities previously published in ORNL/TM-1268 are still valid and are repeated

  9. High temperature slagging incinerator for alpha contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, N.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experiences collected by the treatment of plutonium-contaminated wastes, in the High Temperature Slagging Incinerator at the C.E.N./S.C.K. at Mol, with the support of the Commission of the European Communities. The major objective of the exercise is to demonstrate the operability of this facility for the treatment of mixed transuranic (TRU) and beta-gamma solid waste material. The process will substantially reduce the TRU waste volume by burning the combustibles and converting the non-combustibles into a chemically inert and physically stable basalt-like slag product, suitable for safe transport and final disposal. (Auth.)

  10. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units

  11. Standardization of 56Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardiyanto, Gatot; Pujadi

    2000-01-01

    Standardization of exp.56 Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods. The radionuclide use for calibration of nuclear instruments on range of energy over 1500 keV. The exp.56 Co had been produced by irradiation of proton by using a cyclotron with 15 MeV of energy and 300 mb of cross-section to natural iron target (99,5% of purity) at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after the irradiated source was dissolved in 8N HCI solution. The disintegration rate had been measured using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus, where the gamm gets sets on 511 and 847 keV gamma-rays. The result measurement is fairly good with the specific activity is 3078 n 15 Bq/mg

  12. {beta}-{gamma} systems and the deformations of the BRST operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, Anton M [Department of Mathematics, Yale University, 442 Dunham Lab, 10 Hillhouse Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)], E-mail: anton.zeitlin@yale.edu

    2009-09-04

    We describe the relation between simple logarithmic CFTs associated with closed and open strings, and their 'infinite metric' limits, corresponding to the {beta}-{gamma} systems. This relation is studied on the level of the BRST complex: we show that the consideration of metric as a perturbation leads to a certain deformation of the algebraic operations of the Lian-Zuckerman type on the vertex algebra, associated with the {beta}-{gamma} systems. The Maurer-Cartan equations corresponding to this deformed structure in the quasi-classical approximation lead to the nonlinear field equations. As an explicit example, we demonstrate that using this construction, Yang-Mills equations can be derived. This gives rise to a nontrivial relation between the Courant-Dorfman algebroid and homotopy algebras emerging from the gauge theory. We also discuss a possible algebraic approach to the study of beta-functions in sigma-models.

  13. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  14. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  15. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Nikhil; Prinke, Amanda; Miller, Brian; McIntyre, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare radioxenon beta-gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used. (author)

  16. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  18. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  19. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Breschet, C.; Vigreaux, B.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced either during research experiments on fuel reprocessing, done in the Radiochemistry building in the centre d'etudes nuclearires de FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES (CEA, FRANCE), or in the MARCOULE reprocessing plant (COGEMA, FRANCE). The goals defined for the treatments of these different wastes were: to reduce their α and β, γ, contamination levels. and to recover the plutonium, an highly valuable material, and to minimize its quantity to be discharged with the wastes. To achieve these goals leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II (a very aggressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes: ELISE and PROLIXE facilities: PILOT ASHES FACILITY for delete, the treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes (COGEMA, MARCOULE). A brief description of the process and of the different facilities will be presented in this paper; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  20. Optimization of plastic scintillator thicknesses for online beta/gamma detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtangestani K.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been built to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator, used in a whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using the MCNP/X code for different thicknesses of plastic scintillator from 150 μm to 600 μm. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analyzed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be the optimum thickness for high efficiency beta detection in the presence of low energy gamma-rays.

  1. Automatic analysis algorithm for radionuclide pulse-height data from beta-gamma coincidence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    There are two acceptable noble gas monitoring measurement modes for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) verification purposes defined in CTBT/PC/II/WG.B/1. These include beta-gamma coincidence and high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. There are at present no commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) applications for the analysis of β-γ coincidence data. Development of such software is in progress at the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC) for eventual deployment at the International Data Centre (IDC). Flowcharts detailing the automatic analysis algorithm for β-γ coincidence data to be coded at the PIDC is included. The program is being written in C with Oracle databasing capabilities. (author)

  2. Peculiarities of the clinical course of radiation sickness and organizational decisions for radiation accidents with beta-gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskova, A.K.; Gusev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of a number of recent large scale accidents involving beta-gamma sources in the last 40 years, such as those of the Marshall Islands (1954); Windscale, UK (1957); Chernobyl, USSR (1986) and Goiania, Brazil (1987) demonstrates the predominance and importance of health and social impacts. (author)

  3. Plutonium contaminated solid waste programs at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johson, L.J.; Jordan, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Development of handling and storage criteria for plutonium contaminated solid waste materials is discussed. Data from corrosion and radiolytic attack studies are reviewed. Instrumentation systems developed for solid waste management applications at the 10nCi Pu/g waste material level is described and their sensitivity and operational limitations reviewed. Current programs for the environmental risk analysis of past waste disposal areas and for development of technology for the volume reduction and chemical stabilization of transuranic contaminated solid waste is outlined

  4. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  5. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  6. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  7. Method and apparatus for treating liquid contaminated with radioactive particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus reduces the amount of radioactive solids resulting from the filtration of particulate contaminants from liquid in a nuclear reactor plant. A filtration system includes a pre-filter comprising a sheet filter medium through which the reactor liquid passes to remove relatively large particulate contaminants for storage or disposal. The reactor liquid is then passed through a bed of granular filter medium to accumulate substantially all the previously non-filtered contaminants and thereby provide a clarified liquid suitable for reuse in the reactor. Backwash liquid is flowed through the granular filter bed to remove and entrain the accumulated contaminants into a slurry which is received by a reservoir where the slurry is maintained quiescently to settle the contaminants. Removal of liquid from the reservoir concentrates the contaminants for storage or further processing, without the necessity of large quantities of filter aids that would increase the quantity of storage-requiring contaminated solids

  8. Calibrated radioactive sources - absolute measurements using a 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} apparatus; Sources etalons de radioactivite - mesures absolues au moyen d'un ensemble 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, P; Philis, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In this paper, the principle of the standardization of the radioisotopes by the 4{pi} {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method is reminded. Some theoretical examples are given emphasizing on instrumental coincidences and their corrections. The experimental apparatus is described: one discusses the choice of the experimental conditions for the many isotopes measured. Results are given and discussed. In appendix we describe the preparation of the sources. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, nous rappelons d'abord le principe de la methode d'etalonnage 4{pi} {beta} - {gamma} en donnant quelques exemples theoriques et en insistant sur la correction des erreurs instrumentales. Une description critique de l'appareillage utilise est donnee. On discute le choix des conditions experimentales pour divers isotopes mesures et les resultats obtenus. En annexe, nous decrivons la fabrication des sources que nous mesurons.

  9. Analysis of radionuclide mixtures by {alpha}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} coincidences using a simple device; Analyse de melanges de radionucleides par un dispositif simple de coincidences {alpha}-{gamma} et {beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-06-01

    A procedure is described for the qualitative and quantitative spectrographic analysis of radioactive sources containing two alpha-gamma emitters having the same alpha energy or two beta-gamma emitters having the same gamma energy. The main apparatus is a multichannel pulse-height analyzer including a coincidence circuit. The principle of the method, the synoptic scheme, the electronic device, the type of sources, and the precautions to be taken or the corrections to take into account are reported. The results obtained in solving the three following problems are discussed as examples of applications of the method: analysis of {sup 241}Am in alpha-gamma sources containing {sup 238}Pu; analysis of {sup 237}Np in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 239}Pu; and analysis of {sup 106}Ru-{sup 106}Rh in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 95}Zr-{sup 95}Nb. (authors) [French] Dans ce. rapport, on presente une methode d'analyse spectrographique qualitative et quantitative de sources radioactives contenant deux emetteurs alpha-gamma de meme energie alpha et deux emetteurs beta-gamma de meme energie gamma. L'organe principal est un analyseur d'amplitude a 400 canaux comprenant un circuit de coincidence. On decrit le principe de la methode, le schema synoptique, l'appareillage, le type des sources, les precautions a prendre ou les corrections a faire. On discute les resultats obtenus dans la solution des trois problemes suivants traites a titre d'application de la methode: 1. analyse d'americium 241 en presence de plutonium 238; 2. analyse de neptunium 237 en presence de plutonium 239; 3. analyse de ruthenium 106-rhodium 106 en presence de zirconium 95-niobium 95. (auteurs)

  10. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  11. Measurement of the beta-gamma directional correlation of the transition 46Sc→46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krexner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Measuring the forward - backward asymmetry of the direction of gamma quanta with respect to the direction of a preceding beta particle emission is one of the methods which have been developed over the past twenty years to investigate parity admixtures in nuclear states. Both theoretical calculations and experiments using this method yield very small values for the considered effect. Moreover the accuracy is limited for statistical reasons. Hence there exists a fundamental interest in proving the experimental arrangement to be free of systematic errors. The subject of this work is an experiment checking a six - detector apparatus which has been used to investigate the beta - gamma directional correlation in the decay 203 Hg→ 203 Tl. For the control measurement the transition 46 Sc→ 46 Ti was chosen. The asymmetry coefficient should yield zero and thus furnish evidence of the absence of systematic errors. The necessary 46 Sc source had to meet very restricting requirements. The feasibility of various methods for producing radioactive samples was reviewed; finally a specially designed high vacuum evaporation plant was constructed. The concept of this device and the preparation of the source are dealt with in detail. A preliminary result of the control experiment is given. However, at present a definite interpretation of the obtained values is not possible. (author)

  12. Line C17: alpha and medium-level beta-gamma laboratory pilot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calor, J.N.; Mauborgne, B.; Montuir, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Process Development Laboratory (LDP) uses the ATALANTE C17 line for integral testing in order to develop and validate spent fuel reprocessing methods and for overall qualification of calculation codes. Line C 17 comprises shielded cells and glove boxes, equipped with centrifugal extractors and laboratory-scale mixer-settlers to test liquid-liquid extraction processes in an alpha and medium-level beta-gamma environment. The high reliability and precision of the process instrumentation and control system allow full control of operating parameters and comprehensive operating data recording, meeting the experimentation quality requirements necessary for qualifying calculation codes. Direct online spectrophotometric analysis at various points in the process provides real-time concentration data for vital elements, some of which are difficult to analyze offline because of their poor chemical stability. Online analyses, supplemented when necessary by gamma spectrometry, provide valuable process control input for reaching stabilized operating conditions. Fifteen radioactive test campaigns have been successfully completed since line C 17 was commissioned in June 1995. (authors)

  13. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  14. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  15. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

    1995-10-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

  16. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  17. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.P.; Irvine, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  18. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  19. Process for the restoration of solids contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.; Jackson, J.D.; McMillin, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Processes have been developed for the restoration of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organics. The intended product is a field deployable materials handling system and phase separation process ranging in size from 1 yd 3 /hr to 50 yd 3 /hr for commercial application to environmental problems associated with the exploration, production, refining and transport of petroleum, petroleum products and organic chemicals. Effluents from contaminated sites will be clean solids (classified by size if appropriate), and the concentrated contaminant. The technology is based on biochemical solvation, liquid/liquid and liquid/solid extractions, materials classification, mechanical and hydraulic scrubbing, and phase separation of organic and aqueous phases. Fluid use is minimized through utilization of closed-loop (recycle) systems. Contaminants that are removed from the solid materials may be destroyed, disposed of using existing technologies, or used on-site for cogeneration of /power for plant operations. Additionally, if the contaminant is a valued product, the material may be recovered for application or sale. Clean solid material is not sterilized and may be returned to normal agricultural, commercial, residential or recreational use in most instances

  20. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  1. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  2. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter IV: Passive neutron assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the passive neutron technique for the non destructive assay of plutonium bearing materials are summarized. A reference monitor for the passive neutron assay of Pu contaminated solids is described in terms of instrumental design principles and performances. The theoretical model of this reference monitor with pertinent nuclear data and functions for the interpretation of experimental data is given

  3. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  4. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  5. Microcalorimetric and spectrographic studies on host-guest interactions of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Min [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhisdz@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Li, Linwei, E-mail: lilinwei@lcu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-10-20

    Thermal effects of inclusion processes of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol (RES) in aqueous solutions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with nanowatt sensitivity at the temperature of 298.15 K. Standard enthalpy changes, stoichiometry and equilibrium constants of the inclusion complexes were derived from the direct calorimetric data utilizing nonlinear simulation. The thermodynamic parameters were discussed in the light of weak interactions between the host and the guest molecules combining with UV spectral message. The results indicate that all of the complexes formed in the aqueous solutions are in 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding processes of {alpha}-, {beta}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with the guest are mainly driven by enthalpy, while that of {gamma}-cyclodextrin with the drug is driven by both enthalpy and entropy.

  6. Standardization of low energy beta and beta-gamma complex emitters by the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute standardization of radioactive solutions of low energy beta emitters and beta-gamma emitters with a high probability of disintegration to the ground state is described; the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods were used. Both types of radionuclides were mathematically and physically treated in an unified manner. The theoretical relations between different beta spectra were calculated according to Williams' model and experimentally verified for: 35 S + 60 Co, 35 S + 95 Nb, 147 Pm + 60 Co, 14 C + 95 Nb and two beta branches of 99 Mo. The optimum range of beta efficiency variation was indicated. The basic supposition that all beta efficieny tend to unity in the same time was experimentally verified, using two 192 Ir beta branches. Four computer programs, written in the FORTRAN IV language, were elaborated, for the adequate processing of the experimental data. Good precision coefficients according to international standards were obtained in the absolute standardization of 35 S, 147 Pm, 99 Mo solutions. (author)

  7. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  8. Treatment of plutonium contamined solid wastes by electrogenerated Ag(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulze, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the treatment of plutonium contaminated solid wastes is designed. Two types of wastes have been studied; incineration ashes (COGEMA UP1) and sludges produced in the cryotreatment facility in Cadarache Center (France). The principle of the process is based on the rapid dissolution of PuO 2 (contained in the wastes) under the action of aggressive Ag(II) species, regenerated electrochemically. In the case of the treatment of incinerator ashes an electrochemical pretreatment is necessary if the chloride ion content of the ashes is high. The feasibility of the decontamination process has been proved for the two types of plutonium contaminated solid wastes at a pilot level; for example 1 Kg of ashes (or 0.75 Kg of sludges) has been treated in one experiment, and 97% (or 95%) of the total plutonium was dissolved at the end of the experiment. Industrial applications of this new process are underway [fr

  9. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  10. The influence of Ferric ion contamination on the solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunying; Zhang, Linsong; Li, Guangfu; Zhang, Geng; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathode possesses higher tolerance for the Fe 3+ contamination than the anode. • Fe 3+ are mostly reduced to Fe 2+ rather than occur underpotential deposition. • Increased electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to ohmic overpotential. • Voltage lags behind current for minutes in the multi-current-step test. • Poisoned electrolyser is mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h. - Abstract: Fe 3+ is a sort of common metal ion contaminant for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser. In this paper, the effect of Fe 3+ on the performance of SPE water electrolyser has been investigated by both in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The electron probe microanalysis and ultraviolet test results showed that Fe 3+ could migrate from the anode to the cathode and mostly be reduced to Fe 2+ in the cathode rather than occurred underpotential deposition as described in the previous report. The in-situ dynamic contamination test showed that the anode voltage increased sharply as soon as the Fe 3+ was fed into the anode, while the cathode voltage kept constant until the contamination time was over 30 minutes, indicating the higher tolerance of the cathode than the anode for the Fe 3+ contamination. The calculation results based on the electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy test results revealed that the striking increase of the electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to the ohmic overpotential, which was due to the replacement of H + by Fe 3+ in the Nafion resin. Interestingly, the voltage lagged behind the current for several minutes in the multi-current-step test for the contaminated electrolyser, which phenomenon may be used for judging whether the SPE water electrolyser performance degradation is due to the metal ions contamination. Furthermore, recovery strategy has been developed, and it was found that the contaminated electrolyser could be mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h

  11. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  12. Optimization of detector size and scan rate for beta/gamma material release surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    DOE facilities are required to offer for sale to the public items of salvageable value when they are no longer required by the facilities. These items have to be surveyed to ensure radioactive contamination levels do not exceed the values listed in DOE Order 5400.5. Most facilities use portable contamination monitoring.equipment with probe areas between 20 and 100 cm 2 to check for fixed contamination. This procedure is very labor intensive and results in survey costs that often exceed the costs recovered from selling the items. A solution would be to use large area (> 100 cm 2 ) detectors to find and quantify contamination. Large area scintillation detectors that can be used for beta and alpha detection simultaneously are becoming available commercially. Combining these with a rate meter that can differentiate between alpha and beta events can result in a survey that takes considerably less time to do and will save a proportional amount of money in doing so. The use and limitations of this combination of detectors and rate meters will be discussed

  13. The main rules regarding the management of solid waste and liquid effluent contaminated during use at nuclear medicine departments; Les principales regles de gestion des dechets solides et des effluents liquides contamines dans les services de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudouin, E. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Direction des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    This article describes the key requirements applicable to the management of contaminated medical waste and effluent from hospitals and health care centres, and more especially from nuclear medicine departments that use radionuclides for the purposes of diagnosis (in vivo or in vitro) or in patient treatment. It also presents the key management regulations, making a distinction between contaminated solid waste and contaminated liquid waste from such nuclear medicine departments. (author)

  14. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700°, 750°, and 800°C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800°C. The electrical performance of SOFC

  15. The main rules regarding the management of solid waste and liquid effluent contaminated during use at nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudouin, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the key requirements applicable to the management of contaminated medical waste and effluent from hospitals and health care centres, and more especially from nuclear medicine departments that use radionuclides for the purposes of diagnosis (in vivo or in vitro) or in patient treatment. It also presents the key management regulations, making a distinction between contaminated solid waste and contaminated liquid waste from such nuclear medicine departments. (author)

  16. Primary 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides by means of plastic scintillators; Sistema primario por coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a padronizacao de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, Aida Maria

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes a 4{pi}({alpha},{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute measurement of radionuclide activity using a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry for charged particles detection and a Nal (Tl) crystal for gamma-ray detection. Several shapes and dimensions of the plastic scintillator have been tried in order to obtain the best system configuration. Radionuclides which decay by alpha emission, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +} and electron capture have been standardized. The results showed excellent agreement with other conventional primary system which makes use of a 4{pi} proportional counter for X-ray and charged particle detection. The system developed in the present work have some advantages when compared with the conventional systems, namely; it does not need metal coating on the films used as radioactive source holders. When compared to liquid scintillators, is showed the advantage of not needing to be kept in dark for more than 24 h to allow phosphorescence decay of ambient light. Therefore it can be set to count immediately after the sources are placed inside of it. (author)

  17. Numerical investigation on the effect of balcony open and solid upstand on smoke contamination in atrium balconies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafi, M. A.; Nasif, M. S.; Pao, W.; Ismail, F. B.

    2017-10-01

    Atrium is a modern architectural design of buildings that has an open space at the middle and contains several floors. In atrium structure the smoke due to fire can easily flow through the open spaces and causes smoke contamination. CFD simulation using fire dynamic simulator (FDS) software is conducted in this work, to investigate the effect of balcony open upstand on smoke contamination in atrium’s balconies and compare it with balconies with solid upstand. It was found that in case of open upstand, the smoke contamination occurrence decreased inside the balcony comparing with balconies with solid upstand.

  18. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its sites. Current D ampersand D activities are generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria. The O'Brien ampersand Gere companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE's K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system removes fixed radioactive and hazardous contamination yet leaves the surface intact. Blasting residuals are treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the system was conducted on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE's unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71 %. Preliminary analyses suggest that this system provides significant waste volume reduction and is more economical than alternative surface decontamination techniques that are commercially available or under development

  19. Overview of management programs for plutonium-contaminated solid waste in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.; Daly, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    Programs for transuranium-contaminated solid wastes (TRU) in the U.S.A. are emphasizing a reduction in waste generation and the development of appropriate treatments to reduce the volume of wastes requiring interim storage and final disposal. Research and Development is emphasizing the establishment of sufficient information on treatment, hazards and storage to adopt a standardized procedure for handling wastes during an interim retrievable period and for final disposal. Federal responsibility for TRU waste is being proposed except for minimum amounts acceptable for commercial burial

  20. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide for contaminant removal from solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Smith, H.M.; Olson, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is being explored as a waste minimization technique for separating oils, greases and solvents from solid waste. The containments are dissolved into the supercritical fluid and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Definitions of the temperature, pressure, flowrate and potential co-solvents are required to establish the optimum conditions for hazardous contaminant removal. Excellent extractive capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been observed in both supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide. Solubility measurements are being used to better understand the extraction process, and to determine if the minimum solubility required by federal regulations is met

  1. Arylation of beta, gamma-unsaturated lactones by a Heck-Matsuda reaction: an unexpected route to aryldiazene butenolides and pyridazinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Jason G.; Correia, Carlos Roque D., E-mail: roque@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The palladium catalysed coupling of aryldiazonium salts with {beta}-{gamma}-unsaturated lactones under basic conditions has been investigated. Both (3H)-furanone and {alpha}-angelicalactone were evaluated as substrates in the Heck Matsuda reaction but both failed to afford the desired arylated butenolides. Under basic conditions, {beta}-{gamma}-unsaturated lactones generate highly nucleophilic enolates that preferentially undergo azo coupling reactions with arenediazonium salts to afford aryldiazene butenolides. The electronic and steric effect of the substituents on the aryldiazonium salt in the azo coupling reaction is described. Aryldiazene-lactone derivatives were obtained in good yields from a highly facile and straightforward procedure. An aminoisomaleimide was formed from (3H)-furanone and cyclized to the corresponding pyridazinones in modest yield. (author)

  2. Influence of radiation-dose pattern from inhaled beta--gamma-emitting radionuclides on canine peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Boecker, B.B.; Pickrell, J.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    As part of studies assess the biological hazards associated with inhaled radionuclides, periodic hematologic evaluations were performed on beagle dogs given a single nose-only exposure to aerosols of beta--gamma-emitting isotopes. The physical form and specific radionuclides selected produced radiation-dose patterns representative of those which might be encountered in the event of human accidental exposures. Dogs received graded lung burdens of either 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr, each in fused clay. Differences in the effective half-lives of these radionuclides resulted in a spectrum of cumulative radiation doses to lung delivered at a variety of dose rates. Since the form in which the radionuclides were inhaled was relatively insoluble, the lung and intrathoracic tissues represented the primary recipient of the dose. Regardless of the effective half-life of radionuclide retention, a dose-related depression of peripheral lymphocytes was observed at various times after inhalation exposure. The time at which maximum depression and subsequent recovery occurred, however, was most directly related to the effective half-life of the radionuclide. Of special interest was the persistence of lymphopenia through 2 1 / 2 years after exposure to 144 Ce and 90 Sr in fused clay where, other than tracheobronchial lymph nodes, the lymphoid tissue received very little radiation dose. The possible mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte depression from these various radiation-dose patterns are discussed

  3. Production of beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes for improved analysis of nuclear explosion monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Derek Anderson

    Radioactive xenon gas is a fission product released in the detonation of nuclear devices that can be detected in atmospheric samples far from the detonation site. In order to improve the capabilities of radioxenon detection systems, this work produces beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual isotopes of radioxenon. Previous methods of radioxenon production consisted of the removal of mixed isotope samples of radioxenon gas released from fission of contained fissile materials such as 235U. In order to produce individual samples of the gas, isotopically enriched stable xenon gas is irradiated with neutrons. The detection of the individual isotopes is also modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to produce spectra. The experiment shows that samples of 131mXe, 133 Xe, and 135Xe with a purity greater than 99% can be produced, and that a sample of 133mXe can be produced with a relatively low amount of 133Xe background. These spectra are compared to models and used as essential library data for the Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) to analyze atmospheric samples of radioxenon for evidence of nuclear events.

  4. A triple-crystal phoswich detector with digital pulse shape discrimination for alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Travis L.; Miller, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri - Columbia have developed a three-crystal phoswich detector coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination system for use in alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy. Phoswich detectors use a sandwich of scintillators viewed by a single photomultiplier tube to simultaneously detect multiple types of radiation. Separation of radiation types is based upon pulse shape difference among the phosphors, which has historically been performed with analog circuitry. The system uses a GaGe CompuScope 1012, 12 bit, 10 MHz computer-based oscilloscope that digitally captures the pulses from a phoswich detector and subsequently performs pulse shape discrimination with cross-correlation analysis. The detector, based partially on previous phoswich designs by Usuda et al., uses a 10 mg/cm 2 thick layer of ZnS(Ag) for alpha detection, followed by a 0.254 cm CaF 2 (Eu) crystal for beta detection, all backed by a 2.54 cm NaI(Tl) crystal for gamma detection. Individual energy spectra and count rate information for all three radiation types are displayed and updated periodically. The system shows excellent charged particle discrimination with an accuracy of greater than 99%. Future development will include a large area beta probe with gamma-ray discrimination, systems for low-energy photon detection (e.g. Bremsstrahlung or keV-range photon emissions), and other health physics instrumentation

  5. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  6. Heavy metals contamination of air and soil in Karak solid waste disposal site, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiries, A. G.; Jaradat, Q. M.; Momani, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The level of air and soil pollution in the municipal solid waste disposal site of Karak(Jordan) were investigated during spring of 1995 by monitoring the amounts of heavy metals. The concentration (mg/kg)of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the upper soil were found to have a range of 15.3-39.3, 21.2-38.0 and 60.0-127.0 respectively. However, for the lower soil, the ranges are 13.4-18.9, 18.5-23.7, and 50.6-90.4, respectively. The soil contamination with heavy metals was almost confined to the upper soil in the locations closely surrounding the burning site, which could be accounted to the arid climate conditions of the area. (authors). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F. [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Adani, F., E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  8. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  10. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N D; Rees-White, T C; Beaven, R P; Stringfellow, A M; Barker, J A

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5m and 20m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as ~0.02 (~4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. PCDD/Fs atmospheric deposition fluxes and soil contamination close to a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassura, Ivano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Morselli, Luciano

    2011-05-01

    Bulk depositions and surface soil were collected in a suburban area, near the Adriatic Sea, in order to assess the contribution of a municipal solid waste incinerator to the area's total contamination with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Samples were collected at two sites, situated in the area most affected by plant emissions (according to the results of the Calpuff air dispersion model), and at an external site, considered as a reference. Results show that the studied area is subject to low contamination, as far as these compounds are concerned. Deposition fluxes range from 14.3 pg m(-2)d(-1) to 89.9 pg m(-2)d(-1) (0.75 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1) to 3.73 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1)) and no significant flow differences are observed among the three monitored sites. Total soil concentration amounts to 93.8 ng kg(-1) d.w. and 1.35 ng-TEQ kg(-1)d.w, on average, and confirms a strong homogeneity in the studied area. Furthermore, from 2006 to 2009, no PCDD/Fs enrichment in the soil was noticed. Comparing the relative congener distributions in environmental samples with those found in stack emissions from the incineration plant, significant differences are observed in the PCDD:PCDF ratio and in the contribution of the most chlorinated congeners. From this study we can conclude that the incineration plant is not the main source of PCDD/Fs in the studied area, which is apparently characterized by a homogeneous and widespread contamination situation, typical of an urban area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design criteria burial containers for non-transuranic solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria, replace HW-83959 and apply to containers constructed specifically for the containment of beta-gamma radioactively contaminated waste removed from an area controlled by radiation work procedures, transported across an uncontrolled area where there is risk of a radiation release to the environs, and buried in an approved radioactive waste burial ground

  13. Advanced LWIR hyperspectral sensor for on-the-move proximal detection of liquid/solid contaminants on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Jay P.; Dixon, John; Dupuis, Julia R.; Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensor technologies capable of detecting low vapor pressure liquid surface contaminants, as well as solids, in a noncontact fashion while on-the-move continues to be an important need for the U.S. Army. In this paper, we discuss the development of a long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-10.5 μm) spatial heterodyne spectrometer coupled with an LWIR illuminator and an automated detection algorithm for detection of surface contaminants from a moving vehicle. The system is designed to detect surface contaminants by repetitively collecting LWIR reflectance spectra of the ground. Detection and identification of surface contaminants is based on spectral correlation of the measured LWIR ground reflectance spectra with high fidelity library spectra and the system's cumulative binary detection response from the sampled ground. We present the concepts of the detection algorithm through a discussion of the system signal model. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of surfaces contaminated with a liquid CWA simulant, triethyl phosphate (TEP), and a solid simulant, acetaminophen acquired while the sensor was stationary and on-the-move. Surfaces included CARC painted steel, asphalt, concrete, and sand. The data collected was analyzed to determine the probability of detecting 800 μm diameter contaminant particles at a 0.5 g/m2 areal density with the SHSCAD traversing a surface.

  14. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP-Violating Asymmetriesand Constraints on sin(2 beta+gamma) withPartial Reconstruction of B to D*-+pi+- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2005-04-19

    We present a measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to the final states D*{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}, using approximately 232 million B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. Events containing these decays are selected with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the high-momentum {pi}{sup {+-}} from the B decay and the low-momentum {pi}{sup {-+}} from the D*{sup {-+}} decay are used. We measure the parameters related to 2{beta} + {gamma} to be a{sub D*{pi}} = -0.034 {+-} 0.014 {+-} 0.009 and c{sub D*{pi}}{sup {ell}} = -0.019 {+-} 0.022 {+-} 0.013. With some theoretical assumptions, we interpret our results in terms of the lower limits |sin(2{beta} + {gamma})| > 0.62 (0.35) at 68% (90%) confidence level.

  15. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  16. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.L.

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  17. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  18. Modelling the transport of solid contaminants originated from a point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Dora V.; Conde, Daniel A. S.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The solid phases of natural flows can comprise an important repository for contaminants in aquatic ecosystems and can propagate as turbidity currents generating a stratified environment. Contaminants can be desorbed under specific environmental conditions becoming re-suspended, with a potential impact on the aquatic biota. Forecasting the distribution of the contaminated turbidity current is thus crucial for a complete assessment of environmental exposure. In this work we validate the ability of the model STAV-2D, developed at CERIS (IST), to simulate stratified flows such as those resulting from turbidity currents in complex geometrical environments. The validation involves not only flow phenomena inherent to flows generated by density imbalance but also convective effects brought about by the complex geometry of the water basin where the current propagates. This latter aspect is of paramount importance since, in real applications, currents may propagate in semi-confined geometries in plan view, generating important convective accelerations. Velocity fields and mass distributions obtained from experiments carried out at CERIS - (IST) are used as validation data for the model. The experimental set-up comprises a point source in a rectangular basin with a wall placed perpendicularly to the outer walls. Thus generates a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front and shocks due to the flow reflection from the walls. STAV-2D is based on the depth- and time-averaged mass and momentum equations for mixtures of water and sediment, understood as continua. It is closed in terms of flow resistance and capacity bedload discharge by a set of classic closure models and a specific high concentration formulation. The two-layer model is derived from layer-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, resulting in a system of layer-specific non-linear shallow-water equations, solved through explicit first or second-order schemes. According to the experimental data for mass distribution, the

  19. An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Sodré, Fernando F.; Locatelli, Marco Antonio F.; Jardim, Wilson F.

    2010-01-01

    A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L) using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus i...

  20. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO2: study of contaminant-additives-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.

    2006-11-01

    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO 2 and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO 2 in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO 2 . The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO 2 low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO 2 -phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO 2 and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO 2 -phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO 2 . A parallel has been established between the evolution of the surface tension between the water and

  1. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Low-temperature impact crushing, leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Vigreux, B.; Caillol, A.; Koehly, G.

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories and fuel fabrication plants produce solid wastes containing residual amounts of plutonium and uranium in nitrate and oxide form at concentrations up to several tens of grams per m/sup 3/. Dismantling of nuclear facilities having handled these radioelements also generates large volumes of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha emitters. It is desirable to process these alpha wastes to recover valuable fissile materials and/or permit surface storage. Solid waste treatment by low-temperature impact crushing and then leaching, after minimal sorting and classifying at the sites of production, meets the corresponding requirements for high volume reduction plus fissile material recovery or waste decontamination. Additional volume reduction of crushed wastes containing mainly combustible materials can be obtained by incineration. This is facilitated by the low fissile material content after low-temperature impact crushing and leaching. Sorted wastes can also be leached or incinerated directly after, in most cases, crushing by more conventional techniques

  2. Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreweghe, Samuel van; Swennen, Rudy; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Cappuyns, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Leaching experiments, a mineralogical survey and larger samples are preferred when arsenic is present as discrete mineral phases. - Availability, mobility, (phyto)toxicity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The three-step sequential extraction scheme recommended by the BCR and two extraction schemes based on the phosphorus-like protocol proposed by Manful (1992, Occurrence and Ecochemical Behaviours of Arsenic in a Goldsmelter Impacted Area in Ghana, PhD dissertation, at the RUG) were applied to four standard reference materials (SRM) and to a batch of samples from industrially contaminated sites, heavily contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. The SRM 2710 (Montana soil) was found to be the most useful reference material for metal (Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) fractionation using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Two sequential extraction schemes were developed and compared for arsenic with the aim to establish a better fractionation and recovery rate than the BCR-scheme for this element in the SRM samples. The major part of arsenic was released from the heavily contaminated samples after NaOH-extraction. Inferior extraction variability and recovery in the heavily contaminated samples compared to SRMs could be mainly contributed to subsample heterogeneity

  3. Investigation of Contaminated Groundwater at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. Engineered remediation aspects at the site consist of a zero-valent-iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed in December 2002 intercepting the contamination plume and a phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees planted in the source area in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey planted an additional phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees on the upgradient side of the southern end of the PRB in February 2008. At least once during the summer, however, the trees were inadvertently mowed during lawn cutting activity. The PRB along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells upgradient from the PRB showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest downgradient from the PRB showed a sharp increase in 2005, followed by a decrease in 2006. Farther downgradient in the forest, the VOC concentrations began to increase in 2007 and continued to increase into 2008. The VOC-concentration changes in groundwater beneath the forest appear to indicate movement of a groundwater-contaminant pulse through the forest. It also is possible that the data may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in groundwater-flow direction.

  4. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  5. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence System; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo no estudo da padronizacao de radionuclideos com esquema de desintegracao complexos em sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-07-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all {beta}{sup -} branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: {sup 134}Cs, {sup 72}Ga which disintegrate by {beta}{sup -} transition, {sup 133}Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and {sup 35}S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  6. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A; Brunet, M; Kermagoret, M; Labeyrie, J; Roux, G; Vasseur, J; Weil, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les echangeurs d'ions, sur la concentration du

  7. Final Rule: 2013 Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a regulation page for the final rule EPA issued on July 31, 2013 that modifies the hazardous waste management regulations for solvent-contaminated wipes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  8. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  9. Direct Determination of Contaminants and Major and Minor Nutrients in Solid Fertilizers Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Daniel F; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-10-11

    Contaminants (Cd, Cr, and Pb) as well as minor (B, Cu, Mn, Na, and Zn) and major (Ca and Mg) elements were directly determined in solid fertilizer samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Factorial designs were used to define the most appropriate LIBS parameters and pellet pressure on solid fertilizers. Emission lines for all of the analytes were collected and employed 12 signal normalization modes. The best results were obtained using a laser energy of 75 mJ, a spot size of 50 μm, a pressure of 10 t/in., and a delay of 2.0 μs. Good correlation was obtained between the calibration model's prediction using the proposed LIBS method and the reference values obtained with ICP-OES. The limits of detection (LOD) for the proposed method varied from 2 mg/kg (for Cd) to 1% (for Zn).

  10. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters. Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced during research experiments on fuel reprocessing. Leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II(a very agressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes: (1) ELISE and PROLIXE facilities, for the treatment of α and α, β, γ solid wastes (CEA, FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES) (2) PILOT ASHES FACILITY for delete, the treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes (COGEMA, MARCOULE). A brief description of the process and of the different facilities is presented; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  11. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-08-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  13. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.f [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2010-08-15

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  14. The resistance of Bacillus atrophaeus spores to the bactericidal activity of peracetic acid is influenced by both the nature of the solid substrates and the mode of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I; Bellon-Fontaine, M-N; Herry, J-M; Hilaire, D; Moriconi, F-X; Naïtali, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of the mode of contamination in relation with the nature of solid substrates on the resistance of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus -selected as surrogates of Bacillus anthracis- to a disinfectant, peracetic acid. Six materials confronted in urban and military environments were selected for their different structural and physicochemical properties. In parallel, two modes of contamination were examined, i.e. deposition and immersion. Deposition was used to simulate contamination by an aerosol and immersion by an extended contact with liquids. A pronounced difference in the biocontamination levels and spatial organization of spores was observed depending on the mode of contamination and the nature of the solid substrate considered, with consequences on decontamination. Contamination by immersion led to lower efficiency of peracetic acid decontamination than contamination by deposition. Infiltration of spores into porous materials after immersion is one reason. In contrast, the deposition mode aggregates cells at the surface of materials, explaining the similar disinfecting behaviour of porous and nonporous substrates when considering this inoculation route. The inoculation route was shown to be as influential a parameter as material characteristics (porosity and wettability) for decontamination efficacy. These results provide comparative information for the decontamination of B. atrophaeus spores in function of the mode of contamination and the nature of solid substrates. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to French government works.

  15. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Trace metal contamination of water at a solid waste disposal site at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and close to, a solid waste disposal site at Kariba, Zimbabwe, and in water flowing from the area during 1996 and 1997. Soil samples were collected from the surface inside the disposal site and at distances of 3m, 25m and 50m (from the ...

  17. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-04-15

    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Separation of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols and alpha-tocopherol acetate on a pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuwan, Patcharin; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Wilairat, Prapin; Jiang, Zhengjin; Smith, Norman W

    2008-06-01

    This work reports the first use of a monolith with method development for the separation of tocopherol (TOH) compounds by CEC with UV detection. A pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate-ethylene dimethacrylate (PEDAS-EDMA) monolithic column has been investigated for an optimised condition to separate alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-TOHs, and alpha-tocopherol acetate (TAc). The PEDAS-EDMA monolith showed a remarkably good selectivity for separation of the TOH isomers including the beta- and gamma-isomers which are not easily separated by standard C8 or C18 particle-packed columns. Retention studies indicated that an RP mechanism was involved in the separation on the PEDAS-EDMA column, but polar interactions with the underlying ester and hydroxyl groups enhanced the separation of the problematic beta- and gamma-isomers. Separation of all the compounds was achieved within 25 min using 3:10:87 v/v/v 100 mM Tris buffer (pH 9.3)/methanol/ACN as the mobile phase. The method was successfully applied to a pharmaceutical sample with recoveries from 93 to 99%. Intraday and interday precisions (%RSD) for peak area and retention time were less than 2.3. LODs for all four TOHs and TAc were below 1 ppm.

  19. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J E. de; Granados, C E

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  20. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  1. Quantitative relations between beta-gamma mixed-field dosimeter responses and dose-equivalent conversion factors according to the testing standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.P.

    1982-08-01

    The conventional two-element personnel dosimeters, usually having two thick TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry) ribbons, are used extensively for radiation protection dosimetry. Many of these dosimeters are used for the measurement of beta and gamma radiation doses received in mixed beta-gamma fields. Severe limitations exist, however, on the relative magnitudes and energies of these fields that may be measured simultaneously. Moreover, due to a well-known energy dependence of these dosimeters, particularly for the beta-radiations, systematic errors will occur whenever the differences in workplaces and calibration radiation energies exist. A simple mathematical approach is presented to estimate the deep and shallow dose equivalent values at different energies for such dosimeters. The formulae correlate the dosimeter responses and dose equivalent conversion factors at different energies by taking into account the guidelines of the adopted ANSI Standard N13.11 and the dosimetry practices followed by most dosimeter processors. This standard is to be used in a mandatory testing program in the United States

  2. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments — A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC–MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture

  3. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  4. Theoretical considerations on design and analysis of monitoring systems for Pu-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notea, A.

    1979-01-01

    Monitoring systems for plutonium contaminated wastes refers to both managerial regulations and instrumental hardware. Its design is inseparable from the design of the production line in the fuel handling facility, and depends on the general wastes management program. Characteristic functions of the monitors are discussed and the necessity of reference monitors is stressed. The reference monitor enables the formation of a quality scale. Guidelines for future R and D efforts are suggested

  5. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    OpenAIRE

    Lors , Christine; Ponge , Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya , Maite; Damidot , Denis

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the co...

  6. Treatment of plutonium-contaminated solid waste: a review of handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, B.E.; Hardy, A.R.

    1985-02-01

    Handling techniques are reviewed to identify those suitable for adaptation for use in transporting large items of redundant plutonium contaminated plant and equipment to a remotely operated size reduction facility, moving them into the facility, presenting them to size reduction equipment and loading the processed waste into drums. It is concluded that an integrated system based on a combination of slatted conveyors, roller tables, air transporters and manipulators, merits further consideration. An appropriate experimental programme is outlined. (author)

  7. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachkar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  8. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachkar, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  9. Lixiviation of plutonium contaminated solid wastes by aqueous solution of electro-generated reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarande, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    This study concerns the development of the new concept for the decontamination of plutonium bearing solid wastes, based on the lixiviation of the wastes using electro-generated reducing agents. First, a comparative study of the kinetics of the dissolution of pure PuO 2 (prepared by calcination of Pu (IV) oxalate at 450 C) in sulfuric acid media, with different reducing agents, was realized. Qualitatively these reagents can be sorted in three groups: 1 / fast kinetics for Cr(II), V(II) and U(III); 2 / slow kinetics for Ti(III); 3 / very slow kinetics for V(III) and U(VI). In order to contribute to the design of an electrochemical reactor for the generation of the reducing agents usable for the lixiviation of plutonium bearing solid wastes, the study of the diffusion coefficients of both oxidized and reduced forms of different redox couples, at different temperatures, was undertaken. The results of this study also permits, from the knowledge of the diffusional activation energy of the ions, to conclude that the dissolution of pure plutonium dioxide under the action of these reducing agents is not diffusion limited. The feasibility of the plutonium decontamination treatment of synthetic or real solid wastes was then studied at laboratory scale using electro-generated V(II), which is with Cr(II) among the best reagents. The efficiency of the treatment was good, (80 pc Pu solubilisation yield), especially in the case of cellulosic or miscellaneous organic wastes. (author) [fr

  10. Experience of management of plutonium-contaminated solid and liquid wastes at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcaillou, J.; Faure, J.C.; Tourret, G.

    1981-01-01

    At Cadarache the principal sources of alpha-contaminated waste are the facilities of the plutonium fuel assembly fabrication complex. The chosen management scheme shows two points where it is possible to implement procedures to limit the activities released and to reduce the storage volumes of treated waste: (1) At the fabrication units, three categories of solid waste ('rich', 'poor' and 'special') are distinguished by sorting at the time of production and by γ,n counting of the drums. The rich and special wastes with a high plutonium content are stored while awaiting treatment for recycling of the plutonium. In the case of liquid waste, different circuits are used to separate contaminated effluents and thus to limit their production; (2) In the solid-waste treatment shops, the waste has so far been compacted and then coated with bituminous cement mortar. At the same time, a new incinerator facility has been installed. The preliminary studies dealt mainly with: waste preparation (crushing) to obtain a continuous and regular feed for the incinerator; combustion (pyrolysis followed by burning of the gases and unburnt matter in the presence of excess air); containment of the equipment. Further studies will be made to determine what is to be done with the ash (treatment for plutonium recovery and/or coating). At the Effluent Treatment Station some adjustments have had to be made in order to cope with the increase in volume activity due mainly to the presence of americium. At the same time, with a view to limiting the production of treatment residues with a high alpha-emitter content it has been decided to carry out a research and development programme on the separation of americium and the improvement of the recycling of the plutonium contained in the process effluents. (author)

  11. In-situ stabilization of radioactively contaminated low-level solid wastes buried in shallow trenches: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J.

    1980-09-01

    The potential effectiveness of materials for in-situ encapsulation of low-level, radioactively contaminated solid waste buried in shallow trenches is enumerated. Cement, clay materials, and miscellaneous sorbents, aqueous and nonaqueous gelling fluids and their combinations are available to solidify contaminated free water in trenches, to fill open voids, and to minimize radionuclide mobility. The success of the grouting technique will depend on the availability of reliable geohydrologic data and laboratory development of a mix with enhanced sorption capacity for dominant radionuclides present in the trenches. A cement-bentonite-based grout mix with low consistency for pumping, several hours controlled rate of hardening, negligible bleeding, and more than 170 kPa (25 psi) compressive strength are a few of the suggested parameters in laboratory mix development. Cost estimates of a cement-bentonite-based grout mix indicate that effective and durable encapsulation can be accomplished at a reasonable cost (about $113 per cubic meter). However, extensive implementation of the method suggests the need for a field demonstration of the method. 53 references

  12. Determination of phenols in landfill leachate-contaminated groundwaters by solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Reitzel, Lotte; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method for phenols in landfill leachates was developed and optimized in order to solve the expected and observed problems associated with an anaerobic matrix containing high concentrations of salts and organic matter. Isolute ENV1 cartridges exhibited the best retention...... be identified in leachates from three Danish landfills, ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 29 mg/ L, which is at the lower end of the concentration range usually found for phenols in landfill leachates (sub-mg/L to mg/L).  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagvardieff, Pierre; Barré, Yves; Blin, Virginie; Faure, Sylvain; Fornier, Anne; Grange, Didier; Grandjean, Agnès; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henner, Pascale; Siroux, Brice; Leybros, Antoine; Messalier, Marc; Paillard, Hervé; Prévost, Thierry; Rennesson, Malvina; Sarrobert, Catherine; Vavasseur, Alain; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2017-09-01

    As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA) proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor …) and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction) which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  14. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Scott, Jill R.; Rae, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A field vacuum extractor (FVE) nondestructively samples surface-adsorbed organics. → The FVE creates a modest vacuum over the surface, volatilizing surface organics. → A solid phase microextraction fiber (SPME) collects volatilized organics. → The SPME is easily analyzed using GC/MS. → The FVE enables collection chemical signatures from hard-to-sample surfaces. - Abstract: Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging, particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample to be taken to the laboratory. A simple device is described that collects semi-volatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The reduced pressure speeds partitioning of the semi-volatile compounds into the gas phase and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection, the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (ΔT vac ) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies that ranged from 10 -3 to >10 -2 , and in absolute terms, collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were positively correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery also increased with increasing ΔT vac and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile, indicating that an

  15. Isozyme-specific enzyme inhibitors. 14. 5'(R)-C-[(L-homocystein-S-yl)methyl]adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imidotriphosphate), a potent inhibitor of rat methionine adenosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, F; Vrudhula, V M; Hampton, A

    1987-09-01

    The title compound is a covalent adduct of L-methionine (Met) and beta,gamma-imido-ATP. In its synthesis the N-Boc derivative of 5'(R)-C-(aminomethyl)-N6-benzoyl-5'-O-tosyl-2',3'-O- isopropylidenadenosine was converted by the successive actions of CF3CO2H and HNO2 into the corresponding 5'(R)-C-hydroxymethyl derivative. Treatment of this with disodium L-homocysteinate led to attack of sulfur at C6', apparently via a 5',6'-epoxide, and to total stereoselective inversion at C5' to furnish, after debenzoylation, 5'(R)-C-(L-homocystein-S-ylmethyl)-2',3'-O-isopropylidene ade nosine. The 5' configuration was established by conversion of this into the known 5'(S)-C-methyl-2',3'-O-isopropylidene adenosine with Raney nickel. The alpha-amino acid residue was protected as an N-Boc methyl ester, after which the 5'-hydroxyl was phosphorylated with benzyl phosphate and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The phosphoanhydride bond with inorganic imidodiphosphate was then created by established methods. Finally, blocking groups were removed under conditions that gave the desired adduct with no racemization of its L-methionine residue. It was a potent inhibitor [KM(ATP)/Ki = 1080; KM(Met)/Ki = 7.7] of the M-2 (normal tissue) form of rat methionine adenosyltransferase and of the M-T (hepatoma tissue) form [KM(ATP)/Ki = 670; KM(Met)/Ki = 22]. Inhibitions were competitive with respect to ATP or to L-methionine, indicating a dual substrate site mode of binding to the enzyme forms.

  16. β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+ pathway in xenopus gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seitz

    Full Text Available β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+ cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+ pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC and Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII. We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

  17. Machine for checking the radioactive contamination of clothing (1961); Machine a controler le linge du point de vue de sa contamination radioactive (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimaud, R; Cottignies, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This machine is designed to check working clothes after decontamination treatment. It checks automatically for {alpha} and {beta} {gamma} The clothing is carried on a moving belt under a rack of Geiger-Muller counters followed by zinc sulphide scintillators linked to photomultipliers. During its passage under these probes two separate counting systems count the {beta} {gamma} and the {alpha} activities. If a certain fixed rate is reached, a basket reserved for contaminated linen moves into position in front of the belt to collect the clothing; if this rate is not attained the linen is collected in another basket. The starting and stopping of counting, and the return to zero, are controlled by means of 3 photoelectric cells which detect the arrival of the clothing before and after scanning, and its delivery into the baskets. (authors) [French] Cette machine est destinee a controler les vetements de travail apres le traitement de decontamination. Elle effectue automatiquement un controle en {alpha} et en {beta} {gamma}. Le linge entraine par un tapis roulant passe sous une rampe de compteurs Geiger-Muller puis sous des scintillateurs au sulfure de zinc associes a des photomultiplicateurs. Pendant son passage sous ces sondes, deux chaines de comptage distinctes comptent l'activite {beta} {gamma} et l'activite {alpha}. Si un certain taux fixe est atteint, un panier reserve au linge contamine se positionne devant le tapis pour recueillir le linge; dans le cas contraire, le linge est recueilli dans un autre panier. Les operations de debut de comptage, arret de comptage et remise a zero de l'ensemble sont commandees a l'aide de 3 cellules photoelectriques qui detectent l'arrivee du linge avant et apres les sondes, ainsi que sa retombee dans les paniers. (auteurs)

  18. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter II: principles and theory of radiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation of a count rate distribution obtained from radiometric assay of a given waste items population in terms of source strength distribution is discussed. A model for the evaluation of errors, arising from non uniform source density distribution (Pu) within the item volume and heterogeneity of matrix materials, is presented. Points concerning calibration procedures and representativity of reference materials are dealt with. Qualification procedures for possible monitoring systems are outlined on the basis of comparison with reference systems. The latter are composed of reference monitors based on high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive and active neutron techniques. The importance of information upon the elemental composition and density distribution of matrix materials for the interpretation of radiometric assay of solid wastes is stressed

  19. Investigation of a process for the pyrolysis of plutonium contaminated combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longstaff, B.; Cains, P.W.; Elliot, M.N.; Taylor, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrolysis offers an attractive first-stage alternative to incineration as a means of weight and volume reduction of solide combustible waste P.C.M, if it is required to recover plutonium from the final product. The avoidance of turbulent conditions associated with incineration should lead to less carry-over of particulates, and the lower operating temperature approximately 700 0 C should be most advantageous to the choice of constructional materials and to plant life. The char product from pyrolysis may be oxidised to a final ash at similarly acceptable low temperatures by passing air over a stirred bed of materials. The recently received draft designs for a cyclone after-burner (plus associated scrubbers and filters etc) offer an attractive method of dispensing of the volatile products of pyrolysis

  20. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMonia, Brian; Dunning, Don; Hampshire John

    2013-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the release of non-real property, including solid waste, containing low levels of residual radioactive materials are specified in DOE Order 458.1 and associated guidance. Authorized limits have been approved under the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, predecessor to DOE Order 458.1, to permit disposal of solid waste containing low levels of residual radioactive materials at solid waste landfills located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Specifically, volumetric concentration limits for disposal of solid waste at Industrial Landfill V and at Construction/Demolition Landfill VII were established in 2003 and 2007, respectively, based on the requirements in effect at that time, which included: an evaluation to ensure that radiation doses to the public would not exceed 25 mrem/year and would be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), with a goal of a few mrem/year or less (in fact, these authorized limits actually were derived to meet a dose constraint of 1 mrem/year); an evaluation of compliance with groundwater protection requirements; and reasonable assurance that the proposed disposal is not likely to result in a future requirement for remediation of the landfill. Prior to approval as DOE authorized limits, these volumetric concentration limits were coordinated with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and documented in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the TDEC Division of Radiological Health and the TDEC Division of Solid Waste Management. These limits apply to the disposal of soil and debris waste generated from construction, maintenance, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The approved site-specific authorized limits were incorporated in the URS/CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) waste profile system that authorizes disposal of special wastes at either of the RCRA Subtitle D landfills. However, a

  1. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMonia, Brian [Department of Energy, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Dunning, Don [Argonne National Laboratory, P.O. Box 6974, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6974 (United States); Hampshire John [UCOR, PO Box 4699, MS-7593, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the release of non-real property, including solid waste, containing low levels of residual radioactive materials are specified in DOE Order 458.1 and associated guidance. Authorized limits have been approved under the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, predecessor to DOE Order 458.1, to permit disposal of solid waste containing low levels of residual radioactive materials at solid waste landfills located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Specifically, volumetric concentration limits for disposal of solid waste at Industrial Landfill V and at Construction/Demolition Landfill VII were established in 2003 and 2007, respectively, based on the requirements in effect at that time, which included: an evaluation to ensure that radiation doses to the public would not exceed 25 mrem/year and would be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), with a goal of a few mrem/year or less (in fact, these authorized limits actually were derived to meet a dose constraint of 1 mrem/year); an evaluation of compliance with groundwater protection requirements; and reasonable assurance that the proposed disposal is not likely to result in a future requirement for remediation of the landfill. Prior to approval as DOE authorized limits, these volumetric concentration limits were coordinated with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and documented in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the TDEC Division of Radiological Health and the TDEC Division of Solid Waste Management. These limits apply to the disposal of soil and debris waste generated from construction, maintenance, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The approved site-specific authorized limits were incorporated in the URS/CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) waste profile system that authorizes disposal of special wastes at either of the RCRA Subtitle D landfills. However, a

  2. Solid-phase bioremediation of diesel fuel-contaminated soil utilizing indigenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnetta, P.J.; Laubacher, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc. (REWEI) was retained by BP Oil Company (BP) to evaluate the use of bioremediation technology to remediate approximately 3,000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) of soil impacted with diesel fuel. The impacted soil resulted from the release of several hundred gallons of diesel fuel from a ruptured valve on an aboveground pipeline within a terminal. The overland flow of the diesel fuel resulted in a significant area of soil being impacted by the fuel. Immediate response activities limited vertical migration of the fuel through the excavation and stockpiling of the surface-impacted soil. The nature of the contaminant -- an unweathered, refined petroleum product comprised primarily of alkanes of a medium chain length -- and the biodegradable nature of the diesel fuel made bioremediation a cost-effective and technically feasible remedial option. The objective of the project was to reduce the concentrations of the petroleum hydrocarbons to below the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) soil cleanup levels in order to reuse the soil on-site as fill. Basic agronomic principles were applied throughout all phases of the project in order to successfully biodegrade the hydrocarbon

  3. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagvardieff Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor … and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  4. Multiple-tracer tests for contaminant transport process identification in saturated municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, N.D.; Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiple tracers were applied to saturated MSW to test dual-porosity properties. • Lithium demonstrated to be non-conservative as a tracer. • 260 mm diameter column too small to test transport properties of MSW. • The classical advection-dispersion mode was rejected due to high dispersivity. • Characteristic diffusion times did not vary with the tracer. - Abstract: Two column tests were performed in conditions emulating vertical flow beneath the leachate table in a biologically active landfill to determine dominant transport mechanisms occurring in landfills. An improved understanding of contaminant transport process in wastes is required for developing better predictions about potential length of the long term aftercare of landfills, currently measured in timescales of centuries. Three tracers (lithium, bromide and deuterium) were used. Lithium did not behave conservatively. Given that lithium has been used extensively for tracing in landfill wastes, the tracer itself and the findings of previous tests which assume that it has behaved conservatively may need revisiting. The smaller column test could not be fitted with continuum models, probably because the volume of waste was below a representative elemental volume. Modelling compared advection-dispersion (AD), dual porosity (DP) and hybrid AD–DP models. Of these models, the DP model was found to be the most suitable. Although there is good evidence to suggest that diffusion is an important transport mechanism, the breakthrough curves of the different tracers did not differ from each other as would be predicted based on the free-water diffusion coefficients. This suggested that solute diffusion in wastes requires further study

  5. Multiple-tracer tests for contaminant transport process identification in saturated municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, N.D., E-mail: n.d.woodman@soton.ac.uk; Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Multiple tracers were applied to saturated MSW to test dual-porosity properties. • Lithium demonstrated to be non-conservative as a tracer. • 260 mm diameter column too small to test transport properties of MSW. • The classical advection-dispersion mode was rejected due to high dispersivity. • Characteristic diffusion times did not vary with the tracer. - Abstract: Two column tests were performed in conditions emulating vertical flow beneath the leachate table in a biologically active landfill to determine dominant transport mechanisms occurring in landfills. An improved understanding of contaminant transport process in wastes is required for developing better predictions about potential length of the long term aftercare of landfills, currently measured in timescales of centuries. Three tracers (lithium, bromide and deuterium) were used. Lithium did not behave conservatively. Given that lithium has been used extensively for tracing in landfill wastes, the tracer itself and the findings of previous tests which assume that it has behaved conservatively may need revisiting. The smaller column test could not be fitted with continuum models, probably because the volume of waste was below a representative elemental volume. Modelling compared advection-dispersion (AD), dual porosity (DP) and hybrid AD–DP models. Of these models, the DP model was found to be the most suitable. Although there is good evidence to suggest that diffusion is an important transport mechanism, the breakthrough curves of the different tracers did not differ from each other as would be predicted based on the free-water diffusion coefficients. This suggested that solute diffusion in wastes requires further study.

  6. Solid-phase extraction clean-up of ciguatoxin-contaminated coral fish extracts for use in the mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Kam, Kai Man

    2009-02-01

    Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used for purifying ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated coral fish extracts, with the aim of removing extracted lipid but retaining optimal level of CTXs in the purified fractions. The CTX-containing fraction (target fraction) in fish ether extract was isolated and purified by eluting through a commercially available Florisil cartridge with hexane-acetone-methanol solvent mixtures of increasing polarity (hexane-acetone (4:1, v/v) < acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) < 100% methanol). Application of Florisil SPE using acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition facilitated the separation of 4.2 +/- 0.4 mg (mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM)) of purified target fraction from 20 mg ether extract with good retention of CTXs. The mouse bioassay was used to demonstrate that the average CTX recovery of the target fraction from CTX-spiked samples was 75.8% +/- 3.3%, which was significantly increased by 96.7% +/- 15% when compared with CTX recovery from ether extracts (44.8% +/- 5.2%) without performing SPE purification. Over 70% of non-target lipids were removed in which no CTX toxicity was found. Moreover, the target fractions of both CTX-spiked and naturally CTX-contaminated samples gave more prominent toxic responses of hypothermia and/or induced more rapid death of the mice. The use of acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition in the elution could significantly improve overall recovery of CTXs, while minimizing the possible interferences of lipid matrix from co-extractants on mice.

  7. Effect of various coal contaminants on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells: Part I. Accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, JianEr; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez-Mariano, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel [SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2009-09-05

    The contaminants that are potentially present in the coal-derived gas stream and their thermochemical nature are discussed. Accelerated testing was carried out on Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM solid oxide fuel cells (YSZ: yttria stabilized zirconia and LSM: lanthanum strontium manganese oxide) for eight main kind of contaminants: CH{sub 3}Cl, HCl, As, P, Zn, Hg, Cd and Sb at the temperature range of 750-850 C. The As and P species, at 10 and 35 ppm, respectively, resulted in severe power density degradation at temperatures 800 C and below. SEM and EDX analysis indicated that As attacked the Ni region of the anode surface and the Ni current collector, caused the break of the current collector and the eventual cell failure at 800 C. The phosphorous containing species were found in the bulk of the anode, they were segregated and formed ''grain boundary'' like phases separating large Ni patches. These species are presumably nickel phosphide/phosphate and zirconia phosphate, which could break the Ni network for electron transport and inhibit the YSZ network for oxygen ion transport. The presence of 40 ppm CH{sub 3}Cl and 5 ppm Cd only affected the cell power density at above 800 C and Cd caused significant performance loss. Whereas the presence of 9 ppm Zn, 7 ppm Hg and 8 ppm Sb only degraded the cell power density by less than 1% during the 100 h test in the temperature range of 750-850 C. (author)

  8. Stability of contamination-free gold and silver nanoparticles produced by nanosecond laser ablation of solid targets in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikov, R.G.; Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Dimitrov, I.G.; Atanasov, P.A.; Alexandrov, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au and Ag colloids were prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of solids in water. ► The alteration of the produced colloids during one month was investigated. ► Optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured from 350 to 800 nm. ► TEM measurements were made of as-prepared colloids and on the 30-th day. ► Zeta potential measurements were performed of as-prepared samples. - Abstract: Preparation of noble metal nanoparticle (NPs) colloids using pulsed laser ablation in water has an inherent advantage compared to the different chemical methods used, especially when biological applications of the colloids are considered. The fabrication method is simple and the NPs prepared in this way are contamination free. The method of laser ablation of a solid target in water is applied in the present work in order to obtain gold and silver NP colloids. The experiment was preformed by using the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The target immersed in double distilled water was irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses with duration of 15 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The sedimentation and aggregation of NPs in the colloids, stored at constant temperature, as a function of the time after preparation were investigated. The analyses are based on optical transmission spectroscopy in UV and vis regions. The change of the plasmon resonance wavelength as a function of time was studied. Zeta potential measurement was also utilized to measure the charge of the NPs in the colloids. The size distribution of the NPs and its change in time was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal conditions of post fabrication manipulation with gold and silver colloids are defined in view of producing stable NPs with a narrow size distribution.

  9. Atomic layer deposition α-Al2O3 diffusion barriers to eliminate the memory effect in beta-gamma radioxenon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Wolfgang Hennig; Bertrand, J.A.; George, S.M.; Steven Biegalski

    2013-01-01

    Well designed scintillator detectors, including such examples as ARSA, SAUNA, and XIA's 'PhosWatch', can readily achieve the state of the art radioxenon detection limits required for nuclear explosion monitoring. They are also reliable, robust detectors that do not require cryogenic cooling for operation. All three employ the principle of beta-gamma coincidence detection to reduce background counting rates, using a BC-404 plastic scintillator to detect the betas and a CsI or NaI scintillator to detect the gamma-rays. As a consequence of this commonality of design, all three also display a 'memory effect' arising from the diffusion of Xe into BC-404. Thus, when one sample is pumped out of the detector, a fraction remains behind, embedded in the BC-404, where it artificially raises the signal counting rate for the next sample. While this is not a fatal flaw in scintillator detectors, developing a method to eliminate the memory effect would significantly enhance their utility. This paper reports efforts to develop thin, amorphous Al 2 O 3 films, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to act as diffusion barriers on the BC-404 surfaces exposed to radioxenon. Using radon as a convenient substitute for Xe, film thicknesses between 2 and 10 nm were originally investigated and found to show a memory effect to varying degrees. A second set of 20 and 30 nm films was then produced, which appeared to completely eliminate the radon memory effect, but, when consequentially tested with radioxenon, were found to exhibit xenon memory effects that were approximately half of the effect found on uncoated BC-404. We draw two conclusions from this result. The first is that it will be necessary to develop an improved method for depositing thicker ALD Al 2 O 3 films at lower temperatures while still retaining high film quality. The second is that, since xenon is required to test for the xenon memory effect, we need a test method that does not require xenon radio-isotopes in order to

  10. Investigating cross-contamination by yeast strains from dental solid waste to waste-handling workers by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristina Dutra; Tagliaferri, Thaysa Leite; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; de Resende-Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida; Holanda, Rodrigo Assuncao; de Magalhães, Thais Furtado Ferreira; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; de Macêdo Farias, Luiz

    2018-04-01

    Trying to widen the discussion on the risks associated with dental waste, this study proposed to investigate and genetically compare yeast isolates recovered from dental solid waste and waste workers. Three samples were collected from workers' hands, nasal mucosa, and professional clothing (days 0, 30, and 180), and two from dental waste (days 0 and 180). Slide culture, microscopy, antifungal drug susceptibility, intersimple sequence repeat analysis, and amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions were performed. Yeast strains were recovered from all waste workers' sites, including professional clothes, and from waste. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that some yeast recovered from employees and waste exhibited nonsusceptible profiles. The dendrogram demonstrated the presence of three major clusters based on similarity matrix and UPGMA grouping method. Two branches displayed 100% similarity: three strains of Candida guilliermondii isolated from different employees, working in opposite work shifts, and from diverse sites grouped in one part of branch 1 and cluster 3 that included two samples of Candida albicans recovered from waste and the hand of one waste worker. The results suggested the possibility of cross-contamination from dental waste to waste workers and reinforce the need of training programs focused on better waste management routines. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Solid phase microextraction headspace sampling of chemical warfare agent contaminated samples : method development for GC-MS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Lepage, C.R.; Hancock, J.R. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada); Wyatt, H.D.M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Defence R and D Canada-Suffield (DRDC-Suffield) is responsible for analyzing samples that are suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, either collected by the Canadian Forces or by first-responders in the event of a terrorist attack in Canada. The analytical techniques used to identify the composition of the samples include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GC-MS and LC-MS generally require solvent extraction and reconcentration, thereby increasing sample handling. The authors examined analytical techniques which reduce or eliminate sample manipulation. In particular, this paper presented a screening method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis for chemical warfare agents such as mustard, sarin, soman, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate in contaminated soil samples. SPME is a method which uses small adsorbent polymer coated silica fibers that trap vaporous or liquid analytes for GC or LC analysis. Collection efficiency can be increased by adjusting sampling time and temperature. This method was tested on two real-world samples, one from excavated chemical munitions and the second from a caustic decontamination mixture. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO{sub 2}: study of contaminant-additives-CO{sub 2}; Decontamination de matrices organiques solides par CO{sub 2} supercritique: etude des interactions contaminant-additifs-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galy, J

    2006-11-15

    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO{sub 2} and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO{sub 2} in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO{sub 2}. The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO{sub 2} low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO{sub 2}-phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO{sub 2} and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO{sub 2}-phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO{sub 2}. A parallel has

  13. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  14. Advances in measurement of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Crane, T.W.; Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Shunk, E.R.; Pratt, J.C.; Franks, L.A.; Kominski, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive program is in progress at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the development of sensitive, practical, nondestructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics in bulk solid wastes. The program encompasses a broad range of techniques, including sophisticated active and passive gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron detection systems, pulsed portable neutron generator interrogation systems, and electron accelerator-based techniques. The techniques can be used with either low-level or high-level beta-gamma wastes in either low-density or high-density matrices

  15. Removal and Remediation Effects of Cd from Cadmium-contaminated Farmland Soils by A Magnetic Solid Chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Xin-xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulated experiment was carried out to study the removal and remediation effects of Cd from cadmium-contaminated farmland soils by a magnetic solid chelator(MSC at different application rates as well as its recovery rates and chelating capacity for Cd. The results showed that when the application rates of MSC materials was between 0.4% and 1.2%, the removal rate of total Cd and available Cd were 15.91%~17.69% and 33.33%~50.26%, respectively. And the MSC recovery rates were between 74.01% and 94.33% which increased with the increase of application rates of MSC and gradually tended to be stable. The content of Cd in recycled magnetic materials(mainly MSC was between 19.31 mg·kg-1 to 25.72 mg·kg-1, reaching to the highest at the application rates of 0.4% which was significantly higher than those of 0.8%, 1% and 1.2% treatment. But the content of Cd in magnetic materials had the trend that decreased with the increase of the recovery amount of MSC. The amount of Cd chelated by magnetic materials was nearly equal to the removal amount of Cd from soil at the 0.8% and 1.2% treatments. Besides, the Cd concentration in water samples was lower thanⅠ-level standard issued by the surface water environment quality standard(GB 3838-2002, meaning that it would not be a new pollution source. Therefore, MSC does have some removal and remediation effects on soil Cd and will provide a new method for remediation of heavy metals in farmland soils.

  16. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  17. Contamination movement around a permeable reactive barrier at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. In early 2004, groundwater contaminants began moving around the southern end of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed by a consultant in December 2002. The PRB is a 130-foot-long and 3-foot-wide barrier consisting of varying amounts of zero-valent iron with or without sand mixture. Contamination moving around the PRB probably has been transported at least 75 feet downgradient from the PRB at a rate of about 15 to 29 feet per year.

  18. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  19. Decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Wells, C M; Young, A A; Minter, Z A; Johnson, C A; Payne, A N; McPherson, D C

    2013-08-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis Ames, B. anthracis ∆Sterne and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure to PES-Solid (a solid source of peracetic acid), including PES-Solid formulations with bacteriostatic surfactants. Spores (≥ 7 logs) were dried on seven different test materials and treated with three different PES-Solid formulations (or preneutralized controls) at room temperature for 15 min. There was either no spore survival or less than 1 log (<10 spores) of spore survival in 56 of 63 test combinations (strain, formulation and substrate). Less than 2.7 logs (<180 spores) survived in the remaining seven test combinations. The highest spore survival rates were seen on water-dispersible chemical agent resistant coating (CARC-W) and Naval ship topcoat (NTC). Electron microscopy and Coulter analysis showed that all spore structures were intact after spore inactivation with PES-Solid. Three PES-Solid formulations inactivated Bacillus spores that were dried on seven different materials. A test method was developed to show that PES-Solid formulations effectively inactivate Bacillus spores on different materials. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Microbial Mineral Transformations at the Fe(II)/Fe(III) Redox Boundary for Solid Phase Capture of Strontium and Other Metal/Radionuclide Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F.G.; Roden, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    The migration of 90 Sr in groundwater is a significant environmental concern at former nuclear weapons production sites in the US and abroad. Although retardation of 90 Sr transport relative to mean groundwater velocity is known to occur in contaminated aquifers, Sr 2+ does not sorb as strongly to iron oxides and other mineral phases as do other metal-radionuclides contaminants. Thus, some potential exists for extensive 90 Sr migration from sources of contamination. Chemical or biological processes capable of retarding or immobilizing Sr 2+ in groundwater environments are of interest from the standpoint of understanding controls on subsurface Sr 2+ migration. In addition, it may be possible to exploit such processes for remediation of subsurface Sr contamination. In this study the authors examined the potential for the solid phase sorption and incorporation of Sr 2+ into carbonate minerals formed during microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction as a first step toward evaluating whether this process could be used to promote retardation of 90 Sr migrations in anaerobic subsurface environments. The demonstration of Sr 2+ capture in carbonate mineral phases formed during bacterial HFO reduction and urea hydrolysis suggests that microbial carbonate mineral formation could contribute to Sr 2+ retardation in groundwater environments. This process may also provide a mechanism for subsurface remediation of Sr 2+ and other divalent metal contaminants that form insoluble carbonate precipitates

  1. Characterization of the near-surface radionuclide contamination associated with the bathtub effect at Solid Waste Storage Area 4, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.; Farrow, N.D.

    1986-06-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA-4) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was studied to determine the extent of near-surface radionuclide contamination associated with the bathtub effect in low-lying trenches. A surface survey of the low-elevation portion of the burial ground was conducted to identify areas where the bathtub effect had resulted in surface contamination. Using this initial survey as a guide, 15 soil cores, each approximately 3 m deep, were taken to determine the depth to which contamination had spread and to help identify an contamination plumes. Results showed that two areas of surface radionuclide contamination exist, one located between the western end of the SWSA-4 tributary and the edge of the burial ground, the other located just north of the tributary below the central paved runoff channel. In addition, some downward migration of the solutes has occurred. However, the penetration depth for 90 Sr seems to be generally less than 2.7 m

  2. Guidance for the management of solid waste contaminated by urine of patients after administration of radiopharmaceuticals; Conseil pour la gestion des dechets solides contamines par des urines de patients apres administration de radiopharmaceutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzery, C.; Prevot, S.; Perrette, B.; Boichot, C.; Berriolo-Riedinger, A.; Toubeau, M.; Riedinger, J.M.; Brunotte, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2003-02-01

    The recent reinforcement of the French regulation on radionuclide contaminated waste brings the Nuclear Medicine Departments in charge of writing guidance intended to the personnel of the health care units. A special attention must be paid to the waste contaminated by urine of the incontinent patients. The present paper provides time duration for the collection and the storage of urine contaminated waste obtained from the simulation with literature models and data for the most frequently used radiopharmaceuticals. The validity of the results is discussed according to the parameter variations of the biokinetic models. (authors)

  3. Decontamination of materials contaminated with Francisella philomiragia or MS2 bacteriophage using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Johnson, C A; Minter, Z A; Wells, C M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to develop test methods and evaluate survival of Francisella philomiragia cells and MS2 bacteriophage after exposure to PES-Solid (a solid source of peracetic acid) formulations with or without surfactants. Francisella philomiragia cells (≥7·6 log10 CFU) or MS2 bacteriophage (≥6·8 log10 PFU) were deposited on seven different test materials and treated with three different PES-Solid formulations, three different preneutralized samples and filter controls at room temperature for 15 min. There were 0-1·3 log10 CFU (6 log10 CFU/PFU F. philomiragia cells and/or MS2 bacteriophage on different materials. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Exploitation of the FLK-60 slagging incinerator for different alpha waste streams and study of the feasibility of medium-level alpha-beta-gamma waste incineration in FLK-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, N.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Gijbels, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FLK-60 high temperature slagging incinerator and its peripherals were developed by SCK/CEN with the help of the Commission of the European Communities in the framework of contract no. EUR-017-76-7 WAS-B. This second contract, which covered the period between October 1980 and December 1982, aimed at gaining exploitation experience by running the FLK-60 installation with beta-gamma radioactive waste in semi-industrial conditions. At the end of those 27 months, the system was ready for exploitation in alpha-conditions with plutonium-containing materials. This report describes the various plant parameters during the 25 runs carried out in the framework of this contract and the results of characterization tests carried out on the final product and the secondary waste streams. In the meantime, typical operation balances are computed

  5. Ecological and human health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil of a municipal solid waste dump in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihedioha, J N; Ukoha, P O; Ekere, N R

    2017-06-01

    The study assessed the levels of some heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite with a view to providing information on the extent of contamination, ecological risk of metals in the soils and human health risk to the residents in Uyo. Soil samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons and analyzed for metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals (mg/kg) at the dumpsite in rainy season were Pb (9.90), Zn (137), Ni (12.56), Cr (3.60), Cd (9.05) and Mn (94.00), while in dry season, the concentrations were Pb (11.80), Zn (146), Ni (11.82), Cr (4.05), Cd (12.20) and Mn (91.20). The concentrations of metals in the studied sites were higher than that of the control site (P contamination than adult.

  6. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE's efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP's ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities

  7. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Long, E-mail: zhaolong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Hong, E-mail: houhong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O{sub 8}CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  8. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O_8CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  9. Changes in some biophysical and biochemical parameters of mungbean [vigna radiata (L.) wilczek] grown on chromium-contaminated soils treated with solid tea wastage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Akhtar, H.

    2010-01-01

    The success of solid tea wastage treatment technology in remediating chromium (111) contamination in the soil has been demonstrated on growth of Vigna radiata. The present research was designed to study the effect of chromium (Cr3/sup +/) on plant growth, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), protease activity and proline profile of Vigna radiata as a bio indicator in the presence and absence of the solid tea surface as a bio sorbent to control the mobility of Cr3/sup +/ in the soil. Results showed toxic effects of Cr3/ sup +/ on plant growth and development, which include high protease activity with prominent proline and decreased potassium and phosphorus contents at elevated concentration of metal. Proline content is the only amino acid that accumulates to a greater extent in the leaves of plants under stress. An increase in proline contents in leaves, stem and root with high concentration of Cr3/s sup +/ gets reduced in a solid tea wastage amended plants. Metabolic alteration by Cr3/ sup +/exposure and their control by solid tea wastage already described in the first report, showed direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. It is suggested that the plant can grow under chromium stress if some suitable adsorbent (like tea wastage) is mixed with the soil which can protect the plants from the phyto toxicity of Cr 3/sup +/ by altering various metabolic processes. (author)

  10. A two-stage treatment for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash to remove agglomerated fine particles and leachable contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Qadeer; Florea, M V A; Schollbach, K; Brouwers, H J H

    2017-09-01

    In this lab study, a two-stage treatment was investigated to achieve the valorization of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fraction below 4mm. This fraction of MSWI bottom ash (BA) is the most contaminated one, containing potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cr, Mo and Sb), chlorides and sulfates. The BA was treated for recycling by separating agglomerated fine particles (≤125µm) and soluble contaminants by using a sequence of sieving and washing. Initially, dry sieving was performed to obtain BA-S (≤125µm), BA-M (0.125-1mm) and BA-L (1-4mm) fractions from the original sample. The complete separation of fine particles cannot be achieved by conventional sieving, because they are bound in a cementitious matrix around larger BA grains. Subsequently, a washing treatment was performed to enhance the liberation of the agglomerated fine particles from the BA-M and BA-L fractions. These fine particles were found to be similar to the particles of BA-S fraction in term of chemical composition. Furthermore, the leaching behavior of Cr, Mo Sb, chlorides and sulfates was investigated using various washing parameters. The proposed treatment for the separation of agglomerated fine particles with dry sieving and washing (L/S 3, 60min) was successful in bringing the leaching of contaminants under the legal limit established by the Dutch environmental norms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility studies on electrochemical recovery of uranium from solid wastes contaminated with uranium using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazorium chloride as an electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yusuke, E-mail: ohhashi.yusuke@jaea.go.jp [Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1550 Kamisaibara, Kagamino-cho, Tomata-gun, Okayama 708-0698 (Japan); Harada, Masayuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Asanuma, Noriko [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Ikeda, Yasuhisa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The uranium component of steel wastes and spent NaF adsorbent are easily dissolved into BMICl. • The uranyl(VI) species in BMICl are reduced to U(V) irreversibly around −0.8 to −1.3 V. • The dissolved uranium species in BMICl are recovered as black deposits electrolytically. • The deposit is the mixtures of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds containing O, F, Cl, and N elements. - Abstract: In order to examine feasibility of the electrochemical deposition method for recovering uranium from the solid wastes contaminated with uranium using ionic liquid as electrolyte, we have studied the electrochemical behavior of each solution prepared by soaking the spent NaF adsorbents and the steel waste contaminated with uranium in BMICl (1-butyl-3-methyl- imidazolium chloride). The uranyl(VI) species in BMICl solutions were found to be reduced to U(V) irreversibly around −0.8 to −1.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The resulting U(V) species is followed by disproportionation to U(VI) and U(IV). Based on the electrochemical data, we have performed potential controlled electrolysis of each solution prepared by soaking the spent NaF adsorbents and steel wastes in BMICl at −1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Black deposit was obtained, and their composition analyses suggest that the deposit is the mixtures of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds containing O, F, Cl, and N elements. From the present study, it is expected that the solid wastes contaminated with uranium can be decontaminated by treating them in BMICl and the dissolved uranium species are recovered electrolytically.

  12. Environmental migration of radium and other contaminants present in liquid and solid wastes from the mining and milling of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This coordinated research programme has been directed at studying the migration of radium and other contaminants from tailings. It is therefore particularly concerned with the migration and transfer processes caused by ingress of water into tailings piles. Some of the studies in the programme have been concerned with the behaviour of radium after transfer into aquatic systems while others were concerned with the basic processes which occur in tailings piles. Studies of the latter type are essential if the long-term behaviour of radium and other contaminants is to be predicted with confidence and the effects of various treatment schemes are to be understood. The migration behaviour of radium-226, as a precursor to radon-222, will also have an effect on the long-term emission of this gas. The appendices of this report contain the guidance on analysis and measurement procedures and the summaries of research carried out by individual contractors

  13. The development of the American National Standard 'control of radioactive surface contamination on materials equipment and facilities to be released for uncontrolled use'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new standard submitted by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee to the American National Standards Institute concerning radioactive surface contamination of materials and equipment is discussed. The chronological events in the development of this standard are given. The standard provides criteria for the release for uncontrolled use of materials, equipment and facilities contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactivity. Permissible contamination limits are specified for: 1) long lived alpha emitters except natural uranium and thorium, 2) more hazardous beta-gamma emitters, 3) less hazardous beta-gamma emitters and 4) natural uranium and thorium. A contamination reference level of 1000 dpm/100 cm 2 for 90 Sr was set as the basis for assigning limits to radionuclides presenting an ingestion hazard and other radionuclides were grouped based on the values of their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in water relative to 90 Sr. The contamination limit for 239 Pu was chosen as the basis for assigning limits based on MPC in air to radionuclides presenting an inhalation hazard; a value of 100 dpm/100 cm 2 was adopted in the standard. An upper limit of 5000 dpm/100 cm 2 for surface contamination was selected for the standard. (UK)

  14. Solid/solution Cu fractionations/speciation of a Cu contaminated soil after pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation and their relationships with soil microbial and enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Li Lianzhen; Wang Peng

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed metal speciation/fractionations of a Cu contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic remediation as well as their relationships with the soil microbial and enzyme activities. Significant changes in the exchangeable and adsorbed-Cu fractionations occurred after electrokinetic treatment, while labile soil Cu in the solution had a tendency to decrease from the anode to the cathode, and the soil free Cu 2+ ions were mainly accumulated in the sections close to the cathode. The results of regression analyses revealed that both the soil Cu speciation in solution phase and the Cu fractionations in solid phase could play important roles in the changes of the soil microbial and enzyme activities. Our findings suggest that the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and their ecotoxicological effects on the soil biota before and after electroremediation can be better understood in terms of their chemical speciation and fractionations. - The assessment of the roles of soil solution speciation and solid-phase fractionations in metal bioavailability after electrokinetic remediation deserves close attention.

  15. UV-A photocatalytic treatment of Legionella pneumophila bacteria contaminated airflows through three-dimensional solid foam structured photocatalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josset, Sebastien; Hajiesmaili, Shabnam; Begin, Dominique; Edouard, David; Pham-Huu, Cuong [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lett, Marie-Claire [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genomique, Microbiologie, CNRS, Strasbourg University, 28, rue Goethe 67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Keller, Nicolas, E-mail: nkeller@chimie.u-strasbg.fr [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Keller, Valerie [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-03-15

    A 3D-structured photocatalytic media was designed for allowing a tubular reactor to work in a traversing-flow mode at low pressure drops with a strong increase in the surface area-to-volume ratio inside the reactor. A protective polysiloxane coating was performed for protecting a structured polyurethane foam and anchoring the active TiO{sub 2} particles. Filled with the 3D-structured solid foam supporting TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst, the reactor could thus take advantages from the static mixer effect and from the low pressure drop resulting from the reticulated foam support. Very efficient decontamination levels towards airborne Legionella pneumophila bacteria were reached in a single-pass test mode.

  16. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters low-temperature impact crushing/leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; Bertolotti, G.

    1986-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories, fuel fabrication plants all produce waste containing residual quantities of plutonium and uranium in oxide form which often reach some tens of grammes per m 3 . Appropriate treatment recovers an appreciable amount of fissile material, which could lead to the waste being declassified and able to be disposed of in near ground-level facilities. After a summary sorting at production level, waste can be sent to a low-temperature impact crushing/leaching unit which considerably reduces volumes to be stored. We call this process cryo-crushing/leaching. For burnable crushed particles, a further volume reduction may be obtained by incineration, an operation which is made easier by the low fissile material residue content. Incineration can, of course also be applied directly to burnable solid waste sorted at source and crushed following more conventional methods [fr

  17. Automated mini-column solid-phase extraction cleanup for high-throughput analysis of chemical contaminants in foods by low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated the application of an automated high-throughput mini-cartridge solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) cleanup for the rapid low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in QuEChERS extracts of foods. ...

  18. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  19. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  20. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of Plutonium Contaminated Solid Waste Streams. A technical guide to design and analysis of monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.

    1985-06-01

    The basic information on the Pu content in Pu Contaminated Materials (PCM) is the measurement of radiation emitted by Pu isotopes either spontaneously or due to irradiation by external neutron or gamma-sources. Requirements on measurement accuracy and detection limits should be defined by the operator of a Pu-handling facility in accordance with monitoring objectives in the very beginning of the planning of a monitoring system. Monitoring objectives reflect nuclear safety and radiological protection regulations and the needs for Pu-accountancy of nuclear materials management and safeguards. On considering the possibilities and limitations of radiometric techniques a solution of the monitoring problem is based on appropriate segregation and packaging procedures and records upon matrix and isotopic composition of PCM-items to be measured. The general interrelations between waste item characteristics and measurement uncertainty and detection limit are outlined in the first chapter which is addressed to the system planner. Chapter 2 is devoted to the attention of instrument developers and analysts. It presents in a general approach the correlations between the observed radiation leakage rate, respectively detection signal, and the generating source, e.g. Pu-isotopic content of the examined PCM item. Some practical measurement methods are reviewed and their limitations are indicated. The possible radiometric techniques based on detection of gamma rays from alpha decay (and 241 Am), neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n)-reaction and from induced fission reactions by neutron irradiation of Pu isotopes are presented. The measurement uncertainty of a single PCM item measurement is estimated on the basis of the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of source (Pu) and matrix materials. For the estimation of the cumulative error over a large collection of PCM items from a defined PCM-stream a probabilistic approach is suggested

  2. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball® (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft® Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection–dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Kraków, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design. -- Highlights: ► Numerical simulation of waste in porous media is proposed. ► Statistic outputs based on correct assumptions about probability distribution are presented. ► The benefits of a MC simulation are examined. ► The uniform probability distribution is studied. ► I report a useful tool applied to determine the life of a modern MSW landfill.

  3. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Boguslaw, E-mail: bbieda@zarz.agh.edu.pl

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball Registered-Sign (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft Registered-Sign Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Krakow, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of waste in porous media is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Statistic outputs based on correct assumptions about probability distribution are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of a MC simulation are examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uniform probability distribution is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I report a useful tool applied to determine the life of a

  4. Immobilisation of alpha contaminated lubricating oils in cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Wattal, P.K.; Shah, N.J.; Chander, Mahesh; Bansal, N.K.

    2000-10-01

    Alpha contaminated lubricating oil wastes are generated from the reprocessing plants and other alpha handling facilities. Incineration of these spent lubricating oils requires specially designed facility to handle the aerosols of actinide oxides released to the off-gases. Hence immobilisation of these wastes into cement matrix could be a viable alternative. Work was therefore initiated to examine the possibility of immobilising such waste in cement matrix with the help of suitable additives. This work led to the selection of sodium hydroxide and silica fumes as additives for their distinct role in immobilization of such waste in cement. The selected formulation was tested extensively both on laboratory scale and full scale for acceptable waste form. The leach test on laboratory scale indicated negligible release of alpha and beta gamma activity after 180 days. This report gives a brief on the formulation of the admixture and its effect on the immobilization of waste. (author)

  5. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  6. Contamination source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil around municipal solid waste incinerator: A case study in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Tai, Lingyu; Qiao, Zhi; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Kaixuan; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-08-01

    Few studies have comprehensively taken into account the source apportionment and human health risk of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in high population density area. In this study, 8 elements (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, and As) in fly ash, soil samples from different functional areas and vegetables collected surrounding the MSWI in North China were determined. The single pollution index, integrated Nemerow pollution index, principal component analysis (PCA), absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model and dose-response model were used in this study. The results showed that the soils around the MSWI were moderately polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg, and heavily polluted by As and Cd. MSWI had a significant influence on the distribution of soil heavy metals in different distances from MSWI. The source apportionment results showed that MSWI, natural source, industrial discharges and coal combustion were the four major potential sources for heavy metals in the soils, with the contributions of 36.08%, 29.57%, 10.07%, and 4.55%, respectively. MSWI had a major impact on Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg contamination in soil. The non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk posed by soil heavy metals surrounding the MSWI were unacceptable. The soil heavy metals concentrations and health risks in different functional areas were distinct. MSWI was the predominate source of non-carcinogenic risk with the average contribution rate of 36.99% and carcinogenic risk to adult male, adult female and children with 4.23×10 -4 , 4.57×10 -4 , and 1.41×10 -4 respectively, implying that the impact of MSWI on human health was apparent. This study provided a new insight for the source apportionment and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of MSWI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Recent developments at Los Alamos for the measurement of alpha contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Close, D.A.; Crane, T.W.; Kunz, W.E.; Shunk, E.R.; Umbarger, C.J.; Franks, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive program is currently in progress for the development of sensitive, practical nondestructive assay techniques for the quantification of low level transuranics in bulk solid wastes. This program encompasses a broad range of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques including sophisticated passive gamma-ray and passive neutron detection systems, isotopic neutron source-based active interrogation systems, pulsed portable neutron generator active interrogation systems, electron accelerator based techniques and laser spectroscopy techniques. The mix of techniques ranges in development maturity from the well established (MEGAS, Shuffler, Passive 4π neutron counters) through the proof-of-principle stage (pulsed neutron generator techniques) to the under investigation stage (electron linac and laser spectroscopy techniques). Matrix compensation methods are being developed to improve the accuracy of waste screening and assay measurements. Specific detection systems have been designed to operate in the high level beta-gamma backgrounds associated with some commercial reactor wastes. The techniques being developed can be used with either low level or high level beta-gamma wastes in either low density or high density matrices

  8. Recent developments at Los Alamos for the measurement of alpha contaminated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Close, D.A.; Crane, T.W.; Kunz, W.E.; Shunk, E.R.; Umbarger, C.J.; Franks, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive program is currently in progress for the development of sensitive, practical nondestructive assay techniques for the quantification of low level transuranics in bulk solid wastes. This program encompasses a broad range of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques including sophisticated passive gamma-ray and passive neutron detection systems, isotopic neutron source-based active interrogation systems, pulsed portable neutron generator active interrogation systems, electron accelerator based techniques and laser spectroscopy techniques. The mix of techniques ranges in development maturity from the well established (MEGAS, Shuffler, Passive 4..pi.. neutron counters) through the proof-of-principle stage (pulsed neutron generator techniques) to the under investigation stage (electron linac and laser spectroscopy techniques). Matrix compensation methods are being developed to improve the accuracy of waste screening and assay measurements. Specific detection systems have been designed to operate in the high level beta-gamma backgrounds associated with some commercial reactor wastes. The techniques being developed can be used with either low level or high level beta-gamma wastes in either low density or high density matrices.

  9. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  10. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  11. Microbial diversity in contaminated soils along the T22 trench of the Chernobyl experimental platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Piette, Laurie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vesvres, Marie-Helene [Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5797, CENBG, POB 120, F-33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Coppin, Frederic [IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Marrec, Claire Le [ISVV, UMR 1219, Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux/INRA, POB 50008, F-33882 Villenave d' Ornon (France); Christen, Richard [Universite de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, F-06108 Nice (France); CNRS, UMR 6543, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, F-06108 Nice (France); Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5797, CENBG, POB 120, F-33175 Gradignan cedex (France); IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Fevrier, Laureline [IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); others, and

    2012-07-15

    The diversity of bacterial communities exposed to radioactive contamination in Chernobyl soils was examined by a combination of molecular and culture-based approaches. A set of six radioactive soil samples, exhibiting high levels of {sup 137}Cs contamination, were collected from the T22 trench. Three samples were also collected in nearby soils with low contamination. Complex bacterial community structures were observed in both highly and weakly contaminated samples, using a molecular approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the presence of specific populations within samples from highly contaminated soils could not be revealed by statistical analysis of the DGGE profiles. More than 200 culturable isolates, representative of dominant morphotypes, were grouped into 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and affiliated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroiedetes. No specific pattern linked to contamination was observed for these culturable bacteria. The results show that both highly and weakly contaminated soils host a wide diversity of bacteria, suggesting that long term exposure to radionuclides does not lead to the extinction of bacterial diversity.

  12. Microbial diversity in contaminated soils along the T22 trench of the Chernobyl experimental platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapon, Virginie; Piette, Laurie; Vesvres, Marie-Hélène; Coppin, Frédéric; Marrec, Claire Le; Christen, Richard; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities exposed to radioactive contamination in Chernobyl soils was examined by a combination of molecular and culture-based approaches. A set of six radioactive soil samples, exhibiting high levels of 137 Cs contamination, were collected from the T22 trench. Three samples were also collected in nearby soils with low contamination. Complex bacterial community structures were observed in both highly and weakly contaminated samples, using a molecular approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the presence of specific populations within samples from highly contaminated soils could not be revealed by statistical analysis of the DGGE profiles. More than 200 culturable isolates, representative of dominant morphotypes, were grouped into 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and affiliated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroïdetes. No specific pattern linked to contamination was observed for these culturable bacteria. The results show that both highly and weakly contaminated soils host a wide diversity of bacteria, suggesting that long term exposure to radionuclides does not lead to the extinction of bacterial diversity.

  13. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  14. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  15. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs

  16. Possibility of semiconductor counters application for internal contamination measurement of whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunic, O.; Orlic, M.; Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of high resolution semiconductor counters application in 'Vinca' Whole Body Counter for direct beta-gamma internal contamination measurement are discussed, assuming the following relevant characteristics: efficiency, resolution and counter price. A comparison with appropriate characteristics of NaI(Tl) crystal used in 'Vinca' WBC is treated. It is evident that the scintillation counters have the higher detection efficiency, but HPGe counters having much better resolution and recently lowest prices are also acceptable to join the existing NaI(Tl) counters with the HPGe counters in the same time, allow better spectral analyses of the human body activity and additionally more precise estimation of the equivalent doses rate which is generally a essential problem in WBC measurements. (author)

  17. Treatment of Cr/sup 3+/ contaminated soil by solid tea wastage I. A study of physiological processes of Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Akhter, Y.; Sara Qureshi, S.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the option of using domestic tea waste in soil contaminated with the Cr/sup 3+/ trace metal due to industrial and mine activity, continuously discharging in the land and aquatic resources. This disposal of industrial wastage without proper treatment is responsible for the lowering of crop productivity with the accumulation of essential and non essential trace metals in the plants. On the other hand domestic waste management in soil and aquatic resources are also accountable for the reduced field productivity. This research discusses the proper domestic waste management in the agriculture land for the cultivation of crop in the contaminated soil. Vigna radiata has been selected as a crop to check the effects of Cr/sup 3+/ and its deletion in the contaminated soil. The highest yield was obtained when soil was mixed with tea wastage instead of spreaded tea wastage. Seed germination, morphology and physiology of 15 days old plant showed remarkable improvement in the plant growth including seed germination with activated tea wastage in the presence of Cr/sup 3+/ as compared to those plants which were grown in Cr/sup 3+/ contaminated soil only. Biochemical analysis of seedling showed an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, protein and amino acids, which confirms the remediation of contaminated soil through tea wastage. It was concluded that proper use of domestic waste can be helpful to increase the soil fertility and can concentrate the heavy toxic metals in it through complex formation. (author)

  18. Study of the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass via phytoremediation by fast pyrolysis: Part I. Influence of temperature, biomass species and solid heat carrier on the behaviour of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lievens; J. Yperman; J. Vangronsveld; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    Presently, little or no information of implementing fast pyrolysis for looking into the potential valorisation of heavy metal contaminated biomass is available. Fast pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass (birch and sunflower), containing high amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, resulting from phytoremediation, is investigated. The effect of the pyrolysis temperature (623, 673, 773 and 873 K) and the type of solid heat carrier (sand and fumed silica) on the distribution of the heavy metals in birch and sunflower pyrolysis fractions are studied. The goal of the set-up is 'concentrating' heavy metals in the ash/char fraction after thermal treatment, preventing them to be released in the condensable and/or volatile fractions. The knowledge of the behaviour of heavy metals affects directly future applications and valorisation of the pyrolysis products and thus contaminated biomass. They are indispensable for making and selecting the proper thermal conditions for their maximum recovery. In view of the future valorisation of these biomasses, the amounts of the pyrolysis fractions and the calorific values of the obtained liquid pyrolysis products, as a function of the pyrolysis temperature, are determined. 46 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Exhumation test with aged radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The deterioration of solid radioactive waste buried in soil is an important consideration when estimating the migration of radionuclides from the burial site, planning procedures for exhuming buried waste, and evaluating hazards caused by intentional or unintentional uncovering of the waste. This report presents observations during the excavation of low-level waste buried for 14 years in the humid environment of the Savannah River Plant. The radiation dose rates that were used to define the limits for low-level beta-gamma wastes were <50 mR/hr from an unshielded package or <50 mR/hr at 10 feet from a truck load. The waste was buried in sandy clay soil trenches more than 20 feet above the water table and covered with soil soon after burial. Rainfall for the area averages 47 inches per year. Because of the higher water permeability in backfilled soil than in undisturbed soil, perched water was sometimes found in the bottom of some trenches. However, the duration and/or extent of perched water is limited so that most waste is not subjected to water-saturated soil. The waste uncovered included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials that deteriorated visibly. Apparently, decades would be required for all cellulose materials to decompose; plastics, rubber, and metals will probably survive indefinitely

  20. Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Fikrle, Marek; Drtinová, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 691-694 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Mercury * contaminated soils * AMA-254 * RNAA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.583, year: 2013

  1. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  2. An assessment of radioactivity level in 51Cr-contaminated dry solid waste generated from a research facility for verification of clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Ono, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from research laboratories and other facilities is regulated by the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes etc. (Prevention Law). However, the Prevention Law does not provide the level of clearance or the procedures to follow for compliance monitoring. To assess radioactivity amounts for making decisions about clearance levels, the radioactivity levels in dry solid semi-combustible wastes generated from biomedical research, such as 51 Cr-release assays, were measured and evaluated. Radioactivity of semi-combustible waste was 1.42-6.32% of the initial level. In comparison, records for the past 8 years in the Shikata Laboratory, Department of Radiation Research, Okayama University Advanced Science Research Center, indicated 7% to 90% of the initial radioactivity remained in the waste and was differed widely among researchers. This study determined an accurate radioactivity level in dry solid waste, which could lead to savings in disposal costs. (author)

  3. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  4. Sistema limpo em linha para extração em fase sólida de contaminantes emergentes em águas naturais An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Sodré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus is robust and less expensive than the typical available system. Its also provides less experimental handling, avoiding cross contamination and sample losses.

  5. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Determination of copper in liquid and solid insulation for large electrical equipment by ICP-OES. Application to copper contamination assessment in power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Sarzanini, Corrado; Maina, Riccardo; Tumiatti, Vander

    2012-09-15

    Copper is one of the main constituents of the components in power transformers and its presence both in liquid (mineral oil) and in solid (Kraft paper) insulators can lead to enhanced dielectric losses and to the subsequent deterioration of their insulating properties. Recently the latter have been correlated to plant failures which in turn may have severe impact on the environment. This paper describes the direct analysis of copper in insulating mineral oil by ICP-OES and how it was first optimized compared to the official American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D7151 method. Detection and quantification limits of 8.8 μg kg(-1) and 29.3 μg kg(-1) were obtained. Secondly, copper determination was improved by coupling a microwave assisted dissolution procedure of the mineral oil which avoided the problems, in the real samples, due to the presence of solid species of copper which cannot be nebulized following traditional methods described in literature. Sixteen mineral insulating oils sampled from transformers in service were analyzed before and after dissolution. In order to evaluate copper speciation, size fractionation was performed by filtration on PTFE filters (0.45, 1 and 5 μm). This test was performed on all the oil samples. Finally, because of the key role of the solid insulator in failed transformers, the Authors applied the developed method to study the copper deposition tendency onto the insulating Kraft paper tapes exerted by two unused oils (a corrosive and a non-corrosive one) under defined ageing conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment techniques for the removal of radioactive contaminants from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Maximum contaminant levels have been set for radioactive contaminants, as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL 93-523). Treatment techniques are available for removing radium and beta-gamma emitters. Presently-used methods of removing radium-226 are precipitative lime softening (80-90% removal) ion exchange softening (95% removal) and reverse osmosis (95% removal). The 5 p Ci/l limit for radium can be met with conventional technology for raw waters in the 5-100 p Ci/l concentration range. Treatment for removal of beta or gamma emitters must be based upon chemical rather than radioactive characteristics of the contaminant. Reverse osmosis can remove a broad spectrum of ions and molecules from water, so it is the process most likely to be used. The maximum contaminant level for beta and gamma radioactivity is an annual dose equivalent to the total body or any organ not to exceed 4 m rem/year. The fate of radionuclides after removal from drinking water should be considered. Presently radium is disposed with other process wastes at softening plants removing radium. Confinement and disposal as a radioactive waste would be very expensive. (author)

  8. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Bacterial community analysis of contaminant soils from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Chapon, V.; Berthomieu, C.; Piette, L.; Le Marrec, C.; Coppin, F.; Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Shortly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, vegetation, contaminated soil and other radioactive debris were buried in situ in trenches. The aims of this work are to analyse the structure of bacterial communities evolving in this environment since 20 years, and to evaluate the potential role of microorganisms in radionuclide migration in soils. Therefore, soil samples exhibiting contrasted radionuclides content were collected in and around the trench number 22. Bacterial communities were examined using a genetic fingerprinting method that allowed a comparative profiling of the samples (DGGE), with universal and group-specific PCR primers. Our results indicate that Chernobyl soil samples host a wide diversity of Bacteria, with stable patterns for Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and more variable for Proteobacteria. A collection of 650 aerobic and anaerobic culturable isolates was also constructed. A phylogenetic analysis of 250 heterotrophic aerobic isolates revealed that 5 phyla are represented: Beta-, Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and spore-forming Firmicutes, which is largely dominant. These collection will be screened for the presence of radionuclide-accumulating species in order to estimate the potential influence of microorganisms in radionuclides migration in soils

  10. Evaluation of graphene-based sorbent in the determination of polar environmental contaminants in water by micro-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-01-04

    A facile method of extraction using porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) with a graphene-based sorbent followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector was developed. The reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) (1mg), synthesized from graphite oxide, was enclosed in a polypropylene bag representing the μ-SPE device, which was used for the extraction of estrogens such as estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol in water. The r-GO obtained was identified and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The sorbent was loaded with sodium dodecyl sulfate by sonication to prevent agglomeration in aqueous solution. With this method, low limits of detection of between 0.24 and 0.52 ng L(-1) were achieved. For estrogen analysis a linear calibration range of 0.01-100 μg L(-1) was obtained, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.992. This proposed method was successfully applied to determine estrogens in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  12. Rapid tracking of metals and other minerals in solid contaminated environments matters (soil, waste) thanks to non-destructive and rapid on-site methods with x-fluorescence. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzonville, A.; Colin, A.; Durin, L.; Gruffat, V.; Chassagnac, T.

    2008-05-01

    Rapid tracking of metals and other minerals in solid contaminated environments matters greatly to the various firms working in waste disposal. In order to facilitate decision-making that rely on non-destructive and rapid onsite methods of analysis, a review of such methods has been carried out though Scientific publications and Technical reports. Only X-fluorescence is presented as suitable, albeit with some limitations. In order to check the collected bibliographical data and to test both the limits and the limitations imposed by the use of portable XRF instruments, several series of experiments were conducted using two types of portable instruments: a gun-like instrument and a portable-class instrument. With the help of such instruments, the experiments were mainly oriented towards applications that are neglected in field research with regards to waste materials such as: - bulky curbside refuse, - contaminated land, - sludge from the dredging of ports and rivers, - steelwork slurries and dust particles. As these instruments make it possible to obtain samples before analysis, more in-depth evaluation of this aspect is relevant. Thus the number of samples to be analyzed, the kind of conditioning (grinding, sifting), the moisture, are parameters that require evaluation for each individual case and each different type of waste matter. Such aspect can be especially iffy when heterogeneous waste matter like recycling refuse is handled. In fact, the precision of the instruments usually do not cover the regulation thresholds or the techniques that are require by users. It is therefore necessary for the users of these instruments to be aware of the utilization limits and to develop protocols that are suitable for each situation, in order to get readings that are representative and can be interpreted. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Radioactivity Contamination Level of Kartini Reactor Efluen Gas to the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Purwanto; Aminjoyo, S

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of radioactivity contamination level of Kartini reactor efluen gas to the environment has been done from 13-10-'95 until 8-2-'96. The aim of this research is to determine the radioactivity contamination level on the environment resulted from the release of Kartini reactor efluen gas and other facilities at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre through stack. The analysis methods is the student t-test, the first count factor test and the gamma spectrometry. The gas sampling were carried out in the stack reactor, reactor room, environment and in other room for comparison. Efluen gas was sucked through a filter by a high volume vacuum pump. The filter was counted for beta, gamma and alpha activities. The radioactivity contamination level of the efluen gas passing through the stack to the environment was measured between 0.57 - 1.34 Bq/m3, which was equal to the airborne radioactivity in environment between 0.69 - 1.12 Bq/m3. This radioactivity comes from radon daughter, decay products result from the natural uranium and thorium series of the materials of the building

  14. Status of foreign practices for the management of alpha-contaminated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.

    1982-08-01

    Alpha-contaminated radioactive wastes, a product of mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, weapons production and decommissioning programs, are being generated in at least ten countries. There is general agreement worldwide that these wastes should be treated differently than the beta-gamma or low-level waste. There is no consensus, however, on a quantitative definition of alpha-contaminated wastes. Reported definitions vary from > 0.035 nCi/g to > 100 nCi/g. Incineration is the most common treatment, with cement and bitumen the most common fixation agents. The only disposal means in use today are the sea dumping practice by Belgium and the United Kingdom and the surface disposal and deep-well discharge by the USSR. Sea dumping, however, is restricted to low levels of alpha activity, while the USSR appears to be favoring geologic disposal. All countries appear to be moving toward deep geologic repositories as the favored means of disposing of alpha-contaminated radioactive wastes. West Germany has actually disposed of such wastes in the Asse Salt Mine but has discontinued that operation for political reasons. Repository projects are actively under way in Belgium, West Germany, India, Sweden, and the Unted States, with many other countries planning repository programs. One US project, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, will, according to present schedules, be the first repository operational since Asse. 6 tables

  15. A tri-metal centered metal-organic framework for solid-phase microextraction of environmental contaminants with enhanced extraction efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuqin; Xie, Lijun; Hu, Qingkun; Yang, Huangsheng; Pan, Guanrui; Zhu, Fang; Yang, Shenghong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the preparation and the characterizations of six tri-metal centered metal-organic frameworks (tM-MOFs) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbents. Possessing different proportions of Al, Ga and In atoms in their frameworks, the tM-MOF-based SPME coatings exhibited different extraction performance towards the organic pollutants. Extraction results showed that the M4 (Al 0.593 Ga 0.167 In 0.240 (O 2 C 2 H 4 )(h 2 fipbb)) coating exhibited the best enrichment ability among six tM-MOFs. In addition, it showed better extraction efficiency towards the analytes than three single-metal centered MOFs coatings and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating. The adsorption process of the M4 coating was physical adsorption and it was mainly affected by the diffusion process of the compound from the sample to the material, which is the same with the adsorption processes of the single-metal centered MOFs coatings. Under optimal conditions (extraction time, 3 min; NaCl concentration, 25% (w/v); desorption temperature, 270 °C; extraction temperature, 30 °C), the M4 coating achieved low detection limits (0.13–0.88 ng L −1 ) and good linearity (5–2000 and 5–5000 ng L −1 ) for benzene series compounds. The repeatabilities (n = 5) for single fiber were between 4.3 and 8.1%, while the reproducibilities (n = 3) of fiber-to-fiber were in the range of 7.9–12.7%. Finally, a M4 coated SPME fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of environmental water samples with satisfactory recoveries (80.8%–119.5%). - Highlights: • Six tri-metal centered metal-organic frameworks were synthesized and characterized. • Novel SPME fibers were fabricated with silicone sealant film and tri-metal centered metal-organic frameworks crystals. • The self-made fiber exhibited excellent extraction performance to organic pollutants. • The self-made fiber was used for analysis of benzene series compounds in environmental water samples.

  16. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  17. Simple and quick determination of analgesics and other contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters by on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Aguirre, Alejandra; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, J L Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2016-05-13

    A simple and quick analytical method has been developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water. An on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been optimized to determine 7 contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters at ngL(-1) levels. This procedure requires minimal sample handling and small sample volume (900μL) with a total running time of 18min. Several SPE parameters were evaluated and optimized in order to achieve a high sample throughput. Therefore sample volume, carryover and reusability of the cartridges were evaluated. Performance characteristics were evaluated and good linearity was obtained (R(2)>0.98). Recoveries were evaluated in spiked samples at three concentrations and the values ranged from 71 to 104%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than 10 and 13% respectively. Limits of quantification were equal to or lower than 10ngL(-1), except for 1,7-dimethylxanthine (20ngL(-1)) and ibuprofen (50ngL(-1)). The method was applied to 20 environmental water samples, and ibuprofen was the compound most widely detected at concentrations up to 42.06μgL(-1), whereas the other compounds were detected in fewer samples at lower concentrations (up to 15.99μgL(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R Calvelo; Monterroso, C; Macías, F; Camps-Arbestain, M

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The beta-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil-->root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil-->air-->shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles-->shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere.

  19. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Canuti, Elisabetta; Weissteiner, Christof

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble polar organic contaminants are discharged by rivers, cities, and ships into the oceans. Little is known on the fate, pollution effects, and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment. A new trace analytical method was developed for the multi-compound analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine waters. The method is based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of one-liter water samples followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTRAP(®) MS). Marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice (Italy) were analyzed. Method limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low picogram per liter (pg/l) concentration range were achieved. Among the 67 target chemicals analyzed, 45 substances could be detected above the LOQ. The chemicals detected at the highest concentrations were caffeine (up to 367 ng/l), nitrophenol (36 ng/l), 2,4-dinitrophenol (34 ng/l), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (18.5 ng/l), sucralose (11 ng/l), 1H-benzotriazole (9.2 ng/l), terbuthylazine (9 ng/l), alachlor (7.7 ng/l), atrazine-desisopropyl (6.6 ng/l), diethyltoluamide (DEET) (5.0 ng/l), terbuthylazine-desethyl (4.3 ng/l), metolachlor (2.8 ng/l), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.5 ng/l), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (2.3 ng/l), linuron (2.3 ng/l), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (2.2 ng/l), diuron (2.0 ng/l), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (1.6 ng/l), simazine (1.6 ng/l), atrazine (1.5 ng/l), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1.3 ng/l). Higher concentrations were detected during summer due to increased levels of tourist activity during this period.

  20. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  1. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  2. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  3. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  4. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  5. Results of two years' operation of the waste processing cell PROLIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.; Madic, C.; Broudic, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Solid wastes, contaminated by alpha, beta, gamma radioisotopes, are produced by spent fuel reprocessing and isotope production. The PROLIXE plant, prototype for leaching and encapsulation was put into operation in March 1988 for waste management with the following aims: development of decontamination by oxidative leaching of alpha wastes, to obtain less than 0.1 Ci/t for surface storage; recycling radioactive isotope recovered especially transuranium elements; define a versatile process for various solid radioactive waste for an industrial plant [fr

  6. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  7. Gamma ampersand beta-gamma storm water monitor operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiskiku, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) facilities have nine storm water monitors that monitor storm water run off from different process areas for Cesium 137, a Gamma emitter. F - Area has three monitors: 907-2F, 907-3F and 907-4F while H - Area has six monitors: 907-2H, 907-3H, 907-4H, 907-5H, 907-6H and 907-7H (See attachments number-sign 1, number-sign 2 and number-sign 3 for location). In addition to monitoring for Cesium, 907-6H and 907-7H monitor for Strontium-90, a Beta emitter. Each monitor is associated with one of the following diversion gate encasements 907-1H, 241-15H, 241-51H, 907-1F or 241-23F. Normal flow of storm water from these diversion gate encasements is to the Four Mile Creek. When a storm water monitor detects radioactivity at a level exceeding the Four Mile Creek discharge limit, the monitor causes repositioning of the associated diversion gate to discharge to the H - Area retention basin 281-8H or the F - Area retention basin 281-8F. In response to recent OSR interpretation of storm water monitor calibration requirements, this report is provided to document operability and accuracy of radiation detection

  8. Skin dose assessment in routine personnel beta/gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1980-01-01

    Three alternative methods are outlined by which substantial improvements of the capabilities of existing routine monitoring systems for skin dose assessment can be obtained. The introduction of a supplementary skin dosemeter may be an attractive method for systems with badges that have a capability for an additional dosemeter already built-in. The two-side reading method has limited possibilities because of reduced accuracy for mixed radiation and technical difficulties in using it for TLD systems with planchet heating. The use of a boron diffused LiF layer for skin dose assessment seems to be most attractive method since the only modification needed here is replacement of a dosemeter. However the study of this method is so far only in a preliminary stage and further investigations are needed. (U.K.)

  9. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  10. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  11. Radiological characterisation on V1 NPP technological systems and buildings - Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzel, Richard; Rapant, Tibor; Svitek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    : average dose rate, maximum dose rate, average surface contamination of floor and walls and possible identified higher local surface contamination. In the scope of the project, more than 3400 direct dose rates measurements, 1450 direct surface contamination measurements, 1200 laboratory alpha/beta/gamma analysis of outer surfaces, 560 sample analysis of primary circuit technological equipment inner surface, 20 in situ gamma spectrometric measurements and 15 sample analysis of concrete drilling cores, have been performed. Final list of RNV included 8 vectors for contamination. Radiological data of individual items in DDB have been used for determination of total radiological inventory of V1 NPP. (authors)

  12. Improved Understanding of Fenton-like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watts, Richard J; Loge, Frank; Teel, Amy L

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, superoxide has a major role in the degradation of highly oxidized contaminants, the destruction of DNAPLs, and enhanced desorption of hydrophobic contaminants from soils and subsurface solids...

  13. Proposal of biostimulation for hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-decontamination and characterization of culturable bacterial community from high-dose point HCH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhwal, M; Singh, A; Prakash, O; Gupta, S K; Kumari, K; Sharma, P; Jit, S; Verma, M; Holliger, C; Lal, R

    2009-02-01

    To locate a high-dose point hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated site, to identify HCH-degrading bacteria in it and assay HCH-decontamination by biostimulation. Bacteria were isolated by serial dilution method from HCH-contaminated soil samples collected from areas near an HCH-manufacturing unit and its dumpsite in North India. After confirming the presence of indigenous HCH-degraders (seven of 24 strains), an ex situ biostimulation experiment was conducted. For this, residue levels in soil were diluted by mixing with pristine garden soil and aeration, moisture and nutrients were provided intermittently. This soil was monitored for reduction in Sigma-HCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) levels and stimulation of HCH-degraders. Experiments were conducted twice, in March-April (c. 75 microg Sigma-HCH g(-1) soil) and October-November 2006 (c. 280 microg Sigma-HCH g(-1) soil) at 26-30 degrees C. Sigma-HCH levels were reduced to decontamination via aeration, addition of nutrients and moisture, of the indigenous population. The study demonstrates that biostimulation of indigenous HCH-degrading microbial population can be used for decontamination of chronically HCH-contaminated sites.

  14. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  15. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  16. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  17. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  18. Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established

  19. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  20. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  2. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  3. Hanford analytical sample projections FY 1995--FY 2000. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1994-12-02

    Sample projections have been categorized into 7 major areas: Environmental Restoration, Tank Waste Remediation, Solid Waste, Liquid Effluents, Site Monitoring, Industrial Hygiene, and General Process Support Programs. The estimates are through the Fiscal Year 2000 and are categorized by radiation level. The yearly sample projection for each program will be categorized as follows: Category 1: Non-Radioactive; Category 2: <1 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma}; <10 nCi/g {alpha}; Category 3: 1 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma} to <10 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma}; and <10 nCi/g {alpha}; Category 4: <10 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma}; and <200 nCi/g {alpha}; Category 5: 10 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma} to <100 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma}; and <200 nCi/g {alpha}; Category 6: >100 mR/hr {beta}/{gamma}; and Category 7: >200 nCi/g {alpha}.

  4. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  5. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  6. Removal of 14C-contaminated CO2 from simulated LWR fuel reprocessing off-gas by utilizing the reaction between CO2 and alkaline hydroxides in either slurry or solid form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.; Haag, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a LWR fuel reprocessing plant is the removal of 14 C-contaminated CO 2 from the process off-gas. The separation and fixation of essentially all the CO 2 from the simulated off-gas can be accomplished by reaction with alkaline slurries in agitated tank-type contactors. Based on efficacy for CO 2 removal, consideration of reactant cost, and stability of the carbonate product as related to long-term storage requirements, the two most promising slurry reactants for CO 2 removal from low CO 2 -content feed gases are Ca(OH) 2 and Ba(OH) 2 . The removal of 14 C-contaminated CO 2 from simulated LWR off-gases was studied as a function of both operating conditions and varying sizes of bench-scale design. Parametrically, the effects on the CO 2 removal rate of feed composition (330 ppM - 4.47% CO 2 ), impeller speed (325 to 650 rpm), superficial velocity (5 to 80 cm/min), reactants [Mg(OH) 2 , NaOH], contactor size (20.3 cm and 27.3 cm ID), and type of operation (semibatch or continuous slurry) were deterined

  7. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  8. Shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes - 30 years of experience at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Fenimore, J.W.; Hawkins, R.H.; Oblath, S.B.; Ryan, J.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Solid radioactive wastes from production of nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are buried in shallow trenches on a 79-hectare plot within the SRP site. The SRP burial ground, in use since 1953, has provided containment for about 370,000 m 3 of waste containing 10 7 Ci that have been buried through 1982. Site characteristics, operating practices, and monitoring results are described. Extensive field and laboratory studies aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the soil/waste/water system of the SRP burial ground are discussed. Leaching and migration of buried radionuclides have been monitored by assays of soil cores and by periodic sampling of numerous groundwater wells. Except for tritium, none of the radionuclides have migrated significantly from the waste. Generally, traces of alpha and nonvolatile beta/gamma emitters that have entered the groundwater can be detected only by ultra-low-level radiochemical analyses. Current research efforts include: (1) migration of individual radionuclides such as 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 106 Ru, 129 I, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu (plus nonradioactive materials such as mercury); (2) groundwater chemistry under buried waste, to determine fundamental transport mechanisms; (3) radionuclide migration from well characteized sources emplaced in lysimeters; (4) laboratory measurements of sorption on burial ground soil. In addition to ensuring continued safe operation, the ongoing waste migration studies provide technical guidance for site operations and decommissioning

  9. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  10. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  11. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  12. Development of a solid-phase extraction system modified for preconcentration of emerging contaminants in large sample volumes from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vitor Sergio Almeida; Riente, Roselene Ribeiro; da Silva, Alexsandro Araújo; Torquilho, Delma Falcão; Carreira, Renato da Silva; Marques, Mônica Regina da Costa

    2016-09-15

    A single method modified for monitoring of emerging contaminants in river water was developed for large sample volumes. Water samples from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were analyzed by the SPE-HPLC-MS-TOF analytical method. Acetaminophen was detected in four rivers in the concentration range of 0.09μgL(-1) to 0.14μgL(-1). Salicylic acid was also found in the four rivers in the concentration range of 1.65μgL(-1) to 4.81μgL(-1). Bisphenol-A was detected in all rivers in the concentration range of 1.37μgL(-1) to 39.86μgL(-1). Diclofenac was found in only one river, with concentration of 0.22μgL(-1). The levels of emerging organic pollutants in the water samples of the Jacarepaguá hydrographical basin are significant. The compounds are not routinely monitored and present potential risks to environmental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Miller, Christopher Francis [Macungie, PA

    2008-09-16

    Method for gas purification comprising (a) obtaining a feed gas stream containing one or more contaminants selected from the group consisting of volatile metal oxy-hydroxides, volatile metal oxides, and volatile silicon hydroxide; (b) contacting the feed gas stream with a reactive solid material in a guard bed and reacting at least a portion of the contaminants with the reactive solid material to form a solid reaction product in the guard bed; and (c) withdrawing from the guard bed a purified gas stream.

  14. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle

  15. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  16. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  17. How "lucky" we are that the Fukushima disaster occurred in early spring: predictions on the contamination levels from various fission products released from the accident and updates on the risk assessment for solid and thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-12-01

    The present paper studies how a random event (earthquake) and the subsequent disaster in Japan affect transport and deposition of fallout and the resulting health consequences. Therefore, except for the original accident in March 2011, three additional scenarios are assessed assuming that the same releases took place in winter 2010, summer 2011 and autumn 2011 in order to cover a full range of annual seasonality. This is also the first study where a large number of fission products released from the accident are used to assess health risks with the maximum possible efficiency. Xenon-133 and (137)Cs are directly estimated within the model, whereas 15 other radionuclides are calculated indirectly using reported isotopic ratios. As much as 85% of the released (137)Cs would be deposited in continental regions worldwide if the accident occurred in winter 2010, 22% in spring 2011 (when it actually happened), 55% in summer 2011 and 48% if it occurred during autumn 2011. Solid cancer incidents and mortalities from Fukushima are estimated to be between 160 and 880 and from 110 to 640 close to previous estimations. By adding thyroid cancers, the total number rises from 230 to 850 for incidents and from 120 to 650 for mortalities. Fatalities due to worker exposure and mandatory evacuation have been reported to be around 610 increasing total estimated mortalities to 730-1260. These estimates are 2.8 times higher than previously reported ones for radiocaesium and (131)I and 16% higher than those reported based on radiocaesium only. Total expected fatalities from Fukushima are 32% lower than in the winter scenario, 5% that in the summer scenario and 30% lower than in the autumn scenario. Nevertheless, cancer fatalities are expected to be less than 5% of those from the tsunami (~20,000). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  19. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  20. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  1. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  2. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  3. Tratabilidade de solos tropicais contaminados por resíduos da indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos Treatability of tropical soils contaminated by solid wastes from ceramic tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pena de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho de pesquisa buscou investigar a eficácia da remoção de chumbo (Pb e zinco (Zn de uma área contaminada pelo depósito inadequado de resíduos de indústrias de revestimentos cerâmicos do pólo de Santa Gertrudes (São Paulo, Brasil, ocorrido há cerca de trinta anos atrás. Foram avaliados três processos de lixiviação: lavagem com ácido sulfúrico concentrado e por soluções de peróxido de hidrogênio a 30% e de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o tratamento com peróxido de hidrogênio não removeu Pb e Zn; que a lavagem com ácido sulfúrico concentrado promoveu a redução de 50% dos teores de Zn e a solução de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M reduziu os teores de Pb e Zn em 15% e 10%, respectivamente. O teor remanescente de Zn no solo tratado com ácido sulfúrico concentrado foi de 117 mg/kg e os de Pb e Zn no solo lavado com a solução de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M, de 806 mg/kg e 213 mg/kg, respectivamente, valores estes inferiores aos de intervenção estabelecidos pelo órgão de controle ambiental paulista.The aim of this research was to evaluate different leaching processes to the removal of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn from tropical soil contaminated by inappropriate past deposition of wastes from ceramic tile industries of Santa Gertrudes (São Paulo, Brazil. Three soil washing processes were investigated: with concentrated sulphuric acid, with a 30% solution of hydrogen peroxide and with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid. The results indicated that the treatment with hydrogen peroxide did not remove Pb and Zn significantly; the washing with concentrated sulphuric acid caused a 50% reduction of Zn contents and the 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid reduced Pb and Zn contents in 15% and 10%, respectively. The Zn content remaining in the soil processed with concentrated sulphuric acid was 117 mg/kg and the Pb and Zn contents remaining in the soil processed with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid

  4. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  5. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  6. The generation characteristics of solid radioactive wastes in the KEPCO nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Soon Hwan; Kang, Duck Won; Kim, Hee Keun

    1991-01-01

    Solid radwastes generation trend and characteristics were discussed for nuclear power plants in KEPCO. Each plant has a specific tendency of solid radwastes generation due to the plant characteristics. The total volume of solid radwastes generated from nine power plants was accumulated in 23,012 drums by the end of 1989. The average annual volume per unit was about 670 drums. The solid radwaste mostly consisted of solidified concentrates and contaminated trash. The contaminated trash has been the major portion of the solid radwastes since 1982. The volume of the contaminated trash was dependent on the availability factor and period of overhaul. Therefore, the contaminated trash was considered to be a prime target for the solid radwastes minimization plan

  7. Exhumation of radioactive solid wastes buried for fourteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-five linear feet of a low-level beta-gamma waste trench was excavated fourteen years after the waste was buried. The waste included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials to deteriorate visibly. Apparently, decades would be required for all cellulose materials to decompose, and plastics and metals would survive indefinitely

  8. Contacting particulate solids with liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for contacting particulate solids with a fluid. The particular applications described are 1) an acid dissolver for dissolving plutonium from plutonium contaminated ash produced by the incineration of waste such as rubber gloves, tissue paper etc. and 2) apparatus for dissolving gel spheres of nuclear fuel material. The liquid, e.g. acid for use in a leaching process flows through a vertical conduit and past a series of baffles spaced along the axis of the conduit. Each baffle defines a mixing chamber and provides a small gap around its perimeter between the baffle and the wall of the conduit. The baffles are provided with sloping top surfaces for preventing solid particles from settling on the baffles and sloping undersurfaces to improve mixing of the liquid and the solid particles. The liquid flows upwards in the conduit but solid particles may be fed from the top or from the bottom of the conduit to mix with the liquid. Gas may be introduced to promote improved flow conditions. (U.K.)

  9. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  11. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  12. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  13. The treatment and disposal of oily solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.A.D.; Noordhuis, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Oily solids are generated as a waste product of Brunel Shell Petroleum's drilling and production activities. The main sources are waste oil based mud, tank bottom sludges, and oil contaminated soil. The oily solids are stored in a purpose built holding basin which is gradually being filled up. The need for appropriate treatment and an acceptable means of final disposal of the solids has been recognized as an item for attention in the Company's Environmental Management Plan. The paper describes the resulting feasibility study which is evaluating the relative merits of processes such as incineration, lime stabilization, and landfarming. The feasibility study is considering the quantity and properties of the solids, the environmental conditions in Brunei, the availability of treatment services in the country, and the need to define acceptable environmental criteria for the treatment and disposal methods. The way in which these factors influence the study are discussed

  14. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  15. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  16. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  17. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  18. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  19. Treatment of HMX and RDX contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, R.E. Jr.; Autenrieth, R.

    1998-03-01

    HMX and RDX are often found in the soil, groundwater, and surface waters at facilities where they are manufactured as the result of negligent disposal methods. The toxicity of these compounds and their degradation products has led to concern about their fate in the environment and the potential for human exposure. HMX and RDX are recalcitrant in the environment with low rates of biodegradation and photolysis. Several methods of treating contaminated soils and waters have been developed and studied. Many of these technologies (i.e., carbon adsorption, oxidation, and chemical treatment) have been developed to treat munition plant wastewaters that are contaminated with explosives. These methods need to be adapted to remediate contaminated water. Other technologies such as bioremediation and composting are being developed as methods of remediating HMX and RDX contamination in a solid matrix. This report describes and evaluates each of these technologies. This report also describes the processes which affect HMX and RDX in the environment. The major transformation processes of RDX and HMX in the environment are biodegradation and photolysis. A major factor affecting the transport and treatment of RDX and HMX in soil-water environments is their sorption and desorption to soil particles. Finally, this report draws conclusions as to which treatment methods are currently most suitable for the remediation of contaminated soils and waters

  20. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF CONTAMINANTS FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    1.61ppm respectively at the East – West road dumpsite and 2.42 ± 1.87ppm, 1.40 ± 0.61ppm, 1.39 ± 0.67ppm ... The differences in the levels of copper, zinc and lead in soils and ... waste management (Ademola, 1993: Osibanjo, 1995;.

  2. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  3. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  4. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  5. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  6. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  7. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  8. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  9. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  10. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  11. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  12. Consideration of the problems of the separate measurement of {beta}, {gamma} and X radiation; Considerations sur les problemes de la dosimetrie individuelle des radiations {beta}, {gamma}, X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After outlining the present state of knowledge concerning the determination of doses absorbed by external irradiation for various types of radiation, the author gives figures for the comparative sensitivity of common detectors. He then defines the criteria which have to be considered for the choice of the sensitive medium and of the nature and the thickness of the detector walls. Considered very generally, the detection assembly intended for measuring the dose absorbed at a given point in the organism must be designed with a view to giving the same overall interactions with the radiation considered as those occurring in the organism. (author) [French] Apres avoir precise l'etat de nos connaissances generales actuelles concernant la determination des doses absorbees par irradiation externe pour les divers rayonnements, l'auteur indique la sensibilite comparee des detecteurs usuels. Il definit ensuite les criteres qui doivent etre pris en consideration pour le choix du milieu sensible, de la nature et de l'epaisseur de la paroi des detecteurs. D'une maniere tres generale, l'ensemble de detection destine a mesurer une dose absorbee en un point donne de l'organisme doit etre concu en vue de presenter les memes interactions globales avec le rayonnement etudie que celles mises en jeu dans l'organisme. (auteur)

  13. Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Chadi H.; Courchesne, Francois; Hendershot, William H.; McGrath, Steve P.; Chaudri, Amar M.; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Sauve, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The chemical speciation of zinc in soil solutions is critical to the understanding of its bioavailability and potential toxic effects. We studied the speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils representative of a wide range of field conditions in both North America and Europe. Within this dataset, we evaluated the links among the dissolved concentrations of zinc and the speciation of Zn 2+ , soil solution pH, total soil Zn, dissolved organic matter (DOM), soil organic matter (SOM) and the concentrations of different inorganic anions. The solid-liquid partitioning coefficient (K d ) for Zn ranged from 17 to 13,100 L kg -1 soil. The fraction of dissolved Zn bound to DOM varied from 60% to 98% and the soil solution free Zn 2+ varied from 40% to 60% of the labile Zn. Multiple regression equations to predict free Zn 2+ , dissolved Zn and the solid-liquid partitioning of Zn are given for potential use in environmental fate modeling and risk assessment. The multiple regressions also highlight some of the most important soil properties controlling the solubility and chemical speciation of zinc in contaminated soils. - We studied the relationships among the chemical speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils and various physicochemical properties of the soils

  14. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  15. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  16. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  17. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  18. Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Clemens, R.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, several laboratory methods have been developed for the prediction of contaminant bioavailability. So far, none of these methods has been extensively tested for petroleum hydrocarbons. In the present study we investigated solid-phase extraction and persulfate oxidation for the prediction of

  19. Assessment of lead contamination of farmlands in Abare village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADO YUSUF

    Key words: Heavy metals, lead, Zamfara, health risk, soil contamination. ... Similarly, the. Zamfara State Ministry of Environment and Solid Minerals .... The average concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were 17.5, ... was found on the interaction between sampling distance .... stalk) are essential components of livestock feed espe-.

  20. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  2. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  3. Co-deposition of metallic actinides on a solid cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S. J.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2008-08-15

    The amount of rare earth contamination that will be found in a co-deposit of actinides is a function of the type of cathode used. A non-alloying solid cathode will result in a significantly lower rare earth contamination in the actinide co-deposit than a liquid cadmium cathode. With proper control of the cathode potential vs. a stable reference electrode, co-deposition of uranium with other more electroactive metals has been demonstrated using a non-alloying solid cathode.

  4. Co-deposition of metallic actinides on a solid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, S. J.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of rare earth contamination that will be found in a co-deposit of actinides is a function of the type of cathode used. A non-alloying solid cathode will result in a significantly lower rare earth contamination in the actinide co-deposit than a liquid cadmium cathode. With proper control of the cathode potential vs. a stable reference electrode, co-deposition of uranium with other more electroactive metals has been demonstrated using a non-alloying solid cathode

  5. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.49 Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated...

  6. Kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminant extraction from sediment by granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Smit, M.; Koelmans, A.A.; Meent, van de D.

    2014-01-01

    Ex situ solid phase extraction with granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising technique to remediate contaminated sediments. The methods' efficiency depends on the rate by which contaminants are transferred from the sediment to the surface of GAC. Here, we derive kinetic parameters for

  7. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  8. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  9. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  10. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  11. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  12. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs

  13. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  14. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em resíduos sólidos industriais: uma avaliação preliminar do risco potencial de contaminação ambiental e humana em áreas de disposição de resíduos Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial solid waste: a preliminary evaluation of the potential risk of environmental and human contamination in waste disposal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L. S. Sisinno

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A disposição adequada dos resíduos sólidos é importante para evitar que os mesmos se transformem em fonte de contaminação ambiental e humana. A NBR 10.004 - Classificação de Resíduos - lista vários hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs e indica que, a presença de pelo menos um deles na massa bruta do resíduo é suficiente para classificá-lo como resíduo perigoso. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a presença de HPAs em amostras de resíduos sólidos provenientes de alguns segmentos industriais, para se obter uma avaliação preliminar do potencial de contaminação que estes resíduos podem representar, caso não recebam destino adequado. Pelo menos um dos HPAs previstos na NBR 10.004 (benzo[a]antraceno, benzo[a]pireno, benzo[b]fluoranteno, benzo[k]fluoranteno, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pireno, criseno ou fluoranteno foi identificado em todos os resíduos estudados, classificando-os como perigosos. Nossos resultados indicam que todos os resíduos estudados continham HPAs de importância toxicológica, o que implica que sua disposição final seja feita em locais adequados para minimizar os riscos à saúde humana e ambiental oriundos das áreas de disposição de resíduos.Proper solid waste disposal is important to avoid human and environmental contamination. The NBR 10,004 Waste Classification lists several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and indicates that the presence of at least one PAH in a waste sample is enough to classify it as hazardous. The aim of this study was a preliminary evaluation of PAHs in solid waste samples from selected industries to obtain a preliminary overview of their potential for contamination in case of improper disposal. One or more PAHs listed in NBR 10,004 (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene, or fluoranthene were found in all samples, thus leading to their classification as hazardous waste. Our results showed

  15. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  16. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  17. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  19. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  20. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  2. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  3. In Situ Remediation Of Contaminated Sediments - Active Capping Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-01-01

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  5. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Methodperformance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  6. Friction between footwear and floor covered with solid particles under dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Meng, Fanxing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solid particles on the floor, both dry and wet, are common but their effects on the friction on the floor were seldom discussed in the literature. In this study, friction measurements were conducted to test the effects of particle size of solid contaminants on the friction coefficient on the floor under footwear, floor, and surface conditions. The results supported the hypothesis that particle size of solids affected the friction coefficient and the effects depended on footwear, floor, and surface conditions. On dry surfaces, solid particles resulted in friction loss when the Neolite footwear pad was used. On the other hand, solid particles provided additional friction when measured with the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) footwear pad. On wet surfaces, introducing solid particles made the floors more slip-resistant and such effects depended on particle size. This study provides information for better understanding of the mechanism of slipping when solid contaminants are present.

  7. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  8. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  9. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  10. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  12. Contamination control by laundry monitor at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Rana, P.K.; Lokeshwar Rao, S.; Managanvi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power reactor produces electricity as well as small quantity of radioactive waste as gaseous, liquid and solid. The waste contains radionuclides produced by fission and activation in reactor systems with wide spectrum of energy and half life. The long-lived nuclides Sr, Cs, Ba, Iodine and Co etc compared to short-lived are important in view of radiation protection. The radioactive contamination on the materials, human body or other places where it is undesirable is enormously harmful to workers at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The spread of radioactive from controlled areas is very complex problem for power reactor plant management

  13. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  14. Contamination of incinerator at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsuo

    1994-01-01

    Originally, at Tokai Reprocessing Plant an incinerator was provided in the auxiliary active facility(waste treatment building). This incinerator had treated low level solid wastes generated every facilities in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant since 1974 and stopped the operation in March 1992 because of degeneration. The radioactivity inventory and distribution was evaluated to break up incinerator, auxiliary apparatuses(bag filter, air scrubbing tower, etc.), connecting pipes and off-gas ducts. This report deals with the results of contamination survey of incinerator and auxiliary apparatuses. (author)

  15. PYROLYSIS OF ZINC CONTAMINATED BIOMASS FROM PHYTOREMEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Aysun; Günkaya, Zerrin; Banar, Müfide; Kulaç, Alev; Yalçın, Gülser; Taşpınar, Kadriye; Altay, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to stabilize of zinc (Zn) from soil to pyrolysis solid product. For this aim, phytoremediation and pyrolysis were sequentially applied. In the first stage of the study, phytoremediation was first applied to zinc contaminated soil via  sunflower (Helianthus annuus), corn (Zea mays) and rape (Brassica napus), After harvesting, the plants were pyrolyzed at 500°C with the heating rate of 35 °C/min in a fixed bed stainless steel (380 S) 240 cm3 reactor. The phytorem...

  16. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  17. Contaminants migration in the soil: the influence of transfer between the mobile and stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Sabino, C.S.V.; Macedo, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three transport mechanisms control the contaminant migration in saturated soils: advection, diffusion and interchanges between liquid and solid phases. These interchanges define the retention by the soil and the contaminant delay related to the liquid phase flow. Therefore, the knowledge of the adsorption/desorption characteristics of the solute in solid surfaces is fundamental for the evaluation of toxic agent releases to the compartment soil. This communication reports the study which is being performed by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) in this area, particularly with cesium and mercury by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy for contaminants migration

  18. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  19. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  20. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  1. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  2. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  3. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  4. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  5. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  6. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  7. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1970-01-01

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W D; Crouse, D J

    1970-05-15

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  9. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  10. Geochemical and mineralogical investigation of uranium in multi-element contaminated, organic-rich subsurface sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Mouser, Paula J.; Heald, Steve M.; Bargar, John R.; Janot, Noémie; Yabusaki, Steve; Long, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Subsurface naturally reduced zones (NRZ) contain U and other potential co-contaminants. • The NRZ has a remarkable assortment of chemically complex, potential U hosts. • Micron-scale, multi-contaminant areas were discovered in NRZ. • U(IV) occurs as biogenic UO 2 (82%), or biomass – bound monomeric U(IV) (18%). • NRZs may exhibit contaminant sink-source complex behavior. - Abstract: Subsurface regions of alluvial sediments characterized by an abundance of refractory or lignitic organic carbon compounds and reduced Fe and S bearing minerals, which are referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZ), are present at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO (a former U mill site), and other contaminated subsurface sites. A study was conducted to demonstrate that the NRZ contains a variety of contaminants and unique minerals and potential contaminant hosts, investigate micron-scale spatial association of U with other co-contaminants, and determine solid phase-bounded U valence state and phase identity. The NRZ sediment had significant solid phase concentrations of U and other co-contaminants suggesting competing sorption reactions and complex temporal variations in dissolved contaminant concentrations in response to transient redox conditions, compared to single contaminant systems. The NRZ sediment had a remarkable assortment of potential contaminant hosts, such as Fe oxides, siderite, Fe(II) bearing clays, rare solids such as ZnS framboids and CuSe, and, potentially, chemically complex sulfides. Micron-scale inspections of the solid phase showed that U was spatially associated with other co-contaminants. High concentration, multi-contaminant, micron size (ca. 5–30 μm) areas of mainly U(IV) (53–100%) which occurred as biogenic UO 2 (82%), or biomass – bound monomeric U(IV) (18%), were discovered within the sediment matrix confirming that biotically induced reduction and subsequent sequestration of contaminant U(VI) via

  11. Solid oxide electrolyser cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejgaard Jensen, S.

    2006-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Riso National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 deg. C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6 A/cm{sup 2} with app. 30% H{sub 2} + 70% H{sub 2}O in the inlet gas and a H{sub 2}O utilization of app. 40%. The tested SOECs were also used for CO{sub 2} electrolysis. Economy studies of CO and H2 production show that especially H{sub 2} production can be competitive in areas with cheap electricity. Assuming the above described initial performance and a lifetime of 10 years it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} with an electricity price of 1.3 US cent/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test of about two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 deg. C, -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} with 50 vol% H{sub 2} the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h. It was shown that the degradation happens at Ni/YSZ-electrode. The long term degradation is probably caused by coarsening of the Ni-particles. After onset of electrolysis operation a transient passivation/reactivation phenomena with duration of several days was observed. It was shown that the phenomenon is attributed to the SiO{sub 2} contamination at the Ni/YSZ electrode-electrolyte interface. The SiO{sub 2} arises from the albite glass sealing (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that surrounds the electrode. Si may enter the Ni/YSZ electrode via the reaction Si(OH){sub 4}(g) {r_reversible} SiO{sub 2}(l)+H{sub 2}O(g). At the active sites of the Ni/YSZ electrode steam is reduced via the reaction H{sub 2}O - 2e {yields} H{sub 2}+O{sup 2-} . This shifts the equilibrium of the first reaction to form SiO{sub 2}(l) at the active sites. After a certain time the sealing crystallizes and the SiO{sub 2}(l) evaporates from the active sites and the cell reactivates. The passivation is shown to relate to a build up of a

  12. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  13. Method and device of decontaminating radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tamada, Masami.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely enable grinding for the inner surface of hollow radioactive solid wastes such as pipeways or valves, as well as enable to decontaminate these solid wastes to such a level as being capable of processing in the same manner for the ordinary wastes. Method: A grinding piece abutting resiliently against the inner surface of a hollow radioactive solid wastes to be contaminated is attached at the top end of a flexible shaft, and the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes is ground while rotating and slightly reciprocating, as well as axially moving the flexible shaft. Consequently, since the grinding piece is always abutted against the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes just following after the profile of the inner surface, and the flexible shaft is resiliently flexed corresponding to the profile of the inner surface of the radioactive solid wastes, even an inner surface of radioactive solid wastes with a complicated configuration can surely be ground entirely. This surely enables to remove radioactive claddings and contaminated layers deposited on the surface. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Sohal

    2009-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  15. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  18. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  19. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  20. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  1. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  2. Decree 135/999 establishing legal norms for the management of solid waste in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presently ordinance regulation norms settle down on the hospital solid residuals. A definition of solid residuals, contaminated, common, the transport, treatment,installation and integral handling of the same ones is presented in normative happiness. For finish a classification of a residuals in: infectious, piercing or sharp and special as well as duties and sanctions [es

  3. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  4. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  5. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  6. Contamination prevention of superheaters and reheaters during initial startup and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, F.; Sylvester, W.R.; Thimot, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The general precautions that should be taken to minimize the potential for harmful contamination or oxygen corrosion of power plant superheaters and reheaters during the period from field storage through operation are discussed and summarized. Present boiler industry start-up and operating practices intended to minimize the introduction of solids to the superheater are, as proven by experience, adequate to avoid contamination-related problems. No basic changes to general industry practice are necessary. What is needed, however, is a continuing awareness of the potential for contamination-related problems so that in the specific application of these practices all likely sources of contamination will be considered

  7. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGraw, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Sigda, J.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

  8. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  9. Delineation of contaminant plume for an inorganic contaminated site using electrical resistivity tomography: comparison with direct-push technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing; Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Sun, Yuanyuan; Duan, Weidong; Wu, Jichun

    2018-03-03

    Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial. In this study, ERT and DP technique were both conducted at a real inorganic contaminated site. The reliability of the ERT method was validated by the direct comparisons of their investigation results that the resistivity acquired by ERT method is in accordance with the total dissolved solid concentration in groundwater and the overall variation of the total iron content in soil obtained by DP technique. After testifying the applicability of ERT method for contaminant identification, the extension of contaminant plume at the study site was revealed by supplementary ERT surveys conducted subsequently in the surrounding area of the contaminant source zone.

  10. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  11. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  12. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  14. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  15. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  16. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  17. Removal of Dissolved Salts and Particulate Contaminants from Seawater: Village Marine Tec., Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EUWP was developed to treat challenging water sources with variable turbidity, chemical contamination, and very high total dissolved solids (TDS), including seawater, during emergency situations when other water treatment facilities are incapacitated. The EUWP components incl...

  18. Critérios adotados para seleção de indicadores de contaminação ambiental relacionados aos resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde: uma proposta de avaliação Criteria for definition of environmental contamination indicators related to solid waste from health care facilities: a proposal for evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Cristina do Nascimento Silva

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é identificar microrganismos indicadores de contaminação ambiental, a partir dos principais aspectos ambientais e cadeia epidemiológica relacionados aos agentes. A seleção dos microrganismos a serem definidos como indicadores foi realizada a partir de informações específicas sobre a caracterização microbiológica de resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde (RSSS, e a avaliação de riscos de infecção pelos materiais perfurocortantes presentes nesses resíduos. A forma de avaliação proposta para os critérios adotados na seleção de indicadores de contaminação abrangeu entrega prévia de questionário estruturado a uma rede de especialistas do Distrito Federal. A formação multidisciplinar dos especialistas, composta por profissionais da área de saúde e microbiologista ambiental, permitiu definir, de forma consensual, os indicadores de contaminação ambiental. Patógenos como Mycobacterium tuberculosis e os vírus da Hepatite A e B destacam-se no estudo com capacidade de sobrevivência ou resistência ambiental.The objective of this study was to identify target microorganisms as indicators of environmental contamination. The study evaluates the main environmental aspects and epidemiological chain related to such agents. Microorganisms were selected through key information about microbiological characterization of health care facilities' solid waste and evaluation of risk of infection from discarded sharps. The form of evaluation proposed for criteria adopted in the selection of contamination indicators included prior submission of a structured questionnaire to a network of specialists from the Federal District of Brazil. The specialists' multidisciplinary background, including professionals from the health field and an environmental microbiologist, helped define environmental contamination indicators by consensus. Pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and hepatitis A and B viruses were

  19. Italian experience on the processing of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; De Angelis, G.

    1989-12-01

    Experimental work is under way in Italy for treatment and conditioning of different types of solid radioactive wastes. The following wastes are taken into account in this paper: Magnox fuel element debris, solid compactable wastes, radiation sources and contaminated carcasses. The metallic debris, consisting of Magnox splitters and braces, are conditioned, after drying and separation of corrosion products, by means of a two component epoxy system (base product + hardener). Solid compactable wastes are reduced in volume by using a press. The resulting pellets are transferred to a final container and conditioned with a cement mortar of a suitable consistency. As to the radiation sources, mainly contained in lightning-rods, gas detectors and radioactive thickness gauges, the encapsulation in a cementitious grout is a common practice for their incorporation. Early experiments, with satisfactory results, have also been conducted for the cementation of contaminated carcasses. (author)

  20. Contaminant geochemistry. Interactions and transport in the subsurface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research

    2008-07-01

    This book combines earth science, subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry, providing a comprehensive background for specialists interested in the protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. The reader is introduced to the chemistry of contaminants, which usually disturb the natural equilibrium in the subsurface as a result of human activity. The major focus of the book is on contaminant reactions in soil solutions, groundwater and porous media solid phases, accounting for their persistence and transformation in the subsurface, as they are transported from the land surface into groundwater. Discussions on selected case studies are provided. (orig.)

  1. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  2. The effects of radiation (beta/gamma and alpha) on cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-02-01

    A worldwide review of what has been published on the effects of radiation on cemented ILW has been carried out where properties such as composition and volume of any gas evolved/absorbed, physical properties, chemical evolution and dose rate were considered. It is clear that only a superficial knowledge of the underlying reasons for radiolytic effects exist although there is sufficient data to enable quantities of gas a function of storage time to be predicted. If long term predictions of behaviour are to be made then the understanding of basic radiation chemistry of cement grout needs to be developed in parallel with the wider study of understanding the effects at the elevated temperatures expected to be present in a repository. (author)

  3. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, L.

    1976-07-01

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  4. Development of a combination detector system for simultaneous measurement of Alpha and Beta/Gamma radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Ashokkumar, P.; Rekha, A.K.; Jain, Amit; Rath, D.P.; Chaudhury, Probal; Chaudhari, L.M.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of various samples for α and β/γ radioactivity is carried out in radiological laboratories. Using independent α and β/γ counting systems such measurements are done separately for same sample. In order to address the requirement of simultaneous measurement of α and β/γ activity content of radioactive samples, a counting system using combination of two detectors has been developed. Activity deposited on a 2 mm deep 30 mm diameter aluminum planchette was counted under the detector combination consisting of a ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for α and β/γ respectively. The design and fabrication of the combination detector, development of electronics associated with the system, its characterization and application are presented here

  5. Beta-gamma spectroscopy for double beta decays and Lepton number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, H.; Takahashi, N.; Shibata, T.; Nagai, Y.; Okada, K.; Kamikubota, N.; Watanabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper neutrino-less double β decays (Oν ββ) of /sup 76/Ge were studied by means of the newly developed ELEGANTS (Electron gamma-ray neutrino spectrometer). It consists of a 171 cc pure Ge detector surrounded bu a big 4π-NaI detector, and active and inactive filters. Measurement of both the electron signal from the Ge detector and γ-ray signals from the 4π-NaI detector made it possible to select the true double decay events from background events due to the other radio-active isotopes and cosmic rays. The ELEGANTS showed the highest sensitivity for detecting the neutrino-less double β decay. The preliminary data obtained so far give a lower limit of the half life T/sub 1/2/≥2.2 10/sup 22/y for the O/sup +/→O/sup +/ Oν ββ decay and T/sub 1/2/ ≥1.5.10/sup 22/y for the O/sup +/→2/sup +/ Oν ββ decay of /sup 76/Ge

  6. Lightweight High Temperature Beta Gamma Alloy/Process Development for Disk and Blade Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary material and manufacturing limitations of gamma TiAl alloys include processing difficulties, requiring costly non-conventional processing requirements,...

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of {beta}-{gamma} coincidence system using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: msdias@ipen.br; Piuvezam-Filho, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baccarelli, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica-PUC/SP-Rua Marques de Paranagua 111, 01303-050 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takeda, M.N. [Universidade Santo Amaro, UNISA-Rua Prof. Eneas da Siqueira Neto 340, 04829-300 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Koskinas, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4{pi}{beta}(PS)-{gamma} coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to {sup 60}Co and {sup 133}Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma} coincidence system.

  8. Radiation protection in inhomogeneous beta-gamma fields and modelling of hand phantoms with MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F.; Hegenbart, L.; Heide, B.; Schimmelpfeng, J.; Urban, M.

    2009-01-01

    The usage of beta-radiation sources in various nuclear medicine therapies is increasing. Consequently, enhanced radiation protection measures are required, as medical staff more frequently handle high-activity sources required for therapy. Inhomogeneous radiation fields make it difficult to determine absorbed dose reliably. Routine monitoring with dosemeters does not guarantee any accurate determination of the local skin dose (LSD). In general, correction factors are used to correct for the measured dose and the maximum absorbed dose received. However, strong underestimations of the maximum exposure are possible depending on the individual handling the process and the reliability of dose measurements. Simulations can be used as a tool for a better understanding of the maximum possible exposure depending on the individual-related handling. While measurements reveal the overall dose during the entire irradiation time of the dosemeter, simulations help to analyse sequences of action. Hence, simulations allow for tracking the points of highest absorbed dose received during the handling process. In this respect, simulations were performed using the MCNPX software. In order to investigate the LSD, two hand phantoms were used, a model based on geometrical elements and a voxel hand. A typical situation of radio-synoviorthesis, i.e. handling a syringe filled with 90 Y, was simulated. The results of the simulations show that the annual dose limit may be exceeded within minutes at the position of maximum absorbed dose received and that finger-ring dosemeters measure significantly different doses depending on their wearing position. It is of essential importance to wear the dosemeter properly and to use suitable correction factors with respect to the individual. Simulations are a suitable tool for ensuring reliable dose determination and may help to derive recommendations regarding radiation protection measures. (authors)

  9. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    In 4π β-γ coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between theβ--and γ-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs

  10. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Nikhil; Prinke, Amanda; Miller, Brian; McIntyre, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare radioxenon beta–gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Finally, our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used.

  11. Instrument limitation of accuracy of absolute measurement by method of 4π beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plkh, J.

    1979-01-01

    Accuracy is discussed of determination of coincidence channels dead-time in 4π β-γ installation and determination of coincidence resolution time as well as conditions for determination and accuracy of these parameters. Conditions are considered under which these parameters have not been determined and there is wrong performance of the installation. Special attention was paid to the electronic circuit of the γ-channel. It has been shown that as a result of wrong performance of electronic circuit a new type of wrong coincidence appeared [ru

  12. Instrument evaluation no. 8. Nuclear Enterprises beta/gamma dose rate meter type 0500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, W.J.; Burgess, P.H.; Callowhill, K.

    1977-04-01

    This instrument is a portable, battery powered survey meter covering the dose rate range from 0 to 10,000 mrad h -1 and the dose range 0 to 1000 mrad. The instrument was designed to measure X and γ-radiation dose and dose rate over a wide energy range, and also β-radiation dose and dose rate. An unsealed ionisation chamber is used as the detector. The aluminised melinex thin end window of the chamber is provided with a detachable plastic end cap. The calibration plane of the chamber is indicated by a cross on the side of the instrument. The information is given under the following headings: facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; summary of performance; conclusions. (U.K.)

  13. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... the issuance date of the Order, BGNR will submit the qualifications of the selected auditor to the NRC in writing; 2. Within 30 days of NRC approval of the auditor, the auditor will conduct the first audit, and the auditor will complete the first audit report within 90 days of NRC approval of the...

  14. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  15. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  16. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  17. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  18. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  20. Plasmas produced by incident laser in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Campos, D. de; Boeckelmann, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental arrangement for plasma production by incident laser in solids and a system of diagnostics are presented. The system of diagnostics allows: verify the plasma generation and expansion through the ultrahigh-speed photography; obtain measurements of temperature and density by spectroscopy (using an optical analyser of multichannels) and obtain measurements of kinetic energy of ions through his fly time, using a 'Faraday cup'. A vacuum system with an adsorption pump for pre-vacuum and ionic pump was used to reduce pressure and avoid mechanical vibrations and system contaminations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  2. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  3. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  4. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Thorium-230 contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noey, K.C.; Liedle, S.D.; Hickey, C.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are currently performing radiological surveys on approximately ninety properties in the St. Louis, Missouri area as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The properties involved are the St. Louis Airport Site, Latty Avenue Properties, St. Louis Downtown Site, Coldwater Creek, and the associated roads and vicinity properties. The primary radioactive contaminant on these properties is thorium-230. Since field instrumentation is not available to detect the presence of alpha-emitting contamination in soil, soil samples are being collected and sent to an analytical laboratory for analysis. Thorium-230 analysis is costly and time-consuming, and as a result, soil sample analysis results are not available to help direct the field sampling program. This paper provides discussion of the manner in which the properties became radioactively contaminated, followed by a discussion of the difficulties associated with the detection of thorium-230. Finally, new methodologies for detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in the field are described

  6. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  7. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  8. Interaction of organic contaminant with natural clay type geo sorbents: potential use as geologic barrier in urban landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Procopio, J. R.; Sevilla, T.; Cuevas, J.; Rodirguez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The great amount of municipal solid wastes generated by the cities can be processed in different ways such as incineration, derivation to composting plants or, simply, deposition in controlled landfills. One of the landfill characteristics is possess and adequate geological barrier for contaminant contention. The most important chemical processes an adequate geological battier for contaminant contention. (Author)

  9. Contaminant geochemistry. Interactions and transport in the subsurface environment. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2014-07-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition, new literature has been added on contaminant fate in the soil-subsurface environment. In particular, more data on the behavior of inorganic contaminants and on engineered nanomaterials were included, the latter comprising a group of ''emerging contaminants'' that may reach the soil and subsurface zones. New chapters are devoted to a new perspective of contaminant geochemistry, namely irreversible changes in pristine land and subsurface systems following chemical contamination. Two chapters were added on this topic, focusing attention on the impact of chemical contaminants on the matrix and properties of both liquid and solid phases of soil and subsurface domains. Contaminant impacts on irreversible changes occurring in groundwater are discussed and their irreversible changes on the porous medium solid phase are surveyed. In contrast to the geological time scale controlling natural changes of porous media liquid and solid phases, the time scale associated with chemical pollutant induced changes is far shorter and extends over a ''human lifetime scale''.

  10. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  11. Contamination trapped in a cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sender, E.

    2003-01-01

    Some abandoned industrial sites are so strongly contaminated that they threaten to contaminate underground waters. Pollutants are driven through the soil by raining waters. The principle of the ''hydro-Faraday'' cage is to prevent raining waters from flowing through the contaminated part of the soil. The cage is in fact a structure of buried drain tubes that envelop the contaminated zone. Physics make waters flow through the tubes rather than the soil, so the contaminated zone receives no more water and as a consequence pollutants are stopped in their way towards the phreatic bed. (A.C.)

  12. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  13. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  15. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  16. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  17. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  18. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Maphosa, F.; Vrieze, de J.; Haest, P.J.; Boon, N.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that

  19. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  20. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  1. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  2. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit

  3. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S.

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population

  4. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation

  5. Melting-decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Noboru; Iba, Hajime.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate uranium components remaining in metals even after the uranium-contaminated metals are melted. Method: Metal wastes contaminated with actinide element or its compound as nuclear fuel substance are melted in a crucible. Molten metals are fallen through a filter disposed at the bottom of the crucible into another receiving crucible. Uranium compounds are still left in the molten metal fallen in the receiving crucible. The residual uranium compounds are concentrated by utilizing the principle of the zone-refining process. That is, a displaceable local-heating heater is disposed to the receiving crucible, by which metals once solidified in the receiving crucible is again heated locally to transfer from solid to molten phase in a quasi-equibilized manner. In this way, by eliminating the end of the metal rod at which the uranium is segregated, the contaminating coefficient can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  7. Soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  8. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  9. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  10. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  11. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  12. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  13. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  14. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  15. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  16. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  17. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  18. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  19. Incineration of simulated plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.; Jenkins, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pyrolysis rate data are presented which will enable larger pyrolyser furnaces to be made for processing solid plutonium-contaminated materials at throughputs of up to 20 kg/h using either 1 or 2.5 kg packages as feed. The influence of liquids, such as water, kerosene or oil, on the pyrolysis process has also been assessed. The products of pyrolysis for a range of individual materials and their mixtures have been defined. The oxidation rates for both static and stirred beds of char have been obtained. The implications of both the pyrolysis and char-oxidation processes for plant design are discussed. This work has been commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management programme. The results will be used in the formulation of government policy, but as this stage they do not necessarily represent that policy

  20. Adsorption and desorption of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL's are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry

  1. Método da eletrorresistividade aplicado no monitoramento temporal da pluma de contaminação em área de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos Electrical resistivity method applied in the temporal monitoring of the contamination plume in disposal area of urban solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Melges Bortolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados do monitoramento temporal da pluma de contaminação do aterro controlado de Rio Claro, São Paulo, por meio do método da eletrorresistividade, que consistiu na comparação dos resultados de várias seções de imageamento elétrico, executados nos mesmo locais, nos anos de 1999 e 2008. Zonas de baixa resistividade, com valores menores ou iguais a 50 Ω.m, foram associadas à contaminação por chorume. Desse modo, foi possível identificar dois sentidos do fluxo da pluma: (1 em direção ao sul, e (2 em direção ao oeste. Nas seções de 2008, a pluma de contaminação apresentou-se mais extensa e profunda do que em 1999. De forma complementar, as sondagens elétricas verticais aferiram a profundidade do nível freático e o sentido do fluxo d'água, subsidiando a interpretação dos imageamentos.This paper shows the results of a periodical monitoring of the contamination plume of a controlled landfill in Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil, using electrical resistivity geophysical method. The monitoring consisted on comparing the results of several electrical sections, performed at the same location, in the years of 1999 and 2008. Low resistivity zones, with values lower than or equal to 50 Ω.m, have been associated to contamination by leachate. Thus, it was possible to identify two directions for the contamination flows: (1 toward south, and (2 toward west. In the results of 2008, the contamination plume was more extensive and profound than in 1999. The vertical electrical soundings indicated the water table depth and the water flow directions, helping the interpretation of results of the electrical profiles.

  2. A cleanroom contamination control system

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, W.; Eaton, T.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical methods for hazard and risk analysis are being considered for controlling contamination\\ud in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. The most suitable method appears to be the HACCP system that has\\ud been developed for the food industry, but this requires some reinterpretation for use in\\ud pharmaceutical manufacturing. This paper suggests a possible system.\\ud To control contamination effectively, it is necessary to have a good appreciation of the routes and\\ud sources of contamination, and ...

  3. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  4. Forestry on the contamination territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrov, A.I.; Kovalev, S.D.; Zhukovskaya, O.V.; Drobyshevskaya, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The common characteristic of a contamination of the Belarus' forests by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident is indicated. The recommendations for population about the picking up the mushrooms, berries, juices, medicinal herbs, preparation of forages, wood and other production in the contaminated forests are given. The information about the using of forests in depending on a level of the soil contamination is given. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Case studies in organic contaminant hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of domestic solid waste and hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste is a major problem in the area of environmental geology and water sciences throughout the world. A series of case studies is presented of organic contaminants from both solid and hazardous waste disposal facilities to provide examples of these problems. The facilities were investigated to determine risks and liabilities before acquisition, to determine the site hydrogeologic conditions for design of appropriate groundwater monitoring plans, and/or to determine the potential for groundwater contamination. The case studies are of disposal facilities located in glacial tills, carbonaceous weathered clay soils, weathered shale, limestone bedrock, dolomite bedrock, and alluvial and sedimentary deposits. The results of these studies and investigations show certain relationships in the distribution of organic pollutants to the different geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of each facility. In each of the four case studies, all 129 priority pollutants were analyzed in private wells and/or monitoring wells. The 31 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the priority pollutant list were the majority of organic compounds detected. When VOCs are found in groundwater impacted by disposal facilities, they are present in groups and tend to be distributed in patterns based on their relative concentrations. It is rare to find only one or two VOCs from facilities where leakage has been detected. The ethylenes and ethanes appear to be more prevalent and mobile than aromatic VOCs. The aromatics are restricted primarily to leachates and wastes and in monitoring wells located adjacent to facilities. 2 refs., 15 figs

  6. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  7. Real-Time Laser Ultrasound Tomography for Profilometry of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubin, V. P.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Simonova, V. A.; Kudinov, I. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the possibility of applying laser ultrasound tomography for profilometry of solids. The proposed approach provides high spatial resolution and efficiency, as well as profilometry of contaminated objects or objects submerged in liquids. The algorithms for the construction of tomograms and recognition of the profiles of studied objects using the parallel programming technology NDIVIA CUDA are proposed. A prototype of the real-time laser ultrasound profilometer was used to obtain the profiles of solid surfaces of revolution. The proposed method allows the real-time determination of the surface position for cylindrical objects with an approximation accuracy of up to 16 μm.

  8. Conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto crystalline alpha-alumina surface in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenkun; Sun, Yazhou; Liu, Haitao; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dynamic conformational change process of oil contaminations adhered onto Al-terminated α-Al_2O_3 surface in aqueous solution is given. • Effect of water penetration on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminants is considered. • Change of driving forces leading to the conformational change of oil contaminants is described. - Abstract: Microscopic conformational change of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface in the aqueous solution was simulated by means of detailed fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The main driving forces of the conformation change process of the oil contaminants were explored. The simulation results indicate that with submerging of the contaminated α-Al_2O_3 (0001) surface into the aqueous solution, the oil contaminants undertake an evident conformational change process. The dynamic process can be divided into several stages, including early penetration of water molecules, formation and widening of water channel, and generation of molecularly adsorbed hydration layers. Moreover, the oil contaminants on the α-Al_2O_3 surface are not fully removed from solid surface after a 10 ns relaxation, while a relatively stable oil/water/solid three-phase interface is gradually formed. Further, the residual oil contaminants are finally divided into several new ordered molecular adsorption layers. In addition, by systemically analyzing the driving forces for the conformational change of the oil contaminants, the penetration of water molecules is found to be the most important driving force. With penetrating of the water molecules, the dominating interactions controlling the conformational change of the oil contaminants have been changing over the whole simulation.

  9. Contamination control plan for prelaunch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A unified, systematic plan is presented for contamination control for space flight systems. Allowable contaminant quantities, or contamination budgets, are determined based on system performance margins and system-level allowable degradations. These contamination budgets are compared to contamination rates in ground environments to establish the controls required in each ground environment. The use of feedback from contamination monitoring and some contamination control procedures are discussed.

  10. PRAMU. Contamination sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.

    2000-01-01

    Mining and milling activities have been carried out in Argentina during the last 40 years, and nowadays National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to achieve that in all the places where uranium mining activities were developed, to restore the environment as much as it is possible, according to the legislation in force. The sites which are studied are: Malargue (Mendoza province), Cordoba (Cordoba province), Los Gigantes (Cordoba province), Huemul (Mendoza province), Pichinan (Chubut province), Tonco (Salta province), La Estela (San Luis province), Los Colorados (La Rioja province). In order to develop the restoration project in each site, one of the first task to be performed is to know quantities and the chemical, physicals and radiological characteristics of the contamination sources. In the present paper the activities of PRAMU in this field, are informed. (author)

  11. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  14. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  16. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  17. study on trace contaminants control assembly for sealed environment chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L. P.; Wang, J.; Liu, L. K.; Liu, H.

    The biological and Physicochemical P C life support technologies are all important parts to establish a human Closed Ecological Life Support System CELSS for long-duration mission The latter has the advantages of lower power consumption lower mass and higher efficiency therefore researchers often incorporate the use of biological systems with P C life support technologies to continuously recycle air water and part of the solid waste stream generated such as the Russian BLSS and the NASA-sponsored Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP In short these tests were very successful in integrating biological and P C life support technologies for long-duration life support Therefore we should use a combination of integrated biological with P C life support technologies in a human CELSS Human construction materials plants animals and soils release much trace toxic gases in a CELSS and they will inhibit plant growth and badly affect human health when their concentrations rise over their threshold levels The effect of biological trace contaminant control technologies is slower especially for a human sealed chamber because human produce much more methane and other contaminants A regenerative Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem TCCS with P C technology is a more important part in this case to control quickly the airborne contaminants levels and assure human in good condition in a sealed chamber This paper describes a trace contaminant control test facility incorporated a 8 m3 sealed environment chamber a regenerative TCCS with P C

  18. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  19. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  20. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  1. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  2. An unusual and persistent contamination of drinking water by cutting oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, R; Sturaro, A; Parvoli, G; Ferrara, D; Doretti, L

    2003-02-01

    Drinking water contamination by materials, such as cutting oil, used to set up pipelines is an uncommon but possible event. This paper describes the analytical procedures used to identify the components of that contaminant in drinking water. Volatile and semi-volatile chemical species, responsible for an unpleasant taste and odour, were recognised by solid phase microextraction and GC/MS techniques. Among the volatile compounds, the presence of xylenes, bornyl acetate and diphenyl ether was confirmed by certificate standards and quantified in the most contaminated samples.

  3. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2010-06-18

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  4. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  5. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  6. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  9. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  10. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  11. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  12. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  13. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  14. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  15. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  16. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  17. Management of internal contamination accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns with the techniques for intakes assessment which depend on the mode and level of intake, the type of energy of the radiation emitted, the biokinetic of the contaminant, and the sensitivity and availability of measurement facilities. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used to quantify internal contaminations

  18. Direct probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. Geostatistical simulation provides powerful tools for investigating contaminant levels, and in particular, for identifying and using the spatial interrelationships among a set of isolated sample values. This additional information can be used to assess the likelihood of encountering contamination at unsampled locations and to evaluate the risk associated with decisions to remediate or not to remediate specific regions within a site. Past operation of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center has contaminated a site near Fernald, Ohio, with natural uranium. Soil geochemical data have been collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project. These data have been used to construct a number of stochastic images of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit. Each such image accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely, statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination. Evaluation of the geostatistical simulations can yield maps representing the expected magnitude of the contamination for various regions and other information that may be important in determining a suitable remediation process or in sizing equipment to accomplish the restoration

  19. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  20. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  1. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  2. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  3. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  4. Disposal of solid radioactive waste of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YU Shichen.

    1986-01-01

    The contaminations of marine enviroment by the disposal of radwastes should not been expected, then ocean disposal has been stoped in some countries, and land disposal of solid radwastes should been a better method for mankind and environment protection. Ground burial near the surface is currently considered to be feasible. Storage in spent pit or in plant area also should been adapted in several countries

  5. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  6. Comparison of different modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Rosenberg, L.; Balbarini, Nicola

    . Given available field data and model purpose, this paper therefore aims to develop, examine and compare modeling approaches for transport of contaminants in fractured limestone aquifers. The model comparison was conducted for a contaminated site in Denmark, where a plume of a dissolved contaminant (PCE...... was combined with an analysis of heterogeneities and fractures from a nearby excavation (analog site). Methods for translating the geological information and fracture mapping into each of the model concepts were examined. Each model was compared with available field data, considering both model fit...... of field data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias towards fracture sampling, however concentrations in the limestone matrix are needed for assessing contaminant...

  7. Gas generation from radiolytic attack of TRU-contaminated hydrogenous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwekh, A.

    1979-06-01

    In 1970, the Waste Management and Transportation Division of the Atomic Energy Commission ordered a segregation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated solid wastes. Those below a contamination level of 10 nCi/g could still be buried; those above had to be stored retrievably for 20 y. The possibility that alpha-radiolysis of hydrogenous materials might produce toxic, corrosive, and flammable gases in retrievably stored waste prompted an investigation of gas identities and generation rates in the laboratory and field. Typical waste mixtures were synthesized and contaminated for laboratory experiments, and drums of actual TRU-contaminated waste were instrumented for field testing. Several levels of contamination were studied, as well as pressure, temperature, and moisture effects. G (gas) values were determined for various waste matrices, and degradation products were examined

  8. Decontamination technology of contaminated water with flocculating and settling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Hosobuchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In the joint research and development of treatment systems of cooling water for cutting asphalt pavement surface with our authors' group, the liquid-solid separation technology by flocculating and settling technology, and the flocculants for the use of systems were developed. In this paper, the developed flocculating and settling technology and the flocculants are discussed first. Next, the demonstration tests of decontamination technology on the contaminated water in swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture had been conducted by use of the stationary purification system of contaminated water and the flocculants compounding with or without iron ferrocianide developed by the preliminary test. It was clarified from the results that ionized cesium (Cs) rarely exists in the stagnant water in pools, ponds, lakes and so on at the time when nine months have passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accidents. Further, it is necessary to use the flocculants compounding iron ferrocianide in the case where ionized Cs exists in water. From the above-mentioned results, the following problems were pointed out: One problem was cyanide dissolution in the purified water and the other one was the dissolution from the dehydration sludge. Finally, the high-performance mobile purification units of contaminated water which is capable for carrying with trucks have been developed, and the demonstration test was performed in Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture to purify the contaminated water in a pond and generated by the high-pressure water washing in a Public Hall. From the test results, it was made clear that the dehydration sludge separated by liquid-solid settling of the contaminated water of around 1,000Bq/l became a high radiation dose of about 185,000Bq/l. (author)

  9. Removal of Inorganic, Microbial, and Particulate Contaminants from Secondary Treated Wastewater - Village Marine Tec. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1 at Gallup, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EUWP was developed to treat challenging water sources with variable turbidity, chemical contamination, and very high total dissolved solids (TDS) including seawater, during emergency situations when other water treatment facilities are incapacitated. The EUWP components are ...

  10. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. ► Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. ► The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. ► The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. ► Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m 3 of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 μm filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  11. Noninvasive characterization of the Trecate (Italy) crude-oil contaminated site: links between contamination and geophysical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Kemna, Andreas; Wehrer, Markus; Orozco, Adrian Flores; Deiana, Rita; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Zschornack, Ludwig; Godio, Alberto; JafarGandomi, Arash; Deidda, Gian Piero

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of contaminated sites can benefit from the supplementation of direct investigations with a set of less invasive and more extensive measurements. A combination of geophysical methods and direct push techniques for contaminated land characterization has been proposed within the EU FP7 project ModelPROBE and the affiliated project SoilCAM. In this paper, we present results of the investigations conducted at the Trecate field site (NW Italy), which was affected in 1994 by crude oil contamination. The less invasive investigations include ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, together with direct push sampling and soil electrical conductivity (EC) logs. Many of the geophysical measurements were conducted in time-lapse mode in order to separate static and dynamic signals, the latter being linked to strong seasonal changes in water table elevations. The main challenge was to extract significant geophysical signals linked to contamination from the mix of geological and hydrological signals present at the site. The most significant aspects of this characterization are: (a) the geometrical link between the distribution of contamination and the site's heterogeneity, with particular regard to the presence of less permeable layers, as evidenced by the extensive surface geophysical measurements; and (b) the link between contamination and specific geophysical signals, particularly evident from cross-hole measurements. The extensive work conducted at the Trecate site shows how a combination of direct (e.g., chemical) and indirect (e.g., geophysical) investigations can lead to a comprehensive and solid understanding of a contaminated site's mechanisms.

  12. Use of coal ash in production of concrete containing contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeldin, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    There are between 2 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks located throughout the nation. Most of these tanks, which store oils and gasolines, are leaking making them one of the primary sources of soil contamination. Adding coal ash or cement to contaminated soil has been used to obtain stationary and inert wastecrete. By using this procedure, stabilization (limiting the solubility and mobility of the contaminants) and solidification (producing a solid waste block) of contaminated soils are successfully achieved. This paper investigates another re-use option of coal ash and contaminated soils. An experimental study evaluating the effectiveness of using coal ash with oil contaminated sand in concrete production is presented. A control mix made of clean sand was designed to yield 500 psi of compressive strength. Sand, artificially contaminated with 3% by weight of motor oil, was used as clean sand replacement. Six concrete mixtures were tested in compression and flexure. The six mixtures were obtained by increasing the ratio of contaminated sand to clean sand, namely; 10%, 20% and 40% and by introducing coal ash to the concrete mixture, namely; 20% of the cement weight. The test results indicate that the inclusion of oil contaminated sand in concrete reduces the compressive and flexural strengths. However, this decrease in strength is compensated by introducing coal ash in the mixture. Regaining that strength offers the possibility of using such concrete as a construction material in special structural applications. More research is required to establish better understanding of that composite and suggest feasible applications

  13. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  14. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  15. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  16. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  17. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  19. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  20. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be