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Sample records for beta-electron transfer flavoprotein

  1. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Acquaviva, C; Vianey-Saban, C

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta...... mutations in the ETFB gene. Nine novel disease-causing ETF mutations are reported....

  2. Late-onset form of beta-electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curcoy, A; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Ribes, A; Trenchs, V; Vilaseca, M A; Campistol, J; Osorio, J H; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2003-01-01

    biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of a patient with a mild late-onset form of GAII due to beta-ETF deficiency. Biochemical data showed an abnormal urine organic acid profile, low levels of free carnitine, increased levels of C(10:1n-6), and C(14:1n-9) in plasma, and decreased oxidation of [9,10-3H...

  3. Human METTL20 Methylates Lysine Residues Adjacent to the Recognition Loop of the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein in Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  4. The decreased expression of electron transfer flavoprotein β is associated with tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Haojun; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhao, Tingting; Kong, Qin; Yan, Meihua; Zhang, Bingxuan; Sun, Sifan; Lan, Hui-Yao; Li, Ning; Li, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Tubular injury is closely correlated with the development of progressive diabetic nephropathy (DN), particularly in cases of type 2 diabetes. The apoptosis of tubular cells has been recognized as a major cause of tubular atrophy, followed by tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Electron transfer flavoprotein β (ETFβ) is known as an important electron acceptor in energy metabolism, but its role in DN was not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the expression pattern of ETFβ using diabetic kidney samples and further investigated ETFβ involvement in tubular epithelial cell (TEC) apoptosis. Human renal biopsy specimens from patients with DN as well as a spontaneous rat model of diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, were employed in order to examine the expression of ETFβ and cell apoptosis in kidneys during the development of DN (for the rats, at 36 and 56 weeks of age respectively). Moreover, ETFβ siRNA was used to investigate the role of ETFβ in the apoptosis of renal tubular cells. Our present results showed that the expression of ETFβ in the kidneys was progressively decreased both in patients with DN and OLETF rats, which coincided with progressive renal injury and TEC apoptosis. In addition, the in vitro study demonstrated that knockdown of ETFβ caused apoptosis in tubular cells, as proven by the increased expression of pro‑apoptotic proteins and TUNEL assay. Therefore, the findings of our present study suggest that ETFβ plays an important role in renal tubular cell apoptosis during the progression of DN. PMID:27035869

  5. Flavoproteins, iron proteins, and hemoproteins as electron-transfer components of the sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGall, J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France); DerVartanian, D.V.; Peck, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This review article with 105 references discusses the most recent publications that deal with the discovery of new redox proteins of the sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the genera Desulfotomaculum and Desulfovibrio and proposes explanations for their physical and biological functions. The redox proteins studied as part of the electron-transfer system of these bacteria include flavodoxins, ferredoxins, rubredoxins, cytochromes and several reductose-type enzymes. (KRM)

  6. Assignment of the gene encoding the [beta]-subunit of the electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETFB) to human chromosome 19q13. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonacci, R. (Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy)); Colombo, I.; Volta, M.; DiDonato, S.; Finocchiaro, G. (Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)); Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    The electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), located in the mitochondrial matrix, is a nuclear-encoded enzyme delivering to the respiratory chain electrons by straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and other dehydrogenases. ETF is composed of a 35-kDa [alpha]-subunit that is cleaved to a 32-kDa protein during mitochondrial import (ETFA) and a [beta]-subunit that reaches the mitochondrion unmodified (ETFB). The cDNA encoding both these subunits has been cloned and sequenced. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Functional characterization of electron-transferring flavoprotein and its dehydrogenase required for fungal development and plant infection by the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhu, Jindong; Hu, Jiexiong; Meng, Xiuli; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Kunpeng; Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Xuehang; Li, Guangpu; Wang, Zonghua; Lu, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH) are highly conserved electron carriers which mainly function in mitochondrial fatty acid β oxidation. Here, we report the identification and characterization of ETF α and β subunit encoding genes (ETFA and ETFB) and ETFDH encoding gene (ETFDH) in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was demonstrated that, by impacting fatty acid metabolism, ETF and ETFDH mutations led to severe growth and conidiation defects, which could be largely rescued by exogenous acetate or carbonate. Furthermore, although conidium germination and appressorium formation appeared to be normal in ETF and ETFDH mutants, most appressoria failed to penetrate the host epidermis due to low turgor pressure. The few appressoria that succeeded in penetration were severely restricted in invasive growth and consequently failed to cause disease. Moreover, ETF mutant etfb(-) induced ROS accumulation in infected host cells and exogenous antioxidant GSH accelerated mutant invading growth without increasing the penetration rate. In addition, mutant etfb(-) displayed elevated lipid body accumulation and reduced ATP synthesis. Taken together, ETF and ETFDH play an important role in fungal development and plant infection in M. oryzae by regulation of fatty acid metabolism, turgor establishment and induction of host ROS accumulation. PMID:27113712

  8. The growing VAO flavoprotein family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The VAO flavoprotein family is a rapidly growing family of oxidoreductases that favor the covalent binding of the FAD cofactor. In this review we report on the catalytic properties of some newly discovered VAO family members and their mode of flavin binding. Covalent binding of the flavin is a self-

  9. cDNA cloning, functional expression and cellular localization of rat liver mitochondrial electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shengbing; SONG Wei; LIN Qishui

    2005-01-01

    A membrane-bound protein was purified from rat liver mitochondria. After being digested with V8 protease, two peptides containing identical 14 amino acid residue sequences were obtained. Using the 14 amino acid peptide derived DNA sequence as gene specific primer, the cDNA of correspondent gene 5'-terminal and 3'-terminal were obtained by RACE technique. The full-length cDNA that encoded a protein of 616 amino acids was thus cloned, which included the above mentioned peptide sequence. The full length cDNA was highly homologous to that of human ETF-QO, indicating that it may be the cDNA of rat ETF-QO. ETF-QO is an iron sulfur protein located in mitochondria inner membrane containing two kinds of redox center: FAD and [4Fe-4S] center. After comparing the sequence from the cDNA of the 616 amino acids protein with that of the mature protein of rat liver mitochondria, it was found that the N terminal 32 amino acid residues did not exist in the mature protein, indicating that the cDNA was that of ETF-Qop. When the cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with inducible vectors, the protein product was enriched in mitochondrial fraction and exhibited electron transfer activity (NBT reductase activity) of ETF-QO. Results demonstrated that the 32 amino acid peptide was a mitochondrial targeting peptide, and both FAD and iron-sulfur cluster were inserted properly into the expressed ETF-QO. ETF-QO had a high level expression in rat heart, liver and kidney. The fusion protein of GFP-ETF-QO co-localized with mitochondria in COS-7 cells.

  10. Turning a monocovalent flavoprotein into a bicovalent flavoprotein by structure-inspired mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata M.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2014-01-01

    A recently discovered class of bicovalent flavoproteins is an interesting group of enzymes because of their unusual cofactor binding mode, their open active sites and the bulky substrates they can accept. Through a sequence comparison study we have identified a conserved sequence region in bicovalen

  11. A luminal flavoprotein in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer, Jan; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Johansson, Linda; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Ellgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) discriminates between native and nonnative proteins. The latter are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Whereas many cytosolic and membrane components of this system are known, only few luminal players have been...... identified. In this study, we characterize ERFAD (ER flavoprotein associated with degradation), an ER luminal flavoprotein that functions in ERAD. Upon knockdown of ERFAD, the degradation of the ERAD model substrate ribophorin 332 is delayed, and the overall level of polyubiquitinated cellular proteins is...

  12. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Anna eGiancaspero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2 in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD chaperone.The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.- and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4, respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  13. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina Maria; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2) in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone". The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.-) and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4), respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  14. Implantable imaging device for brain functional imaging system using flavoprotein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yoshinori; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Haruta, Makito; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Motoyama, Mayumi; Ohta, Yasumi; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The autofluorescence of mitochondrial flavoprotein is very useful for functional brain imaging because the fluorescence intensity of flavoprotein changes as per neural activities. In this study, we developed an implantable imaging device for green fluorescence imaging and detected fluorescence changes of flavoprotein associated with visual stimulation using the device. We examined the device performance using anesthetized mice. We set the device on the visual cortex and measured fluorescence changes of flavoprotein in response to visual stimulation. A full-field sinusoidal grating with a vertical orientation was used for applying to activate the visual cortex. We successfully observed visually evoked fluorescence changes in the mouse visual cortex using our implantable device. This result suggests that we can observe the fluorescence changes of flavoprotein associated with visual stimulation in a freely moving mouse by using this technology.

  15. LOV to BLUF: Flavoprotein Contributions to the Optogenetic Toolkit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John M. Christie; Jayde Gawthorne; Gillian Young; Niall J. Fraser; Andrew J. Roe

    2012-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging field that combines optical and genetic approaches to non-invasively interfere with cellular events with exquisite spatiotemporal control.Although it arose originally from neuroscience,optogenetics is widely applicable to the study of many different biological systems and the range of applications arising from this technology continues to increase.Moreover,the repertoire of light-sensitive proteins used for devising new optogenetic tools is rapidly expanding.Light,Oxygen,or Voltage sensing (LOV) and Blue-Light-Utilizing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (BLUF) domains represent new contributors to the optogenetic toolkit.These small (100-140-amino acids) flavoprotein modules are derived from plant and bacterial photoreceptors that respond to UV-A/blue light.In recent years,considerable progress has been made in uncovering the photoactivation mechanisms of both LOV and BLUF domains.This knowledge has been applied in the design of synthetic photoswitches and fluorescent reporters with applications in cell biology and biotechnology.In this review,we summarize the photochemical properties of LOV and BLUF photosensors and highlight some of the recent advances in how these flavoproteins are being employed to artificially regulate and image a variety of biological processes.

  16. Regulatory mechanism of the flavoprotein Tah18-dependent nitric oxide synthesis and cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuki; Nasuno, Ryo; Kawahara, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Akira; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. The regulatory mechanism of NO generation in unicellular eukaryotic yeast cells is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian and bacterial NO synthase (NOS) orthologues, even though yeast produces NO under oxidative stress conditions. Recently, we reported that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously shown to transfer electrons to the iron-sulfur cluster protein Dre2, is involved in NOS-like activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, Tah18 was reported to promote apoptotic cell death after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, we showed that NOS-like activity requiring Tah18 induced cell death upon treatment with H2O2. Our experimental results also indicate that Tah18-dependent NO production and cell death are suppressed by enhancement of the interaction between Tah18 and its molecular partner Dre2. Our findings indicate that the Tah18-Dre2 complex regulates cell death as a molecular switch via Tah18-dependent NOS-like activity in response to environmental changes. PMID:27178802

  17. The flavoprotein Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Akira; Kawahara, Nobuhiro [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Takagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiro@bs.naist.jp [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO is produced from L-arginine in response to elevated temperature in yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18 was first identified as the yeast protein involved in NO synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers tolerance to high-temperature on yeast cells. -- Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. In the unicellular eukaryote yeast, NO may be involved in stress response pathways, but its role is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NO synthase (NOS) orthologues. Previously, we have proposed the oxidative stress-induced L-arginine synthesis and its physiological role under stress conditions in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, our experimental results indicated that increased conversion of L-proline into L-arginine led to NO production in response to elevated temperature. We also showed that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously reported to transfer electrons to the Fe-S cluster protein Dre2, was involved in NO synthesis in yeast. Gene knockdown analysis demonstrated that Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells. As it appears that such a unique cell protection mechanism is specific to yeasts and fungi, it represents a promising target for antifungal activity.

  18. Crystal Structure of Iodotyrosine Deiodinase, a Novel Flavoprotein Responsible for Iodide Salvage in Thyroid Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Seth R.; McTamney, Patrick M.; Adler, Jennifer M.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Rokita, Steven E.; (Maryland)

    2009-08-13

    The flavoprotein iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) salvages iodide from mono- and diiodotyrosine formed during the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Expression of a soluble domain of this membrane-bound enzyme provided sufficient material for crystallization and characterization by x-ray diffraction. The structures of IYD and two co-crystals containing substrates, mono- and diiodotyrosine, alternatively, were solved at resolutions of 2.0, 2.45, and 2.6 {angstrom}, respectively. The structure of IYD is homologous to others in the NADH oxidase/flavin reductase superfamily, but the position of the active site lid in IYD defines a new subfamily within this group that includes BluB, an enzyme associated with vitamin B{sub 12} biosynthesis. IYD and BluB also share key interactions involving their bound flavin mononucleotide that suggest a unique catalytic behavior within the superfamily. Substrate coordination to IYD induces formation of an additional helix and coil that act as an active site lid to shield the resulting substrate {center_dot} flavin complex from solvent. This complex is stabilized by aromatic stacking and extensive hydrogen bonding between the substrate and flavin. The carbon-iodine bond of the substrate is positioned directly over the C-4a/N-5 region of the flavin to promote electron transfer. These structures now also provide a molecular basis for understanding thyroid disease based on mutations of IYD.

  19. The flavoprotein Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► NO is produced from L-arginine in response to elevated temperature in yeast. ► Tah18 was first identified as the yeast protein involved in NO synthesis. ► Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers tolerance to high-temperature on yeast cells. -- Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. In the unicellular eukaryote yeast, NO may be involved in stress response pathways, but its role is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NO synthase (NOS) orthologues. Previously, we have proposed the oxidative stress-induced L-arginine synthesis and its physiological role under stress conditions in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, our experimental results indicated that increased conversion of L-proline into L-arginine led to NO production in response to elevated temperature. We also showed that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously reported to transfer electrons to the Fe–S cluster protein Dre2, was involved in NO synthesis in yeast. Gene knockdown analysis demonstrated that Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells. As it appears that such a unique cell protection mechanism is specific to yeasts and fungi, it represents a promising target for antifungal activity.

  20. Electron donation to the flavoprotein NifL, a redox-sensing transcriptional regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheroux, P; Hill, S; Austin, S; Eydmann, T; Jones, T; Kim, S O; Poole, R; Dixon, R

    1998-06-01

    Transcriptional control of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in response to oxygen in Azotobacter vinelandii is mediated by nitrogen fixation regulatory protein L (NifL), a regulatory flavoprotein that modulates the activity of the transcriptional activator nitrogen fixation regulatory protein A (NifA). CD spectra of purified NifL indicate that FAD is bound to NifL in an asymmetric environment and the protein is predominantly alpha-helical. The redox potential of NifL is -226 mV at pH 8 as determined by the enzymic reduction of NifL by xanthine oxidase/xanthine in the presence of appropriate mediators. The reduction of NifL by xanthine oxidase prevented NifL from acting as an inhibitor of NifA. In the absence of electron mediators NifL could also be reduced by Escherichia coli flavohaemoprotein (Hmp) with NADH as reductant. Hmp contains a globin-like domain with haem B as prosthetic group and an FAD-containing oxidoreductase module. The carboxyferrohaem form of Hmp was competent to reduce NifL, suggesting that electron donation to NifL originates from the flavin in Hmp rather than by direct electron transfer from the haem. Spinach ferredoxin:NAD(P) oxidoreductase, which adopts a folding similar to the FAD- and NAD-binding domains of Hmp, also reduced NifL with NADH as reductant. Re-oxidation of NifL occurs rapidly in the presence of air, raising the possibility that NifL might sense intracellular oxygen. We propose a physiological redox cycle in which the oxidation of NifL by oxygen and hence the activation of its inhibitory properties occurs rapidly, in contrast with the switch from the active to the reduced form of NifL, which occurs more slowly. PMID:9601070

  1. Flavoprotein monooxygenases for oxidative biocatalysis: recombinant expression in microbial hosts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielaV.Rial

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available External flavoprotein monooxygenases comprise a group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into an organic substrate and the second atom is reduced to water. These enzymes are involved in a great number of metabolic pathways both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Flavoprotein monooxygenases have attracted the attention of researchers for several decades and the advent of recombinant DNA technology caused a great progress in the field. These enzymes are subjected to detailed biochemical and structural characterization and some of them are also regarded as appealing oxidative biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and valuable intermediates toward active pharmaceutical ingredients due to their high chemo-, stereo- and regioselectivity. Here, we review the most representative reactions catalyzed both in vivo and in vitro by prototype flavoprotein monooxygenases, highlighting the strategies employed to produce them recombinantly, to enhance the yield of soluble proteins, and to improve cofactor regeneration in order to obtain versatile biocatalysts. Although we describe the most outstanding features of flavoprotein monooxygenases, we mainly focus on enzymes that were cloned, expressed and used for biocatalysis during the last years.

  2. Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL is a flavoprotein that modulates transcriptional activation of nitrogen-fixation genes via a redox-sensitive switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S; Austin, S; Eydmann, T; Jones, T; Dixon, R

    1996-03-01

    The NIFL regulatory protein controls transcriptional activation of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii by direct interaction with the enhancer binding protein NIFA. Modulation of NIFA activity by NIFL, in vivo occurs in response to external oxygen concentration or the level of fixed nitrogen. Spectral features of purified NIFL and chromatographic analysis indicate that it is a flavoprotein with FAD as the prosthetic group, which undergoes reduction in the presence of sodium dithionite. Under anaerobic conditions, the oxidized form of NIFL inhibits transcriptional activation by NIFA in vitro, and this inhibition is reversed when NIFL is in the reduced form. Hence NIFL is a redox-sensitive regulatory protein and may represent a type of flavoprotein in which electron transfer is not coupled to an obvious catalytic activity. In addition to its ability to act as a redox sensor, the activity of NIFL is also responsive to adenosine nucleotides, particularly ADP. This response overrides the influence of redox status on NIFL and is also observed with refolded NIFL apoprotein, which lacks the flavin moiety. These observations suggest that both energy and redox status are important determinants of nif gene regulation in vivo. PMID:8700899

  3. Flavoprotein imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo: cellular and metabolic basis and insights into cerebellar function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wangcai; Chen, Gang; Ebner, Timothy J.

    2009-02-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence is an activity dependent intrinsic signal. Flavoproteins are involved in the electron transport chain and change their fluorescence according to the cellular redox state. We have been using flavoprotein autofluorescence in the cerebellum to examine properties of cerebellar circuits. Studies have also focused on understanding the cellular and metabolic origins of this intrinsic optical signal. Parallel fiber stimulation evokes a beamlike response intersected by bands of decreased fluorescence. The beam response is biphasic, with an early fluorescence increase (light phase) followed by a slower decrease (dark phase). We show this signal originates from flavoproteins as determined by its wavelength selectivity and sensitivity to blockers of the electron transport chain. Selectively blocking glutamate receptors abolished the on-beam light phase with the dark phase remaining intact. This demonstrates that the light phase is due to postsynaptic neuronal activation and suggests the dark phase is primarily due to glial activation. The bands of reduced fluorescence intersecting the beam are primarily neuronal in origin, mediated by GABAergic transmission, and due to the inhibitory action of molecular layer interneurons on Purkinje cells and the interneurons themselves. This parasagittally organized molecular layer inhibition differentially modulates the spatial pattern of cerebellar cortical activity. Flavoprotein imaging also reveals the functional architectures underlying the responses to inferior olive and peripheral whisker pad stimulation. Therefore, flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging is providing new insights into cerebellar cortical function and neurometabolic coupling.

  4. Iron-Sulfur Flavoprotein (Isf) from Methanosarcina thermophila Is the Prototype of a Widely Distributed Family

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tong; Cruz, Francisco; Ferry, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 35 homologs of the iron-sulfur flavoprotein (Isf) from Methanosarcina thermophila were identified in databases. All three domains were represented, and multiple homologs were present in several species. An unusually compact cysteine motif ligating the 4Fe-4S cluster in Isf is conserved in all of the homologs except two, in which either an aspartate or a histidine has replaced the second cysteine in the motif. A phylogenetic analysis of Isf homologs identified four subgroups, two of...

  5. Crystal Structure of Iodotyrosine Deiodinase, a Novel Flavoprotein Responsible for Iodide Salvage in Thyroid Glands*

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Seth R.; McTamney, Patrick M.; Adler, Jennifer M.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Rokita, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The flavoprotein iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) salvages iodide from mono- and diiodotyrosine formed during the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Expression of a soluble domain of this membrane-bound enzyme provided sufficient material for crystallization and characterization by x-ray diffraction. The structures of IYD and two co-crystals containing substrates, mono- and diiodotyrosine, alternatively, were solved at resolutions of 2.0, 2.45, and 2.6 Å, respectively. The structure ...

  6. Impact of ionization of ferrocene: EOES of alpha- and beta- electrons and the fingerprint orbital of ferrocenium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionization process of ferrocene (Fc) to produce ferrocenium cation (Fc+) has been debated as much as the eclipsed and staggered ferrocene conformers. The present quantum mechanical study reveals that removal of an electron does not apparently affect the geometry and symmetry of the cation, as the geometric changes are < 2% with respect to neutral Fc, but produce the fingerprint orbital 8a1 of Fc+. The excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES) of the \\alpha- and \\beta-electrons reveals that the electrons originated from the transition metal Fe in both core and valence shells experience significant energy changes in the cation with respect to the neutral ferrocene counterparts, indicating that the Fe-electrons correlate stronger than electrons from other atoms such as carbons in ferrocene. The EOES also exhibits that the orbital energies of the \\alpha-electrons in ferrocenium change more significantly than the \\beta-electrons after one \\beta-electron being ionized with respect to ferrocene. The most significant ...

  7. Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Moran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavoprotein monooxygenases (FPMOs exhibit an array of mechanistic solutions to a common chemical objective; the monooxygenation of a target substrate. Each FPMO efficiently couples reduction of a flavin cofactor by NAD(PH to oxygenation of the target substrate via a (hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. This purpose of this review is to describe in detail the Class A flavoprotein hydroxylases (FPMO in the context of the other FPMO classes (B–F. Both one and two component FPMOs are found in nature. Two-component enzymes require, in addition to the monooxygenase, the involvement of a reductase that first catalyzes the reduction of the flavin by NAD(PH. The Class A and B FPMOs are single-component and manage to orchestrate the same net reaction within a single peptide. The Class A enzymes have, by some considerable margin, the most complete research record. These enzymes use choreographed movements of the flavin ring that facilitate access of the organic substrates to the active site, provide a means for interaction of NADPH with the flavin, offer a mechanism to sequester the dioxygen reduction chemistry from solvent and a means to release the product. The majority of the discrete catalytic events of the catalytic cycle can be observed directly in exquisite detail using spectrophotometric kinetic methods and many of the key mechanistic conclusions are further supported by structural data. This review attempts to compile each of the key observations made for both paradigm and newly discovered examples of Class A FPMOs into a complete catalytic description of one enzymatic turnover.

  8. Detoxification of Indole by an Indole-Induced Flavoprotein Oxygenase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Huey Lin

    Full Text Available Indole, a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan, is a toxic signaling molecule, which can inhibit bacterial growth. To overcome indole-induced toxicity, many bacteria have developed enzymatic defense systems to convert indole to non-toxic, water-insoluble indigo. We previously demonstrated that, like other aromatic compound-degrading bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii can also convert indole to indigo. However, no work has been published investigating this mechanism. Here, we have shown that the growth of wild-type A. baumannii is severely inhibited in the presence of 3.5 mM indole. However, at lower concentrations, growth is stable, implying that the bacteria may be utilizing a survival mechanism to oxidize indole. To this end, we have identified a flavoprotein oxygenase encoded by the iifC gene of A. baumannii. Further, our results suggest that expressing this recombinant oxygenase protein in Escherichia coli can drive indole oxidation to indigo in vitro. Genome analysis shows that the iif operon is exclusively present in the genomes of A. baumannii and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis also indicate that the iif operon is activated by indole through the AraC-like transcriptional regulator IifR. Taken together, these data suggest that this species of bacteria utilizes a novel indole-detoxification mechanism that is modulated by IifC, a protein that appears to be, at least to some extent, regulated by IifR.

  9. Detoxification of Indole by an Indole-Induced Flavoprotein Oxygenase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang-Huey; Chen, Hao-Ping; Shu, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Indole, a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan, is a toxic signaling molecule, which can inhibit bacterial growth. To overcome indole-induced toxicity, many bacteria have developed enzymatic defense systems to convert indole to non-toxic, water-insoluble indigo. We previously demonstrated that, like other aromatic compound-degrading bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii can also convert indole to indigo. However, no work has been published investigating this mechanism. Here, we have shown that the growth of wild-type A. baumannii is severely inhibited in the presence of 3.5 mM indole. However, at lower concentrations, growth is stable, implying that the bacteria may be utilizing a survival mechanism to oxidize indole. To this end, we have identified a flavoprotein oxygenase encoded by the iifC gene of A. baumannii. Further, our results suggest that expressing this recombinant oxygenase protein in Escherichia coli can drive indole oxidation to indigo in vitro. Genome analysis shows that the iif operon is exclusively present in the genomes of A. baumannii and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis also indicate that the iif operon is activated by indole through the AraC-like transcriptional regulator IifR. Taken together, these data suggest that this species of bacteria utilizes a novel indole-detoxification mechanism that is modulated by IifC, a protein that appears to be, at least to some extent, regulated by IifR. PMID:26390211

  10. Motor dysfunction in the tottering mouse is linked to cerebellar spontaneous low frequency oscillations revealed by flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Wang, Xinming; Gao, Wangcai; Barnes, Justin; Hendrix, Claudia M.; Hess, Ellen J.; Ebner, Timothy J.

    2009-02-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging is developing into a powerful research tool to study neural activity, particularly in vivo. In this study we used this imaging technique to investigate the neuronal mechanism underlying the episodic movement disorder that is characteristic of the tottering (tg) mouse, a model of episodic ataxia type 2. Both EA2 and the tg mouse are caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These mutations result in a reduction in P/Q Ca2+ channel function. Both EA2 patients and tg mice have a characteristic phenotype consisting of transient motor attacks triggered by stress, caffeine or ethanol. The neural events underlying these episodes of dystonia are unknown. Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging revealed spontaneous, transient, low frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of the tg mouse. Lasting from 30 - 120 minutes, the oscillations originate in one area then spread to surrounding regions over 30 - 60 minutes. The oscillations are reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+ and blocking Cav 1.2/1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. The oscillations are not affected by blocking AMPA receptors or by electrical stimulation of the parallel fiber - Purkinje cell circuit, suggesting the oscillations are generated intrinsically in the cerebellar cortex. Conversely, L-type Ca2+ agonists generate oscillations with similar properties. In the awake tg mouse, transcranial flavoprotein imaging revealed low frequency oscillations that are accentuated during caffeine induced attacks of dystonia. The oscillations increase during the attacks of dystonia and are coupled to oscillations in face and hindlimb EMG activity. These transient oscillations and the associated cerebellar dysfunction provide a novel mechanism by which an ion channel disorder results in episodic motor dysfunction.

  11. Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Sala-i-Martin

    1992-01-01

    In this paper I develop a positive theory of intergenerational transfers. I argue that transfers are a means to induce retirement. that is, to buy the elderly out of the labor force. The reason why societies choose to do such a thing is that aggregate output is higher if the elderly do not work. I model this idea through positive externalities in the average stock of human capital: because skills depreciate with age. one implication of these externalities is that the elderly have a negative e...

  12. Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL is a flavoprotein that modulates transcriptional activation of nitrogen-fixation genes via a redox-sensitive switch.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, S.; Austin, S; Eydmann, T.; Jones, T.; Dixon, R

    1996-01-01

    The NIFL regulatory protein controls transcriptional activation of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii by direct interaction with the enhancer binding protein NIFA. Modulation of NIFA activity by NIFL, in vivo occurs in response to external oxygen concentration or the level of fixed nitrogen. Spectral features of purified NIFL and chromatographic analysis indicate that it is a flavoprotein with FAD as the prosthetic group, which undergoes reduction in the presence of sodiu...

  13. The site of synthesis of the iron-sulfur subunits of the flavoprotein and iron-protein fractions of human NADH dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Chomyn, A; Patel, S D; CLEETER, M. W. J.; Ragan, C. I.; Attardi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The site of synthesis of the iron-sulfur subunits of the flavoprotein and iron-protein fractions of the human respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase has been investigated to test the possibility that any of them is synthesized in mitochondria. For this purpose, antibodies specific for individual subunits of the bovine enzyme, which cross- reacted with the homologous human subunits in immunoblot assays, were tested against HeLa cell mitochondrial proteins labeled in vivo with [35S]methionine in ...

  14. Nucleotide sequence of the fixABC region of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571: similarity of the fixB product with eukaryotic flavoproteins, characterization of fixX, and identification of nifW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigoni, F; Kaminski, P A; Hennecke, H; Elmerich, C

    1991-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 4.1 kb DNA fragment containing the fixABC region of Azorhizobium caulinodans was established. The three gene products were very similar to the corresponding polypeptides of Rhizobium meliloti. The C-terminal domains of both fixB products displayed a high degree of similarity with the alpha-subunits of rat and human electron transfer flavoproteins, suggesting a role for the FixB protein in a redox reaction. Two open reading frames (ORF) were found downstream of fixC. The first ORF was identified as fixX on the basis of sequence homology with fixX from several Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The second ORF potentially encoded a 69 amino acid product and was found to be homologous to a DNA region in the Rhodobacter capsulatus nif cluster I. Insertion mutagenesis of the A. caulinodans fixX gene conferred a Nif- phenotype to bacteria growth in the free-living state and a Fix- phenotype in symbiotic association with the host plant Sesbania rostrata. A crude extract from the fixX mutant had no nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, data presented in this paper also indicate that the previously identified nifO gene located upstream of fixA was probably a homologue of the nifW gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. PMID:1850088

  15. Spatial relationship between flavoprotein fluorescence and the hemodynamic response in the primary visual cortex of alert macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavoprotein fluorescence imaging (FFI is a novel intrinsic optical signal that is steadily gaining ground as a valuable imaging tool in neuroscience research due to its closer relationship with local metabolism relative to the more commonly used hemodynamic signals. We have developed a technique for FFI imaging in the primary visual cortex (V1 of alert monkeys. Due to the nature of neurovascular coupling, hemodynamic signals are known to spread beyond the locus of metabolic activity. To determine whether FFI signals could provide a more focal measure of cortical activity in alert animals, we compared FFI and hemodynamic point spreads (i.e. responses to a minimal visual stimulus and functional mapping signals over V1 in macaques performing simple fixation tasks. FFI responses were biphasic, with an early and focal fluorescence increase followed by a delayed and spatially broader fluorescence decrease. As expected, the early fluorescence increase, indicating increased local oxidative metabolism, was somewhat narrower than the simultaneously observed hemodynamic response. However, the later FFI decrease was broader than the hemodynamic response and started prior to the cessation of visual stimulation suggesting different mechanisms underlying the two phases of the fluorescence signal. FFI mapping signals were free of vascular artifacts and comparable in amplitude to hemodynamic mapping signals. These results indicate that the FFI response may be a more local and direct indicator of cortical metabolism than the hemodynamic response in alert animals.

  16. Flavoprotein-Mediated Tellurite Reduction: Structural Basis and Applications to the Synthesis of Tellurium-Containing Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Vargas-Pérez, Joaquín I.; Morales, Wladimir; Pinto, Camilo; Muñoz-Díaz, Pablo; Cornejo, Fabián A.; Pugin, Benoit; Sandoval, Juan M.; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A.; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia; Rodríguez-Rojas, Fernanda; Morales, Eduardo H.; Vásquez, Claudio C.; Arenas, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    The tellurium oxyanion tellurite (TeO32-) is extremely harmful for most organisms. It has been suggested that a potential bacterial tellurite resistance mechanism would consist of an enzymatic, NAD(P)H-dependent, reduction to the less toxic form elemental tellurium (Te0). To date, a number of enzymes such as catalase, type II NADH dehydrogenase and terminal oxidases from the electron transport chain, nitrate reductases, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), among others, have been shown to display tellurite-reducing activity. This activity is generically referred to as tellurite reductase (TR). Bioinformatic data resting on some of the abovementioned enzymes enabled the identification of common structures involved in tellurite reduction including vicinal catalytic cysteine residues and the FAD/NAD(P)+-binding domain, which is characteristic of some flavoproteins. Along this line, thioredoxin reductase (TrxB), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpF), glutathione reductase (GorA), mercuric reductase (MerA), NADH: flavorubredoxin reductase (NorW), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and the putative oxidoreductase YkgC from Escherichia coli or environmental bacteria were purified and assessed for TR activity. All of them displayed in vitro TR activity at the expense of NADH or NADPH oxidation. In general, optimal reducing conditions occurred around pH 9–10 and 37°C. Enzymes exhibiting strong TR activity produced Te-containing nanostructures (TeNS). While GorA and AhpF generated TeNS of 75 nm average diameter, E3 and YkgC produced larger structures (>100 nm). Electron-dense structures were observed in cells over-expressing genes encoding TrxB, GorA, and YkgC. PMID:27507969

  17. Identification of a Conserved Sequence in Flavoproteins Essential for the Correct Conformation and Activity of the NADH Oxidase NoxE of Lactococcus lactis ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Tachon, Sybille; Chambellon, Emilie; Yvon, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Water-forming NADH oxidases (encoded by noxE, nox2, or nox) are flavoproteins generally implicated in the aerobic survival of microaerophilic bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria. However, some natural Lactococcus lactis strains produce an inactive NoxE. We examined the role of NoxE in the oxygen tolerance of L. lactis in the rich synthetic medium GM17. Inactivation of noxE suppressed 95% of NADH oxidase activity but only slightly affected aerobic growth, oxidative stress resistance, and NA...

  18. Molecular insights into the enzymatic diversity of flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp; formerly ApbE) in flavoprotein biogenesis in the bacterial periplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp) in the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum (Ftp_Tp) as the first bacterial metal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and FMN in the periplasm. Orthologs of Ftp_Tp in other bacteria (formerly ApbE) appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they flavinylate the redox subunit, NqrC, via their metal-dependent FMN transferase activity. However, nothing has been known about the nature or mechanism of metal-dependent Ftp catalysis in either Nqr- or Rnf-redox-containing bacteria. In the current study, we identified a bimetal center in the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Ftp (Ftp_Ec) and show via mutagenesis that a single amino acid substitution converts it from an FAD-binding protein to a Mg(2+) -dependent FAD pyrophosphatase (Ftp_Tp-like). Furthermore, in the presence of protein substrates, both types of Ftps are capable of flavinylating periplasmic redox-carrying proteins (e.g., RnfG_Ec) via the metal-dependent covalent attachment of FMN. A high-resolution structure of the Ftp-mediated flavinylated protein of Shewanella oneidensis NqrC identified an essential lysine in phosphoester-threonyl-FMN bond formation in the posttranslationally modified flavoproteins. Together, these discoveries broaden our understanding of the physiological capabilities of the bacterial periplasm, and they also clarify a possible mechanism by which flavoproteins are generated. PMID:26626129

  19. Skeletal Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Limbs in Late-onset Lipid Storage Myopathy with Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Ming Jin; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Jun-Jie He; Min-Ting Lin; Hong-Xia Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a genetically heterogeneous group with variable clinical phenotypes.Late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a rather common form of LSM in China.Diagnosis and clinical management of it remain challenging,especially without robust muscle biopsy result and genetic detection.As the noninvasion and convenience,muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful assistant,diagnostic tool for neuromuscular disorders.However,the disease-specific MRI patterns of muscle involved and its diagnostic value in late-onset MADD have not been systematic analyzed.Methods:We assessed the MRI pattern and fat infiltration degree of the lower limb muscles in 28 late-onset MADD patients,combined with detailed clinical features and gene spectrum.Fat infiltration degree of the thigh muscle was scored while that ofgluteus was described as obvious or not.Associated muscular atrophy was defined as obvious muscle bulk reduction.Results:The mean scores were significantly different among the anterior,medial,and posterior thigh muscle groups.The mean of fat infiltration scores on posterior thigh muscle group was significantly higher than either anterior or medial thigh muscle group (P < 0.001).Moreover,the mean score on medial thigh muscle group was significantly higher than that of anterior thigh muscle group (P < 0.01).About half of the patients displayed fat infiltration and atrophy in gluteus muscles.Of 28 patients,12 exhibited atrophy in medial and/or posterior thigh muscle groups,especially in posterior thigh muscle group.Muscle edema pattern was not found in all the patients.Conclusions:Late-onset MADD patients show a typical muscular imaging pattern of fat infiltration and atrophy on anterior,posterior,and medial thigh muscle groups,with major involvement of posterior thigh muscle group and gluteus muscles and a sparing involvement of anterior thigh compartment.Our findings also suggest that muscle MRI of lower limbs is a helpful tool in guiding clinical evaluation on late-onset MADD.

  20. Cloning and characterization of sulfite dehydrogenase, two c-type cytochromes, and a flavoprotein of Paracoccus denitrificans GB17: essential role of sulfite dehydrogenase in lithotrophic sulfur oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodara, C; Bardischewsky, F; Friedrich, C G

    1997-08-01

    of the flavoprotein of flavocytochrome c of Chromatium vinosum, suggesting the involvement of the flavoprotein in thiosulfate oxidation of P. denitrificans GB17. PMID:9260941

  1. The flavoproteins CryD and VvdA cooperate with the white collar protein WcoA in the control of photocarotenogenesis in Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castrillo

    Full Text Available Light stimulates carotenoid biosynthesis in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi through transcriptional activation of the structural genes of the pathway carRA, carB, and cart, but the molecular basis of this photoresponse is unknown. The F. fujikuroi genome contains genes for different predicted photoreceptors, including the WC protein WcoA, the DASH cryptochrome CryD and the Vivid-like flavoprotein VvdA. We formerly found that null mutants of wcoA, cryD or vvdA exhibit carotenoid photoinduction under continuous illumination. Here we show that the wild type exhibits a biphasic response in light induction kinetics experiments, with a rapid increase in carotenoid content in the first hours, a transient arrest and a subsequent slower increase. The mutants of the three photoreceptors show different kinetic responses: the wcoA mutants are defective in the rapid response, the cryD mutants are affected in the slower response, while the fast and slow responses were respectively enhanced and attenuated in the vvdA mutants. Transcriptional analyses of the car genes revealed a strong reduction of dark and light-induced transcript levels in the wcoA mutants, while minor or no reductions were found in the cryD mutants. Formerly, we found no change on carRA and carB photoinduction in vvdA mutants. Taken together, our data suggest a cooperative participation of WcoA and CryD in early and late stages of photoinduction of carotenoid biosynthesis in F. fujikuroi, and a possible modulation of WcoA activity by VvdA. An unexpected transcriptional induction by red light of vvdA, cryD and carRA genes suggest the participation of an additional red light-absorbing photoreceptor.

  2. Mitochondrial targeting of human NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein 2 (NDUFV2 and its association with early-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Mou-Chieh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein 2 (NDUFV2, containing one iron sulfur cluster ([2Fe-2S] binuclear cluster N1a, is one of the core nuclear-encoded subunits existing in human mitochondrial complex I. Defects in this subunit have been associated with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Bipolar disorder, and Schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to examine the mitochondrial targeting of NDUFV2 and dissect the pathogenetic mechanism of one human deletion mutation present in patients with early-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Methods A series of deletion and point-mutated constructs with the c-myc epitope tag were generated to identify the location and sequence features of mitochondrial targeting sequence for NDUFV2 in human cells using the confocal microscopy. In addition, various lengths of the NDUFV2 N-terminal and C-terminal fragments were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein to investigate the minimal region required for correct mitochondrial import. Finally, a deletion construct that mimicked the IVS2+5_+8delGTAA mutation in NDUFV2 gene and would eventually produce a shortened NDUFV2 lacking 19-40 residues was generated to explore the connection between human gene mutation and disease. Results We identified that the cleavage site of NDUFV2 was located around amino acid 32 of the precursor protein, and the first 22 residues of NDUFV2 were enough to function as an efficient mitochondrial targeting sequence to carry the passenger protein into mitochondria. A site-directed mutagenesis study showed that none of the single-point mutations derived from basic, hydroxylated and hydrophobic residues in the NDUFV2 presequence had a significant effect on mitochondrial targeting, while increasing number of mutations in basic and hydrophobic residues gradually decreased the mitochondrial import efficacy of the protein. The deletion mutant mimicking the human early-onset hypertrophic

  3. Quantum effects in ultrafast electron transfers within cryptochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Thiago; Mangaud, Etienne; Cailliez, Fabien; Devolder, Adrien; Mendive-Tapia, David; Gatti, Fabien; Meier, Christoph; Desouter-Lecomte, Michèle; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2016-08-21

    Cryptochromes and photolyases are flavoproteins that may undergo ultrafast charge separation upon electronic excitation of their flavin cofactors. Charge separation involves chains of three or four tryptophan residues depending on the protein of interest. The molecular mechanisms of these processes are not completely clear. In the present work we investigate the relevance of quantum effects like the occurrence of nuclear tunneling and of coherences upon charge transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochromes. The possible breakdown of the Condon approximation is also investigated. We have devised a simulation protocol based on the realization of molecular dynamics simulations on diabatic potential energy surfaces defined at the hybrid constrained density functional theory/molecular mechanics level. The outcomes of the simulations are analyzed through various dedicated kinetics schemes related to the Marcus theory that account for the aforementioned quantum effects. MD simulations also provide a basic material to define realistic model Hamiltonians for subsequent quantum dissipative dynamics. To carry out quantum simulations, we have implemented an algorithm based on the Hierarchical Equations of Motion. With this new tool in hand we have been able to model the electron transfer chain considering either two- or three-state models. Kinetic models and quantum simulations converge to the conclusion that quantum effects have a significant impact on the rate of charge separation. Nuclear tunneling involving atoms of the tryptophan redox cofactors as well as of the environment (protein atoms and water molecules) is significant. On the other hand non-Condon effects are negligible in most simulations. Taken together, the results of the present work provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling charge separation in this family of flavoproteins. PMID:27427185

  4. Flavoprotein oxidases : classification and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Willem P.; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of oxidases that utilise a flavin cofactor for catalysis. This class of oxidative flavoenzymes has shown to harbour a large number of biotechnologically interesting enzymes. Applications range from their use as biocatalysts for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compoun

  5. The flavoprotein Mcap0476 (RlmFO) catalyzes m5U1939 modification in Mycoplasma capricolum 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartigue, Carole; Lebaudy, Anne; Blanchard, Alain;

    2014-01-01

    Efficient protein synthesis in all organisms requires the post-transcriptional methylation of specific ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) nucleotides. The methylation reactions are almost invariably catalyzed by enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl...... two homologs of trmFO, but surprisingly lacks the m5U54 tRNA modification. We created single and dual deletions of the trmFO homologs using a novel synthetic biology approach. Subsequent analysis of the M. capricolum RNAs by mass spectrometry shows that the TrmFO homolog encoded by Mcap0476...

  6. A polymorphic variant in the human electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-chain (alpha-T171) displays decreased thermal stability and is overrepresented in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient patients with mild childhood presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Pedersen, P; Nyholm, M;

    1999-01-01

    -deficient patients homozygous for the K304E mutation (MCAD E304), (iii) a group of patients with elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) possibly due to decreased short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and (iv) in patients with proven deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD......). No significant overrepresentations or underrepresentations were found in the first two patient groups, suggesting that the polymorphisms studied are not significant susceptibility factors in either the MCAD E304 or the EMA patient group. However, in the VLCAD deficient patients the alpha-T171 variant...... (decreased thermal stability) was significantly overrepresented. Subgrouping of the VLCAD patients into three phenotypic classes (severe childhood, mild childhood, and adult presentation) revealed that the overrepresentation of the alpha-T171 variant was significant only in patients with mild childhood...

  7. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  8. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational...

  9. Alcohol oxidase: A complex peroxisomal, oligomeric flavoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Ozimek, Paulina; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase (AO) is the key enzyme of methanol metabolism in methylotrophic yeast species. It catalyses the first step of methanol catabolism, namely its oxidation to formaldehyde with concomitant production of hydrogen peroxide. In its mature active form, AO is a molecule of high molecular mass (600 kDa) that consists of eight identical subunits, each of which carry one non-covalently bound flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) molecule as the prosthetic group. In vivo, the protein is compartm...

  10. Blastocyst Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Method: Blastocyst transfer is usually performed 24 hours after aggregation when the morulae have become expanded blastocysts and on the same day as injection. A little time is given between injection and transfer to allow blastocysts to re-expand. **The Recipient** Careful selection of the recipient is most important as the pups are the end result of a lot of hard work. Two strains of mice are used:RB Swiss and (CBA*C57BL6/J)f1. RB Swiss are quiet and make excellent mothers ...

  11. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  12. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  13. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options.

  14. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  15. Historiographical transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Emmanuel Bernard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “There are other signs that the Greeks began to notice the peculiarities of Roman social life and of Roman behavior in international affairs. True enough, the famous set of Roman values – fides, constantia, severitas, auctoritas, etc., – was discovered for the first time by German professors during the First World War, and helped their pupils to mark time while Hitler was deciding what to do with the classics”.Arnoldo Momigliano, Alien Wisdom. For anyone interested in the transfer of historio...

  16. Sophisticated transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Iraq war, fears were expressed in different circles that under the cover of war, Israel may attempt a transfer of Palestinians in the “seam line” area of the northern West Bank (Kalkilya, Tulkarem). Last week, the army produced a scene from this scenario. On April 2 at 3 AM, a large force raided the refugee camp of Tulkarem, blocked all the roads and paths with barbed wires and announced on loudspeakers that all males aged 15 to 40 must go to a certain compound at the center...

  17. Core transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good news for all petroleum geoscientists, mining and environmental scientists, university researchers, and the like: Shell Oil Company has deeded its Midland core and sample repository to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at the University of Texas at Austin. The Midland repository includes more than 1 million linear meters of slab, whole core, and prepared cuttings. Data comprising one of the largest U.S. core collections—the geologic samples from wells drilled in Texas and 39 other states—are now public data and will be incorporated into the existing BEG database. Both Shell and the University of Texas at Austin are affiliated with the American Geological Institute, which assisted in arranging the transfer as part of its goal to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System at regional centers across the United States.

  18. Classifications of Software Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlin, Claes; Smite, Darja

    2012-01-01

    Many companies have development sites around the globe. This inevitably means that development work may be transferred between the sites. This paper defines a classification of software transfer types; it divides transfers into three main types: full, partial and gradual transfers to describe the context of a transfer. The differences between transfer types, and hence the need for a classification, are illustrated with staffing curves for two different transfer types. The staffing curves are ...

  19. Does the pressure dependence of kinetic isotope effects report usefully on dynamics in enzyme H-transfer reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeven, Robin; Heyes, Derren J; Hay, Sam; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-08-01

    The temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) has emerged as the main experimental probe of enzymatic H-transfer by quantum tunnelling. Implicit in the interpretation is a presumed role for dynamic coupling of H-transfer chemistry to the protein environment, the so-called 'promoting motions/vibrations hypothesis'. This idea remains contentious, and others have questioned the importance and/or existence of promoting motions/vibrations. New experimental methods of addressing this problem are emerging, including use of mass-modulated enzymes and time-resolved spectroscopy. The pressure dependence of KIEs has been considered as a potential probe of quantum tunnelling reactions, because semi-classical KIEs, which are defined by differences in zero-point vibrational energy, are relatively insensitive to kbar changes in pressure. Reported combined pressure and temperature (p-T) dependence studies of H-transfer reactions are, however, limited. Here, we extend and review the available p-T studies that have utilized well-defined experimental systems in which quantum mechanical tunnelling is established. These include flavoproteins, quinoproteins, light-activated enzymes and chemical model systems. We show that there is no clear general trend between the p-T dependencies of the KIEs in these systems. Given the complex nature of p-T studies, we conclude that computational simulations using determined (e.g. X-ray) structures are also needed alongside experimental measurements of reaction rates/KIEs to guide the interpretation of p-T effects. In providing new insight into H-transfer/environmental coupling, combined approaches that unite both atomistic understanding with experimental rate measurements will require careful evaluation on a case-by-case basis. Although individually informative, we conclude that p-T studies do not provide the more generalized insight that has come from studies of the temperature dependence of KIEs. PMID:25581554

  20. AcEST: DK963528 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LNKEK--ATVERE 162 >sp|Q54YZ4|ETFB_DICDI Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta OS=Dictyostelium discoideum GN=etfb...WPQGTFASQVTLE--GDKLKVERE 165 >sp|Q68FU3|ETFB_RAT Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Etfb...TFASQVTLE--GDKVKVERE 165 >sp|Q9DCW4|ETFB_MOUSE Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta OS=Mus musculus GN=Etfb

  1. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  2. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  3. Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  4. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  5. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  6. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  7. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  8. Transfer of gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific comp

  9. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  10. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.;

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  12. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I. J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.;

    2011-01-01

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  13. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  14. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Lenert, Andrej; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based on a new figure of merit capturing the combined effects of thermal storage capacity, convective heat transfer characteristics, and hydraulic performance of the fluids. Thermal stability, freezing point, and safety issues are also discussed. Through a comparative analysis, we...

  15. Spin Transfer Torques

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, D. C.; Stiles, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial article introduces the physics of spin transfer torques in magnetic devices. We provide an elementary discussion of the mechanism of spin transfer torque, and review the theoretical and experimental progress in this field. Our intention is to be accessible to beginning graduate students. This is the introductory paper for a cluster of "Current Perspectives" articles on spin transfer torques published in volume 320 of the Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. This article ...

  16. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks

  17. Memristive Transfer Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mouttet, Blaise

    2010-01-01

    An electrical analysis is performed for a memristor crossbar array integrated with operational amplifiers including the effects of parasitic or contact resistances. It is shown that the memristor crossbar array can act as a transfer matrix for a multiple input-multiple output signal processing system. Special cases of the transfer matrix are described related to reconfigurable analog filters, waveform generators, analog computing, and pattern similarity. Keywords: transfer matrix, memristor, ...

  18. Memristive Transfer Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mouttet, Blaise

    2010-01-01

    An electrical analysis is performed for a memristor crossbar array integrated with operational amplifiers including the effects of parasitic or contact resistances. It is shown that the memristor crossbar array can act as a transfer matrix for a multiple input-multiple output signal processing system. Special cases of the transfer matrix are described related to reconfigurable analog filters, waveform generators, analog computing, and pattern similarity. Keywords: transfer matrix, memristor, analog electronics, crossbar, operational amplifier, reconfigurable electronics

  19. Resonance Energy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, David; Bradshaw, David; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Scholes, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Resonance energy transfer, also known as Förster- or fluorescence- resonance energy transfer, or electronic energy transfer, is a photonic process whose relevance in many major areas of science is reflected both by a wide prevalence of the effect and through numerous technical applications. The process, operating through an optical near-field mechanism, effects a transport of electronic excitation between physically distinct atomic or molecular components, based on transition dipole-dipole co...

  20. A lipid transfer protein that transfers lipid

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, T. P.

    2007-01-01

    Very few lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been caught in the act of transferring lipids in vivo from a donor membrane to an acceptor membrane. Now, two studies (Halter, D., S. Neumann, S. M. van Dijk, J. Wolthoorn, A. M. de Maziere, O.V. Vieira, P. Mattjus, J. Klumperman, G. van Meer, and H. Sprong. 2007. J. Cell Biol. 179: 101 115; D'Angelo, G., E. Polishchuk, G. D. Tullio, M. Santoro, A. D. Campli, A. Godi, G. West, J. Bielawski, C.C. Chuang, A. C. van der Spoel, et al. 2007. Nature. 449...

  1. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  2. Teaching for transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Sanjoy

    2007-01-01

    Students, after they leave our care, are called to solve the diverse problems of the world, so we should teach to increase transfer: the ability to apply fundamental principles to new problems and contexts. This ability is rare. The following pages are from a workshop for faculty on designing courses that promote transfer. I discuss two design principles: to name the transferable ideas and to illustrate them with examples from diverse subjects. The discussion uses dimensional reasoning as the example of a valuable transferable idea, illustrating it with three diverse examples.

  3. Heat transfer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained

  4. Transfer from Multiple MDPs

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaric, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Transfer reinforcement learning (RL) methods leverage on the experience collected on a set of source tasks to speed-up RL algorithms. A simple and effective approach is to transfer samples from source tasks and include them into the training set used to solve a given target task. In this paper, we investigate the theoretical properties of this transfer method and we introduce novel algorithms adapting the transfer process on the basis of the similarity between source and target tasks. Finally, we report illustrative experimental results in a continuous chain problem.

  5. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  6. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  7. Transfer Student Characteristics Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sharon Paterson; Belcheir, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and define profiles of transfer students and assess if there are different levels of student success (as measured by first semester GPA, retention, and graduation) associated with of those profiles. Using cluster analysis, four transfer student types were identified and labeled as follows: Old Hand at…

  8. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, A. A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  9. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  10. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  11. Sequence Classification: 399462 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15610166|ref|NP_217545.1| PROBABLE ELECTRO...N TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN (BETA-SUBUNIT) FIXA (BETA-ETF) (ELECTRON TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN SMALL SUBUNIT) (ETFSS) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15610166 ...

  12. Sequence Classification: 389696 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|31794207|ref|NP_856700.1| PROBABLE ELECTRO...N TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN (BETA-SUBUNIT) FIXA (BETA-ETF) (ELECTRON TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN SMALL SUBUNIT) (ETFSS) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31794207 ...

  13. Sequence Classification: 399461 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|15610165|ref|NP_217544.1| PROBABLE ELECTRON... TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN (ALPHA-SUBUNIT) FIXB (ALPHA-ETF) (ELECTRON TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN LARGE SUBUNIT) (ETFLS) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15610165 ...

  14. Sequence Classification: 389695 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|31794206|ref|NP_856699.1| PROBABLE ELECTRON... TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN (ALPHA-SUBUNIT) FIXB (ALPHA-ETF) (ELECTRON TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN LARGE SUBUNIT) (ETFLS) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31794206 ...

  15. Sequence Classification: 255438 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|71906851|ref|YP_284438.1| Electron transfer... flavoprotein beta-subunit:Electron transfer flavoprotein, alpha subunit || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/71906851 ...

  16. Sequence Classification: 506139 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|73542234|ref|YP_296754.1| Electron tran...sfer flavoprotein beta-subunit:Electron transfer flavoprotein, alpha subunit || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/73542234 ...

  17. Sequence Classification: 508394 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|73538642|ref|YP_299009.1| Electron ...transfer flavoprotein beta-subunit:Electron transfer flavoprotein, alpha subunit || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/73538642 ...

  18. InterProScan Result: FS932423 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS932423 FS932423_2_ORF2 B113B8D416EEAA80 PIR PIRSF000090 Electron transfer flavopr...otein, beta subunit 3.9e-109 T IPR012255 Electron transfer flavoprotein, beta subunit Molecular Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055) ...

  19. InterProScan Result: FS827146 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS827146 FS827146_4_ORF1 B113B8D416EEAA80 PIR PIRSF000090 Electron transfer flavopr...otein, beta subunit 3.9e-109 T IPR012255 Electron transfer flavoprotein, beta subunit Molecular Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055) ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0032 ref|ZP_01387306.1| Electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunit [G...eobacter sp. FRC-32] gb|EAT63524.1| Electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunit [Geobacter sp. FRC-32] ZP_01387306.1 0.077 28% ...

  1. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emrys W.; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C. J.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  2. Fluorescence relaxation spectroscopy: light on dynamical structures of flavoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burten-Bastiaens, P.I.H.

    1992-01-01

    Refinements in technique and data analysis have opened new avenues for a detailed interpretation of protein fluorescence. What is more, by combining new insights in protein structure and dynamics with improved knowledge of photophysics of biological chromophores, the coupling between structure-funct

  3. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways. PMID:27382185

  4. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  5. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  6. Transfer of Money Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Din Alina-Valentina; Popescu Luigi

    2012-01-01

    In most of the cases, the first concern after committing the basic infraction is to transfer money abroad. The basic rule is that the person whose funds have to be transferred should not assume this risk. At the international level there are networks of professional couriers who take over the transfer action and provide the delivery of money abroad, at the established place.In certain money laundering schemes one may choose to create a foreign trust. The advantage in this case is that the own...

  7. Versions of transfer conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H. (Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-05-01

    Compares technical specifications of heavy surface mining transfer conveyors built by the manufacturers TAKRAF, O K, Krupp, Buckau-Wolff, Voest-Alpine and others. Equipment is mainly used in brown coal surface mining; its haulage capacity ranges between 600 and 9,300 m{sup 3}/h. Significant specifications of equipment design are considered to be length relation of the two booms for bulk receiving and transfer, as well as total equipment mass. The best length relation has the value 1.1. Further graphs compare the relation of equipment mass, haulage capacity and transfer boom length. Various design advantages of selected equipment series are outlined. 13 refs.

  8. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described

  9. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum;

    2014-01-01

    environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an...

  10. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  11. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness of......Effective knowledge transfer is a key to the success of inter- organizational alliances. Prior research has focused on the absorptive capacity of receiving organizations, ignoring the capacities of sending organizations to disseminate knowledge. We studied knowledge transfer from foreign parent...... parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact on...

  12. Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    I outline methods for calculating the solution of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) in scattering, absorption and emission processes of dust and gas, including polarization. I provide a bibliography of relevant papers on methods with astrophysical applications.

  13. Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliski, Lori

    Because radiative transfer cuts across many scientific disciplines with applications including remote sensing, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and photobiology, there is a need for comprehensive books on this subject that can appeal to a wide readership. While Atmospheric Radiative Transfer takes strides toward filling this niche by addressing a broad range of topics, it is dry reading and suffers from lack of detail. The book was based on a graduate-level course taught at the University of Sciences and Technologies in Lille, France, and indeed, the text reads much like an expanded outline perhaps derived from lecture notes.Part one deals with general radiative transfer, and part two covers Earth's radiation budget, the climate system, and remote sensing techniques. The radiative transfer equation and solutions for absorbing and scattering atmospheres are discussed as are the details of absorption, such as energy levels, line strengths, line intensities, equivalent widths, and weak- and strong-line limits.

  14. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  15. Science transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the reasons for science transfer to developing countries. He mentions the impact of science on industrial and technological development in such countries. Furthermore he describes the activities of the IAEA and UNESCO in this field. (HSI).

  16. Analytical heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin

    2012-01-01

    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  17. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition to the......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  18. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  19. Transference and plusvalue

    OpenAIRE

    Otero Álvarez, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The author takes transference as a freudian legacy. Besides of formulating transference as a gift, he establishes one ratio between the mentioned concept and plusvalue. To do that, stands out the role adjudicated by Freud to the work like a product femineity repression after the father murder, as well as the "Equivalent Law" transgression that handles the amongst human interchange. This "Equivalent Law" transgression bases both Freud and Marx concepts.

  20. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  1. High speed transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss nucleon transfer between bound states of nuclei at high relative velocities. It is shown that the tails of the internal momentum distributions of the nuclear states participating in the transition strongly influence the transfer probabilities at energies between 3-90 MeV/u. Data and DWBA calculations show an exponential decrease of the cross sections in this energy regime. TGV should be an interesting tool to study high momentum components in nuclear states

  2. Essays on Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Fahle, Sean Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The chapters of this dissertation examine transfers between generations across three distinct contexts: a potential role for informal care in U.S. long-term care policy (Chapter 1), the effect of caregiving on bequests (Chapter 2), and making inferences about intra-household allocations using data on intergenerational transfers (Chapter 3).The first chapter poses the question: how can government policy leverage family caregiving to make Medicaid financing of long-term care more sustainable wi...

  3. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  4. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures...

  5. Interlingual Transfer in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娜

    2016-01-01

    Interlingual transfer refers to transfer rules from the first language. There are many differences between English and Chinese, which will unavoidably interfere with the English learning. When the interference of mother tongue fosters target language learning, it is called mother tongue’s positive transfer. Conversely, the mother tongue’s negative transfer will emerge. With mother tongue mode of thinking automatically, Chinese students always make errors when they compose a sentence or write a passage. Interlingual transfer includes three aspects: lexical transfer, grammatical transfer and cultural transfer.

  6. Transfer to animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data have been compiled to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides to update the values given in Technical Reports Series No. 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. The resultant database has been used to provide reference transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used are given. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in Technical Reports Series No. 364 are provided, although some elements were considered in the earlier evaluation which were not included in this review. Differences between the Technical Reports Series No. 364 'expected' values and the reference values from this document, which will be incorporated into the revised transfer parameter handbook, are discussed. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios is evaluated and CR values which could be applied across animal species have been provided for milk and meat. Information on fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants has been compiled and reference values presented. Despite these improvements many data gaps remain. (author)

  7. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  8. Tech transfer outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  9. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  10. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  11. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  12. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  13. Convective Heat Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Favre-Marinet, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Convection heat transfer is an important topic both for industrial applications and fundamental aspects. It combines the complexity of the flow dynamics and of the active or passive scalar transport process. It is part of many university courses such as Mechanical, Aeronautical, Chemical and Biomechanical Engineering. The literature on convective heat transfer is large, but the present manuscript differs in many aspects from the existing ones, particularly from the pedagogical point of view. Each chapter begins with a brief yet complete presentation of the related topic. This is followed by a

  14. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. PMID:27094894

  15. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...... discuss the implications of their findings for R&D managers, policy makers and future studies....

  16. Transferences of Purkinje systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transferences of heterocentric astigmatic Purkinje systems are special: submatrices B and C, that is, the disjugacy and the divergence of the system, are symmetric and submatrix D (the divarication is the transpose of submatrix A (the dilation.  It is the primary purpose of this paper to provide a proof.  The paper also derives other relationships among the fundamental properties and compact expressions for the transference and optical axis locator of a Purkinje system. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 57-60

  17. Transfer technologii a gospodarka

    OpenAIRE

    Mączyński, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Transfer technologii jest obecnie kluczem do konkurencyjności i rozwoju ekonomicznego państw. Już wiele lat temu tacy ekonomiści, jak Robert Solow i Joseph Schumpeter, uznali inwestowanie w nowe technologie i ich upowszechnianie za siłę napędową wzrostu gospodarczego. Transfer technologii wpływa na tempo i kierunki rozwoju gospodarczego, strukturę gospodarki, a także na powstawanie jej nowych gałęzi, w tym wysoko zaawansowanych technologicznie. Rynek technologii tworzy nowe formy walki konkur...

  18. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  19. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  20. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  1. Transfer metrics analytics project

    CERN Document Server

    Matonis, Zygimantas

    2016-01-01

    This report represents work done towards predicting transfer rates/latencies on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites using Machine Learning techniques. Topic covered are technologies used for the project, data preparation for ML suitable format and attribute selection as well as a comparison of different ML algorithms.

  2. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  3. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  4. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  5. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  6. Non-LTE transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following previous work on LTE stochastic transfer (Auvergne et al (Astr. Astrophys.; 29:93 (1973)); Frisch (Astr. Astrophys.; 40:267 (1975)), transfer with incoherent scattering is considered for two-level atoms in the presence of turbulent velocity fields with finite eddy-size. Assuming that the velocity along each individual photon path may be represented by a Markov Process in time, a non-stochastic equation of transfer for the 'mean conditional intensity' is obtained, from which the mean (observable) intensity may be recovered by integration over the velocity distribution. An integral equation of the Wiener-Hopf type is obtained for the 'mean conditional source function' from which it is shown by techniques introduced in Paper I (Frisch and Frisch, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc.; 173:167 (1975)) that the rms surface source function assumes the usual value square root of epsilon B for uniform thermal source B. An 'effective kernel and source function' approximation is introduced by which a standard transfer problem is recovered and worked out explicitly in a special case. It is shown that finite eddy-size effects can change the effective source function and the emergent profile by a factor 2 or more. (author)

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  8. Symbolic local information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that

  9. ETFDH mutations as a major cause of riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Olpin, Simon E; Andresen, Brage S;

    2007-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a disorder of fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism that can result from defects in two flavoproteins, electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO). Some patients respond to pharmacological doses of...

  10. Transfers to freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It remains important to monitor the fate of radionuclides, particularly in environmental compartments that comprise human pathways. Therefore, an extensive literature survey has been conducted to compile available data on the transfer of radionuclides and their analogues to edible freshwater biota. Focus was placed on compilation of steady state transfer parameters for two freshwater pathways, including water-to-biota and sediment-to-biota. In general, although in many cases, extensive data were available for fishes and invertebrates, relatively fewer data were available for freshwater primary producers, amphibians and reptiles. To fill in these gaps, data were also compiled on the internal partitioning of elements in the body with respect to tissue masses, which could be used to estimate radionuclide concentrations between compartments in the body. (author)

  11. Wireless power transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  12. Negotiated Transfer Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Johannes; Davies, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    The predominant model of tax induced transfer pricing is based on the assumption that profit shifting is due to insufficient enforcement. However, evidence shows that the firms responsible for most profit shifting are also among the most frequently audited. We present an alternative model based on negotiations that avoid costly, yet uncertain, formal proceedings (e.g. court procedures). This model predicts that profit shifting increases in the tax gap even though enforcement is perfect. Furth...

  13. Technology transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a multifaceted approach to ensure that assistance to Member States results in assured technology transfer. Through advice and planning, the IAEA helps to assess the costs and benefits of a given technology, determine the basic requirements for its efficient use in conditions specific to the country, and prepare a plan for its introduction. This report describes in brief the Technical Co-operation Programmes

  14. Heat Transfer Analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table

  15. Energy localisation and transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Dauxois, Thierry; MacKay, Robert; Spanoudaki, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to localised excitations in spatially discrete systems, from the experimental, numerical and mathematical points of view. Also known as discrete breathers, nonlinear lattice excitations and intrinsic localised modes, these are spatially localised time periodic motions in networks of dynamical units. Examples of such networks are molecular crystals, biomolecules, and arrays of Josephson superconducting junctions. The book also addresses the formation of discrete breathers and their potential role in energy transfer in such systems. Contents: Computational Stud

  16. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. To reduce radiation exposure to operators, technological advances in remote handling and automation were employed. An industrial robot and a specially designed end effector, access port, and sealing machine were used to remotely bag waste containers out of a glove box. The system is operated from a control panel outside the work area via television cameras

  17. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  18. Multinucleon transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions induced by complex nuclei are studied. The description of the single neutron transfer is used to show some aspect of the theoretical treatment of transfer reactions and rules concerning the dependence of cross sections on quantum numbers of the initial and final channels are deduced. Strongly excited states of 20Ne, 19F, sup(16,17)0, 15N were studied experimentally by using different projectile-target combinations in the four-particle, eight-particle and ten-particle transfer reactions, leading to the some final nuclei. Obtained results are discussed. In addition, studies of the projectile break-up phenomenon were performed. The dissociation of 6Li and 7Li projectiles was investigated in reactions on Pb, Sn and Ni nuclei. These nuclei were chosen to allow measurements at one incident energy below, above and at the Coulomb barrier. The observed spectra indicate that the process proceeds primarily via the resonance level but the shape deviates from the shape which was calculated assuming isotropic decay of the excited 6Li in its center of mass system. The investigations of the elastic scattering turned out to be more fruitful and allowed to define better the Coulomb barrier for the 6Li-target system. (S.B.)

  19. Transfer to fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Given the scarce information available on the subject, the choice has been made to not reject any information. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight. Recommendations are given for research and modelling. (author)

  20. The argument from transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma. PMID:11653235

  1. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  2. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  3. Technology transfer of Cornell university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces technology transfer of Cornell university which deals with introduction of Cornell university, composition of organization and practice of technology transfer : a research contract, research perform, invention report, evaluation and succession of invention, a patent application and management, marketing, negotiation and writing contract, management of contract, compensation, result of technology transfer, cases of success on technical commercialization and daily life of technology transfer center.

  4. Generalized reflood heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reflood heat transfer correlation has been developed from the FLECHT reflood data for different axial power shapes and arbitrary variable flooding rate conditions. This correlation consists of a separate quench correlation and a heat transfer coefficient correlation. The reflood correlation predicts both the quench front, location and the heat transfer coefficient above the quench front.. The reflood heat transfer correlation prediction is in good agreement with both the cosine and the skewed axial power shape FLECHT reflooding data. (author)

  5. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  6. Large molten pool heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop on large molten pool heat transfer is composed of 5 sessions which titles are: feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling; experiments on molten pool heat transfer; calculational efforts on molten pool convection; heat transfer to the surrounding water, experimental techniques; future experiments and ex-vessel studies (RASPLAV, TOLBIAC, BALI, SULTAN, CORVIS, VULCANO, CORINE programs)

  7. Electron transfer reactions in the NADPH oxidase system of neutrophils--involvement of an NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in the oxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, H; Kakinuma, K

    1991-11-12

    Membrane-bound NADPH oxidase of pig blood neutrophils was solubilized with heptylthioglucoside in a high yield. The solubilized preparation from myristate-stimulated cells (sample S) showed high O2- generating activity, and the preparation from resting cells (sample R) had no activity, but the two samples had equal amounts of flavins and cytochrome b-558 (cyt b-558). The electron transfer reactions to exogenous cytochrome c (cyt c) or cyt b-558 in samples S and R were examined. Under anaerobic conditions, NADPH-dependent cyt c reductase activity appeared higher in sample S than in sample R, and the addition of FMN and FAD greatly enhanced the reductase activity of sample S, but not that of sample R. No marked difference between the reductase activities of samples S and R was seen with NADH. Photoreduction of the NADPH oxidase system was examined in the absence of NADPH under anaerobic conditions by monitoring the reduction rates of exogenous cyt c using a flashlight with cut-off filters between 400 and 500 nm. Cyt c reduction was much higher in sample S than in sample R on photoexcitation at about 450 nm. Photoreduction was carried out with a band-pass filter for selective irradiation at 450 nm. Marked reduction of exogenous cyt c was observed only in sample S: the small reduction of cyt c by sample R was independent of the light wavelength and was equal to the blank level. In contrast, no difference in the reduction of cyt b-558 by the two samples was found by either NADPH or photoreduction. Under aerobic conditions, no direct reduction of either cyt c or cyt b-558 was observed. These results suggest that an NADPH-cyt c reductase (a membrane-bound flavoprotein) is involved in the NADPH oxidase system of stimulated neutrophils. PMID:1659905

  8. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  9. Lipid-transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiujuan

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic proteins found in abundance in higher plants. LTPs play lots of roles in plants such as participation in cutin formation, embryogenesis, defense reactions against phytopathogens, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions. In addition, LTPs from field mustard and Chinese daffodil exhibit antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. LTPs from chili pepper and coffee manifest inhibitory activity against fungi pathogenic to humans such as Candida species. The intent of this article is to review LTPs in the plant kingdom. PMID:23193591

  10. Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Amber M; Reeves, Christopher L; Cameron, Jordan D; Vazales, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    When performed correctly with the right patient population, a tibialis posterior muscle/tendon transfer is an effective procedure. Many different methods have been established for fixating the tendon, each of which has its' own indications. Passing through the interosseous membrane is the preferred and recommended method and should be used unless this is not possible. Good surgical planning based on patient needs and expectations, along with excellent postoperative care including early range of motion and physical therapy minimizes risk of complications and allows for the optimal outcome to be achieved. PMID:26590722

  11. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  12. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  13. Distributed Data Transfers in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Rossman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The multi-tiered computing infrastructure of the CMS experiment at the LHC depends on the reliable and fast transfer of data between the different CMS computing sites. Data have to be transferred from the Tier-0 to the Tier-1 sites for archival in a timely manner to avoid overflowing disk buffers at CERN. Data have to be transferred in bursts to all Tier- 2 level sites for analysis as well as synchronized between the different Tier-1 sites. The data transfer system is the key ingredient which enables the optimal usage of all distributed resources. The operation of the transfer system consists of monitoring and debugging of transfer issues to guarantee a timely delivery of data to all corners of the CMS computing infrastructure. Further task of transfer operation is to guarantee the consistency of the data at all sites, both on disk and on tape. Procedures to verify the consistency and to debug and repair problems will be discussed.

  14. Technology transfer at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIUMF is Canada's major national research centre for sub-atomic physics. For the past five or six years, there has been an increasing emphasis on commercializing the technology that has emanated from the scientific research at the facility. This emphasis on technology transfer reflects a national policy trend of the Canadian federal government, which is the funding source for the majority of the research performed at TRIUMF. In TRIUMF's case, however, the initiative and funding for the commercialization office came from the provincial, or local government. This paper will describe the evolution of technology transfer at the TRIUMF facility, identifying the theory, policies and practical procedures that have been developed and followed. It will also include TRIUMF's experiences in finding exploitable technologies, protecting those technologies, and locating and linking with suitable industry partners to commercialize the technologies. There will be a discussion of resource allocation, and how TRIUMF has endeavoured to establish a portfolio of projects of assorted risks and expected returns. (author). 15 refs

  15. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Rajadas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  16. Inferring horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Ravenhall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric" methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic" approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events.

  17. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  18. Transfer Pricing and FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia-Sabina Macelaru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available FDI analysis is usually performed within the frame of the win-win hypothesis. However, we believe that certain circumstances (MNEs following their own business objectives, lack of appropriate regulations, non-observance of the arm’s length principle may generate disproportionate advantages at the level of FDI stakeholders. The disequilibrium between reinvested profits and repatriated profits may be viewed as a proof of such disproportionate advantages of stakeholders involved in FDI. In addition to figures showing the comparison between reinvested and repatriated profits, as well as the way in which such indicators vary e.g. in case of abnormal business conditions (global economy collapse, we try to show that lack/misuse of transfer pricing regulations may generate even more disequilibrium, the MNEs using intra-group transactions as an additional way of repatriating non-taxable/low tax profits.

  19. Heat transfer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviany, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  20. Technology transfer 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  1. Knowledge Transfer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  2. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Knop, S; Baron, E

    2006-01-01

    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron ...

  3. Elements of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2012-01-01

    1 Basic Concepts and Definitions1.1 Introduction1.1.1 Driving Potential1.2 Dimensions and Units1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity1.3 Closed and Open Systems1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)1.3.2 Isolated System1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)1.4 Forms of Energy1.4.1 Internal Energy1.5 Properties of a System1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties1.6 State and Equilibrium1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas 1.8 The Perfect Gas1.9 Summary1.10 Exercise ProblemsConduction Heat Transfer2.1 Introduction2.2 Conduction Heat Trans

  4. Electron transfer in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H B; Winkler, J R

    1996-01-01

    Electron-transfer (ET) reactions are key steps in a diverse array of biological transformations ranging from photosynthesis to aerobic respiration. A powerful theoretical formalism has been developed that describes ET rates in terms of two parameters: the nuclear reorganization energy (lambda) and the electronic-coupling strength (HAB). Studies of ET reactions in ruthenium-modified proteins have probed lambda and HAB in several metalloproteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, azurin). This work has shown that protein reorganization energies are sensitive to the medium surrounding the redox sites and that an aqueous environment, in particular, leads to large reorganization energies. Analyses of electronic-coupling strengths suggest that the efficiency of long-range ET depends on the protein secondary structure: beta sheets appear to mediate coupling more efficiently than alpha-helical structures, and hydrogen bonds play a critical role in both. PMID:8811189

  5. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  6. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  7. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  8. Coherent electron transfer in polyacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psiachos, D., E-mail: dpsi@physics.uoc.gr

    2014-06-03

    Highlights: • We study electron–ion dynamics in a donor–acceptor system. • We find two distinct electron-transfer regimes: hopping and tunnelling. • We establish conditions for achieving ballistic electron transfer. • Lattice vibrations can dramatically affect the rate of electron transfer. • Decoherence due to lattice vibrations is limited in the tunnelling regime. - Abstract: We examine, using mixed classical-quantum electron–ion dynamics, electron transfer in a donor–acceptor-like molecular junction system based on polyacetylene. We identify two qualitatively-different transfer regimes: hopping and tunnelling. We discuss the criteria for achieving each one and for minimising inelastic scattering and decoherence arising from the coupling to the ions, and we connect our main results to quantities derived from electron dynamics involving simpler, three-state model systems. We identify the requirements to have near-ballistic transfer.

  9. Technology transfer from nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of processes, components and instruments developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, (BARC), Bombay, find application in industry and are available for transfer to private or public sector undertakings for commercial exploitation. The Technology Transfer Group (TTG) constituted in January 1980 identifies such processes and prototypes which can be made available for transfer. This catalogue contains brief descriptions of such technologies and they are arranged under three groups, namely, Group A containing descriptions of technologies already transferred, Group B containing descriptions of technologies ready for transfer and Group C containing descriptions of technology transfer proposals being processed. The position in the above-mentioned groups is as on 1 March 1989. The BARC has also set up a Technology Corner where laboratory models and prototypes of instruments, equipment and components are displayed. These are described in the second part of the catalogue. (M.G.B.)

  10. Nuclear transfer: Progress and quandaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Qi; Jouneau Alice; Li Ziyi; Li Xuemei; Renard Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Cloning mammals by nuclear transfer is a powerful technique that is quickly advancing the development of genetically defined animal models. However, the overall efficiency of nuclear transfer is still very low and several hurdles remain before the power of this technique will be fully harnessed. Among these hurdles include an incomplete understanding of biologic processes that control epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following nuclear transfer. Incomplete epigenetic repro...

  11. Radionuclide transfer in Alpine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although alpine ecosystems are only of limited extent in Europe and the world, they serve as an important socio-economic basis for food production and tourism for the local population. The specific climate conditions and agricultural practice do have influence on radionuclide transfer in Alpine regions. The paper describes basic processes governing radionuclide behaviour in Alpine ecosystems and gives parameters for vertical migration of radionuclide in soil, for soil-plant transfer as well as transfer of radionuclide to cow milk. (author)

  12. Fiscal Transfers and Fiscal Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether US and German state governments pursue sustainable fiscal policies taking into account fiscal transfers. Using panel data techniques we investigate whether the debt-to-GDP ratio had a positive influence on the primary surplus (Bohn-model). We show that including/excluding fiscal transfers changes the results. If fiscal transfers are not included in the primary surplus, the test results do not indicate that the US and German state governments pursued sustainable fiscal polic...

  13. The economics of international transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; Marrewijk, Charles van

    1998-01-01

    textabstractInternational transfers have attracted the attention of economists ever since the famous debate between Keynes and Ohlin on German reparation payments after World War I. Today the subject is of even greater importance with billions of dollars flowing between nations as unilateral transfers. However the emphasis has shifted from balance-of-payments issues to the welfare consequences following a transfer, and in particular the welfare issues arising from aid to developing countries....

  14. SEMANTIC TRANSFERS: CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvin, V.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  15. Oocyte transfer and gamete intrafallopian transfer in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, E M

    2004-07-01

    Methods for the collection and transfer of equine oocytes have been developed, and uses of these techniques have resulted in new clinical and research possibilities. Because oocyte transfer avoids reproductive problems associated with the oviduct, uterus, and cervix, pregnancies can be produced from many mares that cannot carry a pregnancy or produce embryos. Oocytes for clinical transfers are usually collected from preovulatory follicles and cultured for a short interval or transferred directly into a recipient's oviduct. For oocyte transfer, the recipient is inseminated within the uterus. A large number (1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9)) of motile sperms are preferred for inseminations. In contrast, sperm and oocyte are transferred into the oviduct during gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Therefore, a lower number (1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5)) of sperm can be used. Potentially, GIFT could be used in situations where sperm numbers are limited. Use of oocyte transfer and GIFT in clinical and research settings will aid us in understanding the interactions between oocyte, sperm, and oviduct in the equine. PMID:15271484

  16. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  17. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references

  19. Transfer to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical foods for the intake of radionuclides by humans is rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is the dominant staple food crop in humid tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe. Cultivation methods have important effects on plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Most rice is produced under flooded conditions, i.e. in fields with a water layer of 5-15 cm deep on soil. This is unlike the situation in unsaturated fields where the soil conditions are significantly different, meaning that the soil-to-rice transfer factors (Fvs) need to be discussed separately from Fv values of other cereals grown under unsaturated field conditions. In this section, rice refers to the crop grown on wet paddy fields; since water management is the dominant method for rice cultivation this is the most common type. Rice Fv values were collected from papers in international journals, books and proceedings with peer reviewing processes and Fv values based on dry weight rice grain were summarized here. Fv data for fallout isotopes (e.g. 90Sr and 137Cs), neutron activation products (e.g. 54Mn, 60Co, etc.) or naturally existing radionluclides (e.g. 210Pb, 226Ra, 238U, etc.) and those for naturally existing stable elements under agricultural field conditions were listed. (author)

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10201-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available melanogaster chromos... 221 5e-56 (Q99LC5) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein...e) Rat electron transfer flavoprotein (ET... 154 6e-36 AM412317_3290( AM412317 |pid:none) Clostridium botul...13_610( CP000713 |pid:none) Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, comple... 202 8e-86 (Q9HZP7) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...g VV78X021543.... 194 6e-59 (A2XNR6) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...t... 221 4e-56 ( P13804 ) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit al... 221 4e

  1. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure the h...

  2. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  3. Cash transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  4. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  5. Benchmark solutions in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some simple analytical solutions are given to the radiation transfer equation in a homogeneous, static collisionless medium. We examine the propagation in a slab, then the passage through and the contact between two plates and finally the transfer in a sphere

  6. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  7. Cash Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  8. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012

    2013-01-01

    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  9. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  10. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bougouffa, Smail

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four qubit system and we demonstrate under which conditions the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of a nonzero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. The complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes only with the transfer to the other pairs being limited to up to 50%. We have found that the complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of...

  11. Distributed data transfers in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magini, Nicolo; Ratnikova, Natalia; Rossman, Paul; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Wildish, Tony

    2011-12-01

    The multi-tiered computing infrastructure of the CMS experiment at the LHC depends on the reliable and fast transfer of data between the different CMS computing sites. Data have to be transferred from the Tier-0 to the Tier-l sites for archival in a timely manner to avoid overflowing disk buffers at CERN. Data have to be transferred in bursts to all Tier-2 level sites for analysis as well as synchronized between the different Tier-l sites. The data transfer system is the key ingredient which enables the optimal usage of all distributed resources. The operation of the transfer system consists of monitoring and debugging of transfer issues to guarantee a timely delivery of data to all corners of the CMS computing infrastructure. Further task of transfer operation is to guarantee the consistency of the data at all sites, both on disk and on tape. Procedures to verify the consistency and to debug and repair problems will be discussed.

  12. Mechanisms of Ligand Transfer by the Hepatic Tocopherol Transfer Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Samantha; Cecchini, Matt; Zhang, Wendy; Virgulti, Alessandro; Noy, Noa; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Manor, Danny

    2008-01-01

    α-Tocopherol is a member of the vitamin E family that functions as the principal fat-soluble antioxidant in vertebrates. Body-wide distribution of tocopherol is regulated by the hepatic α-tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP), which stimulates secretion of the vitamin from hepatocytes to circulating lipoproteins. This biological activity of αTTP is thought to stem from its ability to facilitate the transfer of vitamin E between membranes, but the mechanism by which the pr...

  13. Energy imparted, energy transferred, and net energy transferred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRU-defined non-stochastic quantity absorbed dose is related to the stochastic quantity energy imparted. In the present paper the corresponding stochastic quantities energy transferred and net energy transferred are defined as precursors for kerma and collision kerma, respectively. This forms a rational fundamental framework for radiation dosimetry which facilitates its teaching and understanding. For neutrons collision kerma coincides with kerma, because the heavy secondaries do not lose significant energy by radiative processes (e.g., bremsstrahlung)

  14. Energy imparted, energy transferred, and net energy transferred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attix, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    The ICRU-defined non-stochastic quantity absorbed dose is related to the stochastic quantity energy imparted. In the present paper the corresponding stochastic quantities energy transferred and net energy transferred are defined as precursors for kerma and collision kerma, respectively. This forms a rational fundamental framework for radiation dosimetry which facilitates its teaching and understanding. For neutrons collision kerma coincides with kerma, because the heavy secondaries do not lose significant energy by radiative processes (e.g., bremsstrahlung).

  15. Optimum Inter terminal Transfer Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocket trajectories in a gravitational field between two terminals with specified velocities at each terminal are investigated with a view to total velocity increment required in initiating the rocket along the transfer path at the first terminal and in the attainment of the given final velocity at the final terminal. The equations are transformed for transfer between circular orbits and numerical results for Earth-Mars transfer are calculated. Finally particular cases of the above problem are discussed and Stark's results is drived therefrom.

  16. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  17. Charge transferred in brush discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.

  18. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  19. Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps biosynthetic locus in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonti Ramesh V

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal pathogenic bacteria, horizontal gene transfer events (HGT have been frequently observed in genomic regions that encode functions involved in biosynthesis of the outer membrane located lipopolysaccharide (LPS. As a result, different strains of the same pathogen can have substantially different lps biosynthetic gene clusters. Since LPS is highly antigenic, the variation at lps loci is attributed to be of advantage in evading the host immune system. Although LPS has been suggested as a potentiator of plant defense responses, interstrain variation at lps biosynthetic gene clusters has not been reported for any plant pathogenic bacterium. Results We report here the complete sequence of a 12.2 kb virulence locus of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo encoding six genes whose products are homologous to functions involved in LPS biosynthesis and transport. All six open reading frames (ORFs have atypical G+C content and altered codon usage, which are the hallmarks of genomic islands that are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The lps locus is flanked by highly conserved genes, metB and etfA, respectively encoding cystathionine gamma lyase and electron transport flavoprotein. Interestingly, two different sets of lps genes are present at this locus in the plant pathogens, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac. The genomic island is present in a number of Xoo strains from India and other Asian countries but is not present in two strains, one from India (BXO8 and another from Nepal (Nepal624 as well as the closely related rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoor. TAIL-PCR analysis indicates that sequences related to Xac are present at the lps locus in both BXO8 and Nepal624. The Xoor strain has a hybrid lps gene cluster, with sequences at the metB and etfA ends, being most closely related to sequences from Xac and the tomato pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

  20. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  1. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue that this...... relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape, and that the...... curvilinearity is greater for greenfield entries relative to acquisition entries. The U-shaped relationship between subsidiary innovativeness and reverse knowledge transfers, as well as the sensitivity of this result to entry mode are important new findings in the literature on the role of subsidiaries in...

  2. Risk Analysis of Mussels Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Smaal, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The risk that the transfer of mussels from the Irish and Celtic Sea to the Oosterschelde will lead to substantial ecological impact as a result of importing exotic nonindigenous species is small, but not totally absent

  3. Electronic fund transfer & the "unbanked"

    OpenAIRE

    Luxman Nathan

    1998-01-01

    As the Federal Government moves to switch most federal payments from paper check delivery to Direct Deposit by January 2, 1999, the Electronic Fund Transfer Initiative (EFT) attempts to educate consumers and serve the "unbanked."

  4. Technology transfer: The CANDU approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many and diverse technologies necessary for the design, construction licensing and operation of a nuclear power plant can be efficiently assimilated by a recipient country through an effective technology transfer program supported by the firm long term commitment of both the recipient country organizations and the supplier. AECL's experience with nuclear related technology transfer spans four decades and includes the construction and operation of CANDU plants in five countries and four continents. A sixth country will be added to this list with the start of construction of two CANDU 6 plants in China in early 1997. This background provides the basis for addressing the key factors in the successful transfer of nuclear technology, providing insights into the lessons learned and introducing a framework for success. This paper provides an overview of AECL experience relative to the important factors influencing technology transfer, and reviews specific country experiences. (author)

  5. Radiative transfer in solar prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr

    Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 103-130. ( Astrophysics adn Space Science Library. 415). ISBN 9783319104157 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : NLTE * radiative-transfer theory * model Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. PMID:26334018

  7. Estimating Matching Games with Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy T. Fox

    2008-01-01

    Economists wish to use data on matches to learn about the structural primitives that govern sorting. I show how to use equilibrium data on who matches with whom for semiparametric estimation of match production functions in many-to-many, two-sided matching games with transferable utility. Inequalities derived from equilibrium necessary conditions underlie a maximum score estimator of match production functions. The inequalities do not require data on transfers, quotas, production levels, or u...

  8. Horizontal gene transfer in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is frequently observed in prokaryotes and until recently was assumed to be of limited importance to eukaryotes. However, there is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that HGT is an important mechanism in eukaryotic genome evolution, particularly in unicellular organisms. The transfer of individual genes, gene clusters or entire chromosomes can have significant impacts on niche specification, disease emergence or shift in metabolic capabil...

  9. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed habiba; zahra shakeri

    2011-01-01

    IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner th...

  10. Transfer from vegetation to meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains a list of the transfer factors food/meat for Sr and Cs which have been referred to in several articles without dealing closely with the individual data. The author proposes to deal intensively with the literature in order to achieve more knowledge on the transfer factors food/meat for Sr and Cs and for other relevant radionuclides, especially the corrosion nuclides 59Fe, 54Mn, 65Zn and 60Co. (orig./MG)

  11. Knowledge Transfer in Space Science

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge Transfer (KT) is a major part of technical aspect in space science. By involving the research council funded Knowledge Transfer Account (KTA) programme and the university industrial and commercial partners, these strengthen the future research collaboration amongst the university, industrial, commercial, scientific and engineering communities. Since the space science research and development is a multi-billion pounds sterling industry, it is often referred as the most advanced resea...

  12. Information Transfer in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Steeg, Greg Ver; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has explored the increasingly important role of social media by examining the dynamics of individual and group behavior, characterizing patterns of information diffusion, and identifying influential individuals. In this paper we suggest a measure of causal relationships between nodes based on the information-theoretic notion of transfer entropy, or information transfer. This theoretically grounded measure is based on dynamic information, captures fine-grain notions of influenc...

  13. Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Volz, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    The book constitutes a particularly complete and original collection of ideas, models, numerical methods and experimental tools which will prove invaluable in the study of microscale and nanoscale heat transfer. It should be of interest to research scientists and thermal engineers who wish to carry out theoretical research or metrology in this field, but also to physicists concerned with the problems of heat transfer, or teachers requiring a solid foundation for an undergraduate university course in this area.

  14. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang

    2011-01-01

    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  15. Sources and Information on Transfer Associate Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayon, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of articles about the effects of transfer associate degrees and related statewide transfer and articulation policies. It also provides links to transfer degree legislation in several states.

  16. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米海燕

    2012-01-01

    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  17. A Primer on Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1982-01-01

    Unless education transfers back to the job, training is wasted and its value questioned. This article examines resistance to transfer and provides strategies for building transfer into training design. (CT)

  18. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  19. Resource Transfers to the Elderly: Do Adult Children Substitute Financial Transfers for Time Transfers?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Zissimopoulos

    2001-01-01

    Using the Health and Retirement Study, this research investigates whether an adult child substitutes financial transfers to an elderly parent for time transfers as the cost of his or her time increases. The author develops and estimates a model of the effect of a child's wage rate on time and money transferred to an elderly parent. She then calculates a wage elasticity and studies how this varies with the existence of substitutes such as siblings and a spouse, and how this varies by sex of th...

  20. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-01

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  1. Heat transfer in turbulent mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are: Basic Equations of Convective Heat Transfer; Basic Information on the Theory of Turbulent Heat Transfer in Flow Near Walls; Heat Transfer in Laminar Mixed Convection; Turbulent Mixed Convection in Boundary Layers; Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Horizontal Channels; Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels; and Gravitational Effects on Heat Transfer in a Single-Phase Fluid Near the Critical Point

  2. The transfer of second language acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu Lu

    2016-01-01

    Language transfer is a very important phenomenon in second language acquisition(SLA), which many linguists and psychologists would like to research. People who learn second language must be familiar with the rules of their mother tongue, so they often transfer those rules into the second language unconsciously, and then transfers appear. Language transfer divided into positive and negative transfer. The article use Odlin' s definition of language transfer in SLA.

  3. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project will demonstrate the capability to safely and efficiently store, transfer and measure cryogenic propellants,...

  4. 7 CFR 987.151 - Interhandler transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Qualification to Regulation § 987.151 Interhandler transfers. When any handler transfers dates, other than product dates, to another handler,...

  5. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG)

  6. Dry spent nuclear fuel transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport News Shipbuilding, (NNS), has been transferring spent nuclear fuel in a dry condition for over 25 years. It is because of this successful experience that NNS decided to venture into the design, construction and operation of a commercial dry fuel transfer project. NNS is developing a remote handling system for the dry transfer of spent nuclear fuel. The dry fuel transfer system is applicable to spent fuel pool-to-cask or cask-to-cask or both operations. It is designed to be compatible with existing storage cask technology as well as the developing multi-purpose canister design. The basis of NNS' design is simple. It must be capable of transferring all fuel designs, it must be capable of servicing 100 percent of the commercial nuclear plants, it must protect the public and nuclear operators, it must be operated cost efficiently and it must be transportable. Considering the basic design parameters, the following are more specific requirements included in the design: (a) Total weight of transfer cask less than 24 tons; (b) no requirement for permanent site modifications to support system utilization; (c) minimal radiation dose to operating personnel; (d) minimal generation of radioactive waste; (e) adaptability to any size and length fuel or cask; (f) portability of system allowing its efficient movement from site to site; (g) safe system; all possible ''off normal'' situations are being considered, and resultant safety systems are being engineered into NNS' design to mitigate problems. The primary focus of this presentation is to provide an overview of NNS' Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Transfer System. (author). 5 refs

  7. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, David

    2004-12-31

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p (~ 0 ~ p) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  8. Radionuclide transfer in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems differs substantially from the other ecosystems. The contamination of various forest products is commonly quantified using the Aggregated Transfer Factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. This review aims at compiling the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values is 10-3 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01 to 0.1 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Even if, the importance of radioactive contamination of forests as a significant source of the population exposure is recognized, most of the data refer to caesium and to a lesser extent, strontium. Data for other radionuclides are rather limited. (author)

  9. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  10. Mass Transfer by Stellar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2014-01-01

    I review the process of mass transfer in a binary system through a stellar wind, with an emphasis on systems containing a red giant. I show how wind accretion in a binary system is different from the usually assumed Bondi-Hoyle approximation, first as far as the flow's structure is concerned, but most importantly, also for the mass accretion and specific angular momentum loss. This has important implications on the evolution of the orbital parameters. I also discuss the impact of wind accretion, on the chemical pollution and change in spin of the accreting star. The last section deals with observations and covers systems that most likely went through wind mass transfer: barium and related stars, symbiotic stars and central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN). The most recent observations of cool CSPN progenitors of barium stars, as well as of carbon-rich post-common envelope systems, are providing unique constraints on the mass transfer processes.

  11. Pediatric free-tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Joseph; Guo, Lifei; Labow, Brian I

    2009-12-01

    Free-tissue transfer has facilitated and refined the reconstructive surgeon's ability to repair or reconstruct acquired or congenital defects in children. Although parallels exist between indications for free-tissue transfer in adults and children, the technical challenges and surgical skill required in pediatric patients are much greater and the level of complexity can escalate tremendously. Although this operation is difficult, the success rate is high and the results are often outstanding, with the benefit of growth and functional adaptation of the transferred tissue. Experience in this field is cumulative and creative thinking is often required. This article outlines the specific features unique to children, the most commonly used flaps, the expected results in specific regions, and the potential pitfalls to be avoided. PMID:19952700

  12. Some Metapsychological Considerations about Transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guillermo Castellanos-Urrego**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a metapsychological re-creation of transference from a conceptualization of representations as the units of psychism. Transferences have their origins in the effort of an unsatisfied libidinal investiture that continues to be active in the Unconscious, and which allows the primary process to inadvertently filter into the secondary process through a “false link”. Therefore, a current perception becomes identified with the expectative representation, which makes the individual believe that this new person will satisfy the aforementioned investiture. Transference neurosis is a psychoanalytic pillar, since only through it may one consciously and currently have access the repressed unconscious drives, a feature of childhood sexuality, and restart the psychosexual development.

  13. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  14. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  15. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.)

  16. Horizontal gene transfer in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caihua; Ren, Xiaodong; Mason, Annaliese S; Liu, Honglei; Xiao, Meili; Li, Jiana; Fu, Donghui

    2014-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. HGT often occurs in microbic and eukaryotic genomes. However, the pathways by which HGTs occur in multicellular eukaryotes, especially in plants, are not well understood. We systematically summarized more than ten possible pathways for HGT. The intimate contact which frequently occurs in parasitism, symbiosis, pathogen, epiphyte, entophyte, and grafting interactions could promote HGTs between two species. Besides these direct transfer methods, genes can be exchanged with a vector as a bridge: possible vectors include pollen, fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, plasmids, transposons, and insects. HGT, especially when involving horizontal transfer of transposable elements, is recognized as a significant force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation, playing an important functional and evolutionary role in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. We proposed possible mechanisms by which HGTs can occur, which is useful in understanding the genetic information exchange among distant species or distant cellular components. PMID:24132513

  17. Parental Motivation in Family Farm Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Kelly Y.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Hudson, Darren; Belasco, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    An intergenerational transfer model incorporating both altruism and exchange is presented for family farm transfers. A simulation study is conducted to test parental motivation in intergenerational transfers of family farm businesses. Results indicated that family farm intergenerational transfers are altruistically motivated.

  18. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  20. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1993-01-01

    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  1. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove;

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introducti...

  2. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  3. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  4. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  5. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  6. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis....... The heat transfer determined by these correlations is compared to the heat transfer determined by the CFD-calculations. The comparisons showed a good agreement between the heat transfer determined by the heat transfer correlations and the heat transfer determined by CFD-calculations. Consequently, the heat...... transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation...

  7. A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    L.I. Le Grange; A.J. Buys

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper gives a review of the theory of technology transfer mechanisms. It is intended as an overview for practitioners. Technology transfer is defined and the technology transfer process discussed. Various technology transfer management tools are presented, such as technology reviews, technology space maps, and technology balance sheets. It concludes with the application of the theory in the form of a new proposed model for technology transfer. The aim of the mo...

  8. Transfer pricing as a tax compliance risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Sven P.; Pfaffermayr, Michael; Winner, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the empirical literature on the transfer pricing behavior of multinational firms. Previous research mainly focuses on transfer pricing as a means of tax optimization. Our approach concentrates on transfer pricing as a critical compliance issue. Specifically, we investigate whether and to what extent the awareness of transfer pricing as a tax compliance issue responds to country and industry characteristics as well as firm-specifics. Empirically, the transfer pricing ...

  9. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  10. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Findi...

  11. Transfer of Rights and Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This chapter compares the law on transfer of rights (i.e., assignment) in the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), English law, and German law. It first considers cases in which the three systems produce similar results before concentrating on situations in which the results and the interactions...

  12. Placental transfer of selected radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews animal experiments carried out to determine the transfer of radiopharmaceuticals from mother to fetus. Animal data are compared to any human data available. The radiopharmaceuticals included in the discussion are Tc-99m pertechnetate, Tc-99m DTPA, Ga-67 citrate and Tl-201 chloride. (6 tab., 5 refs.)

  13. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  14. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  15. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  16. Proton transfer in organic scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Dipankar

    This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

  17. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  18. People transfer-sinequanon for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main obstacles facing the developing countries which wish to adopt sophisticated nuclear technology can be the following: lack of trained personnel, lack of entrepreneurs and capital, and bureaucracy. Of these the greatest problem is undoubtedly the lack of trained manpower. Urgently required skilled manpower may be obtained through training of selected persons in foreign countries on a crash program of nuclear energy. Exchange of expertise can also take place among the developing countries themselves. Another problem particularly peculiar to the poor developing countries is the lack of entrepreneurs and capital. It therefore becomes necessary to attract entrepreneurs from abroad with all the benefit of managerial know-how and capital transfer that it entails. Exchange of scientist, teachers, managerial and administrative personnel between the developed and developing countries and also among the developing countries themselves is therefore essential for an effective transfer of nuclear technology

  19. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  20. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  1. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  2. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain.

  3. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain

  4. TRANSFER PANAS LUBANG HITAM SCHWARZSCHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tiandho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mekanika kuantum menunjukkan bahwa lubang hitam memiliki temperatur sebagai indikasi dapat mengemisikan partikel. Persamaan transfer panas secara general mengandung operator Laplacian yang sifatnya dipengaruhi oleh ruang. Kelengkungan ruang-waktu di daerah sekitar lubang hitam sangat besar sehingga operator Laplacian untuk menghitung distribusi temperaturnya merupakan Laplacian ruang lengkung. Persamaan Fourier untuk lubang hitam Schwarzschild bergantung pada jarak dan radius Schwarzschild. Pada keadaan tunak solusi dari komponen radius mengandung polinomial Legendre dan solusi dari komponen sudut ruang mengadung fungsi spherical harmonics. Untuk kasus dengan persamaan diferensial terhadap waktu bernilai konstan solusi menyimpulkan bahwa temperatur bertambah seiring waktu. Hasil yang telah didapatkan secara umum dapat digunakan untuk menentukan distribusi temperatur pada ruang lengkung akibat suatu objek bermassa M. Koreksi ini sekaligus menggambarkan peristiwa transfer panas dalam konteks relativitas umum.Quantum mechanics show that black hole has temperature that indicated that black hole can emit particles.<0} {0>Persamaan transfer panas secara general mengandung operator Laplacian yang sifatnya dipengaruhi oleh ruang.<}0{>Generally the heat transfer equation contains Laplacian operators that is influenced by space.<0} {0>Kelengkungan ruang-waktu di daerah sekitar lubang hitam sangat besar sehingga operator Laplacian untuk menghitung distribusi temperaturnya merupakan Laplacian ruang lengkung.<}0{>The space-time arch in the surrounding of black hole is very big so that Laplacian operators to calculate the temperature distribution is the arch space Laplacian.<0} {0>Persamaan Fourier untuk lubang hitam Schwarzschild bergantung pada jarak dan radius Schwarzschild.<}0{>Fourier equation for Schwarzschild black hole is depended on the distance and radius of Schwarzschild.<0} {0>Pada keadaan tunak solusi dari komponen radius mengandung polinomial

  5. The electronic couplings in electron transfer and excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2009-04-21

    The transport of charge via electrons and the transport of excitation energy via excitons are two processes of fundamental importance in diverse areas of research. Characterization of electron transfer (ET) and excitation energy transfer (EET) rates are essential for a full understanding of, for instance, biological systems (such as respiration and photosynthesis) and opto-electronic devices (which interconvert electric and light energy). In this Account, we examine one of the parameters, the electronic coupling factor, for which reliable values are critical in determining transfer rates. Although ET and EET are different processes, many strategies for calculating the couplings share common themes. We emphasize the similarities in basic assumptions between the computational methods for the ET and EET couplings, examine the differences, and summarize the properties, advantages, and limits of the different computational methods. The electronic coupling factor is an off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix element between the initial and final diabatic states in the transport processes. ET coupling is essentially the interaction of the two molecular orbitals (MOs) where the electron occupancy is changed. Singlet excitation energy transfer (SEET), however, contains a Frster dipole-dipole coupling as its most important constituent. Triplet excitation energy transfer (TEET) involves an exchange of two electrons of different spin and energy; thus, it is like an overlap interaction of two pairs of MOs. Strategies for calculating ET and EET couplings can be classified as (1) energy-gap-based approaches, (2) direct calculation of the off-diagonal matrix elements, or (3) use of an additional operator to describe the extent of charge or excitation localization and to calculate the coupling value. Some of the difficulties in calculating the couplings were recently resolved. Methods were developed to remove the nondynamical correlation problem from the highly precise coupled cluster

  6. Embedded system file transfer USB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the communication series A emphasized new aspects of data exchange. The transfer of data, subject of my project of end of studies, consists in transferring from the files of a support of mass towards another via port USB. In first phase, I had like stain the realization of an embarked system allowing the communication between a key USB and final of communication such as a Pc. For this fact, I had to include/understand the operation of protocol USB and thus I could programmed a Peak to manage this communication. The second phase, will consist in extending this project towards a transmission de< donnees between two keys USB without intervention of a powerful machine equipped with an operating system pour rant to manage this transaction. (Author)

  7. Transfer reactions in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardayan, D. W.

    2016-08-01

    To a high degree many aspects of the large-scale behavior of objects in the Universe are governed by the underlying nuclear physics. In fact the shell structure of nuclear physics is directly imprinted into the chemical abundances of the elements. The tranquility of the night sky is a direct result of the relatively slow rate of nuclear reactions that control and determines a star’s fate. Understanding the nuclear structure and reaction rates between nuclei is vital to understanding our Universe. Nuclear-transfer reactions make accessible a wealth of knowledge from which we can extract much of the required nuclear physics information. A review of transfer reactions for nuclear astrophysics is presented with an emphasis on the experimental challenges and opportunities for future development.

  8. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  9. Transient Heat Transfer in Cylinpers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Chopra

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical solution has been obtained for transient heat transfer in cylinders by appropriate choice of body ,conforming grid points. The physical domain is transformed to computational domain using elliptic partial differential equation technique, wherein the grid spacing becomes uniform. The advantage of this method is that the discretisation of transformed equations. and accompanying boundary conditipns becdme very simple. The applicability of this method is very broad, as it can beused for carryinI giout study of any comple'x domain in contrast to finite difference methods, which have limited applicability. Detailedcalculations have been carried out to trace the evolution of temperaturedistribution frpm the initiial stages to the steadystate for circular cylinder, elliptical cylinder and square block with circular hole. This paper is aimed for general-shaped bodies and it has been applied to studytransient heat transfer in combustion-driven shock tube.

  10. Heat Transfer in Steelmaking Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André Zimmer; (A)lvaro Niedersberg Correia Lima; Rafael Mello Trommer; Saulo Roca Bragan(c)a; Carlos Pérez Bergmann

    2008-01-01

    The heat transfer in a steelmaking ladle was studied. The evaluation of heat transfer of the steel was performed by measuring steel temperature in points including all refining steel process. In the ladle, the temperatures in the refractories and the shell were also measured. To evaluate the thermal profile between the hot and cold faces of the ladle in the slag line position, an experiment which shows the importance of thermal contact resistance was car-ried out. Higher heat losses in the tapping and the vacuum were verified. The temperature measurements of the ladle indicate distinct thermal profiles in each stage of steel refining. Moreover, aseach stage of the process depends on the previous one, the complexity of the ladle thermal control is incremental. So a complete model of heat losses in the ladle is complex.

  11. Heat transfer during piston compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to determine the unsteady heat transfer from a nonreacting gas to the end wall of a channel during the piston compression of a single stroke. A thin platinum film resistance thermometer records the surface temperature of the wall during the compression. A conduction analysis in the wall, subject to the measured surface temperature variation, then yields the unsteady heat flux. A separate analysis based on the solution of the laminar boundary layer equations in the gas provides an independent determination of the heat flux. The two results are shown to be in good agreement. This is true for measurements that were made in air and in argon. Results for the heat transfer coefficient as a function of time are also presented and exhibit a nonmonotonic variation

  12. System for Multicast File Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Custura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of big files over the network from a single source to a large number of recipients is not efficient by using standard client-server or even peer-to peer file transfer protocols.  Thus, the transfer of a hierarchy of big files to multiple destinations can be optimized in terms of bandwidth usage and data storage reads by using multicast networking. In order to achieve that, a simple application layer protocol can be imagined. It uses multicast UDP as transport and it provides a mechanism for data ordering and retransmission. Some security problems are also considered in this protocol, because at this time the Internet standards supporting multicast security are still in the development stage.

  13. Project approach helps technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placing of the contract by the National Power Corporation with Westinghouse for the Philippines nuclear power plant (PNPP-1) is described. Maximised use of Philippine contractors under Westinghouse supervision was provided for. Technology transfer is an important benefit of the contract arrangements, since National Power Corporation project management acquires considerable nuclear plant experience during plant construction through consultation with technical personnel. (U.K.)

  14. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Geetanjali; Sonka, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific project, employing new technological capabilities to better transfer expert knowledge. The specific project considered for the paper is the World Initiative for Soy in Human Health (WISHH), a Multi Organization Enterprise promoting the use of soy and soy products in humanitarian and development aid around the world. VisIT, which stands for Visualization of Information Technology, is a potentially powerful organizational tool. It is compared against the traditi...

  15. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  16. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Indawan Syahri; A. Effendi Kadarisman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the a...

  17. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  18. Spin transfer in hyperon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization transfer coefficient D/sub NN/ provides a sensitive test of present quark recombination models of hyperon production. In this paper we present preliminary results from a recent measurement of D/sub NN/ in the reaction p-arrow-rightBe → Lambda-arrow-rightX at the Brookhaven AGS using the newly available polarized proton beam at incident momenta of 13 and 18 GeV/c

  19. Optimal Control of charge transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Werschnik, J.; Gross, E.K.U.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate how and to which extent a quantum system can be driven along a prescribed path in space by a suitably tailored laser pulse. The laser field is calculated with the help of quantum optimal control theory employing a time-dependent formulation for the control target. Within a two-dimensional (2D) model system we have successfully optimized laser fields for two distinct charge transfer processes. The resulting laser fields can be understood as a complicated interplay ...

  20. Defining the TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ALLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, Gabriella; Åman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to define the Technology Transfer Alliance (TTA), a nonprofit organization for Higher Education Institutions supporting capacity building in ICT and renewable energy through a project-driven learning. TTA is today still only an idea, waiting to be launched, which is why the goals for this bachelor thesis are to establish partnerships with institutions that will support the reaching of the goals of TTA, as well as providing a more solid definition of the functions o...

  1. Coherence in electron transfer pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Beratan, David N.; Waldeck, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the view of electron-transfer reactions is the idea that nuclear motion generates a transition state geometry at which the electron/hole amplitude propagates coherently from the electron donor to the electron acceptor. In the weakly coupled or nonadiabatic regime, the electron amplitude tunnels through an electronic barrier between the donor and acceptor. The structure of the barrier is determined by the covalent and noncovalent interactions of the bridge. Because the tunneling bar...

  2. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs

  3. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  4. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N2O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO2-elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  5. Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Smite, Darja; Wohlin, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson...

  6. Venture Capital and Knowledge Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Yin, Nina

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a new role for venture capitalists, as knowledge intermediaries. A venture capital investor can communicate valuable knowledge to an entrepreneur, facilitating innovation. The venture capitalist can also communicate the entrepreneur's innovative knowledge to other portfolio companies. We study the costs and benefits of these two forms of knowledge transfer, and their implications for investment, innovation, and product market competition. The model also sheds light on the ...

  7. Heat transfer of contact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coefficient of heat transfer h, which is defined as the ratio of the heat flux Q per unit area Asub(a) at a distance from the contact surface to the temperature drop ΔTsub(c) on the contact surfaces [h=Q/(Asub(a)ΔTsub(c))], was measured for fuel rods made of natural uranium cladded in pure aluminium of the type A5. A rod of stainless steel 304 and a rod of yellow brass, both cladded in aluminium, served as reference. Theoretical work was done to compute the coefficient of heat transfer h. The surfaces were rather rough, forming ''hills and valleys'', that could be observed under high magnification. Contact was made only at a few discrete points, and there was no heat flux beside the contact spots (the cladding was done in vacuum so that there was no fluid or gas between the contact surfaces). The numerical calculation was carried out by a computer. The size of the metal contact spots was found to depend on the pressure between the contact surfaces. It was established that a pressure of 4 kg/cm2 existed between the fuel and its cladding. The pressure increases as the fuel rods are heated to higer temperatures because of thermal expansion. The measured coefficients of heat transfer, h, were 650, 940, and 1300 kcal/[hr.m2.(deg C)] at contact temperatures of 27-33, 43-50, 69-76 deg C, respectively. Theoretical calculations yielded a value of 1100 kcal/[hr.m2.(deg C)]. In agreement with these calculations, experimental measurements showed that the coefficient of heat transfer depended highly on the contact pressure. Assuming exponential dependence (h=psup(m)), a coefficient of m=1.04 was found. (authors)

  8. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  9. Controlling Sulfuryl-Transfer Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kopp, Felix; Wu, Peng; Leyh, Thomas S

    2016-05-19

    In humans, the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to thousands of metabolites, including numerous signaling small molecules, and thus regulates their activities and half-lives. Imbalances in the in vivo set points of these reactions leads to disease. Here, with the goal of controlling sulfonation in vivo, molecular ligand-recognition principles in the SULT and nuclear receptor families are integrated in creating a strategy that can prevent sulfonation of a compound without significantly altering its receptor affinity, or inhibiting SULTS. The strategy is validated by using it to control the sulfonation and estrogen receptor (ER) activating activity of raloxifene (a US Food and Drug Administration-approved selective estrogen receptor modulator) and its derivatives. Preventing sulfonation is shown to enhance ER-activation efficacy 10(4)-fold in studies using Ishikawa cells. The strategy offers the opportunity to control sulfuryl transfer on a compound-by-compound basis, to enhance the efficacy of sulfonated drugs, and to explore the biology of sulfuryl transfer with unprecedented precision. PMID:27203377

  10. Heat transfer management in PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a very promising type of fuel cell regarding energy efficiency, power density and specific power, though it is still facing major technical challenges to the commercialization, including water management, thermal management, R and D of new materials with lower cost and better performance, etc. Thermal management is a challenging issue due to the facts that PEM fuel cells must be operated in a narrow suitable temperature range, that it is difficult to remove the generated heat which is no less than the electric energy produced while the heat generation is usually non-uniform. It is critical to clearly understand the mechanism of heat and mass transfer issues in PEM fuel cells to realize better thermal management, including heat generation, heat transfer mechanism, temperature distribution, mass distribution, etc. Numerical modeling is a very useful tool in studying mechanism of heat generation, heat and mass transfer as well as other issues in PEM fuel cells but, the models should be validated with experimental measurements. In this respect, in-situ diagnosis is a crucial approach to the understanding of such issues and validation of modeling study. (authors)

  11. Coherence in electron transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N; Waldeck, David H

    2011-01-01

    Central to the view of electron-transfer reactions is the idea that nuclear motion generates a transition state geometry at which the electron/hole amplitude propagates coherently from the electron donor to the electron acceptor. In the weakly coupled or nonadiabatic regime, the electron amplitude tunnels through an electronic barrier between the donor and acceptor. The structure of the barrier is determined by the covalent and noncovalent interactions of the bridge. Because the tunneling barrier depends on the nuclear coordinates of the reactants (and on the surrounding medium), the tunneling barrier is highly anisotropic, and it is useful to identify particular routes, or pathways, along which the transmission amplitude propagates. Moreover, when more than one such pathway exists, and the paths give rise to comparable transmission amplitude magnitudes, one may expect to observe quantum interferences among pathways if the propagation remains coherent. Given that the effective tunneling barrier height and width are affected by the nuclear positions, the modulation of the nuclear coordinates will lead to a modulation of the tunneling barrier and hence of the electron flow. For long distance electron transfer in biological and biomimetic systems, nuclear fluctuations, arising from flexible protein moieties and mobile water bridges, can become quite significant. We discuss experimental and theoretical results that explore the quantum interferences among coupling pathways in electron-transfer kinetics; we emphasize recent data and theories associated with the signatures of chirality and inelastic processes, which are manifested in the tunneling pathway coherence (or absence of coherence). PMID:23833692

  12. Mass Transfer Method and Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for transferring mass between a flow of a first fluid, preferably a gas phase such as a combustion flue gas, and a flow of a second fluid, preferably a liquid phase, where the first fluid is contacted with the outer surface of porous (semi-permeable) membranes, e.......g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon $m(3)) membranes, in the form of hollow fibres having gas-containing pores and contacting the second fluid with the inner surface of the membranes. Useful membranes are characterized in that they e.g. have a porosity ($g(e)) of at least 0.50, a mass transfer coefficient of e.......g. at least 3 cm/s, and a tortuosity factor of e.g. at the most 1.4/$g(e) when the porosity $g(e) is lower than 0.80 and at the most 1.3/$g(e) when the porosity $g(e) is 0.80 or higher. The membranes may also be arranged in hollow tubular members where the mass transfer coefficient of the membranes...

  13. Heat transfer. Basics and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boeckh, Peter von

    2012-07-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author's experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises of 45 minutes based on this textbook, have proved capable of designing independently complex heat exchangers such as for cooling of rocket propulsion chambers, condensers and evaporators for heat pumps. (orig.)

  14. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  15. Data Transfer Study HPSS Archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, James [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parete-Koon, Suzanne T [ORNL; Mitchell, Quinn [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); White, Stanley R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The movement of the large amounts of data produced by codes run in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment can be a bottleneck for project workflows. To balance filesystem capacity and performance requirements, HPC centers enforce data management policies to purge old files to make room for new computation and analysis results. Users at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and many other HPC user facilities must archive data to avoid data loss during purges, therefore the time associated with data movement for archiving is something that all users must consider. This study observed the difference in transfer speed from the originating location on the Lustre filesystem to the more permanent High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The tests were done with a number of different transfer methods for files that spanned a variety of sizes and compositions that reflect OLCF user data. This data will be used to help users of Titan and other Cray supercomputers plan their workflow and data transfers so that they are most efficient for their project. We will also discuss best practice for maintaining data at shared user facilities.

  16. Label transfer by measuring compactness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Robert; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image annotation algorithm. First, we introduce a new similarity measure between images: compactness. This uses low level visual descriptors for determining the similarity between two images. Compactness shows how close test image features lie to training image feature cluster centers. The measure provides the core for a k-nearest neighbor type image annotation method. Afterward, a formalism for defining different transfer techniques is devised and several label transfer techniques are provided. The method as whole is evaluated on four image annotation benchmarks. The results on these sets validate the accuracy of the approach, which outperforms many state-of-the-art annotation methods. The method presented here requires a simple training process, efficiently combines different feature types and performs better than complex learning algorithms, even in this incipient form. The main contributions of this paper are the usage of compactness as a similarity measure that enables efficient low level feature comparison and an annotation algorithm based on label transfer. PMID:23955754

  17. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization......, codification or a combination of these two strategies. The characteristics of the business influence the choice of communication channels used for knowledge transfer. This paper presents a case study exploring the transfer of knowledge within and across projects, specifically the transfer of service knowledge...... in the case of complex machinery. The strategies used for knowledge transfer were analysed and compared with the expected transfer mechanisms, similarities and differences were investigated and are described. A family of four identical rigs for offshore drilling was the selected case. The transfer of...

  18. Transference of Skills between Sports and Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jonathan; Srivastava, Ashok; Woo, Hong Seng

    1998-01-01

    A literature review and survey on transferability of skills from sports to business and evidence of mutually beneficial skills transfer. Organizations sponsoring sports offered more than monetary assistance, including managerial help, computer equipment, marketing, etc. (SK)

  19. Technology transfer and localization: A Framatome perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization and technology transfer have been important factors influencing the decision-making process in countries embarking on a nuclear power programme. It seems natural that relationships between donors and recipients of technology, beginning with sub-contracting, should evolve towards technology transfers and cooperation on an equal footing. France was both a receiver and a donor of technology transfer in the area of nuclear power. This paper describes the French experience in technology transfer and the lesson learned therefrom. (author)

  20. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  1. Efficient Gene Transfer in Bacterial Cell Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, Ana; Berkmen, Melanie B.; Lee, Catherine A.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer contributes to evolution and the acquisition of new traits. In bacteria, horizontal gene transfer is often mediated by conjugative genetic elements that transfer directly from cell to cell. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs; also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile genetic elements that reside within a host genome but can excise to form a circle and transfer by conjugation to recipient cells. ICEs contribute to the spread of genes involved in pathoge...

  2. Transfer Potentials shape and equilibrate Monetary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Braun; Robert Fischer

    2002-01-01

    We analyze a monetary system of random money transfer on the basis of double entry bookkeeping. Without boundary conditions, we do not reach a price equilibrium and violate text-book formulas of economists quantity theory (MV=PQ). To match the resulting quantity of money with the model assumption of a constant price, we have to impose boundary conditions. They either restrict specific transfers globally or impose transfers locally. Both connect through a general framework of transfer potentia...

  3. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    C.N.R. Rao; Rakesh Voggu

    2010-01-01

    Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer ph...

  4. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  5. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    planning for home births. Transfer for indication for foetal distress varied from 1.0% to 3.6%, postpartum haemorrhage from 0% to 0.2% and respiratory problems in the infant from 0.3% to 1.4%. The proportion of emergency transfers varied from 0% to 5.4%. CONCLUSION: Future studies should report indications...... for transfer from home to hospital and provide clear definitions of emergency transfers....

  6. Transfer Pricing in the Decentralized Multinational Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Peter C.; Miller, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how the multinational corporation's transfer price responds to changes in international corporate effective tax rates. It extends the decentralized decision-making analysis of transfer pricing in the context of different tax rates. It adopts and extends Bond's (1980) model of the decentralized multinational corporation that assumes centralized transfer pricing. The direction of transfer price change is as expected, while the magnitude of change is likely to be less than p...

  7. Motivation, Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Osterloh, Margit; Bruno S. Frey

    1999-01-01

    "Employees are motivated intrinsically as well as extrinsically. Intrinsic motivation is crucial when tacit knowledge in and between teams must be transferred. Organizational forms enable different kinds of motivation and have different capacities to generate and transfer tacit knowledge. Since knowledge generation and transfer are essential for a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage, we ask specifically what kinds of motivation are needed to generate and transfer tacit knowledge, as...

  8. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria to animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships like those of endosymbionts and their invertebra...

  9. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV2 and t=-4.0 GeV2 via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton

  10. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, D J; Aniol, K A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, G C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Seonho Choi; Chudakov, E; Danagulyan, A S; Degtyarenko, P; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Khandaker, M; Ketikyan, A; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nikolenko, D M; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A V; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Tajima, S; Sulkosky, V; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Weinstein, L B; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Voskanyan, H; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 (GeV/c)**2 and \\t=-4.0 (GeV/c)**2 via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton and in disagreement with a prediction of pQCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism.

  11. Technology and technology transfer: some basic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsavari, Ali; Adikibi, Owen; Taha, Yasser

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses various issues relating to technology and transfer of technology such as technology and society, technology and science, channels and models of technology transfer, the role of multinational companies in transfer of technology, etc. The ultimate objective is to pose the question of relevance of some existing models and ideas like technological independence in an increasingly globalised world economy.

  12. Beyond Physics: A Case for Far Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Benjamin Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is a case study of a physics undergraduate who claimed that he "uses physics to understand other subjects." This statement suggested that this student could describe issues concerning the transfer of learning and especially instances of far transfer. Detailed instances of far transfer have been difficult to replicate in lab settings.…

  13. Training Transfer: Not the 10% Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Training transfer is a key concern for organizational stakeholders, training professionals, and researchers. Since Georgenson's (1982) article on transfer, his conversational gambit that only 10% of training transfers to performance on the job has been quoted often. This estimate suggests a low level of success with training programs in general,…

  14. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the...

  15. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  16. Transfer across Second Language Acquisition Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis [13], [8]. Mishina-Mori [19] has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…

  17. Transfer of Pollution Abatement Technology and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Muneyuki Saito; Yasuyuki Sugiyama

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the transfer of pollution abatement technology on the level of urban unemployment, the total amount of pollution, and social welfare in a small, open Harris Todaro economy. We show that these transfers reduce urban unemployment and decrease the total amount of pollution. However, social welfare is unchanged because the technology transfer does not affect factor prices.

  18. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W

    1974-01-01

    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  19. Multinational corporation and the transfer of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Panait Nicoleta Georgeta

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses knowledge flow transfers in transnational corporations, also studies the different form of knowledge to be transferred. As multinationals establish subsidiaries in new locations, they will transfer know-how from the parent to the local operation. In established multinationals with a geocentric orientation, knowledge should be freely flowing from one unit to another as the whole organizations benefits from development activity.

  20. 21 CFR 864.9875 - Transfer set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer set. 864.9875 Section 864.9875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... § 864.9875 Transfer set. (a) Identification. A transfer set is a device intended for medical...

  1. Pixel-Level Domain Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Donggeun; Kim, Namil; Park, Sunggyun; Paek, Anthony S.; Kweon, In So

    2016-01-01

    We present an image-conditional image generation model. The model transfers an input domain to a target domain in semantic level, and generates the target image in pixel level. To generate realistic target images, we employ the real/fake-discriminator in Generative Adversarial Nets, but also introduce a novel domain-discriminator to make the generated image relevant to the input image. We verify our model through a challenging task of generating a piece of clothing from an input image of a dr...

  2. Electron transfer in helical polyaromatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Gál, Miroslav; Horáček, Michal; Teplý, Filip; Adriaenssens, Louis; Severa, Lukáš

    Xi´an: International Society of Electrochemistry, 2009. O06-O06. [International Symposium on Frontiers of Electrochemical Science and Technology . 12.08.2009-15.08.2009, Xi´an] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA MŠk OC 140; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA ČR GP203/09/P502; GA MŠk ME09114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * helical polyaromatics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  3. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P

    2012-01-01

    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  4. Credit Risk Transfer and Crunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    banks as risk navigators and generated a competitive hierarchy within the global banking industry determined on a gauge of this capacity. This private regulatory regime promoted market inflation and rendered institutional liquidity and risk transfer definitive of market power. In turn, a ballooning...... value for government bonds, central banks have effectively recognised that the products of innovation in the private sphere are global money. The state is in a curious bind. It takes on limitless exposure to private liabilities while its reform agenda is constrained to calling for greater levels...

  5. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  6. Genetic transfer in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparently defective bacteriophage capable of mediating transduction has been identified in culture filtrates of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (American Type Culture Collection 27774). Phage-mediated intraspecies transfer of antibiotic resistance markers occurs with a frequency of 10-4 to 10-6 per recipient cell. The vector contains linear fragments of double-strained DNA of about 13.5 kilobase pairs, which appear to be random pieces of bacterial DNA. As yet, neither induction nor plaque formation has been observed. To the authors' knowledge, a system of genetic exchange has not been described before for a member of the sulfate-reducing bacteria

  7. Blowdown heat transfer experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowdown heat transfer experiment has been carried out with a transparent test section to observe phenomena in coolant behavior during blowdown process. Experimental parameters are discharge position, initial system pressure, initial coolant temperature, power supply to heater rods and number of heater rods. At initial pressure 7-12 ata and initial power 6-50 kw per one heater rod, the flow condition in the test section is a major factor in determining time of DNB occurrence and physical process to DNB during blowdown. (auth.)

  8. Urban transfer entropy across scales

    CERN Document Server

    Murcio, Roberto; Gershenson, Carlos; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of urban agglomeration is studied here in the context of information exchange between different spatio-temporal scales. Cities are multidimensional non-linear phenomena, so understanding the relationships and connectivity between scales is important in determining how the interplay of local/regional urban policies may affect the distribution of urban settlements. In order to quantify these relationships, we follow an information theoretic approach using the concept of Transfer Entropy. Our analysis is based on a stochastic urban fractal model, which mimics urban growing settlements and migration waves. The results indicate how different policies could affect urban morphology in terms of the information generated across geographical scales.

  9. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee

    2016-01-19

    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  10. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  11. Exploring the Critical Role of Motivation to Transfer in the Training Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Anna; Beller, Johannes; Kauffeld, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring the critical role of motivation to transfer within the training transfer process. In a sample of N?=?252 employees of one industrial company, one peer rating and several self-ratings of transfer were used to investigate the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between training…

  12. Pragmatic Transfer in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic.transfer is a common phenomenon that exists in Second Language Acquisition. It is an increasingly important .research of interlanguage pragmatics in the last two decades. Based on the characteristics , it plays an important role in the success of cultural communication and Second Language Acquisition. Based on presenting the concept of pragmatic transfer, this paper presents the concept of pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition and introduces the classification of pragmatic transfer. Then, this paper proposes some suggestions to avoid negative pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition. It is hoped that this paper can help second language learners to develop their communicative competence and avoid pragmatic failures in intercultural communication.

  13. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  14. Perfect State Transfer on Signed Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.; Godsil, C.; Mallory, D.; Raz, A.; Tamon, C.

    2012-01-01

    We study perfect state transfer of quantum walks on signed graphs. Our aim is to show that negative edges are useful for perfect state transfer. Specific results we prove include: (1) The signed join of a negative 2-clique with any positive (n,3)-regular graph has perfect state transfer even if the unsigned join does not. Curiously, the perfect state transfer time improves as n increases. (2) A signed complete graph has perfect state transfer if its positive subgraph is a regular graph with p...

  15. Cash Transfers, Basic Income and Community Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Forget

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The austerity movement in high-income countries of Europe and North America has renewed calls for a guaranteed Basic Income. At the same time, conditional and unconditional cash transfers accompanied by rigorous impact evaluations have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries with the explicit support of the World Bank. Both Basic Income and cash transfer programs are more confidently designed when based on empirical evidence and social theory that explain how and why cash transfers to citizens are effective ways of encouraging investment in human capital through health and education spending. Are conditional cash transfers more effective and/or more efficient than unconditional transfers? Are means-tested transfers effective? This essay draws explicit parallels between Basic Income and unconditional cash transfers, and demonstrates that cash transfers to citizens work in remarkably similar ways in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It addresses the theoretical foundation of cash transfers. Of the four theories discussed, three explicitly acknowledge the interdependence of society and are based, in increasingly complex ways, on ideas of social inclusion. Only if we have an understanding of how cash transfers affect decision-making can we address questions of how best to design cash transfer schemes.

  16. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2011-04-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria-to-animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships such as those of endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts, particularly insects and nematodes, while numerous transfers are also found in asexual animals. Both of these observations are consistent with modern evolutionary theory, in particular the serial endosymbiotic theory and Muller's ratchet. Although it is tempting to suggest that these particular lifestyles promote horizontal gene transfer, it is difficult to ascertain given the nonrandom sampling of animal genome sequencing projects and the lack of a systematic analysis of animal genomes for such transfers. PMID:21334091

  17. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  18. INNOVATION TRANSFER AND RURAL SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C CANNARELLA

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The role innovation can play to make enterprises more dynamic and competitive is surely well known. For rural small and medium enterprises (SMEs this can become a critical issue because they often need financial and technical incentives and support from public and private research institutions in order to make innovation accessible to them. Yet bridging research and productive dimensions is not always an easy task The cooperation between researchers and rural entrepreneurs can become a rather demoralizing experience for both parties due to the action of a large number of inadequacies caused not only by financial, technical or organizational factors but also by cultural diversities and different approaches. This paper proposes some considerations matured by the authors while cooperating with some rural SMEs of agro-industrial and agrobusiness sectors in Central Italy to implement actions of innovation and know how transfer. The experiences reported have been made within the framework of article 15 of the Ministerial Decree (Ministry of University and Research n. 593/2000 which allows temporary deployment of personnel from research institutions in SMEs. In this paper the authors outline some methodological guidelines developed and adopted to analyze and meet the innovation demand from SMEs involved in innovation transfer processes.

  19. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen-Atom Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Xiao, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The cascade [1,n]-hydrogen transfer/cyclization, recognized as the tert-amino effect one century ago, has received considerable interest in recent decades, and great achievements have been made. With the aid of this strategy, the inert C(sp(3))-H bonds can be directly functionalized into C-C, C-N, C-O bonds under catalysis of Lewis acids, Brønsted acids, as well as organocatalysts, and even merely under thermal conditions. Hydrogen can be transferred intramolecularly from hydrogen donor to acceptor in the form of hydride, or proton, followed by cyclization to furnish the cyclic products in processes featuring high atom economy. Methylene/methine adjacent to heteroatoms, e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, can be exploited as hydride donor as well as methylene/methine without heteroatom assistance. Miscellaneous electrophilic subunits or intermediates, e.g., alkylidene malonate, carbophilic metal activated alkyne or allene, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes/ketone, saturated aldehydes/iminium, ketenimine/carbodiimide, metal carbenoid, electron-withdrawing groups activated allene/alkyne, in situ generated carbocation, can serve as hydride acceptors. This methodology has shown preeminent power to construct 5-, 6-, or 7-membered heterocyclic as well as carbon rings. In this chapter, various hydrogen donors and acceptors are adequately discussed. PMID:27573142

  1. Skills Development and Transfer Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Pty (Ltd), P O Box 9394, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa, P O Box 582, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed [1]. The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)

  2. Electron Transfer to Vinylaromatic Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatic polymers accept electrons from alkali metals to form polyradicalanions. These undergo chain scission as a result of electronic interaction between aromatic rings. Spectrophotometric and chemical evidence led to the conclusion that during the chain-breaking process polymeric fragments were formed which had the properties of ''living polymers'', i.e. the characteristic visible spectra and the capability of initiating the polymerization of a number of vinyl monomers. It was possible to follow the rate of chain scission in the case of poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and poly(α-vinyl naphthalene) by means of viscosity and spectrophotometric measurements. The postulated mechanism was found to be consistent with the slow decrease in free spin concentration measured by means of the electron spin resonance technique. Chain scission in polyacenaphthalene takes place at a much faster rate than in poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and this fact is in good agreement with simple LCAO MO calculations. Preliminary experiments indicate that electron transfer to poly-N-vinyl carbazole produces little if any degradation. These investigations led to the examination of the temperature effect on the electron-transfer reaction from sodium to some substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. The details of this effect are discussed. (author)

  3. Nuclear power and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the majority of developing countries, nuclear power is yet to become a practical means of producing heat and electricity. Most of the IAEA's technical assistance to them, therefore, has consisted of the transfer of radioisotope-related nuclear science techniques. These are playing a valuable role in treating diseases, eradicating pests, augmenting agricultural production, improving the quality of food, assessing and managing water resources and increasing the efficiency of industrial products. There is hardly any field of human endeavour to which nuclear science does not have an application. Such techniques may be usefully integrated into national agricultural, water resource, health and medical, and industrial research programmes. In helping to create cadres of scientists, technicians and administrators familiar with the economic use of nuclear science and able to handle radiation safely, their application in these areas can be seen as a first step towards the eventual use of nuclear power. This is even more important for the thirty developing countries that are already operating research reactors. There is a distinction, therefore, between the transfer of nuclear power technology, at present to a dozen developing countries, and that of nuclear science techniques which have useful applications in almost all of the other developing countries, more than 120 in number

  4. Predicting sporadic Grid data transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly common practice of (1) replicating datasets and (2) using resources as distributed data stores in Grid environments has lead to the problem of determining which replica can be accessed most efficiently. Due to diverse performance characteristics and load variations of several components in the end-to-end path linking these various locations, selecting a replica location from among many requires accurate prediction information of end-to-end data transfer times between the sources and sinks. In this paper, we present a prediction system that is based on combining end-to-end application throughput observations and network load variations, drawing from their merits of capturing whole system performance and variations in load patterns respectively. We develop a set of regression models to derive predictions that characterize the effect of network load variations on file transfer times. We apply these techniques to the GridFTP data movement tool, part of the Globus Toolkit(sup TM), and observe performance gains of up to 10% in prediction accuracy when compared to approaches based on past system behavior in isolation

  5. Electromechanical capacitor for energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductive energy transfer between two magnets can be achieved with almost 100% efficiency with a transfer capacitor. However, the bulk and cost will be high, and reliability low if conventional capacitors are used. A homopolar machine, used as a capacitor, will be compact and economical. A homopolar machine was designed with counter-rotating copper disks completely immersed in a liquid metal (NaK-78) to work as a pulse capacitor. Absence of solid-brush collectors minimized wear and frictional losses. Wetting of the copper disks throughout the periphery by the liquid metal minimized the resistive losses at the collector interface. A liquid-metal collector would, however, introduce hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic losses. The selected liquid metal, e.g., NaK-78 will produce the lowest of such losses among the available liquid metals. An electromechanical capacitor of this design was tested at various dc magnetic fields. Its measured capacitance was about 100 farads at a dc magnetic field of 1.15 tesla

  6. Radionuclide transfer to meadow plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on 90Sr and 137Cs transfer to plants of natural and semi-natural meadows selected in the main CIS region contaminated due to the ChNPP accident are discussed. The highest TF's in grass stand are obtained for peatlands, and minimal ones - for dry meadows. 137Cs content in plants decreased after the accident, on average, by a factor of 2-4. The dynamics of 137Cs uptake by plants depends on meadow and soil properties. The first half life of 137Cs transfer to plants change from 2,0 to 2,2 years and the second (slower) period half life change from 4,0 to 12 years for different meadow types. 90Sr TF's are higher than those obtained for 137Cs. The correlation between soil parameters and TP's are shown. 137Cs TF's in grass stand depend on meadow type and decrease in the following order: peatlands> flood plain and wet (lowland) meadows> dry meadows

  7. Acquisition of Triacylglycerol Transfer Activity by Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein During Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rava, Paul; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the assembly of neutral lipid rich apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoproteins. Previously we reported that the Drosophila MTP transfers phospholipids but does not transfer triglycerides. In contrast, human MTP transfers both lipids. To explore the acquisition of triglyceride transfer activity by MTP, we evaluated amino acid sequences, protein structures, as well as the biochemical and cellular properties of various MTP orthologs obtain...

  8. An Empirical study of the relationship between motivation to transfer and transfer of training

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Mumtaz Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study on relationship between motivation to training transfer and actual transfer of training on job. In this study we examined that how much motivation to training transfer contribute in successfully transferring to the work place, the knowledge, skill and abilities acquired during training. review highlighted transfer of training can be maximized through increasing motivation and enthusiasm in trainees to apply their knowledge and skill at th...

  9. Structure of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase B: Electron Transfer between Two Flavin Groups Bridged by an Iron-Sulphur Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowland, Poul; Nørager, Sofie; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Larsen, Sine

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fourth step and only redox reaction in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by the flavoprotein dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD). Based on their sequences, DHODs are grouped into two major families. Lactococcus lactis is one of the few organisms with two DHODs, A and B...... to the NADPH ferredoxin reductase superfamily. The binding site for NAD+ has been deduced from the similarity to these proteins. The orotate binding in DHODB is similar to that in the family 1A enzymes. The close proximity of the three redox centers makes it possible to propose a possible electron...

  10. ASPEK PERPAJAKAN DALAM PRAKTEK TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Mangoting

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing is defined as a special price for sale that is used in exchange of interdivisional to record the revenue of the selling division and expense of the buying division. The main goal of transfer pricing is to evaluate and measure the performance of a company. But transfer pricing is often used by multinational companies to minimize tax paid through the re-engineering of price transferred among divisions. The key to a successful practice of transfer pricing from tax standpoint is the existence of related parties transactions. Related parties is relationship between one company with other company and this relationship happens because of such relationship between each company does not exist naturally.To regulate the tranfer pricing practice, the regulations govern the authority to realocate transfer price among divisions that have related parties transactions. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Transfer pricing didefenisikan sebagai suatu harga jual khusus yang dipakai dalam pertukaran antardivisional untuk mencatat pendapatan divisi penjual (selling division dan biaya divisi pembeli (buying division. Tujuan utama dari transfer pricing adalah mengevaluasi dan mengukur kinerja perusahaan. Tetapi sering juga transfer pricing digunakan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional untuk meminimalkan jumlah pajak yang dibayar melalui rekayasa harga yang ditransfer antardivisi. Kunci utama keberhasilan transfer pricing dari sisi pajak adalah adanya transaksi karena adanya hubungan istimewa. Hubungan istimewa merupakan hubungan kepemilikan antara satu perusahaan dengan perusahaan lain dan hubungan ini terjadi karena adanya keterkaitan satu pihak dengan pihak lain yang tidak terdapat pada hubungan biasa. Untuk mengatur transfer pricing ini, undang-undang memberikan kewenangan kepada pihak fiskus untuk menentukan kembali jumlah harga transfer antar pihak-pihak yang mempunyai hubungan istimewa. Kata kunci: transfer pricing, hubungan istimewa, perusahaan

  11. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  12. Heterostructure Intervalley Transferred Electron Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Fang-Shi

    2001-01-01

    A Gunn active layer is used as an X electron probe to detect the X tunnelling current in the GaAs-AlAs heterostructure, from which a new heterostructure intervalley transferred electron (HITE) device is obtained. In the 8 mm band, the highest pulse output power of these diodes is 2.65 W and the highest conversion efficiency is 18%. The dc and rf performance of the HITE devices was simulated by the band mixing resonant tunnelling theory and Monte Carlo transport simulation. The HITE effect has transformed the transit-time dipole-layer mode in the Gunn diode into a relaxation oscillation mode in the HITE device. From the comparison of simulated results to the measured data, the HITE effect is demonstrated straightforwardly

  13. Surface defects as transfer matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyoshi, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    The supersymmetric index of the 4d $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ theory realized by a brane tiling coincides with the partition function of an integrable 2d lattice model. We propose that a class of half-BPS surface defects in brane tiling models are represented on the lattice model side by transfer matrices constructed from L-operators. For the simplest surface defect in theories with $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$ flavor groups, we identify the relevant L-operator as that discovered by Sklyanin in the context of the eight-vertex model. We verify our proposal by computing the indices of class-$\\mathcal{S}$ and -$\\mathcal{S}_k$ theories in the presence of the surface defect.

  14. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  15. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  16. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  17. Energy transfer in nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughn, Chelsea

    Energy transport and loss are critical to the performance of optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and terahertz imaging devices. Nanostructured materials provide many opportunities to tailor transport and loss parameters for specific device applications. However, it has been very difficult to correlate specific nanoscale structural parameters with changes in these performance metrics. I report the development of new ways of using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) to probe charge and energy transport and loss dynamics. These techniques are applied to several types of nanostructured materials, including bulk semiconductors with defects, self-assembled quantum dots and colloidal quantum dots. First, GaAs/InP double heterostructures grown via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were characterized with TRPL. TRPL is typically used to extract minority carrier lifetimes, but we discovered that the measured lifetime depended critically on the intensity of the exciting laser. We developed a Shockley-Read-Hall model to extract trap state densities from intensity-dependent TRPL measurements. Second, we characterized energy and charge transfer between InAs quantum dots and ErAs nanoinclusions within III-V heterostructures. Using intensity- and temperature-dependent TRPL, we confirmed tunneling as the dominant mechanism of charge transport and characterized the electronic structure of the ErAs nanoparticles. Finally, we characterized energy transport in colloidal quantum dot cascade structures. These cascade structures utilize Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and trap state recycling to funnel excitons from donor layers to acceptor layers and suggest a promising method for avoiding losses associated with surface trap states. Collectively, the analysis of these disparate material types advances our understanding of energy dynamics in nanostructured materials and improves our ability to design the next generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic

  18. Transfer of technology. Foreign contributions and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of technology involved when exporting nuclear plants to countries with less-developed industry requires the provision of specific object-related processing methods, and the transfer of basic technical know-how. Such transfer should be organized so that it is both effective and economical. This paper discusses such transfer requirements in the light of the Federal Republic of Germany's agreement to supply nuclear plant to Brazil. The three main phases of such technology transfer comprise, first, a determination of the framework for joint scientific work between the two contracting countries; second, co-operation based on detailed agreements between universities, scientific institutes, licensing authorities etc., and, third, the transfer of know-how, chiefly characterized by high-level co-operation at the industrial level, as well as special training programmes for key personnel etc. At this stage special attention must be paid to the co-ordination of the different activities. (author)

  19. Benefit Transfer Studies: Myths, Pragmatism, and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kevin J.; Bergstrom, John C.

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer has been an ongoing, practical analysis for years in legal proceedings and government policy analyses where timely benefit estimates are critically dependent on the use of existing data. Most benefit transfer studies to date have been conducted behind closed doors and have not been open to scholarly review, and no systematic research agenda has been established to determine whether benefit transfer estimates are valid for public policy analyses. In this paper we propose a systematic, conceptual foundation for conducting benefit transfer studies, and suggest a research agenda to identify conditions under which valid benefit transfer estimates can be derived. We conclude, however, that this research agenda must be accompanied by improved conduct and reporting of original valuation studies before benefit transfer can become a widely used tool in public policy analyses.

  20. Transferring lean management infrastructure for increasing productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Daniel Georgescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available These years, manufacturing function have been transferred rapidly and globally from matured countries to emerging countries. In this paper is about the critical elements for successful transfer of lean management among sites and countries. Based on this general descriptive analysis, current global transfer activity of Lean as well as its future direction is also described. According to the gradual progress of lean management transfer, necessity of its refinement/reinforcement is recognized and some research subjects are proposed for contributing further encouragement of its global activities. In this paper, based on this understanding, requisites for transfer of lean management are discussed through investigating global activity of Lean and specification of infrastructure enabling its smooth transfer is examined

  1. Coherence in Energy Transfer and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Aurélia; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2015-04-01

    Ultrafast energy transfer is used to transmit electronic excitation among the many molecules in photosynthetic antenna complexes. Recent experiments and theories have highlighted the role of coherent transfer in femtosecond studies of these proteins, suggesting the need for accurate dynamical models to capture the subtle characteristics of energy transfer mechanisms. Here we discuss how to think about coherence in light harvesting and electronic energy transfer. We review the various fundamental concepts of coherence, spanning from classical phenomena to the quantum superposition, and define coherence in electronic energy transfer. We describe the current status of experimental studies on light-harvesting complexes. Insights into the microscopic process are presented to highlight how and why this is a challenging problem to elucidate. We present an overview of the applicable dynamical theories to model energy transfer in the intermediate coupling regime.

  2. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  3. A dynamic approach to technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation has developed a systematic program for achieving efficient, effective technology transfer. This program is based on transferring both know-why and know-how. The transfer of know-why and know-how is achieved most effectively by working in partnership with the recipient of the technology; by employing five primary transfer mechanisms, according to the type of learning required; by treating the technology transfer as a designed process rather than an isolated event; and by using a project management approach to control and direct the process. This paper describes the philosophy, process, and training mechanisms that have worked for Stone and Webster, as well as the project management approach needed for the most effective transfer of technology. (author)

  4. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39mm ID and 2.0m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum. The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 李修伦

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39 mm ID and 2.0 m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum.The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Heat transfer - Milwaukee 1981 (National Heat Transfer Conference, 20th), 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference proceedings contains 83 papers of which 36 appear as abstracts only. Twenty-eight papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: direct contact heat transfer; transport phenomena in fusion reactors; enhanced nucleate boiling; flow boiling; heat transfer in non-Newtonian systems; two-phase systems; heat transfer in fossil fuel conversion systems; process heat transfer; thermal and hydraulic behavior in rod and the bundles; two phase systems in rod and tube bundles; solar energy heat transfer; heat transfer in fluidized beds; and, fire and combustion fundamentals

  7. Heat transfer - Milwaukee 1981 (National Heat transfer conference, 20th), 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference proceedings contains 83 papers of which 36 appear as abstracts only. Forty-five papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: direct contact heat transfer; transport phenomena in fusion reactors; enhanced nucleate boiling; flow boiling; heat transfer in non-Newtonian systems; two-phase systems; heat transfer in fossil fuel conversion systems; process heat transfer; thermal and hydraulic behavior in rod and tube bundles; two phase systems in rod and tube bundles; solar energy heat transfer; heat transfer in fluidized beds; and, fire and combustion fundamentals

  8. HRM Practices and MNC knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2004-01-01

    support organizational learning environment, is positively related to the degree ofknowledge transfer to the subsidiary. Moreover, the higher degree of knowledge transfer isexpected when human resource management practices are applied as an integrated system ofinterdependent practices. Hypotheses derived...... from these arguments are tested on the data from 92subsidiaries of Danish multinational corporations located in 11 countries.Key words: knowledge transfer, multintional corporations, HRM, complementarity...

  9. Phonon-induced dynamic resonance energy transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, James; Tame, Mark; Yee, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Joong-Sung; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2013-01-01

    In a network of interacting quantum systems achieving fast coherent energy transfer is a challenging task. While quantum systems are susceptible to a wide range of environmental factors, in many physical settings their interactions with quantized vibrations, or phonons, of a supporting structure are the most prevalent. This leads to noise and decoherence in the network, ultimately impacting the energy-transfer process. In this work, we introduce a novel type of coherent energy-transfer mechan...

  10. Transfer Entropy Analysis of the Stock Market

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, S K; Kwon, O; Moon, H T; Baek, Seung Ki; Jung, Woo-Sung; Kwon, Okyu; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2005-01-01

    In terms of transfer entropy, we investigated the strength and the direction of information transfer in the US stock market. Through the directionality of the information transfer, the more influential company between the correlated ones can be found and also the market leading companies are selected. Our entropy analysis shows that the companies related with energy industries such as oil, gas, and electricity influence the whole market.

  11. The transfer of accelerator technology to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national laboratories and universities are sources for innovative accelerator technology developments. With the growing application of accelerators in such fields as semiconductor manufacturing, medical therapy isotope production, nuclear waste transmutation, materials testing, bomb detection, pure science, etc., it is becoming more important to transfer these technologies and build an accelerator industrial base. In this talk the methods of technology transfer, the issues involved in working with the labs and examples of successful technology transfers are discussed. (Author)

  12. Transfer of nucleons at high relative velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1985-02-01

    We discuss nucleon transfer between bound states of nuclei at high relative velocities. It is shown that the tails of the internal momentum distributions of the nuclear states participating in the transition strongly influence the transfer probabilities at energies between 30-90 MeV/u. Data and DWBA calculations show an exponential decrease of the cross sections in this energy regime and we dub it TGV (Transfer à Grande Vitesse).

  13. Maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, T. D.; Kidd, G M

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer. DESIGN--Retrospective study of 190 consecutive cases over two years. SETTING--Liverpool Maternity Hospital. PATIENTS--190 Pregnant women were transferred to the hospital under the in utero transfer arrangements from district general hospitals both within and outside the Mersey region. The women admitted were divided into two categories: those in threatened or established uncomplicated preterm labour an...

  14. An integrated approach towards technology transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Wal, L.F. van der; Eldering, C.J.J.; Putten, N.J. van

    2010-01-01

    In 2001 the European Space Agency (ESA), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation of applied scientific research TNO initiated the Dutch Technology Transfer Programme (DTTP). Since then, 'technology transfer' has been a relevant part of Dutch space policy. The DTTP aimed to promote the transfer of knowledge and technology from the European space industry to Dutch companies outside the space sector. Full and easy access to this knowledge and technology may allow ...

  15. Transfer pricing and debt shifting in multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern that governments lose substantial corporate tax revenue because of profit shifting through transfer-pricing and thin-capitalization strategies. Existing literature studies profit shifting and transfer pricing separately. In practice, the choice of debt-to-asset ratios in affiliates and the transfer price of debt are interrelated management decisions that are also mutually affected by government regulation. This paper models these strategies as intertwined. We find t...

  16. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localize...

  17. Transfer Pricing Documentation - A Current Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai; Ramona Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Rather quick development of the business environment has led to the implementation of legislative measures to meet the requirements and amendments thereto. With the adoption of the Fiscal Procedure Code and Order no. 442/2016 were founded transfer pricing procedures, denoting a means of making taxable transfer of a high tax country to a low tax country. These laws have laid down conditions that must be met and materiality thresholds that must take into account the taxpayer to draft transfer p...

  18. Millimeter Wave Power Transfer and Information Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lifeng; Elkashlan, Maged; Heath, Jr, Robert W.; Di Renzo, Marco; Wong, Kai-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the existing lower frequency wireless power transfer, millimeter wave (mmWave) power transfer takes advantage of the high-dimensional multi-antenna and narrow beam transmission. In this paper we introduce wireless power transfer for mmWave cellular networks. Here, we consider users with large energy storage that are recharged by the mmWave base stations prior to uplink information transmission, and analyze the average harvested energy and average achievable rate. Numerical results...

  19. Wireless Power Transfer in 3D Space

    OpenAIRE

    C.Bhuvaneshvari; R.Rajesvari; K.M.S. MuthukumaraRajaguru

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop a system of wireless power transfer in 3D space. This concept based on low frequency to high frequency conversion. High frequency power is transmit between air-core and inductor. This work presents an experiment for wireless energy transfer by using the Inductive resonant coupling (also known as resonant energy transfer) phenomenon. The basic principles will be presented about this physical phenomenon, the experiment design, and the results obt...

  20. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  1. Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Topputo, Francesco; Belbruno, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial condit...

  2. 7 CFR 932.54 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order..., the transferring handler shall comply with all applicable regulations up to the time of such...

  3. Stability of the LHC transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is filled from the SPS through two 3 km transfer lines. The injected beam parameters need to be well under control for luminosity performance, machine protection and operational efficiency. Small fractions of beam loss on the transfer line collimation system create showers which can trigger the sensitive LHC beam loss monitor system nearby and cause a beam abort during filling. The stability of the transfer line trajectory through the collimators is particularly critical in this respect. This paper will report on the transfer line trajectory stability during the proton run in 2011, correlations with injection losses, correction frequency and the most likely sources for the observed oscillations.

  4. Transfer of chemical elements to breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is intended to yield information on the transfer factors describing the transfer of ingested radionuclides to breast milk for the following elements: antimony, cerium, chromium, cobalt, gallium, lanthanum, molybdenum, niobium, radium, ruthenium, silver, thorium, titanium, and uranium. Those yet unknown or poorly known transfer factors are required in order to be able to develop a reliable model for description and assessment of the transfer of the radionuclides and the possibly resulting hazardous doses to infants, and for subsequent formulation of recommendations for radiological protection of the population. (orig./CB)

  5. Abstraction and underspecification in semantic transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abb, Bernd; Buschbeck-Wolf, Bianka; Tschernitschek, Christel

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the semantic transfer approach MinT (Minimal Transfer) that has been developed in the speech-to-speech MT system VERBMOBIL. As a unification-based and lexicalist semantic transfer model, it relies on some central ideas of the MRS-based transfer approach outlined in [Copestake et al., 1995]. It differs, however, from the latter in certain aspects: in MinT, the idea of abstraction and underspecification is worked out in much more detail and has been applied to a variety of...

  6. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decontaminated and dismantled the world's first nuclear-fueled, commercial-size electric power plant. The SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. The objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper sets out access and availability directions for SSDP technology acquisition. Discusses are technology transfer definition; technology transfer products including topical and other project reports, professional-technical society presentations, other project liaison and media relations, visual documentation, and technology transfer data base; and retrieving SSDP information

  7. Knowledge transfer and expatriation practices in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    ) the willingness ofexpatriates to transfer the knowledge they possess from the headquarters to therespective subsidiaries. By stepping on two bodies of literature, namely theknowledge transfer literature and the expatriation literature, we suggest that MNCsmay enhance the expatriates' willingness to...... transfer their knowledge through theemployment of long-term expatriation practices. Expatriates' ability to transferknowledge may be increased through their involvement in short-term assignments,frequent flyers arrangements and international commuters practices. We testempirically the hypotheses on the...... basis of data from 92 subsidiaries of Danish MNCslocated in 11 countries.Key words: knowledge transfer, MNC, expatriation, dissemination capacity...

  8. Transfer Matrix for Fibonacci Dielectric Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祥宝

    2001-01-01

    The transfer matrices, which transfer the amplitudes of the electric fields of second- and third-harmonic waves from one side of the interface to the other, are defined for layers joined coherently, and the total transfer matrices for several sequential interfaces can be simply obtained by multiplication of the matrices. Using the transfer matrix method, the interacting processes of second- and third-harmonic waves in a one-dimensional finite Fibonacci dielectric superlattice are investigated. Applying the numerical procedure described in this letter, the dependence of the second- and third-harmonic fields on sample thickness is obtained. The numerical results agree with the quasi-phase-matching theory.

  9. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  10. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  11. Uranium mass transfer in a pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass transfer measurements were made in a pulsed plate liquid-liquid extraction column. A depleted uranium solute was transferred between nitric acid and tributyl phosphate in odourless kerosene. Uranium concentration profiles of both phases were measured using a new design of sample collector. Heights of transfer units and mass transfer coefficients were calculated under a variety of pulsing conditions for both forward and back extraction. Under backwash conditions the value of HTU was found to decrease with increasing pulse velocity. Under extract conditions the HTU was found to be substantially constant over the range of pulse velocities investigated. (author)

  12. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.R. Rao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.

  13. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  14. TRANSFER PRICES: MECHANISMS, METHODS AND INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cosmina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are considered the prices paid for the goods or services in a cross-border transaction between affiliates companies, often significant reduced or increased in order to avoid the higher imposing rates from one jurisdiction. Presently, over 60% of cross-border transfers are represented by intra-group transfers. The paper presents the variety of methods and mechanisms used by the companies to transfer the funds from one tax jurisdiction to another in order to avoid over taxation.

  15. The CANDU 9 fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU 9 fuel transfer system is based on the CANDU 6 and the Ontario Hydro Darlington NGD designs, modified to suit the CANDU 9 requirements. The CANDU 9 new fuel transfer system is very similar to the CANDU 6, with modifications to allow new fuel loading from outside containment, similar to Darlington. The CANDU 9 irradiated fuel transfer system is based on the Darlington irradiated fuel transfer system, with modifications to meet the more stringent containment requirements, improve performance, and match station layout. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs

  16. Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.

  17. Heat transfer models in narrow gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For severe accident assessment in a light water reactor (LWR), heat transfer models in a narrow annular gap between the overheated core debris and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are important to evaluate the integrity of RPV and emergency procedures. Some heat transfer models have been proposed as gap cooling CHF (critical heat flux) but the effects of superheat on the heat transfer surface were not taken into account. This paper presents the effects of superheat based on existing data and heat transfer models in a narrow gap. (author)

  18. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how

  19. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  20. Proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) provides on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a low detection threshold and a fast response time. Commercially available set-ups are usually based on quadrupole analysers but recently new instruments based on time-of-flight (PTR-ToF-MS) analysers have been proposed and commercialized. PTR-MS has been successfully applied to a variety of fields including environmental science, food science and technology, plant physiology and medical science. Many new challenges arise from the newly available PTR-ToF-MS instruments, ranging from mass calibration and absolute VOC concentration determination to data mining and sample classification. This thesis addresses some of these problems in a coherent framework. Moreover, relevant applications in food science and technology are presented. It includes twelve papers published in peer reviewed journals. Some of them address methodological issues regarding PTR-ToF-MS; the others contain applicative studies of PTR-ToF-MS to food science and technology. Among them, there are the first two published applications of PTR-ToF-MS in this field. (author)

  1. 6-Thiocyanatoflavins and 6-mercaptoflavins as active-site probes of flavoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Vincent; Ghisla, Sandro; Yagi, Kunio

    1986-01-01

    6-Thiocyanatoflavins have been found to be susceptible to nucleophilic displacement reactions with sulfite and thiols, yielding respectively the 6-S-S03--flavin and 6-mercaptoflavin, with rate constants at pH 7.0, 20°C, of 55 M-1 min-1 for sulfite and 1000 M-1 min-1 for dithiothreitol. The 6-SCN-flavin binds tightly to riboflavin-binding protein as the riboflavin derivative, to apoflavodoxin, apo-lactate oxidase, and apo-Old Yellow Enzyme as the FMN derivative, and to apo-D-amino acid oxidase...

  2. Novel Functions of an Iron-Sulfur Flavoprotein from Trichomonas vaginalis Hydrogenosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smutná, T.; Pilařová, K.; Tarábek, Ján; Tachezy, J.; Hrdý, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2014), s. 3224-3232. ISSN 0066-4804 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-09208J Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Methanosarcina thermophila * nitric oxide * Trichomonas vaginalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a flavoprotein NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-forming flavoenzyme NADH oxidase was crystallized successfully for the first time. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 4.0 Å resolution. NADH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus brevis is a homotetrameric flavoenzyme composed of 450 amino acids per subunit. The molecular weight of each monomer is 48.8 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of two equivalents of NADH and reduces one equivalent of oxygen to yield two equivalents of water, without releasing hydrogen peroxide after the reduction of the first equivalent of NADH. Crystals of this protein were grown in the presence of 34% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000, 0.1 M sodium acetate and 0.2 M ammonium sulfate at pH 5.4. They belong to the tetragonal space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.8, b = 95.7, c = 116.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. The current diffraction limit is 4.0 Å. The self-rotation function of the native data set is consistent with a NOX tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  4. Flavoproteins in directed evolution : iterative CASTing to evolve YqjM and P450BM3

    OpenAIRE

    Kille, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden zwei Enzyme, eine Enoatreduktase (YqjM) und eine Monooxigenase (P450BM3), mittels "Gerichteter Evolution" auf die Akzeptanz neuer Substrate angepasst. Mittel iterativem CASTing (combinatorial active site saturation test) konnten in beiden Fällen hoch regio- und stereoselektive Mutanten erhalten werden. Zusätzlich wurde Kontrolle über die Enantioselektivität (YqjM) und Regioselektivität (P450BM3) erreicht. Ein weiterer Aspekt der Arbeit war die Unt...

  5. Enigmatic Gratuitous Induction of the Covalent Flavoprotein Vanillyl-Alcohol Oxidase in Penicillium simplicissimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Pikkemaat, Mariël; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1997-01-01

    When Penicillium simplicissimum is grown on veratryl alcohol, anisyl alcohol, or 4-(methoxymethyl)phenol, an intracellular covalent flavin-containing vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is induced. The induction is highest (up to 5% of total protein) during the growth phase. In addition to vanillyl-alcohol oxi

  6. Crystallization of the flavoprotein WrbA optimized by using additives and gels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolfová, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 284, 3-4 (2005), s. 502-505. ISSN 0022-0248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; MSM6007665808 Keywords : crystalization * crystal Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.681, year: 2005

  7. Quasi static approximation of wireless power transfer systems through coupled resonance and improving power transfer efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Shilandari, Arash; Niazmandian, S. Mostafa; Ebrahimi, Asqar; Malahzadeh, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to transfer power wirelessly through the resonance of the source and the device antennas. Since transferring system frequency from the frequency of the antenna resonance strongly decreases power transfer efficiency, in this paper, a wireless power transfer system consisting of two helix resonance antennas is analyzed through quasi-static approximation in a circuit model and among the scientific papers; few works have been done in this regard. The presented circuit m...

  8. When absorptive capacity meets technology transfer : transferring of an e-learning system to Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This master thesis aims at using the theoretical framework of absorptive capacity as suggested by Cohen and Levinthal (1990) to account for the underlying dimensions critical in a technology transfer process. Technology transfer is a complicated and dynamic process in which technology moves between the transferring partners. The nature of the technology and the capacities of the involved organisations appear to be important in accounting for the transfer. The research applies the use of absor...

  9. Trades to Academic Transfer. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest within British Columbia in the issue of whether or how trades qualifications might transfer into academic post-secondary programs. Some BC institutions have already started, or will be starting, programs which incorporate this form of transfer credit. Colleagues at British Columbia Council on…

  10. Antimicrobial resistance transfer in transport media.

    OpenAIRE

    George, B A; Fagerberg, D J; Sanem, J A

    1981-01-01

    Five different transport media (buffered glycerol saline, Amies, Cary and Blair, Stuart, and modified Stuart) were tested to determine if antimicrobial resistance transfer could occur among bacteria in the media. Transfer of resistance occurred in all of the media, except buffered glycerol saline, within 2 h of holding both at room temperature and 4 degrees C.

  11. 48 CFR 970.2770 - Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology Transfer. 970.2770 Section 970.2770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2770 Technology Transfer....

  12. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... any private transfer fee covenants. (75 FR 49932). As described in the proposed guidance, private... (76 FR 6702) inviting comments on a proposal that incorporated a number of changes to the substance of... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance...

  13. A case of technology transfer in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacia Dabescki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing and facilities among organizations, the transfer of technology is instrumental for boosting the economy through creation of competitive products, new jobs and a better quality of life. The stagnant environment for technology transfers in Macedonia in the post-privatisation era is a result of a combination of factors. Among them is the outdated educational system that does not boost entrepreneurial spirit and innovation thinking. Main purpose of this paper is to examine the current status, conditions, anomalies and challenges for technology transfer in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as the potential for development and possibilities for improvement of the process. Through a lens of the technology transfer paradigm, this exploratory study will present a case in which the Foundation Business Start-up Centre in Macedonia, as a technology transfer agent provided links and cooperative platform for creation of new technologies and innovations within the local SME ecosystem. The focus will be on a couple of initiatives for technology development and transfer in a domestic context. Results from the process of implementation of these initiatives will be discussed, along with their stimulating impact on the environment for technology transfer.

  14. Transferring the Learning of Teaching Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William C.

    1981-01-01

    Ascertains the amount of transfer which takes place between on-campus training in teaching models and field application. Three models of teaching were selected--inquiry; role-playing; and synectics. The results illustrated that a preservice social studies program of model-based instruction fosters a decidedly high potential for transferring the…

  15. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization, codifi...

  16. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers. 73.16 Section 73.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS... select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use,...

  17. Energy transfer phenomena in lead sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that lead sulphate, PbSO4, shows Pb2+ emission with a large Stokes shift. Energy transfer has been observed from the Pb2+ ions to several luminescent centres, viz., tungstate, molybdate, vanadate and rare earths. No transfer occurs to the Pr3+ ion.

  18. Non-surgical embryo transfer in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Embryo transfer in pigs has been performed surgically for a long time. However, a less invasive, non-surgical, procedure of embryo transfer could be a valuable tool for research (to study embryo survival and embryo-uterus interactions) and practical applications (export, prevention of disease transm

  19. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  20. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  1. An integrated approach towards technology transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, L.F. van der; Eldering, C.J.J.; Putten, N.J. van

    2010-01-01

    In 2001 the European Space Agency (ESA), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation of applied scientific research TNO initiated the Dutch Technology Transfer Programme (DTTP). Since then, 'technology transfer' has been a relevant part of Dutch space policy. The DTTP aim

  2. Knowledge Transfer in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    and the paper suggests how the transfer of tacit knowledge, in particular, can be improved. The paper discusses two dramatic shifts in organizational settings, i.e. from operations management to project management in the sending unit before a transfer and the reverse in the receiving unit after...

  3. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens;

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  4. Coefficients of heat transfer in condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze the problem of determining the coefficients of heat transfer in the condensation of steam on vertical walls in terms of the Prandtl hypothesis and the Reynolds analogy for distribution of the turbulent thermal conductivity across the condensate film. From the assumed model the authors derived expressions for the heat transfer coefficients

  5. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  6. Controlled transfer of single charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design and operation of two devices, the turnstile and the pump, that transfer electrons one by one. They are both based on the existence of stable electrostatic configurations in arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. While the turnstile only works in the normal state the pump could in principle achieve the transfer of single Cooper pairs

  7. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the impact of a redistributive tax system on consumption, portfolio decisions, and asset prices in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Poorer agents, which receive more in transfers than they pay in taxes, optimally reduce their exposure to equity, because the transfer incom...

  8. An Assessment of Transfer Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emily B.

    This paper describes the development of a system for assessing transfer program outcomes (TPO), using the effort at Oakton Community College (OCC) as an example. While originally designed to provide timely information on senior institutions as experienced by transfer students, TPO appeared to do considerably more. System highlights included more…

  9. Free Trade, Customs Unions, and Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Hideo Konishi; Carsten Kowalczyk; Tomas Sjostrom

    2003-01-01

    All countries would agree to immediate global free trade if countries were compensated for any terms-of-trade losses with transfers from countries whose terms-of-trade improve, and if customs unions were required to have no effects on non-member countries. Global free trade with transfers is in the core of a Kemp-Wan-Grinols customs union game.

  10. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  11. Transfer Innovations Fund Updating Project. BC Council on Admissions and Transfer. Tourism Management Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a number of changes were identified that expanded the scope of the updating required for Block Transfer for tourism management as follows: a new core curriculum for diploma programs; the need for expanded information on diploma to diploma transfer; and, a growing need for an expanded system of transfer identified in Campus 2020…

  12. Feed/meat transfer factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of cesium from the feed to bovine meat is taken as an example to discuss natural environmental conditions and their effects on the determination of the transfer factor. Criteria for estimating the validity of experimentally determined transfer factors are given and used for a critical evaluation of significant literature data. The evaluation presented in this report is not a merely statistical evaluation of transfer data, indicating one single value as the correct one (sometimes within a certain margin), but rather scans the data available for incertainties and drawbacks of the experimental methods applied, finally stating a range of variation within which transfer factors can be considered to be correct. (orig./DG)

  13. New course: "Introduction to knowledge transfer tools"

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Transfer group is now offering a half-day course that will give an introduction to intellectual property, contracts for knowledge transfer, and projects involving industry and other external partners.   The purpose of the course is to give the essential information about how one can secure ownership of inventions and to provide information on legal and contractual considerations when transferring knowledge and technology or when doing collaborative R&D. The course will also highlight some common pitfalls that should be avoided to increase the chances of successfully transferring knowledge and technology. In addition, the course will involve examples of real projects and challenges. The first session will take place the 19 May 2014. To enroll, please follow this link: “Introduction to knowledge transfer tools”.

  14. Near field heat transfer in superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul

    2015-03-01

    I present a theoretical calculation of the near field heat transfer between super lattices made of alternative layers of both metallic and semiconducting materials. The calculation of the near field transfer requires the knowledge of the reflectivities, that are obtained by calculating the surface impedance of the super lattice. Depending on the periodicity of the lattice and the dielectric function of the materials the near field heat transfer can be modulated or engineered. Additional control on the heat transfer is achieved by introducing defects in the superlattice. The results are extended to include photonic hypercrystals that effectively behave like a hyperbolic metamaterial even in the near field (1), where the tuning of the heat transfer is modified by Partial Support from DGAPA-UNAM project IN 111214.

  15. Optimization of the southern electrophoretic transfer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of separating DNA fragments using agarose gel electrophoresis is essential in the analysis of nucleic acids. Further, after the method of transferring specific DNA fragments from those agarose gels to cellulose nitrate membranes was developed in 1975, a method was developed to transfer DNA, RNA, protein and ribonucleoprotein particles from various gels onto diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM) paper using electrophoresis as well. This paper describes the optimum conditions for quantitative electrophoretic transfer of DNA onto nylon membranes. This method exemplifies the ability to hybridize the membrane more than once with specific RNA probes by providing sufficient retention of the DNA. Furthermore, the intrinsic properties of the nylon membrane allow for an increase in the efficiency and resolution of transfer while using somewhat harsh alkaline conditions. The use of alkaline conditions is of critical importance since we can now denature the DNA during transfer and thus only a short pre-treatment in acid is required for depurination. 9 refs., 7 figs

  16. Wireless Power Transfer in 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bhuvaneshvari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to develop a system of wireless power transfer in 3D space. This concept based on low frequency to high frequency conversion. High frequency power is transmit between air-core and inductor. This work presents an experiment for wireless energy transfer by using the Inductive resonant coupling (also known as resonant energy transfer phenomenon. The basic principles will be presented about this physical phenomenon, the experiment design, and the results obtained for the measurements performed on the system. The parameters measured were the efficiency of the power transfer, and the angle between emitter and receiver. We can achieve wireless power transfer up to 10watts in 3D space using high frequency through tuned circuit. The wireless power supply is motivated by simple and comfortable use of many small electric appliances with low power input.

  17. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries. A...... proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  18. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection

  19. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  20. Risk-based analytical method transfer: application to large multi-product transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, Christina S; Bennett, Tony S; Goodberlet, Scott A

    2010-07-15

    As pharmaceutical companies adapt their business models, a new approach to analytical method transfer is needed to efficiently handle transfers of multiple products, associated with situations such as site consolidations/closures. Using the principles of risk management, a risk-based method transfer approach is described, which defines appropriate transfer activities based on a risk assessment of the methods and experience of the receiving unit. A key step in the process is detailed knowledge transfer from the transferring unit to the receiving unit. The amount of transfer testing required can be streamlined or eliminated on the basis of a number of factors, including method capability, receiving unit familiarity, and method past performance. PMID:20557030

  1. File Transfer Algorithm for Autonomous Decentralized System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Xun; TAN Yong-dong; Qian Qing-quan

    2008-01-01

    A file transfer algorithm based on ADP (autonomous decentralized protocol) was proposed to solve the problem that the ADS (autonomous decentralized system) middleware (NeXUS/Dlink) lacks of file transfer functions for Windows. The algorithm realizes the peer-to-peer file transfer, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution in the same data field based on communication patterns provided by the ADP. The peer-to-peer file transfer is implemented through a peer-to-peer communication path, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution are implemented through multicast commtmieation. In this algorithm, a file to be transferred is named with a GUID ( global unique identification), every data packet is marked with a sequence number, and file-receiving in parallel is implemented by caching DPOs (data processing objects) and multithread technologies. The algorithm is applied in a simulation system of the decentralized control platform, and the test results and long time stable mrming prove the feasibility of the algorithm.

  2. Gas mass transfer for stratified flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sht = (2/√π)Sc1/2, where Sht is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature

  3. Transition boiling heat transfer during reflooding transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition boiling heat transfer is characterized by a heat flux which declines as the heater wall temperature increases. Steady state transition boiling is also characterized by alternate periods of high and low heat transfer caused by intermittent wetting of the heated surface. In flow boiling, the reason for intermittent wetting depends on the volume fraction of vapor present. At high vapor volume fractions, annular flow exists during what is generally called the nucleate boiling region, and a thin liquid film is present on the surface. The remainder of the passage is filled with vapor carrying entrained droplets. Above the nucleate boiling region there is no liquid film, and heat is transferred to droplet-laden vapor. In the narrow transition boiling region between nucleate boiling and heat transfer to steam, the liquid film is present only part of the time. The intermittent wetting produces significant wall temperature oscillations. Recent phenomenologically based modeling of steady state transition boiling heat transfer at high vapor fractions has been successful in predicting the magnitude of both temperature oscillations and heat transfer rates. After a brief review of the steady state model, this note shows how the results of the steady state analysis for vertical surfaces may be used to obtain heat transfer rates during reflooding transients

  4. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+(4I9/2) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10-15 cm2) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+ ion. Charge transfer cross section between U+ in the first excited state (289 cm-1) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  5. Excitation energy transfer in the photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Andrew N

    2012-09-25

    Photosystem I is a multimeric pigment protein complex in plants, green alage and cyanobacteria that functions in series with Photosystem II to use light energy to oxidize water and reduce carbon dioxide. The Photosystem I core complex contains 96 chlorophyll a molecules and 22 carotenoids that are involved in light harvesting and electron transfer. In eucaryotes, PSI also has a peripheral light harvesting complex I (LHCI). The role of specific chlorophylls in excitation and electron transfer are still unresolved. In particular, the role of so-called bridging chlorophylls, located between the bulk antenna and the core electron transfer chain, in the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center are unknown. During the past funding period, site directed mutagenesis has been used to create mutants that effect the physical properties of these key chlorophylls, and to explore how this alters the function of the photosystem. Studying these mutants using ultrafast absorption spectroscopy has led to a better understanding of the process by which excitation energy is transferred from the antenna chlorophylls to the electron transfer chain chlorophylls, and what the role of connecting chlorophylls and A_0 chlorophylls is in this process. We have also used these mutants to investigate whch of the central group of six chlorophylls are involved in the primary steps of charge separation and electron transfer.

  6. Positive Transfer of Native Language in S econd Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼

    2014-01-01

    Language transfer can be divided into two types:positive transfer and negative transfer.Previous study always thinks that nega-tive transfer of native language should be taken seriously because it plays an important role in second language acquisition.However,as a matter of factor,positive transfer also has great influence on second language acquisition.This paper will give a detailed analysis of positive transfer from two aspects:syntactic transfer and phrase transfer.The paper also offers some methods in dealing with language transfer in second language acquisition.

  7. Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo

    2015-07-01

    An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases. PMID:25181517

  8. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  9. The transfer of patents in Imperial Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Burhop, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We describe the transfer of patents in late 19th- and early 20th- century Germany using a new and comprehensive database containing information on about 20,000 transactions. The number of transactions shows an upward trend, in total numbers and as a share of patents in force. In total, about eight percent of patents were transferred at least once during their existence. Many transactions involved the transfer of patents with an above-average quality from individual inventors to firms and to n...

  10. Heat transfer peculiarities in supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, V. Ia.; Brazhko, V. N.; Maikapar, G. I.; Skuratov, A. S.; Struminskaia, I. V.

    1992-12-01

    A method of heat transfer and gas flow investigation based on the application of thermal sensitive coatings or thermocouple sensors and various visualization techniques is described. The thermal sensitive coatings and visualization reveal heat transfer peculiarities, and the complex nature of the method contributes to understanding the processes and generalization of quantitative results. Data concerning heat transfer on the leeward side of a blunt cone in the regions of the shock-wave boundary layer and bow wave interaction, in gaps and cavities of the orbiter's thermal insulation, and in the vicinity of them, are presented.

  11. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shijie; DU Weihua; LI Ning

    2004-01-01

    Somatic cloning has been succeeded in some species, but the cloning efficiency is very low, which limits the application of the technique in many areas of research and biotechnology. The cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) requires epigenetic reprogramming of the differentiated state of donor cell to a totipotent, embryonic ground state. Accumulating evidence indicates that incomplete or inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei is likely to be the primary cause of failures in nuclear transfer. This review summarizes the roles of various epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, telomere maintenance and expressions of development-related genes on somatic nuclear transfer.

  12. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  13. Regional cooperation in nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically the International Atomic Energy Agency has had the transfer of nuclear technology as one of its major objectives. These transfers have been undertaken on a bilateral basis and also as a part of regional initiatives. In the Asia Pacific region there has been an active programme which has been successfully transferring technology over a wider range of technological areas. Details are given of the organisation of the RCA regional activities, its programme, administration and finance as well as detailed experience accumulated from the 10 years of the UNDP industrial project. (author)

  14. Essentially Optimal Universally Composable Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Oblivious transfer is one of the most important cryptographic primitives, both for theoretical and practical reasons and several protocols were proposed during the years. We provide the first oblivious transfer protocol which is simultaneously optimal on the following list of parameters: Security....... Communication complexity: it communicates O(1) group elements to transfer one out of two group elements. The Big-O notation hides 32, meaning that the communication is probably not optimal, but is essentially optimal in that the overhead is at least constant. Our construction is based on pairings, and we assume...

  15. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the...... production process on the strategic objectives for the plant is developed. This is followed by the selection of the type of production system and the operational methods which will support it. The final stage of the model concerns the human resource policies neede to implement the operational decisions. The...

  16. Environmental radon: solid earth-atmosphere transference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon anomalies ant its descendants related with geophysical events are studied generally for to understand the involved mechanisms in the underground geochemistry. These anomalies were observed as a radioactivity level argumentation in the systems studied provoking a radioactivity transference from land toward human environment. In this work is presented an analysis of the contribution at local radioactivity level due to volcanic eruptions that they provoke a transference appreciable but intermittent and located of Radon to atmosphere and of that one due to soil-atmosphere transference that it occurs in continuous way in continent that it varies as function of meteorologic and geologic conditions. (Author)

  17. Translating Gene Transfer: A Stalled Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Alexandra J.; McCormick, Jennifer; Tapia, Carmen J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The journey of gene transfer from laboratory to clinic has been slow and fraught with many challenges and barriers. Despite the development of the initial technology in the early 1970s, a standard clinical treatment involving “gene therapy” remains to be seen. Furthermore, much was written about the technology in the early 1990s, but since then, not much has been written about the journey of gene transfer. The translational path of gene transfer thus far, both pitfalls and successes, can serv...

  18. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process

  19. Corporate Production Transfers to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Wulff, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    . From a technical point of view this paper analyses some experiences of Danish companies' production transfers to the south-east Asia region with a focus on technology, quality, organisational and management issues as well as location concerns. Keywords: Production transfer, international production......Production transfer is defined by the set of activities attached to send off, receipt and running-in a production system in a new environment. The activities concern handling of physical elements as well as non-material, knowledge based issues like documentation, education/training and management......, location, technology adaptation....

  20. The Knowledge Dimension of Production Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2010-01-01

    ­ferring and developing tacit knowledge. Supported by studies in the literature it is concluded that there is a need for a more systematic approach to knowledge transfer and development to provide an accelerated ramp-up after the physical transfer. A framework will be structured around a generic set of phases...... of the transfer process, and a distinction between the sending and the receiving orga­nizational unit. A method for capturing the tacit knowledge embedded in a pro­duction job has been developed and tested. The framework and the method will provide a basis for preparing a master plan for knowledge...

  1. Assignment of Etfdh, Etfb, and Etfa to chromosomes 3, 7, and 13: The mouse homologs of genes respondible for glutaric acidemia type II in human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.A.; Dowler, L.L.; Angeloni, S.V. [UMKC School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Koeller, D.M. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein (composed of {alpha} and {beta} subunits) is an obligatory electron acceptor for several dehydrogenases and is located in the mitochondrial matrix. Electrons accepted by electron transfer flavo-protein (ETF) are transferred to the main mitochondrial respiratory chain by the way of ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH). In humans, deficiency of ETF or ETFDH leads to glutaric acidemia type II, an inherited metabolic disorder that can be fatal in its neonatal form and is characterized by severe hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acidosis. We used cDNA probes for the Etfdh, Etfb, and Etfa genes to determine localization of these mouse genes to chromosomes 3, 7, and 13. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influence on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the multidimensionality of motivation to transfer training. Based on self-determination theory, expectancy theory, and the theory of planned behaviour, motivation to transfer was conceptualized in three dimensions: autonomous motivation to transfer, controlled motivation to transfer, and intention to transfer.…

  3. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis;

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...... as a paradigm. This allows one to analyse a complex system of regulatory interactions in terms of the importance of the contributing factors....

  4. Accident on the gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  5. Earth--Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture

    CERN Document Server

    Topputo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in a substantial savings in capture $\\Delta v$ from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain conditions. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by manipulating the stable sets, or sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a simple definition of stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of lower capture $\\Delta v$, moderate flight time, and flexibility of launch period from the Earth.

  6. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Polarization transfer in relativistic magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Heyvaerts, Jean; Prunet, Simon; Thiebaut, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The polarization transfer coefficients of a relativistic magnetized plasma are derived. These results apply to any momentum distribution function of the particles, isotropic or anisotropic. Particles interact with the radiation either in a non resonant mode when the frequency of the radiation exceeds their characteristic synchrotron emission frequency, or quasi resonantly otherwise. These two classes of particles contribute differently to the polarization transfer coefficients. For a given frequency, this dichotomy corresponds to a regime change in the dependence of the transfer coefficients on the parameters of the particle s population. The derivation of the transfer coefficients involves an exact expression of the conductivity tensor of the relativistic magnetized plasma that has not been used hitherto in this context. Suitable expansions valid at frequencies larger than the cyclotron frequency allow us to analytically perform the summation over all resonances at high harmonics of the relativistic gyrofreq...

  8. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.

  9. Join TTC! | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) offers a unique opportunity for training through the NCI TTC Fellowship program. TTC also has a unit dedicated to marketing these research opportunities and their underlying technologies to potential collaborators and licensees.

  10. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Salman, E-mail: sksafi@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  11. Oxygen transfer in human carotid artery bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.G.Zhang; Y.B.Fan; X.Y.Deng

    2007-01-01

    Arterial bifurcations are places where blood flow may be disturbed and slow recirculation flow may occur.To reveal the correlation between local oxygen transfer and atherogenesis, a finite element method was employed to simulate the blood flow and the oxygen transfer in the human carotid artery bifurcation. Under steady-state flow conditions, the numerical simulation demonstrated a variation in local oxygen transfer at the bifurcation, showing that the convective condition in the disturbed flow region may produce uneven local oxygen transfer at the blood/wall interface.The disturbed blood flow with formation of slow eddies in the carotid sinus resulted in a depression in oxygen supply to the arterial wall at the entry of the sinus, which in turn may lead to an atherogenic response of the arterial wall, and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic stenosis there.

  12. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  13. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Leonie von Brasch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Volker Ehemann, Juergen Jenne, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Werner Rittgen, Waldemar Waldeck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid.

  14. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid. PMID:18026568

  15. Generalized parton distributions at large momentum transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of generalized parton distributions in wide-angle exclusive reactions will be discussed. In contrast to deep virtual exclusive reactions the wide angle processes offer the possibility of investigating the generalized parton distributions at large momentum transfer.

  16. Lower Bounds for Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Chailloux, André; Sikora, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Oblivious transfer is a fundamental primitive in cryptography. While perfect information theoretic security is impossible, quantum oblivious transfer protocols can limit the dishonest players' cheating. Finding the optimal security parameters in such protocols is an important open question. In this paper we show that every 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer protocol allows a dishonest party to cheat with probability bounded below by a constant strictly larger than 1/2. Alice's cheating is defined as her probability of guessing Bob's index, and Bob's cheating is defined as his probability of guessing both input bits of Alice. In our proof, we relate these cheating probabilities to the cheating probabilities of a coin flipping protocol and conclude by using Kitaev's coin flipping lower bound. Then, we present an oblivious transfer protocol with two messages and cheating probabilities at most 3/4. Last, we extend Kitaev's semidefinite programming formulation to more general primitives, where the security is against a...

  17. When Do Market Games Have Transferable Utility?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted; Varian, Hal

    1985-01-01

    A question with a nice clean answer. When do market games have transferable utility? Subject to some regularity conditions, the answer is if and only if indirect utility can be represented in the Gorman polar form.

  18. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt; Borg, Andreas; Abrahamsson, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study......, a single bluff body and two bluff bodies arranged in tandem are considered. Due to the formation of horseshoe vortices, the heat transfer is enhanced appreciably for both cases. However, for the case of two bluff bodies in tandem, it is found that the presence of the second bluff body decreases the...... heat transfer as compared to the case of a single bluff body. In addition, the results show that the heat transfer exhibits Reynolds number similarity. For a single bluff body, the Nusselt number profiles collapse well when the data are scaled by Re0.55; for two bluff bodies arranged in tandem, the...

  19. Coordinating knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time-place ma......Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time......-place matrix as a tool for mapping the distribution of knowledge within manufacturing networks. Using this tool, four important questions about the coordination of knowledge transfer within a manufacturing network are identified: know-where, know-what, know-when, know-how to transfer. The relationships among...

  20. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) material research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs