WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

  1. Preformulation study of the inclusion complex warfarin-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, G; Rubessa, F

    2005-03-03

    Inclusion complex between warfarin and beta-cyclodextrin was obtained to improve the in vitro bioavailability of the drug in acidic media. Inclusion complexation in solution was studied by phase solubility technique. The apparent stability constant was influenced by the pH of the medium ranging from 633.26 M(-1) (at pH 1.2, where the drug was in unionised form) to 99.81 M(-1) (at pH 7.4, where the drug was in ionised form). Phase solubility study showed an AL-type diagram indicating the formation of an inclusion complex in 1:1 molar ratio. Solid binary mixtures of the drug with beta-cyclodextrin were prepared by several methods (physical mixing, kneading, co-evaporation, freeze-drying). Physicochemical characterizations were performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and dissolution studies. Preparation method influenced the physicochemical properties of the binary mixtures. An inclusion complex was obtained by freeze-drying, and it showed a high solubility and drug dissolution rate. The physical stability of the complex was also studied. After one year storage in glass container at room temperature no significant changes were detected in the diffractogram, thermogram and dissolution profile of the freeze-dried product.

  2. Preformulation study of the inclusion complex irbesartan-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlekar, Rajashree; Kadam, Vilasrao

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the solubility and dissolution profile of irbesartan (IRB), a poorly water-soluble drug by formation of inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD). Phase solubility studies revealed increase in solubility of the drug upon cyclodextrin addition, showing A(L)-type of graph with slope less than one indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion complex. The stability constant (K(s)) was found to be 104.39 M(-1). IRB-betaCD binary systems were prepared by cogrinding, kneading using alcohol, kneading using aqueous alcohol, and coevaporation methods. Characterization of the binary systems were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The dissolution profiles of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of IRB alone and physical mixture. Among the various methods, coevaporation was the best in which the solubility was increased and dissolution rate of the drug was the highest. The study indicated the usefulness of cyclodextrin technology to overcome the solubility problem of IRB.

  3. Simple determination of deoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acids by phenolphthalein-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Pabyton G; Oliveira, Eric C; Araújo, Alberto N; Montenegro, Maria C B S M; Pimentel, Maria C B; Lima Filho, José L; Silva, Valdinete L

    2009-11-01

    An expeditious colorimetric methodology for the determination of the deoxycholic acid (DCA) and of the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in pharmaceutical formulations is reported. The method is based on their competitive complexation reaction with a color indicator to form beta-cyclodextrin-inclusion complexes. Several pH color indicators were tested, but phenolphthalein (PHP) showed the best interaction with the beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with an inclusion yield higher than 95%. The best concentrations of beta-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes were 1.24 x 10(-3) and 6.2 x 10(-4) M at pH 9.5 and 10.5. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the pH had a significant effect on the DCA determination and that high beta-CD-PHP inclusion complex concentrations had a significant negative effect on the UDCA determination (p < 0.05). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 3.94 x 10(-5) and 1.31 x 10(-4) M for DCA (range: 6.1 x 10(-6)-3.13 x 10(-3) M), 4.08 x 10(-5) and 1.36 x 10(-4) M for UDCA (range: 6.05 x 10(-6)-3.88 x 10(-4) M). This simple and cheap method showed high stability and feasible instrumentation.

  4. NMR spectroscopic characterization of {beta}-cyclodextrin inclusion complex with vanillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnau, Adrian; Bogdan, Mircea; Floare, Calin G, E-mail: adrian.pirnau@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The inclusion of vanillin by {beta}-cyclodextrin was investigated by {sup 1}H NMR. The continuous variation technique was used to evidence the formation of soluble 1:1 complex in aqueous solution. The association constant of vanillin with {beta}-cyclodextrin has been obtained at 298 K by fitting the experimental chemical shifts differences, {Delta}{delta}{sub obs} {delta}{sub free} - {delta}{sub obs} of the observed guest and host protons, with a non-linear regression method. Besides the effective association constant, the fitting procedure allows a precise determination of all chemical shift parameters characterizing the pure complex. They can by used for an analysis of the geometry of the molecular complex in solution.

  5. Hydroxymethylnitrofurazone:dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: a physical-chemistry characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; Moraes, Carolina Morales; Rosa, André Henrique; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso; Menezes, Carla M S; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxymethylnitrofurazone (NFOH) is active against Trypanosoma cruzi; however, its low solubility and high toxicity precludes its current use in treatment of parasitosis. Cyclodextrin can be used as a drug carrier system, as it is able to form inclusion (host-guest) complexes with a wide variety of organic (guest) molecules. Several reports have shown the interesting use of modified beta-cyclodextrins in pharmaceutical formulation, to improve the bioavailability of drugs and to decrease their toxicity. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes formed between NFOH and dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CD) by complexation/release kinetics and solubility isotherm experiments using ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry and by the measurement of the dynamics information obtained from T(1) relaxation times and diffusion (DOSY) experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The complex was prepared at different NFOH and DM-beta-CD molar ratios. The UV-visible measurements were recorded in a spectrophotometer, and NMR experiments were recorded at 20 degrees C on a NMR spectrometer (Varian Inova) operating at 500 MHz. Longitudinal relaxation times were obtained by the conventional inversion-recovery method and the DOSY experiments were carried out using the BPPSTE sequence. The kinetics of complexation revealed that 30 h is enough for stabilization of the NFOH absorbance in presence of cyclodextrin. Solubility isotherm studies show a favorable complexation and increase in solubility when NFOH interacts with cyclodextrin. The analysis of the NMR-derived diffusion coefficients and T(1) relaxation times shows that in the presence of DM-beta-CD, NFOH decreases its mobility in solution, indicating that this antichagasic compound interacts with the cyclodextrin cavity. The release kinetics assays showed that NFOH changes its release profile when in the presence of cyclodextrin due to complexation. This study was focused on the

  6. A-{beta}cyclodextrin/siloxane hybrid polymer: synthesis, characterization and inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbehausen, Camilla; Formiga, Andre L.B.; Sabadini, Edvaldo; Yoshida, Inez V.P., E-mail: valeria@iqm.unicamp.b [Campinas State University (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    A hybrid polymer derived from siloxane and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) was obtained by reaction of {beta}-CD with {gamma}-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (IPTS), followed by hydrolysis/condensation reactions, generating a {beta}-CD-modified polysilsesquioxane resin (PSS-{beta}-CD). PSS-{beta}-CD hybrid was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance. This hybrid was typically amorphous and thermally stable up to 180 deg C. PSS-{beta}-CD was able to form films and its morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The capability of {beta}-CD grafted in the hybrid polymer to form inclusion complex was evaluated by the formation of a {beta}-CD-phenolphthalein complex using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Even without changes in pH, the red form of phenolphthalein converts to the colorless one when PSS-{beta}-CD is immersed in the solution. Theoretical calculations (AM1 and DFT methods) show that the complex is formed through the inclusion of the phenolate ring into {beta}-CD cavity, favoring the colorless form of phenolphthalein by more than 15 kcal mol{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Electronic structure and driving forces in {beta}-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Diana [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Morari, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: cristim@s3.itim-cj.ro

    2007-07-02

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of {beta}-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries.

  8. Use of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin ad polymer matrix for formation of inclusion complex with drug nifedipine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Elisa F.; Araujo, Marcia V.G. de; Barbosa, Ronilson V.; Silva, Caroline W.P. da; Barisson, Andersson; Zawadzki, Sonia F.; Andrade, George Ricardo S.; Costa Junior, Nivan B. da

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was prepared and characterized an inclusion complex between the polymeric matrix hydroxypropyl-beta cyclodextrin and nifedipine, a hydrophobic drug calcium antagonistic, used for the cardiovascular diseases treatment. The study of the phase- solubility diagram showed an increase of the aqueous solubility of the drug after inclusion, was observed and The differential scanning calorimetry analysis did not show the melting point temperature of the drug in the formed complex. This fact is considered as an evidence of the encapsulation process. 1 H NMR studies suggested that the non-aromatic ring of the nifedipine would be inserted in the cavity of the hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.This orientation was also proposed by the used molecular modelling methods. (author)

  9. Separation of drug stereoisomers by the formation of. beta. -cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.W.; Ward, T.J.; Armstrong, R.D.; Beesley, T.E.

    1986-05-30

    For many drugs, only racemic mixtures are available for clinical use. Because different stereoisomers of drugs often cause different physiological responses, the use of pure isomers could elicit more exact therapeutic effects. Differential complexation of a variety of drug stereoisomers by immobilized ..beta..-cyclodextrin was investigated. Chiral recognition and racemic resolution were observed with a number of compounds from such clinically useful classes as ..beta..-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, sedative hypnotics, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, diuretics, and synthetic opiates. Separation of the diastereomers of the cardioactive and antimalarial cinchona alkaloids and of two antiestrogens was demonstrated as well. Three dimensional projections of ..beta..-cyclodextrin complexes of propanol, which is resolved by this technique, and warfarin, which is not, are compared. These studies have improved the understanding and application of the chiral interactions of ..beta..-cyclodextrin, and they have demonstrated a means to measure optical purity and to isolate or produce pure enantiomers of drugs. In addition, this highly specific technique could also be used in the pharmacological evaluation of enantiometric drugs. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Self assembled rotaxane and pseudo-rotaxanes based on {beta}-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds with trans-1,4-bis[(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene-pentacyanoferrate(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Sergio H.; Toma, Henrique E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: henetoma@iq.usp.br

    2007-03-15

    Inclusion compounds of trans-1,4-bis[(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene (BPEB) and their corresponding pentacyanoferrate(II) complexes with {beta}-cyclodextrin have been studied in aqueous solution by {sup 1}H NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All the inclusion compounds exhibit 1:1 stoichiometry is aqueous solution. In the presence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, the binuclear {l_brace}[Fe(CN){sub 5}]{sub 2}(BPEB)]{sup 6-} complex is gradually converted into rotaxane species bearing [Fe(CN){sub 5}]{sup 3-} end groups, by a self assembly inclusion mechanism, as confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. (author)

  11. Study of inclusion complex formation between tropaeolin OO and beta-cyclodextrin by spectrophotometry and Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai You; Han, Juan; Feng, Xia Guang; Pang, Yan Ling

    2006-09-01

    The mechanism of the inclusion of tropaeolin OO (TPOO) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) has been studied by spectrophotometry. The inclusion depth of the guest molecule in the host molecule was demonstrated by infrared spectrometry. Effect of the pH, concentrations of beta-CD, solvents and ionic strength on the inclusion of TPOO and beta-CD were examined. The result showed that TPOO reacts with beta-CD to form a 1:1 host-guest complex with an apparent formation constant of 1.50 x 10(3) l mol(-1). The thermodynamic parameters of inclusion reaction, DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees were obtained.

  12. Characterization of the inclusion complex ropivacaine: {beta}-cyclodextrin; Caracterizacao do complexo de inclusso ropivacaina: {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br; Goncalves, Marcos Moises [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Carolina Morales; Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro de; Zanella, Luciana; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Pertinhez, Thelma de Aguiar [Universidade de Parma (Italy). Dept. de Medicina Experimental

    2007-09-15

    Ropivacaine (RVC) is a widely used local anesthetic. The complexation of RVC with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) is of great interest for the development of more efficient local anesthetic formulations. The present work focuses on the characterization of the RVC:{beta}-CD complex by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2 RVC:{beta}-CD. DOSY-NMR shows that the association constant is 55.5 M{sup -1}. Longitudinal relaxation time results show that RVC changes its mobility in the presence of {beta}-CD. This study is focused on the physicochemical characterization of inclusion complexes that are potentials options for pain treatment. (author)

  13. Enhancement of the release of azelaic acid through the synthetic membranes by inclusion complex formation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Apriyani, Maria Goretti; Foe, Kuncoro; Manosroi, Aranya

    2005-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the release rates of azelaic acid and azelaic acid-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) inclusion complex through three types of synthetic membranes, namely cellophane, silicone and elastomer membranes. Solid inclusion complexes of azelaic acid-HPbetaCD at the molar ratio of 1:1 were prepared by coevaporation and freeze-drying methods, subsequently characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and dissolution studies. Solid inclusion complex obtained by coevaporation method which exhibited the inclusion of azelaic acid in the HPbetaCD cavity and gave the highest dissolution rate of azelaic acid was selected for the release study. Release studies of azelaic acid and this complex through the synthetic membranes were conducted using vertical Franz diffusion cells at 30 degrees C for 6 days. The release rates of azelaic acid through the synthetic membranes were enhanced by the formation of inclusion complex with HPbetaCD at the molar ratio of 1:1, with the increasing fluxes of about 41, 81 and 28 times of the uncomplexed system in cellophane, silicone and elastomer membranes, respectively. The result from this study can be applied for the development of azelaic acid for topical use.

  14. Plasma-treated poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibers containing tea tree oil/beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for antibacterial packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Bai, Mei; Lin, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the effect of cold nitrogen plasma to enhance the antibacterial activity of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers containing antibacterial agent. Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and tea tree oil (TTO) were used as a host-guest to form water-soluble inclusion complex. The encapsulation efficiency of TTO in inclusion complex could reach 73.23% at 60°C. As antibacterial agent, the inclusion complex was encapsulated into PEO matrix by electrospun. After plasma treatment, the release efficiency of antibacterial agent from PEO nanofibers was improved. As a result, the antibacterial activity of PEO nanofibers was enhanced accordingly. The plasma-treated nanofiber membranes achieved the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7, which was tested on the beef for 7d, with inhibition efficiently of 99.99% whether at 4°C or 12°C. The plasma-treated PEO nanofiber membranes containing TTO/β-CD inclusion complex (TTO/β-CD-IC) can prolong the shelf-life of beef, suggesting it has potential application in active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on the inclusion complex between beta-cyclodextrin and celecoxib by spectrofluorimetry and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoori, Jamshid L; Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    The supramolecular interaction of celecoxib (chemically 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzene sulfonamide) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) has been studied by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that beta-CD reacted with celecoxib to form an inclusion complex. 1:1 stoichiometry for beta-CD-celecoxib complex was established and its association constant at different temperatures was calculated by applying a non-linear regression method to the change in the fluorescence of celecoxib that brought about by the presence of beta-CD. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH degrees, DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees) associated with the inclusion process were also determined. Based on the significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of celecoxib produced through complex formation, a simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of celecoxib in aqueous solution in the presence of beta-CD was developed. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried out at 390 nm with excitation at 270 nm. A linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and celecoxib concentration was obtained in the range of 0.1-4.0 microg ml-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The detection limit was 7.29 ng ml-1 and the relative standard deviation was 1.28%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of celecoxib in pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Visible Light-Cured Glycol Chitosan Hydrogel Containing a Beta-Cyclodextrin-Curcumin Inclusion Complex Improves Wound Healing In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Jung; Hyun, Hoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Yang, Dae Hyeok

    2017-09-10

    Scarless wound healing is ideal for patients suffering from soft tissue defects. In this study, we prepared a novel wet dressing (β-CD-ic-CUR/GC) based on the visible light-cured glycol chitosan (GC) hydrogel and inclusion complex between beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and curcumin (CUR). We also evaluated its efficacy in the acceleration of wound healing as compared to that of CUR-loaded GC (CUR/GC). The conjugation of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) to GC for photo-curing was confirmed by ¹H-NMR measurement, and the photo-cured GC hydrogel was characterized by the analyses of rheology, swelling ratio, SEM and degradation rate. After visible light irradiation, the surface/cross-sectional morphologies and storage (G')/loss (G'') moduli revealed the formation of hydrogel with interconnected porosity. The dressing β-CD-ic-CUR/GC exhibited a controlled release of 90% CUR in a sustained manner for 30 days. On the other hand, CUR/GC showed CUR release of 16%. β-CD acted as an excipient in improving the water-solubility of CUR and affected the release behavior of CUR. The in vivo animal tests including measurement of the remaining unhealed wound area and histological analyses showed that β-CD-ic-CUR/GC may have potential as a wet dressing agent to enhance soft tissue recovery in open fractures.

  17. Characterization of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing an essential oil component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Romina L; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, María J; Bruna, Julio E

    2016-04-01

    An important issue in food technology is that antimicrobial compounds can be used for various applications, such as the development of antimicrobial active packaging materials. Yet most antimicrobial compounds are volatile and require protection. In the present study, the inclusion complexes of 2-nonanone (2-NN) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were prepared by a co-precipitation method. Entrapment efficiency (EE), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), sorption isotherms and antifungal activity were evaluated for the characterization of the inclusion complex (β-CD:2-NN). A higher EE was obtained (34.8%) for the inclusion complex 1:0.5 than for other molar rates. Both DSC and TGA of the inclusion complexes showed the presence of endothermic peaks between 80 °C and 150 °C, attributed to a complexation phenomenon. Antimicrobial tests for mycelial growth reduction under atmospheric conditions proved the fungistatic behaviour of the inclusion complexes against Botrytis cinerea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating the inclusion properties of aromatic amino acids complexing beta-cyclodextrins in model peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Jolanda Valentina; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Malgieri, Gaetano; Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Isernia, Carla; Iacovino, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as complexing agents in biological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications since they have an effect on protein thermal and proteolytic stability, refolding yields, solubility, and taste masking. β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), because of their cavity size are a perfectly suited complexing agent for many common guest moieties. In the case of peptide-cyclodextrin and protein-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes the aromatic amino acids are reported to be the principal responsible of the interaction. For these reasons, we have investigated the inclusion properties of nine designed tripeptides, obtained permuting the position of two L-alanines (Ala, A) with that of one L-tryptophan (Trp, W), L-phenylalanine (Phe, F), or L-tyrosine (Tyr, Y), respectively. Interestingly, the position of the aromatic side-chain in the sequence appears to modulate the β-CD:peptide binding constants, determined via UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy, which in turn assumes values higher than those reported for the single amino acid. The tripeptides containing a tyrosine showed the highest binding constants, with the central position in the Ac-AYA-NH2 peptide becoming the most favorite for the interaction. A combined NMR and Molecular Docking approach permitted to build detailed complex models, highlighting the stabilizing interactions of the neighboring amino acids backbone atoms with the upper rim of the β-CD.

  19. Complexation of enalapril maleate with {beta}-cyclodextrin: NMR spectroscopic study in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Syed Mashhood; Maheshwari, Arti; Asmat, Fahmeena [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: smashhoodali@yahoo.com; Koketsu, Mamoru [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Div. of Instrumental Analysis

    2006-07-15

    A detailed NMR ({sup 1}H , COSY, ROESY) spectroscopic study of complexation of enalapril maleate with {beta}-cyclodextrin was carried out. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of enalapril maleate confirmed the existence of cis-trans equilibrium in solution, possibly due to hindered rotation along the amide bond. The cis-trans ratio remained almost the same in the presence of {beta}-cyclodextrin but in one case it was found significantly different which suggests a catalytic role of {beta}-cyclodextrin in the isomerization. {sup 1}H NMR titration studies confirmed the formation of an enalapril-{beta}-cyclodextrin inclusion complex as evidenced by chemical shift variations in the proton resonances of both the host and the guest. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined to be 2:1 (guest: host). The mode of penetration of the guest into the {beta}-cyclodextrin cavity as well as the structure of the complex were established using ROESY spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of disoxaril-dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and in vitro permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Giannone, Ignazio; Musumeci, Teresa; Pignatello, Rosario; Ragni, Lorella; Landolfi, Carla; Milanese, Claudio; Paolino, Donatella; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2006-02-01

    In this work we evaluated the ability of 2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-Cyd) to include the anti-rhinovirus drug Disoxaril (WIN 51711), increasing its water solubility and stability. The complex, prepared by kneading method, was characterized in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetry and in aqueous solution using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. The formation of 1:1 and 1:2 drug-Cyd complexes was hypothesized. Stability constants for both complexes were determined on the basis of an Ap-type phase solubility diagrams and evidenced a very high stability for the 1:1 complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the binding process showed the existence of classical hydrophobic interactions in the 1:1 complex with the formation of a less ordered system after complexation. An enthalpic contribution rather than an entropic one accompanied the association of the second Cyd molecule. DM-beta-Cyd was able to significantly increase water solubility of WIN 51711, from 0.000123 to 0.47142 mg/ml. Free drug shows a very low water stability, it is completely hydrolyzed after 36 h in PBS (pH 7.0), at 4 degrees C. In the presence of DM-beta-Cyd only a 10% of WIN 51711 was degraded, to the same conditions, after 12 days. DM-beta-Cyd increases the permeation of WIN 51711 across excised bovine nasal mucosa mounted on Franz cells, with respect to the free drug. Nevertheless, the permeation process had a lag time of 2 h so that the drug might assure its pharmacological activity on the outer surface of the mucosa. In vivo studies on rabbits evidenced that WIN 51711 is well tolerated, having no observable effect on the nasal mucosa following repeated administration.

  1. Use of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin ad polymer matrix for formation of inclusion complex with drug nifedipine; Uso da hidroxipropil-{beta}-ciclodextrina como matriz polimerica para formacao de complexo de inclusao como o farmaco nifedipina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Elisa F.; Araujo, Marcia V.G. de; Barbosa, Ronilson V.; Silva, Caroline W.P. da; Barisson, Andersson; Zawadzki, Sonia F., E-mail: zawadzki@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Andrade, George Ricardo S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Nucleo de Ciencias e Engenharia dos Materiais; Costa Junior, Nivan B. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (DQ/UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In this work it was prepared and characterized an inclusion complex between the polymeric matrix hydroxypropyl-beta cyclodextrin and nifedipine, a hydrophobic drug calcium antagonistic, used for the cardiovascular diseases treatment. The study of the phase- solubility diagram showed an increase of the aqueous solubility of the drug after inclusion, was observed and The differential scanning calorimetry analysis did not show the melting point temperature of the drug in the formed complex. This fact is considered as an evidence of the encapsulation process. {sup 1}H NMR studies suggested that the non-aromatic ring of the nifedipine would be inserted in the cavity of the hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.This orientation was also proposed by the used molecular modelling methods. (author)

  2. Complexation of enalapril maleate with beta-cyclodextrin: NMR spectroscopic study in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mashhood Ali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed NMR (¹H , COSY, ROESY spectroscopic study of complexation of enalapril maleate with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out. The ¹H NMR spectrum of enalapril maleate confirmed the existence of cis-trans equilibrium in solution, possibly due to hindered rotation along the amide bond. The cis-trans ratio remained almost the same in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin but in one case it was found significantly different which suggests a catalytic role of beta-cyclodextrin in the isomerization. ¹H NMR titration studies confirmed the formation of an enalapril-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex as evidenced by chemical shift variations in the proton resonances of both the host and the guest. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined to be 2:1 (guest: host. The mode of penetration of the guest into the beta-cyclodextrin cavity as well as the structure of the complex were established using ROESY spectroscopy.

  3. The inclusion complex of rosmarinic acid into beta-cyclodextrin: A thermodynamic and structural analysis by NMR and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamija, Amra; Polidori, Ange; Plasson, Raphaël; Dangles, Olivier; Tomao, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the characterization of the rosmarinic acid (RA)-β-cyclodextrin (CD) complex in aqueous solution by (1)H NMR (1D- and 2D-ROESY), completed with studies by capillary electrophoresis (CE). From the (1)H NMR data, the stoichiometry of the complex was determined by a Job's plot and the binding constant was estimated from a linear regression (Scott's method). At pH 2.9, the results showed that RA binds CD with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a binding constant Kb of 445 (±53) M(-1) or 465 (±81) M(-1) depending on the CD protons (H-5 or H-3) selected for the evaluation. The Kb value was also calculated from the CD-induced chemical shifts of each RA proton in order to collect information on the structure of the complex. The pH dependence of Kb revealed that the RA carboxylic form displays the highest affinity for CD. An investigation by capillary electrophoresis fully confirmed these results. 2D ROESY analysis provided detailed structural information on the complex and showed a strong correlation between H-3 and H-5 of CD and most RA protons. In conclusion, RA, an efficient phenolic antioxidant from rosemary with a marketing authorization, spontaneously forms a relatively stable inclusion complex with CD in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric determination of stoichiometry and association constants of the complexes of harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; León, A; Olives, A I; Del Castillo, B; Martín, M A

    2003-06-13

    The association characteristics of the inclusion complexes of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbeta-CD), 2,3-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbeta-CD) are described. The association constants vary from 112 for harmine/DMbeta-CD to 418 for harmane/HPbeta-CD. The magnitude of the interactions between the host and the guest molecules depends on the chemical and geometrical characteristics of the guest molecules and therefore the association constants vary for the different cyclodextrin complexes. The steric hindrance is higher in the case of harmine due to the presence of methoxy group on the beta-carboline ring. The association obtained for the harmane complexes is stronger than the one observed for harmine complexes except in the case of harmine/TMbeta-CD. Important differences in the association constants were observed depending on the experimental variable used in the calculations (absolute value of fluorescence intensity or the ratio between the fluorescence intensities corresponding to the neutral and cationic forms). When fluorescence intensity values were considered, the association constants were higher than when the ratio of the emission intensity for the cationic and neutral species was used. These differences are a consequence of the co-existence of acid-base equilibria in the ground and in excited states together with the complexation equilibria. The existence of a proton transfer reaction in the excited states of harmane or harmine implies the need for the experimental dialysis procedure for separation of the complexes from free harmane or harmine. Such methodology allows quantitative results for stoichiometry determinations to be obtained, which show the existence of both 1:1 and 1:2 beta-carboline alkaloid:CD complexes with different solubility properties.

  5. Complexation of fluoxetine hydrochloride with beta-cyclodextrin. A proton magnetic resonance study in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Mashhood; Asmat, Fahmeena; Maheshwari, Arti; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2005-05-01

    A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study in D2O of mixtures of fluoxetine hydrochloride (guest) with beta-cyclodextrin (host) revealed the existence of two different equilibria for 1:1 inclusion complexes in which -CF3 substituted ring of the guest is more tightly held by the host cavity. The structures of the two complexes have been proposed which are supported by 2DROESY spectral data. The dissociation constant was also determined.

  6. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of inclusion complexes between local anesthetics and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao e caracterizacao fisico-quimica de complexos de inclusao entre anestesicos locais e hidroxipropil-{beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; Abrami, Priscila; Goncalves, Marcos Moises; Andreo Filho, Newton [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br

    2007-07-15

    S(-) Bupivacaine (S(-)BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC) are widely used local anesthetics (LA). Hydroxypropyl {beta}-cyclodextrin (HP-{beta}-CD) is used as a drug-carrier system. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes between LA and HP-{beta}-CD. The affinity constants determined at different pHs show favourable complexation. The release kinetics experiments showed that S(-)BVC and LDC changed the released profiles in the presence of HP-{beta}-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments gave information about the interaction between LA and the cyclodextrin cavity. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of drug-delivery formulations that come out as potentially new therapeutic options for pain treatment. (author)

  7. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  8. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  9. Enhancement of solubility of albendazole by complexation with {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, C.; Costa, G.L.; Ferracini, C.N.; Matioli, G. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: gmatioli@uem.br; Moraes, F.F. de; Zanin, G.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pineda, E.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-04-15

    A high dosage of albendazole (ABZ) is required for treating systemic helminth infections because of its low solubility. Aiming at increasing ABZ solubility, complexation with beta-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) using aqueous and acetic acid solutions as ABZ solubiliser was studied. In aqueous {beta}-CD, complexation increased solubility 53.4 times, giving a complex equilibrium constant of 1266 L mol{sup -1} with a maximum ABZ concentration of 276 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for 16.3 mmol L{sup -1} {beta}-CD. For complexation in 1.05 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid, UV absorbance spectra and {sup 1}H-NMR analysis confirmed complex formation. The UV absorbance of ABZ/acid acetic/{beta}-CD solutions was modeled by the formation of two complexes with molar ratios 1:1 and 1:2 ABZ:{beta}-CD. When neutralized with NaOH these solutions did not form precipitates only for the ABZ:{beta}-CD molar ratios of 1:8 and 1:10, showing that ABZ solubility could be increased 306 times. Results show that high {beta}-CD molar ratios hold ABZ in solution by complexation enhanced by the acetate anion. (author)

  10. Enhancement of androstadienedione production from progesterone by biotransformation using the hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Saowakhon, Suda; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2008-01-01

    The enhanced production of androstadienedione (ADD) from progesterone (P) using the hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) complexation technique by biotransformation was demonstrated. The microorganisms used were Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 245, B. sphaericus ATCC 7063, B. sphaericus ATCC 13805, Arthrobacter simplex ATCC 6946, B. sphaericus TISTR 670 and those screened from soils in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand which were B. sphaericus SRP I, B. sphaericus SRP II and B. sphaericus SRP III. The complexed (P-complex) and the uncomplexed P at 0.3-1.2mg/ml were investigated. Samples were withdrawn from the bioconversion mixture at various time intervals for 168 h. The ADD and P contents were determined by HPLC. All organisms showed ADD production from either P or P-complex by one-step biotransformation (including side chain cleavage and dehydrogenation). At 0.3mg/ml of P in the systems of B. sphaericus ATCC 13805, A. simplex ATCC 6946 and B. sphaericus ATCC 245, the uncomplexed form showed the highest ADD yield of 2.82, 1.63 and 64.67% at 168, 168 and 144 h, whereas P-complex gave 98.44, 19.58 and 97.10% at 144, 24 and 168 h, respectively. This indicated an increase of ADD production from the P-complex in comparison to P of 35, 12 and 1.5 times, respectively. This study has shown that the complexation of P with HPbetaCD enhanced the ADD production in a novel one-step bioconversion.

  11. Carborane-beta-cyclodextrin complexes as a supramolecular connector for bioactive surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neirynck, P.; Schimer, Jiří; Jonkheijm, P.; Milroy, L. G.; Cígler, Petr; Brunsveld, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2015), s. 539-545 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11027 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : beta-cyclodextrine/carborane host-guest system * supramolecular chemistry * bioactive surfaces Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.872, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/tb/c4tb01489h

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of chamomile flowers: extraction efficiency, stability, and in-line inclusion of chamomile-carbon dioxide extract in beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C S; Römpp, H; Schmidt, P C

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of chamomile flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and compared with solvent extraction. The stability of matricine, a sensitive constituent of the essential oil of chamomile, in these extracts was studied during storage at different temperatures over 6 months. Matricine was stable at -30 degrees C. A slight decrease (80-90% recovery) occurred at +5 degrees C, whereas complete decomposition of matricine took place within 3-4 months at room temperature and at +30 degrees C, respectively. An in-line inclusion of chamomile constituents in beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) during the extraction process was assessed and inclusion rates between 40 and 95% were obtained depending on the amount of beta-CD and the type of chamomile constituent. No further stabilization of matricine in the carbon dioxide extract/beta-CD complexes was achieved. High residual water contents in the complexes even after freeze-drying were identified as accelerating the decomposition. In addition, the extractability of flavonoids, such as apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside, was determined. Apigenin-7-glucoside, the more hydrophilic substance, was not extractable with pure carbon dioxide and showed a recovery of 11% using methanol modified carbon dioxide (18%, w/w) at 60 degrees C and 380 bar. Extraction conditions in the two-phase region of the binary mixture carbon dioxide-methanol (70 degrees C, 100 bar) led to a drastic change in fluid polarity and hence extractability increased to 92-95%.

  13. Thermodynamics and structure of inclusion compounds of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts and beta-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Shi, Wei; Andersen Hartvig, Rune

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry, and the str......The interaction between natural beta-cyclodextrin and bile salts common in rat, dog and man, taurocholate, tauro-beta-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry......, and the structural differences in the interaction were investigated by H-1-ROESY NMR and molecular modeling. The beta-cyclodextrin was selected based upon its frequent use in preformulation and drug formulation as oral excipients for the solubilization of drug substances with low aqueous solubility. All...

  14. Study of the BPP7a peptide and its {beta}-cyclodextrin complex: physicochemical characterization and complete sequence specific NMR assignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lula, Ivana; Sousa, Frederico B. de; Denadai, Angelo M.L.; Sinisterra, Ruben D.; Ianzer, Danielle; Santos, Robson A.S., E-mail: sinisterra@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas and Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, (Brazil); Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology (CAT-CEPID), Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The BPP7a heptapeptide, p-Glu1Asp2Gly3Pro4Ile5Pro6Pro7, forms an association complex with {beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio. The peptide and its complex were characterized by circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), which showed a very weak interaction between the {beta}-cyclodextrin and the peptide. Assignments of all hydrogen resonances of the peptide alone and as a complex were made using {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at 400 and 600 MHz. High resolution diffusion ordered spectroscopy (HR-DOSY) experiments were carried out to establish the self-aggregation state of BPP7a. It was also shown that the {beta}-cyclodextrin breaks the molecular clusters leading to complex formation. In addition, the anti-hypertensive activity of the BPP7a/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex was evaluated in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), showing increased activity compared to that of pure BPP7a. (author)

  15. Estimation of apparent binding constant of complexes of selected acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with beta-cyclodextrin by affinity capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Mikysková, Hana; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín; Kašička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2016), s. 239-247 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * affinity capillary electrophoresis * binding constant * nucleotide analogs * beta-cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  16. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khoshtinat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and bacterial growth assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Minitab statistical software.Results and conclusion: Garlic oil had poor antioxidant activity (EC50, 5222 µg ml-1 and EC50 because garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin (containing 1495 µg ml-1 released garlic oil was achieved after 5 h and 25 min. Agar well diffusion showed no inhibition zone on Muller Hinton Agar for garlic oil and garlic oil/betacyclodextrin (with initial release (shaking at 150 rpm for 24 h at 37ºC and without initial release. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to garlic oil, and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with and without initial release (minimum inhibitory concentration 10-5 , 10-4 and 10-3 % w v -1 , respectively; however, Bacillus cereus was the most resistant. The effect of initial release for garlic oil/betacyclodextrin on inhibiting the growth of all four bacteria was significant. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between the inhibitory effect of garlic oil and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with initial release on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, also Salmonella entrica and Escherichia coli. Garlic oil showed a weak antioxidant activity in 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. Garlic oil and its complex were not able to penetrate to the solid media; therefore, no inhibition zone and no antibacterial activity in the agar well diffusion assay were

  17. Optimization of metallocene substrates for. beta. -cyclodextrin reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslow, R.; Trainor, G.; Ueno, A.

    1983-05-04

    The p-nitrophenyl ester of (E)-ruthenoceneacrylic acid reacts in a complex to acylate ..beta..-cyclodextrin, but with a poorer binding and rate constant than for the corresponding ferrocene derivative. The p-nitrophenyl ester of (E)-3-(carboxymethylene(-1,2-ferrocenocyclopentene is a mixture of two enantiomers. One enantiomer acylates ..beta..-cyclodextrin 5 900 000 times as fast in aqueous Me/sub 2/SO as it hydrolyzes under the same conditions (1.5 X 10/sup 8/ times as fast as hydrolysis in pure water at the same pH); the other enantiomer is 62-fold slower. These are the largest accelerations and enantiomeric selectives known for such reactions. Ferrocen-1,3-diacrylate esters react with ..beta..-cyclodextrin in processes in which the first and second acylation reveal important geometric effects. ..beta..-Cyclodextrin 6-tosylate is used to block unproductive binding and clarify the structural effects.

  18. Influence of beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan in the formulation of a colon-specific drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Amin, M C I M; Muda, S

    2013-12-01

    The increase in diseases of the colon underscores the need to develop cost-effective site-directed therapies. We formulated a polysaccharide-based matrix system that could release ibuprofen under conditions simulating those in the colon by employing a wet granulation method. Tablets were prepared in a series of formulations containing a polysaccharide (beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan) matrix system along with ethylcellulose. We characterized physicochemical properties and performed an in vitro drug release assay in the absence and presence of digestive enzymes to assess the ability of the polysaccharides to function as a protective barrier against the upper gastrointestinal environment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no chemical interaction between ibuprofen and polysaccharides; however, spectrum analysis suggested the formation of an inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin with ibuprofen. The formulations contained 50% ethylcellulose and 50% beta-cyclodextrins (1:1) were proven to be the better formulation that slowly released the drug until 24 h (101.04 ± 0.65% maximum drug release in which 83.08 ± 0.89% drug was released in colonic medium) showed better drug release profiles than the formulations containing chitosan. We conclude that a beta-cyclodextrin drug carrier system may represent an effective approach for treatment of diseases of the colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A study of salt effects on the complexation between beta-cyclodextrins and bile salts based on the Hofmeister series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Schonbeck, Christian; Somprasirt, Pitchayanun

    2014-01-01

    bound drug molecules. The influence of Hofmeister ions on the binding constants of complexes between CDs (β-CD and hydroxypropylated β-CD) and bile salts (glycocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate) were examined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The chaotropic anions tended to weaken these inclusion...

  20. Microcalorimetric and spectrographic studies on host-guest interactions of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Min [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhisdz@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Li, Linwei, E-mail: lilinwei@lcu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-10-20

    Thermal effects of inclusion processes of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol (RES) in aqueous solutions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with nanowatt sensitivity at the temperature of 298.15 K. Standard enthalpy changes, stoichiometry and equilibrium constants of the inclusion complexes were derived from the direct calorimetric data utilizing nonlinear simulation. The thermodynamic parameters were discussed in the light of weak interactions between the host and the guest molecules combining with UV spectral message. The results indicate that all of the complexes formed in the aqueous solutions are in 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding processes of {alpha}-, {beta}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with the guest are mainly driven by enthalpy, while that of {gamma}-cyclodextrin with the drug is driven by both enthalpy and entropy.

  1. Host-guest interaction of L-tyrosine with beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M; Ramesh, D; Nagalakshmi, V; Kavitha, R; Rajamohan, R; Stalin, T

    2008-11-01

    The inclusion complexes of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with L-tyrosine (L-TYN) were investigated by using spectrophotometers. The absorption and fluorescence enhancement occurs with beta-CD and L-TYN forms 1:1 inclusion complex. The unusual blue shift of hydroxyl ion in the beta-CD medium confirms OH groups present in the interior part of the beta-CD cavity and -COOH group present in the upper part of the beta-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain inclusion process. The inclusion interaction was examined and the thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS were determined. The results indicated that the inclusion process was an exergonic and spontaneous process. Stable solid inclusion complexes were established and characterized by FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods.

  2. Intravesicular and intervesicular interaction by orthogonal multivalent host-guest and metal-ligand complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Choon Woo; Crespo-Biel, Olga; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2007-01-01

    Host vesicles composed of amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin CID1 recognize metal-coordination complexes of the adamantyl-functionalized ethylenediamine ligand L via hydrophobic inclusion in the beta-cyclodextrin cavities at the vesicle surface. In the case of Cu(II) and L, the resulting coordination

  3. Intravesicular and intervesicular interaction by orthogonal multivalent host-guest and metal-ligand complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, C.W.; Crespo biel, O.; Stuart, Marc C.A.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Host vesicles composed of amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin CD1 recognize metal-coordination complexes of the adamantyl-functionalized ethylenediamine ligand L via hydrophobic inclusion in the beta-cyclodextrin cavities at the vesicle surface. In the case of Cu(II) and L, the resulting coordination

  4. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  5. Influence of fulvic acid and hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin on aspirin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Mohammad Khalid; Agarwal, Suraj Prakash; Ali, Asgar; Sultana, Yasmin

    2010-04-01

    The degradation of aspirin (ASA) was investigated to reveal information about the influence of complexation with fulvic acid (FA), as a new complexing agent and compared with hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex. ASA was complexed with FA in the molar ratio 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 by different methods through lyophilization, solvent evaporation, and spray drying. Spray-dried (1:1) ASA-hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex was prepared and compared with optimized complex of FA. All the complexes and ASA alone were packaged in well-labeled sealed polythene-lined aluminum pouches and stored in stability chamber at 40 +/- 2 degrees C and 75 +/- 5% relative humidity for 120 days. Samples were analyzed for salicylic acid content at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. Overall 4.31% salicylic acid was formed in 1:1 ASA-FA spray-dried complex, which was optimized stable complex among other complexes of FA prepared by different methods in different molar ratios. However, 2.35% salicylic acid was measured with 1:1 spray-dried ASA-hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex. Stability of ASA increased more when complexed with hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin as compared to FA. A novel complexing agent in the form of FA was investigated to increase the stability of ASA. A marked improvement in stability of ASA was observed when complexed with hydroxy propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (1:1) by spray drying as compared to 1:1 spray-dried ASA-FA complex.

  6. Covalently {beta}-cyclodextrin modified single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel artificial receptor synthesized by 'click' chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhen; Liang Li [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Liang Jiajie; Ma Yanfeng; Yang Xiaoying [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Ren Dongmei [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Chen Yongsheng [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Zheng Jianyu, E-mail: jyzheng@nankai.edu.c [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China)

    2008-08-15

    Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin covalently modified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a 'click' coupling reaction. The product was fully characterized with Raman, FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis-NIR spectra as well as TEM and TGA measurements. The effective functionalization via 'click' coupling has set up a facile and versatile route for modular preparation of SWNTs based functional materials. The inclusion complexation behavior of this artificial receptor with quinine has been investigated in aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Physicochemical Analysis and Molecular Modeling of the Fosinopril β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Udrescu, Lucreția; Sbârcea, Laura; Fuliaș, Adriana; Ledeți, Ionuț; Vlase, Gabriela; Barvinschi, Paul; Kurunczi, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the interaction between fosinopril sodium (FOS) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solution and in solid state, in order to prove the formation of an inclusion complex between the two components. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex was found as 1 : 1 by employing continuous variation method in UV. The formation constant was calculated as 278.93 M−1 using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The kneaded product (KP) and the physical mixture (PM) were further exper...

  8. Complexos de inclusão de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina: estudos de dissolução e coeficiente de partição Inclusion compounds of indomethacin with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin: dissolution profile and partition coefficient evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A indometacina, antiinflamatório não-esteróide, é praticamente insolúvel em água. A hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina confere aos fármacos nela incluídos melhores características de solubilidade. A formação de complexos com indometacina protege da hidrólise, aumentando a solubilidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a influência da complexação por liofilização e por spray-dried, na dissolução e coeficiente de partição. Os resultados dos estudos de dissolução dos complexos de inclusão obtidos por liofilização quando comparados com os obtidos por spray-dryer, apresentam quer maior velocidade de dissolução quer melhor eficiência de dissolução. Os resultados da análise do coeficiente de partição, com ambos os métodos de complexação, confirmam a teoria de que são várias as forças intervenientes neste processo e não é só a fração livre de fármaco que condiciona o transporte para a fase orgânica, reforçando a importância do pH do meio. No estudo com o tampão fosfato pH 7,0, as variações no grau de transporte pela adição de ciclodextrina são muito pequenas, não ocorrendo alteração significativa dos valores de Log P*, verificando-se alterações mais significativas quando se utiliza o tampão fosfato pH 5,5. A complexação aumentou a capacidade de solubilização e dissolução da indometacina, a qual tem caráter lipófilo, sem alterar as características que lhe permitem ter boa capacidade de difusão através de membranas biológicas.Indomethacin, a non steroidal anti-inflamatory, is practically water insoluble. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin grants better solubility characteristics to included drugs. Indomethacin's complexation protects from hydrolysis, enhancing solubility and dissolution. The aim is to study the influence of complexation methods, freeze and spray-dryer, on indomethacin dissolution and partition coefficient. Dissolution results show that freeze-dried inclusion complex

  9. Physico-chemical and Biological Evaluation of Flavonols: Fisetin, Quercetin and Kaempferol Alone and Incorporated in beta Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, Danciu; Bojin, Florina; Ambrus, Rita; Muntean, Delia; Soica, Codruta; Paunescu, Virgil; Cristea, Mirabela; Pinzaru, Iulia; Dehelean, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Fisetin,quercetin and kaempferol are among the important representatives of flavonols, biological active phytocomounds, with low water solubility. To evaluate the antimicrobial effect, respectively the antiproliferative and pro apoptotic activity on the B164A5 murine melanoma cell line of pure flavonols and their beta cyclodextrins complexes. Incorporation of fisetin, quercetin and kaempferol in beta cyclodextrins was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Pure compounds and their complexes were tested for antiproliferative (MTT) and pro-apoptotic activity (Annexin V-PI) on the B164A5 murine melanoma cell line and for the antimicrobial properties (Disk Diffusion Method) on the selected strains. The phytocompounds presented in a different manner in vitro chemopreventive activity against B164A5 murine melanoma cell line and weak antimicrobial effect. The three flavonols: fisetin, quercetin and kaempferol were successfully incorporated in beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) and hydroxylpropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). Incorporation in beta cyclodextrins had a mix effect on the biological activity conducing to decrease, increase or consistent effect compared to pure phytocompound, depending on the screened process and on the chosen combination. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Studies of Triton X-165-beta-cyclodextrin interactions using both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Atanu; Bose, Debosreeta; Ghosh, Debanjana; Jana, Barnali; Bhattacharya, Bhaswati; Sarkar, Deboleena; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2010-07-15

    The interaction of beta-cyclodextrin with the non-ionic micelle-forming surfactant Triton X-165 (TX-165) has been studied using steady state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. Both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence have been exploited for the purpose. Phenosafranin (PSF), a cationic phenazinium dye, has been used as the extrinsic probe while fluorescence of TX-165 has served as the intrinsic one. PSF shows discernible interactions with both TX-165 and beta-CD. The experimental results reveal that the extent of interaction of PSF with TX-165 is greater than with beta-CD. However, addition of beta-CD to a micellar solution of TX-165 containing PSF leads to a disruption of the micelles whereby the fluorophore is released from the micellar environment to the bulk aqueous phase. It has been substantiated that an inclusion complex is formed between the non-ionic surfactant and the cyclodextrin. A 1:1 stoichiometry of the TX-165-beta-CD inclusion complex has been proposed. Such a complexation between TX-165 and beta-CD results in an inhibition in the micellization process of TX-165 leading to an enhancement in the apparent CMC value. The inferences are drawn from a series of experiments, viz., binding studies, determination of micropolarity, heavy-ion quenching studies and steady state fluorescence anisotropy experiments monitoring both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taste masking and rheology improvement of drug complexed with beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Lorena F B; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Freire, Daniel O; Silva, Izabel C R; Karan, Kapish; Durig, Thomas; Lima, Eliana M; Marreto, Ricardo N; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Gratieri, Tais; Cunha-Filho, Marcilio

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to mask fluconazole (FLU) taste and improve its rheological properties by an efficient process of cyclodextrin complexation. For this, hot-melt extrusion (HME) was used to obtain extrudates composed of FLU, hydroxypropylcellulose, and one of two different cyclodextrins (β-cyclodextrin or hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) maintaining the drug:cyclodextrin molar ratio at 1:0.3 or 1:0.2, respectively. Samples were characterized by physicochemical tests, palatability using e-tongue and antifungal assays. Drug stability was preserved after HME, according to spectroscopy test (correlation coefficient >0.9) and HPLC-assay (100-107%). Flowability was improved in HME systems with compressibility of <12%. Similarly, floodability exhibited significant enhancement (dispersibility <10%). Whereas extrudates of FLU containing only the polymeric matrix led to a slow drug dissolution efficiency (18.6%) and a partial drug taste masking; extrudates containing cyclodextrin accelerated FLU dissolution (dissolution efficiency approx. 30%) and provided a complete drug taste masking. Moreover, HME process could produce drug complexes with high complexation efficiency and preserve its antifungal activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao do composto de associacao entre citrato de rodio(II) e {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ana E.; Okio, Coco K.Y.A., E-mail: aeburgosc@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with{beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and {sup 1}H-NMR with {sup 1}H spin lattice relaxation ({sup 1}H T{sub 1}) measurements and {sup 13}C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin. (author)

  13. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF β-CYCLODEXTRIN-EPICHLOROHYDRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Poornima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A water soluble Beta-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin complex (Beta-CDEPI was synthesized by one-step condensation polymerization. Drug- Beta-CDEPI inclusion complexes were prepared and characterized. Inclusion complexes prepared using lyophilization technique was used to formulate orodispersible tablets. Compatibility studies showed no interaction and characterization proved substantial inclusion complex formation. Drug content was found between 97-99%. In-vitro disintegration time was found to be less than 3 minutes and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 15 minutes. The formulations were found to be stable for a period of 6 months. Beta-CDEPI polymer enhances the solubility and thus effectively can be utilized to improve the aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.

  14. Interaction between bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a) and {beta}-cyclodextrin: A structural and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lula, Ivana; De Sousa, Frederico B. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Denadai, Angelo M.L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, CEFET-MG, Campus VII, 35.183-006, Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Ferreira de Lima, Guilherme; Duarte, Helio Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mares Guia, Thiago R. dos [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Faljoni-Alario, Adelaide [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santoro, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology CAT-CEPID, Laboratorio Especial de Toxicologia Aplicada, Instituto Butantan, 05503-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Robson A.S. dos [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the physical and chemical characterizations of the supramolecular complex formed between {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}CD) and bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a), an endogenous toxin found in Bothrops jararaca. Circular dichroism results indicate a conformational change in the BPP9a secondary structure upon its complexation with {beta}CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance results, mainly from NOESY experiments, and theoretical calculations showed a favorable interaction between the tryptophan residue of BPP9a and the {beta}CD cavity. Thermodynamic inclusion parameters were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry, demonstrating that {beta}CD/BPP9a complex formation is an exothermic process that results in a reduction in entropy. Additionally, in vitro degradation study of BPP9a against trypsin (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7.2) showed higher stability of peptide in presence of {beta}CD. This {beta}CD/BPP9a complex, which presents new chemical properties arising from the peptide inclusion process, may be useful as an antihypertensive drug in oral pharmaceutical formulations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd and NMR showed evidences for the existence of more than one structure in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexation with {beta}CD reduces the conformational rigidity of the peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}CD cavity recognize Trp and/or Pro segments of BPP9a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions involving disaggregation of BPP9a assemblies and binding with {beta}CD.

  15. Fluorescence enhancement of the aflatoxin B{sub 1} by forming inclusion complexes with some cyclodextrins and molecular modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Naader [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: alizaden@modares.ac.ir

    2007-12-15

    The interaction between the aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) and three cyclodextrins, {alpha}-cyclodextrin ({alpha}-CD), {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and heptakis-2,6-dimethyl-o-{beta}-cyclodextrin (ome-CD), was studied by spectrofluorescence technique. It was found that the inclusion association behavior occurs for the complexes of cyclodextrins with AFB{sub 1}. The fluorescence of AFB{sub 1} is generally enhanced in the complexes with cyclodextrins in aqueous solutions. The inclusion complex constants of the three types of cyclodextrins at different temperatures were evaluated from Benesi-Hildebrand plot and also by non-linear regression analysis. These cyclodextrins can only form the 1:1 (host:guest) inclusion complex in the studied temperature range of 20-50 deg. C. The enthalpy ({delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({delta}S{sup o}) changes of complexation were extracted from the temperature dependency of complex formation constants (K). Temperature-dependent measurements showed that the association step is controlled by enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. The use of ome-CD generally resulted in the greatest fluorescence intensity. On the other hand, the discrepancy between the exhibited enhanced fluorescence and thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}) is proposed to be different only by the orientation of the AFB{sub 1} within the cyclodextrin cavity. To find the most favorable structure, the geometry of complex was investigated by molecular modeling approach employing the semiemperical HF-SCF calculations.

  16. Redox-controlled interaction of biferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers with beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, Christian A; Dolatowska, Karolina A; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and electrochemistry of biferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers and their beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion complexes in aqueous solution and at surfaces. Three generations of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, decorated with 4, 8, and 16 biferrocenyl (BFc) units, respectively, were synthesized. A water-soluble BFc derivative forms stable inclusion complexes with beta-CD. The intrinsic binding constant is K(i)=2.5 x 10(4) M(-1). The BFc dendrimers were solubilized in water by complexation of the end groups with beta-CD, resulting in large water-soluble supramolecular assemblies. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed that all the end groups are complexed to beta-CD. Adsorption of the dendrimers at self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of heptathioether-functionalized beta-CD on gold ("molecular printboards") resulted in stable monolayers of the dendrimers due to the formation of multivalent host-guest interactions between the BFc end groups of the dendrimers and the immobilized beta-CD molecules. The number of interacting end groups is 3, 4, and 4 for dendrimer generations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The complexation of BFc to beta-CD is sensitive to the oxidation state of the BFc unit. Oxidation of neutral BFc-Fe(2) ((II,II)) to the cationic, mixed-valence biferrocenium BFc-Fe(2) ((II,III)+) resulted in dissociation of the host-guest complexes. Scan-rate-dependent CV and DPV analyses of the dendrimer-beta-CD assemblies immobilized at the beta-CD host surface and in solution revealed that the dendrimers are oxidized in three steps. First, the surface-beta-CD-bound BFc moieties are oxidized to the mixed-valence state, Fe(2) ((II,III)+), followed by the oxidation of the non-surface-interacting BFc groups to the Fe(2) ((II,III)+) state. The third step involves the oxidation of all the BFc moieties to the Fe(2) ((III,III)2+) state.

  17. Effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin polymer on release of drugs from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yotaro; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) polymer on in vitro release of two drugs with different lipophilicities (i.e., lidocaine and ketoprofen) from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms. When beta-CyD polymer was added to hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA) film dosage forms, the release of lidocaine into artificial saliva (pH 5.7) was reduced by 40% of the control. In contrast, the release of ketoprofen from the polymer film was enhanced by addition of beta-CyD polymer to the vehicle. When lidocaine and ketoprofen was incubated with beta-CyD polymer in the artificial saliva, concentration of free lidocaine molecules decreased in a beta-CyD polymer concentration-dependent manner. The association constant with beta-CyD polymer was 6.9+/-0.6 and 520+/-90 M(-1) for lidocaine and ketoprofen, respectively. Retarded release of the hydrophilic lidocaine by beta-CyD polymer might be due to the decrease in thermodynamic activity by inclusion complex formation, whereas enhanced release of the lipophilic ketoprofen by the beta-CyD polymer might be due to prevention of recrystallization occurring after contacting the film with aqueous solution. Thus, effects of low-molecular-weight beta-CyD polymer to the drug release rate from film dosage forms would vary according to the strength of interaction with and the solubility of active ingredient.

  18. Novel controlled ionic gelation strategy for chitosan nanoparticles preparation using TPP-β-CD inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anjali; Negi, Jeetendra Singh

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel controlled ionic gelation strategy for chitosan nanoparticle preparation to avoid particle aggregation tendency associated with conventional ionic gelation process. In this study inclusion complexation behaviour of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) with beta cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated. The TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and DSC techniques. The complexation behaviour was also investigated by molecular docking study. The results showed that the TPP molecule formed inclusion complex with β-CD. Further, TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was used to prepare chitosan nanoparticles. The chitosan nanoparticles based on TPP-β-CD inclusion complex had smaller size of 104.2nm±0.608, good PDI value of 0.346±0.016 and acceptable zeta potential of +27.33mV±0.416. The surface characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles were also observed with transmission electron microscopy. Results indicates that TPP-β-CD inclusion complex can be used for the formation of chitosan nanoparticles with smaller and more uniform particle size in comparison to conventional TPP based chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspectos biofarmacêuticos da formulação de medicamentos para neonatos: fundamentos da complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina para tratamento oral do fechamento do canal arterial Biopharmaceutical aspects of drug formulation for neonatology: rational for indomethacin's complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to treat patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2005-09-01

    alternative to prepare oral formulations. With this review we intend to evaluate the rational for using indomethacin's complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, to enhance bioavailability and reduce gastric toxicity characteristics, allowing its oral administration to treat patent ductus arteriosus on preterm and full-term newborns.

  20. The use of beta-cyclodextrin as a pelletization agent in the extrusion/spheronization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, A; Sangalli, M E; Bruni, G; Zema, L; Vecchio, C; Giordano, F

    1998-09-01

    The use of beta-cyclodextrin for the preparation of pellets by the extrusion/spheronization process is described for different formulations and processing conditions. Sieve analysis and friability tests were performed to assess the physical and technological characteristics of pellets. Satisfactory products were obtained with beta-cyclodextrin contents up to 90% by weight.

  1. Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin modified CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence nanosensor for acetylsalicylic acid and metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, M. [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Campos, B.B.; Aguiar, F.R.; Rodriguez-Borges, J.E. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal); Esteves da Silva, J.C.G., E-mail: jcsilva@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin was modified with 11-[(ethoxycarbonyl)thio]undecanoic acid and used as a capping agent, together with mercaptosuccinic acid, to prepare water-stable CdTe quantum dots. The water soluble quantum dot obtained displays fluorescence with a maximum emission at 425 nm (under excitation at 300 nm) with lifetimes of 0.53, 4.8, 181, and 44.1 ns, respectively. The S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe can act as a nanoprobe that is due to the affinity of the cyclodextrin moiety for selected substances such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites as foreign species. The fluorescence of the S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe is enhanced on addition of ASA. Linear calibration plots are observed with ASA in concentrations between 0 and 1 mg/l, with a limit of detection at 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol/l (1.5 ng/ml) and a precision as relative standard deviation of 1% (0.05 mg/l). The interference effect of certain compounds as ascorbic acid and its main metabolites such as salicylic, gentisic and salicyluric acid upon the obtained procedure was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosensors constituted by CdTe quantum dots capped with modified cyclodextrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial shows fluorescence properties compatible with a semiconductor quantum dot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanosensor shows fluorescence enhancement when inclusion complexes are formed with acetylsalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial has nanosensor potential taking into consideration the formation stability of the inclusion complex.

  2. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  4. Lack of effect of beta-cyclodextrin and its water-soluble derivatives on in vitro drug transport across rat intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Zuo, Zhong; Chow, Albert H L

    2006-02-17

    The present study aimed to investigate whether beta-cyclodetxrin (beta-CD) and its water-soluble derivatives, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-beta-CD), exert any effects on the permeation of two drug transport markers (propranolol and lucifer yellow) across rat intestinal epithelium. Rat ileum was stripped of its serosa and mounted inside an Ussing Chamber. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the markers from the mucosal to serosal side of the tissue were determined at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of the beta-cyclodextrins on the mucosal side. Potential difference (PD) was constantly monitored during each experiment to ensure maintenance of the viability and integrity of the tissue. Pre-incubation with 1% beta-CD, 1% HP-beta-CD or 1.48% SBE-beta-CD on the mucosal side for 30 min did not significantly alter the PD and the propranolol permeability (p>0.05). Co-incubation with 1% beta-CD or 1% HP-beta-CD exerted no significant effect on the P(app) of both propranolol and lucifer yellow (p>0.05), but co-incubation with 1.48% SBE-beta-CD lowered the P(app) of propranolol from (1.71+/-0.44)x10(-5) to (0.19+/-0.04)x10(-5)cm/s, which may be ascribed to the molecular complexation of propranolol with SBE-beta-CD. All three beta-cyclodextrins exert no apparent impact on both (passive) transcellar and paracellular drug transports.

  5. Removal of cholesterol from Cheddar cheese by beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H S; Jung, C S; Shim, S Y; Ahn, J

    2002-12-04

    This study was carried out to determine the cholesterol removal rate and resulting changes in flavor, fatty acid and bitter amino acid production in reduced-cholesterol Cheddar cheese, made by cream separation followed by 10% beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) treatment. The cholesterol removal from the cheese was 92.1%. The production of short-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) increased the ripening time in control and cream-treated cheeses. The quantity of short-chain FFAs released between treatments during ripening was different, while not much difference was found in the production of neutral volatile compounds in the samples. Reduced-cholesterol cheese produced much higher levels of bitter amino acids than the control. In sensory analysis, the texture score of control Cheddar cheese increased significantly with ripening time; however, that of the cream treatment group decreased dramatically with ripening time. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the cheese made from beta-CD-treated cream had a higher rate of cholesterol removal and ripened rapidly.

  6. Dynamic study of interaction between beta-cyclodextrin and aspirin by the ultrasonic relaxation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Takanori; Kondo, Minako; Nishikawa, Sadakatsu

    2006-03-09

    A single ultrasonic relaxational phenomenon was observed in aqueous solutions containing both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) as host and nonionized or ionized acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) as guest. The observed relaxation was responsible for a dynamic complexation reaction between beta-CD and aspirin molecules, concomitant with a volume change during the reaction. The kinetic and equilibrium constants for the complexation in the acid (nonionized) form of the aspirin system were derived from the guest concentration dependence of the relaxation frequency. The equilibrium constant for the carboxylate (ionized) form of aspirin was determined from the concentration dependence of a maximum absorption per wavelength, and the rate constants were calculated by using the determined equilibrium constant and the observed relaxation frequencies, which remained nearly almost constant over the concentration range studied. The results showed that the effect of charge on the aspirin molecule was reflected only in the dissociation process from the beta-CD cavity, while no remarkable change was seen in the association process whose rate was diffusion controlled. The results could be explained on the basis of the difference of the hydrophobic moieties in the two guests that were included in the host cavity. The results of the standard volume change for the complexation reaction were closely related to the number of expelled water molecules originally located in the beta-CD cavity and the volume of the aspirin molecule incorporated into the beta-CD cavity.

  7. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao [School of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222005 (China)

    2009-08-15

    We report a composite membrane based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin in this paper. TGA and SEM tests provide direct evidence of the thermal stability and the uniform structure of the composite membranes. The performances of the composite membranes are investigated in terms of swelling behavior, methanol permeability and proton conductivity as function of sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin content. We find that the introduction of sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin can reduce water uptake. The temperature dependence of proton conductivity reveals that the proton conducting activation energy of the composite membranes is similar to that of Nafion 115, in other words, both the vehicle and Grotthus mechanisms are assumed to be responsible for the composite membranes' proton transfer. Methanol permeability decreases as the methanol feed concentration increases from 2 M to 20 M. Both proton conductivity and methanol permeability increases with increasing sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin. The selectivity of the composite membranes defined as the ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability obtains the maximum of 1.710 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3} at the composition of 17 wt.% sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin. The MEAs fabricate with these membranes are tested, no distinct change occurred to the composite membranes after the MEAs operating for 288 h. These data indicates the chemical and electrochemical stability of the membranes and their potential application in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  8. Development and Validation Dissolution Analytical Method of Nimesulide beta-Cyclodextrin 400 mg Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Carvalho Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The nimesulide (N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenylmethanesulfonamide belongs to the class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and category II of the biopharmaceutical classification, The complexation of nimesulide with b-cyclodextrin is a pharmacological strategy to increase the solubility of the drug The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology for dissolving the nimesulide beta-cyclodextrin 400 mg tablet and meets the guidelines of ANVISA for drug registration purposes. Once developed, the dissolution methodology was validated according to the RE of parameters no.  899/2003. In the development of the method it was noted that the duration of the dissolution test was 60 minutes, the volume and the most suitable dissolution medium was 900 mL of aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate 1% (w/ v. It was also noted that rotation of 100 rpm and the paddle apparatus was the most appropriate to evaluate the dissolution of the drug. Spectrophotometric methodology was used to quantify the percentage of dissolved drug. The wavelength was 390 nm using the quantification. The validation of the methodology, system suitability parameters, specificity/selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness were satisfactory and proved that the developed dissolution methodology was duly executed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.827

  9. Electrochemical control of a non-covalent binding between ferrocene and beta-cyclodextrin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolivoška, Viliam; Mohos, M.; Pobelov, I. V.; Rohrbach, S.; Yoshida, K.; Hong, W.; Fu, Y. C.; Moreno-Garcia, P.; Mészáros, G.; Broekmann, P.; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Sokolová, Romana; Valášek, M.; Wandlowski, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 79 (2014), s. 11757-11759 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * spectroscopy * beta- cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.834, year: 2014

  10. .beta.-Cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposite: preparation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heydari, A.; Sheibani, H.; Hronský, V.; Janigová, I.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Šiffalovič, P.; Chodák, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 5 (2018), s. 1299-1313 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : beta-cyclodextrin * graphene oxide * hydrogels Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  11. Spectrofluorimetric study of the {beta}-cyclodextrin-dapsone-linear alcohol supramolecular system and determination of dapsone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Li; Tang Bo; Chu Chun

    2002-10-03

    Dapsone (DDS) forms a 1:1 supramolecular complex with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) both in the absence and presence of linear alcohols. The apparent association constants (K{sub app}) were measured using a steady-state fluorescence method. K{sub app} decreases linearly with an increasing number of carbon atoms in the chain of the alcohol. We attribute this to a competition between dapsone and linear alcohol for the {beta}-CD hydrophobic cavity as detailed analysis of K{sub app} as a function of the concentration of alcohol suggests that the interactions in the {beta}-CD-dapsone-linear alcohol system do not result in the formation of ternary supramolecular complex. Quenching the fluorescence of dapsone with NaI shows that the {beta}-CD cavity acts as a shield against contact between dapsone and this aqueous phase quencher, while addition of alcohols inhibits this protective effect. This again suggests that alcohols occupy the space within the {beta}-CD cavity with the result that dapsone molecules are forced to reside in the aqueous environment. Based on the significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of dapsone produced through complex formation, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of dapsone in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of {beta}-CD is developed. The linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and dapsone concentration was obtained in the range of 3.39 to 1.50x10{sup 3} ng ml{sup -1}, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The detection limit was 1.02 ng ml{sup -1}. There was no interference from the excipients normally used in tablet formulations. The application of the present method to the determination of dapsone in tablets and human plasma gave satisfactory results and was compared with the pharmacopoeia method.

  12. From guest to ligand - A study on the competing interactions of antitumor drug resveratrol with {beta}-cyclodextrin and bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xudong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252059 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Liaocheng People' s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252000 (China); Li, Hui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252059 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: liumin_panpan@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252059 (China); Li, Guangqian; Li, Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252059 (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhisdz@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province 252059 (China)

    2011-07-10

    Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic behavior of the interaction between bovine serum albumin and antitumor drug resveratrol delivered by {beta}-cyclodextrin in buffer solutions (pH 7.40) have been investigated by ITC combined with UV, FS and circular dichroism at 298.15 K. The results indicated that the affinity of resveratrol with the host ({beta}-cyclodextrin) was evidently weaker than that of the drug with the both classes of binding sites on the protein molecule. Highlights: {yields} Supramolecular complex of a drug with BSA could form in aqueous medium. {yields} A set of thermodynamic parameters were determined. {yields} Affinity of the drug to {beta}-CD is weaker than that of it to the protein. {yields} The molecular conformation of BSA was (slightly) changed by the drug. - Abstract: Interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and resveratrol (RES) included by {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) in Tris-HCl aqueous buffer solutions (pH 7.4) has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with ultraviolet, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra analyses. The results indicate that there are two classes of ligand binding sites. The first class of binding is mainly driven by enthalpy, while the second one is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. The secondary structure of BSA in the aqueous system was slightly changed with addition of the drug. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., equilibrium constants, standard enthalpy changes and the entropy effects for the binding process of RES with BSA were calculated based on the calorimetric data. In fact, due to the poor solubility of RES in aqueous buffer medium, these parameters could not be determined by the employed experimental method without the existence of the CD.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization and in vitro dissolution assessment of clonazepam-cyclodextrins inclusion compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Purohit, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of clonazepam with beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of clonazepam, a water-insoluble lipid-lowering drug. The phase-solubility profiles with both cyclodextrins were classified as AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(tr)(degree)) values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature of clonazepam solubilization, and they decreased with increase in the cyclodextrins concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of clonazepam were prepared with cyclodextrins by various methods such as kneading, coevaporation, and physical mixing. The complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. These studies indicated that complex prepared kneading and coevaporation methods showed successful inclusion of the clonazepam molecule into the cyclodextrins cavity. The complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of clonazepam. Among all the samples, complex prepared with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin by kneading method showed highest improvement in in vitro dissolution rate of clonazepam. Mean dissolution time of clonazepam decreased significantly after preparation of complexes and physical mixture of clonazepam with cyclodextrins. Similarity factor indicated significant difference between the release profiles of clonazepam from complexes and physical mixture and from plain clonazepam. Tablets containing complexes prepared with cyclodextrins showed significant improvement in the release profile of clonazepam as compared to tablet containing clonazepam without cyclodextrins.

  14. Influence of activated charcoal, porcine gastric mucin and beta-cyclodextrin on the morphology and growth of intestinal and gastric Helicobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneera, Jalal; Moran, Anthony P; Hynes, Sean O; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Al-Soud, Waleed abu; Wadström, Torkel

    2002-03-01

    Bile-tolerant Helicobacter spp. are emerging human and animal pathogens. However, due to their fastidious nature, which requires nutrient-rich complex media to grow, infection with these bacteria may be underestimated. The accumulation of toxic metabolites in cultures may be one of the main obstacles for successful culture of these organisms. The present study examined various potential growth-enhancing substances for Helicobacter spp. and, furthermore, how they may affect spiral to coccoid conversion. Five Helicobacter spp. were cultured on agar and in broth media supplemented with activated charcoal, beta-cyclodextrin, or porcine gastric mucin. Growth was determined by estimating the numbers of colony-forming units and colony diameter, as well as bacterial cell mass. Coccoid transformation was estimated every 24 h by both Gram and acridine-orange staining. Activated charcoal was superior in supporting growth and increased cell mass on agar and in broth media. beta-Cyclodextrin delayed spiral to coccoid conversion by Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter canis, whereas activated charcoal delayed the conversion to coccoid forms of Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis. The progression to coccoid forms by Helicobacter pullorum on agar media was not influenced by any growth supplement. The spiral to coccoid conversion was more rapid in broth media than on agar media. The growth enhancement observed is probably related to the capacity of activated charcoal to remove toxic compounds in culture media.

  15. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy of fisetin by encapsulating as inclusion complex with HPβCD in polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadari, Amrita; Gudem, Sagarika; Kulhari, Hitesh; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Borkar, Roshan M; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2017-11-01

    Fisetin (FST), a potent anticancer phytoconstituent, exhibits poor aqueous solubility and hence poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study is to improve the oral bioavailability of FST by encapsulating into PLGA NPs (poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles) as a complex of HPβCD (hydroxyl propyl beta cyclodextrin) and to assess its anti-cancer activity against breast cancer cells. FST-HPβCD inclusion complex (FHIC) was prepared and the supramolecular complex formation was characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD and 1 H NMR. FHIC encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (FHIC-PNP) were prepared and were studied for in vitro anticancer activity, cellular uptake, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comparative bioavailability of FST was determined after oral administration in C57BL6 mice as pure FST and FHIC-PNP. The results revealed that FHIC-PNP not only enhanced the anti-cancer activity and apoptosis of FST against MCF-7 cells but also improved its oral bioavailability, as demonstrated by increased peak plasma concentration and total drug absorbed.

  16. Curcumin-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the preparation method on the inclusion complex of curcumin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Methods: HP-β-CD was selected to prepare an inclusion complex with curcumin at a molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complexes were prepared using three different methods: common solvent ...

  17. Preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles facilitated by the presence of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Perez, Carlos A., E-mail: camartin@uacj.mx [Institute of Engineering and Technology, Autonomous University of Juarez, UACJ, Ave. del Charro 610 norte, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia-Montelongo, Jorge; Garcia Casillas, Perla E.; Farias-Mancilla, Jose R. [Institute of Engineering and Technology, Autonomous University of Juarez, UACJ, Ave. del Charro 610 norte, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Monreal Romero, Humberto [School of Odontology, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, UACH, Ave. Universidad s/n Campus Universitario I, C.P. 31170, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that {beta}-cyclodextrin can control the particle size in the production of nanohydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size in the range of 30-50 nm was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new simple methodology for the preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a well controlled size and narrow particles size distribution was developed. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with uniform morphology have been successfully synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method and facilitated by the presence of the {beta}-cyclodextrin. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used in order to characterize the hydroxyapatite samples. The experimental results indicate that the obtained HA is in the range of 20-50 nm. Also it was found that the content of {beta}-CD has an impact on the purity of the HA as well in the particle size of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis of molecular imprinted beta cyclodextrins oligomers in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Donghong; Nielsen, Anne Louise; Bach, Lone

    2003-01-01

    hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solution, however, with limited selectivity. Templated synthesis of Cyclodextrin polymers was introduced by Komiyama. By use of simple templates, such as cholesterol, polymers with improved selectivity for the template molecules were achieved. In most of these stu...... complex formation between them prior to polymerization was proven by 2d-ROESY NMR. Water soluble CD dimmers were proven by MALDI-TOF MS to be the dominating products after synthesis....

  19. Characterization of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrins used in the treatment of Niemann-Pick Disease type C1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred L Yergey

    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD has gained recent attention as a potential therapeutic intervention in the treatment of the rare autosomal-recessive, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick Disease Type C1 (NPC1. Notably, HPβCD formulations are not comprised of a single molecular species, but instead are complex mixtures of species with differing degrees of hydroxypropylation of the cyclodextrin ring. The degree of substitution is a critical aspect of the complex mixture as it influences binding to other molecules and thus could potentially modulate biological effects. VTS-270 (Kleptose HPB and Trappsol® Cyclo™ are HPβCD products under investigation as novel treatments for NPC1. The purpose of the present work is to compare these two different products; analyses were based on ion distribution and abundance profiles using mass spectrometry methodology as a means for assessing key molecular distinctions between products. The method incorporated electrospray ionization and analysis with a linear low-field ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. We observed that the number of hydroxypropyl groups (the degrees of substitution are substantially different between the two products and greater in Trappsol Cyclo than in VTS-270. The principal ions of both samples are ammonium adducts. Isotope clusters for each of the major ions show doubly charged homodimers of the ammonium adducts. In addition, both products show doubly charged homodimers from adduction of both a proton and ammonium. Doubly charged heterodimers are also present, but are more intense in Trappsol Cyclo than in VTS-270. Based on the analytical differences observed between VTS-270 and Trappsol Cyclo with respect to the degree of substitution, the composition and fingerprint of the complex mixture, and the impurity profiles, these products cannot be considered to be the same; the potential biological and clinical implications of these differences

  20. Inclusion complexation of tetrabutylammonium iodide by cyclodextrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Host-guest inclusion complex of an ionic solid (tetrabutyl ammonium iodide) with α- and β- cyclodextrin has been explored by various physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Surface tension and conductivity studies indicated 1:1 stoichiometry of the inclusion complexes and ¹H NMR and FT-IR studies substantiated ...

  1. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD–ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. - Highlights: • β-cyclodextrin–eslicarbazepine acetate complex developed with enhanced solubility. • Formulated Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) disintegrated within 30 s. • Bioavailability from ODT was 2 times higher than marketed tablets. • Onset of action for ODT was also faster than marketed tablets. • Formulated ODT would aid epileptic patients incapable of swallowing tablets.

  2. Preparation and characterization of artemether inclusion complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate experimentally the inclusion of artemether into the cavity of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and examine its effect on the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug. Methods: Inclusion complexes of artemether with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin of molar ratios 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared using the ...

  3. The effect of parenterally administered cyclodextrins on cholesterol levels in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Eissens, Anko; Hefting, N R; Poelstra, Klaas; Lerk, C F; Meijer, D K F

    The inclusion complex formation of intravenously administered hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin with endogenous lipids was studied. We tested the hypothesis that complex formation of endogenous cholesterol with cyclodextrins in the bloodstream leads to extraction of cholesterol

  4. Beta-cyclodextrin-centered star-shaped amphiphilic polymers for doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Wang, Rong Juan; Zheng, Cheng; Jin, Yi; Jin, Le Qun

    2010-02-01

    Delivery of doxorubicin could be achieved by a novel micellar system based on beta-cyclodextrin-centered star-shaped amphiphilic polymers (sPEL/CD). This study specifically explored the effect of polylactide segments in sPEL/CD on various micelle properties, such as the critical micelle concentration, size, drug loading, cytotoxicity and drug resistance reversing effect. The sPEL/CD was synthesized by the arm-first method. The critical micelle concentrations of polymeric micelles were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry using pyrene as a probe. The oil/water method was applied to prepare doxorubicin-loaded micelles. 3-(4,5-dimethylthi-azol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to examine cell cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the doxorubicin-loaded micelles. Finally, rhodamine-123 cellular uptake was determined to evaluate the polymer action on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. All polymers exhibited low cytotoxicity and their micelles had a desirable release-acceleration pH (pH 5.0) for cytoplasmic drug delivery. With the introduction of polylactide into the polymer, the micelle critical micelle concentration can be effectively decreased and the drug-loading content was enhanced. Most importantly, the drug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells was significantly reversed via the interaction between polymer and Pgp. Therefore, this type of polymer has potential superiority for cancer therapy.

  5. Ocular pharmacokinetics of topically-applied ketoconazole solution containing hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin to rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Liya; Gao, Changfeng; Zhang, Li; Xia, Huiyun

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an aqueous ketoconazole (KET) eye drop in order to increase the corneal permeability and improve ocular bioavailability following topical application. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was used to formulate an aqueous eye drop to improve the aqueous solubility of KET. A single dose of of either KET suspension (1.5%; KET-SP) or KET (1.5%)/HP-beta -CD (12.5%) solution (KET-CD) was applied to rabbits. Aqueous humor and cornea were collected after 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min. KET concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction. After topically applying KET-CD, the KET concentrations in aqueous humor were significantly increased at 10 approximately 120 min, compared with those of KET-SP (P cornea (118.24 microg/g) was achieved within 5 min after the instillation of KET-CD, 18.4 times higher than that of KET-SP at the same time point, whereas the highest KET level in cornea was only 8.57 microg/g after a 10-min application of KET-SP. The KET levels in corneas obtained after the application of KET-CD were all much higher than those obtained by KETSP (P corneas over the KET-SP.

  6. The accelerated ripening of cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese by crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, K H; Ahn, J; Kwak, H S

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of salt content on cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese obtained by a treatment with crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and to find if the ripening process was accelerated in cholesterol-reduced cheese. The crosslinked beta-CD used was made by adipic acid. A primary study indicated that the chemical and rheological properties were not changed by the salt addition and the composition of Cheddar cheese treated with crosslinked beta-CD was similar to untreated Cheddar cheese. Approximately 91 to 92% cholesterol reduction was observed in the cheeses that were treated using beta-CD. In a subsequent study, we found accelerated ripening by the crosslinked beta-CD based on the productions of short-chain free fatty acids and free amino acids. In rheological properties, elasticity, cohesiveness, and gumminess scores in the cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese were significantly greater at 5 wk ripening than those in the control at 4 mo ripening. At the early stage of ripening, most flavor properties such as rancidity, bitterness, and off-flavor in the cholesterol-reduced cheese were greater. With ripening, however, those scores changed to similar or lower scores than those in the control. The present study indicated that the crosslinked beta-CD treatment for cholesterol removal showed accelerated ripening effect on the properties of Cheddar cheese.

  7. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  8. Hydrolytic and photochemistry degradation of the amoxicillin in {beta}-cyclodextrin; Degradacao hidrolitica e fotoquimica da amoxicilina na presenca de {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bariccatti, R.A.; Silva, C.; Souza, M.L.; Lindino, C.A.; Rosa, M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: reinaldo0207@brturbo.com.br

    2008-10-15

    This work has like purpose monitors the degradation of the drug amoxicillin in the presence and absence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, through techniques spectroscopy. For this, there was accompanied the hydrolysis of the drug protected of the light for around 400 hours. The results indicate that, initially, the cyclodextrin does not alter the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin, however, after 250 hours there is an increase of the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin when present at cyclodextrin. Another variable was the irradiation of the sample with radiation in the region of the UV, we see that the solutions containing {beta}- cyclodextrin suffer a slower phototransformation (26,8%) than the solutions without {beta}-cyclodextrin, when irradiated by UV radiation. (author)

  9. Nafion/sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae-Deok; Kwak, Seung-Yeop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Proton-conducting composite membranes based on H{sup +}-form sulfated {beta}-cyclodextrin (sb-CD) in a Nafion matrix are prepared via the solution-casting method and their methanol permeabilities, proton conductivities, proton diffusion coefficients and cell performances are measured. The methanol permeabilities of the composite membranes increase very slightly with increases in their sb-CD content. As a result of adding sb-CD with its many sulfonic acid groups into the Nafion matrix, the proton conductivities of the composite membranes increase with increases in their sb-CD content. The methanol permeability and proton conductivity results are used to show that the best selectivity of the membranes is that of the NC5 membrane ('NCx' denotes a Nafion/sb-CD composite membrane containing x wt.% sb-CD). The proton diffusion coefficients are measured with {sup 1}H pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) and found to increase with increase in the sb-CD content in the order NC5 > NC3 > NC1 > NC0. Thus the presence of sb-CD in the Nafion membranes increases the proton diffusion coefficients as well as the proton conductivities, ionic cluster size, water uptakes and the ion-exchange capacities (IECs). A maximum power density of 58 mW cm{sup -2} is obtained for the NC5 membrane. The combination of these effects should lead to an improvement in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells prepared with Nafion/sb-CD composite membranes. (author)

  10. Crystal and molecular structure of beta-cyclodextrins functionalized with the anti-inflammatory drug Etodolac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Antonino; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella; Iacovino, Rosa; Benedetti, Ettore; Pedone, Carlo; Saviano, Michele

    2009-12-01

    The conjugates of beta-cyclodextrins with R- or with S-Etodolac were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and S-Etodolac alone was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. In solution, the R-Etodolac conjugate is soluble in water; the other epimer shows a very low solubility. The NMR characterization of the R-Etodolac conjugate in D(2)O shows that, in aqueous solution, the Edotolac moiety is self-included in the cavity, while the NMR characterization in MeOH of both conjugates underlines that, in this solvent, the Etodolac moiety is not included in the CD cavity. The X-ray structure determination of the S-Etodolac conjugate reveals a "sleeping swan"-like shape, with the covalently bonded Etodolac moiety being folded with the 8-ethyl group inserted inside the hydrophobic cavity of the beta-CD ring. The terminal methyl group of the 8-ethyl group enters the centre of cavity from the side of the primary hydroxyl groups and is buried inside the beta-CD macrocycle. The terminal methyl group is positioned at a distance of 1.06 A from the O(4) plane in the side of the primary hydroxyl groups. In addition to van der Waals interactions between the hydrophobic ethyl group and the beta-CD cavity, the folded conformation is further stabilized by one intramolecular H-bond involving the indole N-H group and the primary hydroxyl group of the glucose unit 7. Along the b axis, the beta-CD molecules are arranged in columns; the macrocycles form a herring bone pattern, so that the cavity of each beta-CD molecule is closed at each end by neighboring molecules. Within the layers, the beta-CD macrocycles are held together by a complicated intermolecular hydrogen bond network, in which numerous water molecules and hydroxyl groups are involved.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity study of quaternary ammonium functionalized beta-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Bourgeois, François-René; Mimeault, Murielle; Monette, Frédéric; Niquette, Patrick; Hausler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD)-based polymers functionalized with two types of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), the alkaquat DMB-451 (N-alkyl (50% C14, 40% C12, 10% C10) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride) (DMD-451) named polymer DMB-451, and FMB 1210-8 (a blend of 32 w% N-alkyl (50% C14, 40% C12, 10% C10) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride and 48 w% of didecyldimethylammonium chloride) named polymer FMB 1210-8, were synthethized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activities of these polymers against Eschericia coli were also evaluated at 25 degrees C in wastewater. The results have indicated that the polymer FMB 1210-8 possesses a high-affinity binding with bacterial cells that induces a rapid disinfection process. Moreover, in the same experimental conditions of disinfection (mixture of 1.0 g of polymer and 100 mL of wastewater), the polymer FMB 1210-8 has a higher antimicrobial efficiency (99.90%) than polymer DMB-451 (92.8%). This phenomenon might be associated to a stronger interaction with bacterial cells due to stronger binding affinity for E. coli cells and greater killing efficiency of the C10 alkyl chains QAC of polymer FMB 1210-8 to disrupt the bacterial cell membrane as compared to N-alkyl (50% C14, 40% C12, 10% C10) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride. Together, these results suggest that the polymer FMB 1210-8 could constitute a good disinfectant against Escherichia coli, which could be advantageously used in wastewater treatments due to the low toxicity of beta-CD and CMC, and moderated toxicity of FMB 1210-8 to human and environment.

  12. Preparation and characterization of artemether inclusion complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State .... The differences between the data sets were ... formation enhanced drug stability [14]. Infrared spectra. The FT-IR spectra of the pure artemether and its inclusion complexes over the frequency range of.

  13. Predicting complexation thermodynamic parameters of β-cyclodextrin with chiral guests by using swarm intelligence and support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasvudhisarn, Chakguy; Wolschann, Peter; Lawtrakul, Luckhana

    2009-05-14

    The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) approaches are used for predicting the thermodynamic parameters for the 1:1 inclusion complexation of chiral guests with beta-cyclodextrin. A PSO is adopted for descriptor selection in the quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) of a dataset of 74 chiral guests due to its simplicity, speed, and consistency. The modified PSO is then combined with SVMs for its good approximating properties, to generate a QSPR model with the selected features. Linear, polynomial, and Gaussian radial basis functions are used as kernels in SVMs. All models have demonstrated an impressive performance with R(2) higher than 0.8.

  14. Per-2,3-O-alkylated beta-cyclodextrin duplexes connected with disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tatar, Ameneh; Grishina, Anastasia; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kraus, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-48 ISSN 1061-0278 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12019 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclodextrins * inclusion complexes * disulfide bonds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  15. Redox controlled interaction of biferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers with Beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, C.A.; Dolatowska, Karolina A.; Ravoo, B.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and electrochemistry of biferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers and their β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes in aqueous solution and at surfaces. Three generations of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, decorated with 4, 8, and 16 biferrocenyl (BFc) units,

  16. Fluorescently labeled methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enters intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells by fluid-phase endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Fenyvesi

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are widely used excipients for increasing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Their effect on drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is explained by their solubility- and permeability-enhancement. The aims of this study were to investigate penetration properties of fluorescently labeled randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (FITC-RAMEB on Caco-2 cell layer and examine the cellular entry of cyclodextrins on intestinal cells. The permeability of FITC-RAMEB through Caco-2 monolayers was very limited. Using this compound in 0.05 mM concentration the permeability coefficient was 3.35±1.29×10(-8 cm/s and its permeability did not change in the presence of 5 mM randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin. Despite of the low permeability, cellular accumulation of FITC-RAMEB in cytoplasmic vesicles was significant and showed strong time and concentration dependence, similar to the characteristics of the macropinocytosis marker Lucifer Yellow. The internalization process was fully inhibited at 0°C and it was drastically reduced at 37°C applying rottlerin, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Notably, FITC-RAMEB colocalized with the early endosome organizer Rab5a. These results have revealed that FITC-RAMEB is able to enter intestinal epithelial cells by fluid-phase endocytosis from the apical side. This mechanism can be an additional process which helps to overcome the intestinal barrier and contributes to the bioavailability enhancement of cyclodextrins.

  17. Development and evaluation of vinpocetine inclusion complex for brain targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Ding; Jinfeng Li; Shirui Mao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to prepare vinpocetine (VIN) inclusion complex and evaluate its brain targeting effect after intranasal administration. In the present study, VIN inclusion complex was prepared in order to increase its solubility. Stability constant (Kc) was used for host selection. Factors influencing properties of the inclusion complex was investigated. Formation of the inclusion complex was identified by solubility study and DSC analysis. The brain targeting effect of the com...

  18. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B. [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V., E-mail: vawasthi@ouhsc.edu [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2011-06-15

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  19. Effect of O-methyl-.beta.-cyclodextrin-modified magnetic nanoparticles on the uptake and extracellular level of L-glutamate in brain nerve terminals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Beneš, Milan J.; Procházková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Borysov, A.; Pastukhov, A.; Paliienko, K.; Borisova, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, 1 January (2017), s. 64-71 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glutamate * cholesterol * O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  20. Synthesis and chromatographic evaluation of the new phase heptakis (3-O-pentafluoropropionyl-2,6-di-O-pentyl)-{beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallmann, Anderson S.; Ethur, Eduardo M.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F., E-mail: afmorel@base.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (NPPN/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a new chiral stationary phase heptakis (3-O-pentafluoropropionyl-2,6-di-Opentyl)- {beta}-cyclodextrin was synthesized and evaluated with a wide variety of volatile chiral compounds. As a result, the new cyclodextrin derivative can be applied to the separation of chiral components of essential oils, as hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and of various classes of synthetic chiral compounds, as long chain alcohols, halocarbons, nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds. (author)

  1. Antibacterial poly(ethylene oxide) electrospun nanofibers containing cinnamon essential oil/beta-cyclodextrin proteoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Dai, Yajie; Cui, Haiying

    2017-12-15

    A novel antibacterial packaging material was engineered by incorporating cinnamon essential oil/β-cyclodextrin (CEO/β-CD) proteoliposomes into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibers by electrospinning technique. Herein, PEO was a stabilizing polymer and used as electrospinning polymeric matrix for the fabrication of CEO/β-CD proteoliposomes nanofibers. The nanoliposomes were inlaid with protein are defined as proteoliposomes. Taking advantage of bacterial protease secreted from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the controlled release of CEO from proteoliposomes was achieved via proteolysis of protein in proteoliposomes. The CEO/β-CD inclusion complex was prepared by the aqueous solution method and characterized by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. After the treatment of CEO/β-CD proteoliposomes nanofibers packaging, the satisfactory antibacterial efficiency against B. cereus on beef was realized without any impact on sensory quality of beef. This study demonstrated that the CEO/β-CD proteoliposomes nanofibers can significantly extend the shelf life of beef and have potential application in active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Poly-dopamine-beta-cyclodextrin: A novel nanobiopolymer towards sensing of some amino acids at physiological pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sattar; Bageri, Leyla; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Karimzadeh, Ayub; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2016-01-01

    A novel nanobiopolymer film was electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon through cyclic voltammetry from dopamine, β-cyclodextrin, and phosphate buffer solution in physiological pH (7.40). The electrochemical behavior of polydopamine-Beta-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation and determination of some amino acids (L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, L-Glycine, and L-Phenylalanine). The modified electrode was applied for selected amino acid detection at physiological pH using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry, chronocoulometery. The linear concentration range of the proposed sensor for the L-Glycine, L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylalanine were 0.2–70, 0.06–0.2, 0.01–0.1, and 0.2–10 μM, while low limit of quantifications were 0.2, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.2 μM, respectively. The modified electrode shows many advantages as an amino acid sensor such as simple preparation method without using any specific electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, good sensitivity, short response time, and long term stability. - Highlights: • A novel biopolymer film with entitled PDA-β-CD was electrodeposited on the GCE. • Synergetic effect of β-CD and GQD on the electrical signal amplifications was investigated. • The performance of β-CD-GQD-GCE towards electrochemical sensing of some amino acids was investigated.

  3. Thermal stability and aggregation of creatine kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloletkina, Olga I; Markossian, Kira A; Belousova, Lyubov V; Kleimenov, Sergey Yu; Orlov, Victor N; Makeeva, Valentina F; Kurganov, Boris I

    2010-05-01

    Effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) on thermal aggregation of creatine kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle (RMCK) at 48 degrees C has been studied using dynamic light scattering. An increase in the duration of the lag period on the kinetic curves of aggregation, registered as an increment of the light scattering intensity in time, has been observed in the presence of HP-beta-CD. It has been shown that the initial parts of the dependences of the hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the protein aggregates on time follow the exponential law. The reciprocal value of parameter t(2R) (t(2R) is the time interval over which the R(h) value is doubled) was used to characterize the rate of aggregation. A 10-fold decrease in the 1/t(2R) value was observed in the presence of 76mM HP-beta-CD. Judging from the data on the kinetics of RMCK inactivation and the data on differential scanning calorimetry of RMCK, HP-beta-CD does not affect the rate of RMCK unfolding.

  4. Ion selective phosphotungestate and beta-cyclodextrin based membrane electrodes for stability-indicating determination of midodrine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Zaazaa, Hala E; Merey, Hanan A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the construction and evaluation of two ion selective electrodes for the determination midodrine hydrochloride (MD) by direct potentiometry in pure drug substance and in tablet formulations. Precipitation based technique was used for fabrication of the first membrane sensor (sensor 1) using phosphotungestate (PT) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as cation exchanger and solvent mediator, respectively. beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD)-based technique with PT as a fixed anionic site in PVC matrix was used for fabrication of the second membrane sensor (sensor 2). The proposed sensors showed fast, stable Nernstian responses of 54 and 56 mV/decade for sensors 1 and 2, respectively, across a relatively wide MD concentration range (1x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-1) mol/L and 5 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-1) mol/L for sensor 1 and 2, respectively) in the pH range of 5-7. Sensor I and sensor 2 can be used for three and two weeks, respectively without any measurable change in sensitivity. The suggested electrodes succeeded to determine intact MD in the presence of up to 10% of its degradation product and displayed good selectivity in presence of common inorganic and organic species.

  5. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Structural characterization of inclusion complex of arbutin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron micrographs of the inclusion complex showed that the original morphology of both components disappeared, and some tiny aggregates of amorphous areas of irregular size were present, revealing that the arbutin was dispersed in HP-β-CD. The powder XRD pattern of the inclusion complex was more ...

  7. Formation, characterization, and thermal degradation behavior of a novel tricomponent aggregate of beta-cyclodextrin, ferrocene, and polypropylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le Xin; Du, Fang Yun; Guo, Xue Qing; Pan, Shu Zhen

    2010-02-04

    A tricomponent aggregate PPG-Fc-beta-CD formed by polypropylene glycol (PPG), ferrocene (Fc), and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was obtained and characterized by a series of physical methods, such as (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. First, the tricomponent aggregate exhibited a component ratio of 1:28:32 (PPG/Fc/beta-CD) in the solid state, and showed a completely different order in thermal stability when compared with beta-CD: under a nitrogen atmosphere, beta-CD > PPG-Fc-beta-CD, and in a vacuum, PPG-Fc-beta-CD > beta-CD. Second, the appearance of two peculiar points p and q at the end of TG curve of the aggregate gave a strong impression that the degradation rate further increased after the sharp decomposition of the aggregate reached point p and the amount present in the residual fraction at point q about 780.0 K was lower than 1%, both of which were rather different from those reported previously. This finding implied that the molecular assembly resulting from the binding interaction among Fc, PPG, and beta-CD induced more efficiently the degradation of each of them. Third, an interesting phenomenon was found that the order of thermal release of the three assembled components in PPG-Fc-beta-CD was Fc > beta-CD > PPG. Results of this study provide some insight into an initial attempt to construct a supramolecule among a polymer, a coordination compound, and an organic compound.

  8. Ionic cluster size distributions of swollen nafion/sulfated beta-cyclodextrin membranes characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance cryoporometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Deok; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2007-08-16

    Nafion/sb-CD membranes were prepared by mixing 5 wt% Nafion solution with H+-form sulfated beta-cyclodextrin (sb-CD), and their water uptakes, ion exchange capacities (IECs), and ionic cluster size distributions were measured. Gravimetric and thermogravimetric measurements showed that the water uptake of the membranes increased with increases in their sb-CD content. The IECs of the membrane were measured with acid-base titration and found to increase with increases in the sb-CD content, reaching 0.96 mequiv/g for NC5 ("NCx" denotes a Nafion/sb-CD composite membrane containing x wt% of sb-CD). The cluster-correlation peaks and ionic cluster size distributions of the water-swollen membranes were determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) cryoporometry, respectively. The SAXS experiments confirmed that increases in the sb-CD content of the membranes shifted the maximum SAXS peaks to lower angles, indicating an increase in the cluster correlation peak. NMR cryoporometry is based on the theory of the melting point depression, Delta Tm, of a liquid confined within a pore, which is dependent on the pore diameter. The melting point depression was determined by analyzing the variation of the NMR signal intensity with temperature. Our analysis of the intensity-temperature (IT) curves showed that the ionic cluster size distribution gradually became broader with increases in the membrane sb-CD content due to the increased water content, indicating an increase in the ionic cluster size. This result indicates that the presence of sb-CD with its many sulfonic acid sites in the Nafion membranes results in increases in the ionic cluster size as well as in the water uptake and the IEC. We conclude that NMR cryoporometry provides a method for determining the ionic cluster size on the nanometer scale in an aqueous environment, which cannot be obtained using other methods.

  9. Properties of cholesterol-reduced butter made with beta-cyclodextrin and added evening primrose oil and phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Jung, T H; Ahn, J; Kwak, H S

    2006-12-01

    The present study was carried out to examine changes in the chemical and sensory properties of butter in which the cholesterol was reduced and to which evening primrose oil (EPO) and phytosterols were added. Crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) made from adipic acid was used, and approximately 90% of the cholesterol was removed. The color measurement values "L" and "a" were significantly different between the control (butter with no beta-CD treatment and no added EPO and phytosterols) and treatment A (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD); however, the color values for "L" and "a" were similar. The color value "b" in treatment B (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD and 5% phytosterols and 3% EPO added) was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The thiobarbituric acid value of treatment B was significantly higher than that of the control and treatment A. Scores for hardness, elasticity, and cohesiveness were significantly lower in the control than in treatment A. Differences in sensory characteristics did not result from the beta-CD treatment but from the addition of EPO and phytosterols. In microscopic examinations, no noticeable differences were found among the treatments, and a smooth texture and a fine, uniform crystalline structure were observed. Results indicated that about 90% of the cholesterol was reduced by crosslinked beta-CD and that the beta-CD treatment itself did not adversely influence the chemical and sensory properties of the butter. However, the addition of EPO and phytosterols to the butter appeared to impair its sensory properties, especially in terms of rancidity and overall acceptability.

  10. Zidovudine-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and its permeability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The permeability of zidovudine in zidovudine-cyclodextrin inclusion complex across stomach and intestinal compartments of rat was investigated spectrophotometrically. The absorption maximum ( ) for zidovudine in HCl max buffer (pH 1.2) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) were 267 and 268 nm respectively. The inclusion ...

  11. A novel structural design of a Pt/C-CeO{sub 2} catalyst with improved performance for methanol electro-oxidation by {beta}-cyclodextrin carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Zheng-Zhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 West-Da Zhi Street, Harbin (China); School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Zhen-Bo; Yin, Ge-Ping [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 West-Da Zhi Street, Harbin (China); Gu, Da-Ming [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-07-19

    A novel structural Pt/C-CeO{sub 2} catalyst synthesized using MP-CeO{sub 2} coated with carbon by in situ {beta}-cyclodextrin carbonization and then depositing Pt nanoparticles using a fast and facile microwave-assisted polyol process. The increased electron conductivity and the more oxygen-containing species of carbon available for the Pt site contribute to the improved activity and stability for methanol oxidation compared to Pt/CeO{sub 2}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Electrospun Thermoplastic Polyurethane Mats Containing Naproxen– Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akduman Çiğdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of cyclodextrins (CDs into electrospun nanofibrous materials can be considered as potential candidates for functional medical textile applications. Naproxen (NAP is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly administered for the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever. Drug-inclusion complex formation with CDs is an approach to improve the aqueous solubility via molecular encapsulation of the drug within the cavity of the more soluble CD molecule. In this study, NAP or different NAP-CD inclusion complexes loaded nanofibres were successfully produced through electrospinning and characterised. The inclusion complex loaded mats exhibited significantly faster release profiles than NAP-loaded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU mats. Overall, NAP-inclusion complex loaded TPU electrospun nanofibres could be used as drug delivery systems for acute pain treatments since they possess a highly porous structure that can release the drug immediately.

  13. Starch-lipid inclusion complexes for aerogel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently we reported that aqueous slurries of starch can be excess steam jet-cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to produce inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes can be simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam ...

  14. Fatty acids are rapidly delivered to and extracted from membranes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunaldi, Kellen; Huang, Nasi; Hamilton, James A

    2010-01-01

    We performed detailed biophysical studies of transfer of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) from methyl-beta-CD (MBCD) to model membranes (egg-PC vesicles) and cells and the extraction of FA from membranes by MBCD. We used i) fluorescein phosphatidylethanolamine to detect transfer of FA anions arriving in the outer membrane leaflet; ii) entrapped pH dyes to measure pH changes after FA diffusion (flip-flop) across the lipid bilayer; and iii) soluble fluorescent-labeled FA binding protein to measure the concentration of unbound FA in water. FA dissociated from MBCD, bound to the membrane, and underwent flip-flop within milliseconds. In the presence of vesicles, MBCD maintained the aqueous concentration of unbound FA at low levels comparable to those measured with albumin. In studies with cells, addition of oleic acid (OA) complexed with MBCD yielded rapid (seconds) dose-dependent OA transport into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and HepG2 cells. MBCD extracted OA from cells and model membranes rapidly at concentrations exceeding those required for OA delivery but much lower than concentrations commonly used for extracting cholesterol. Compared with albumin, MBCD can transfer its entire FA load and is less likely to extract cell nutrients and to introduce impurities.

  15. The Synthesis of N-Acetyllactosamine Functionalized Dendrimers, and the Functionalization of Silica Surfaces Using Tunable Dendrons and beta-Cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennist, Jessica Helen

    Galectin-3 is beta-galactoside binding protein which is found in many healthy cells. In cancer, the galectin-3/tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF antigen) interaction has been implicated in heterotypic and homotypic cellular adhesion and apoptotic signaling pathways. However, a stronger mechanistic understanding of the role of galectin-3 in these processes is needed. N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) is a non-native ligand for galectin-3 which binds with comparable affinity to the TF antigen and therefore an important ligand to study galectin-3 mediated processes. To study galectin-3 mediated homotypic cellular aggregation, four generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were functionalized with N-acetyllactosamine using a four-step chemoenzymatic route. The enzymatic step controlled the regiochemistry of the galactose addition to N-acetylglucosamine functionalized dendrimers using a recombinant beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase-/UDP-4'-Gal Epimerase Fusion Protein (lgtB-galE). Homotypic cellular aggregation, which is promoted by the presence of galectin-3 as it binds to glycosides at the cell surface, was studied using HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, A549 lung, and DU-145 prostate cancer cell lines. In the presence of small LacNAc functionalized PAMAM dendrimers, galectin-3 induced cancer cellular aggregation was inhibited. However, the larger glycodendrimers induced homotypic cellular aggregation. Additionally, novel poly(aryl ether) dendronized silica surfaces designed for reversible adsorbtion of targeted analytes were synthesized, and characterization using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was performed. Using a Cu(I) mediated cycloaddition "click" reaction, beta-cyclodextrin was appended to dendronized surfaces via triazole formation and also to a non-dendronized surface for comparison purposes. First generation G(1) dendrons have more than 6 times greater capacity to adsorb targeted analytes than slides functionalized with monomeric beta-cyclodextrin

  16. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamisy, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the…

  17. Quality Enhancement by Inclusion Complex Formation of Simvastatin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emőke Rédai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simvastatin is an inhibitor of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To enhance its bioavailability by inclusion complexation, as host molecule randommethyl-β-cyclodextrin had been used. After evaluating the complexes we chose the kneading product in 1:2 molar ratio for incorporation of 10 mg simvastatin tablets. Materials and methods: We prepared homogenous mixtures of the inclusion complex and some excipients. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated in regard to: weight uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile. Results: Weights are in the range of 196-208 mg, diameter 6.83-6.86 mm, height 3.86-4.01 mm, hardness 78.3-113.1 N, friability 0.75- 1.19 %, disintegration above 15 minutes. The dissolved amounts of simvastatin from the tablets are higher compared to the dissolution of pure simvastatin, but lower than the dissolution of the complex itself. Excipients, like disintegrants and lubricants greatly influence the dissolution properties of the tablets. Conclusions: According to our results, tablets containing inclusion complex of simvastatin exhibit better solubility, according to the dissolved amount of simvastatin, than pure drug alone. Proper physical parameters of the tablets are obtained by application of 5 % Primellose

  18. Beta-Cyclodextrin Duplexes That Are Connected through Two Disulfide Bonds: Potent Hosts for the Complexation of Organic Molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grishina, Anastasia; Stanchev, Stancho; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pojarová, Michaela; Dušek, Michal; Rumlová, Michaela; Křížová, Ivana; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Kraus, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 39 (2012), s. 12292-12304 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550904 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : cucurbiturils * cyclodextrins * duplexes * host-guest systems * sulfur Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2012

  19. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khamisy Danuta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the complexity appears to be one of very significant terms both in science and in philosophy. It appears that despite searching for simple rules, strategies, solutions everything is still more complex. The environment is complex, the organism living in it and exploring it, and just the exploration itself is a complex phenomenon, much more than this could initially seem to be.

  20. Content determination of aniracetam in aniracetam inclusion complex by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjian; Hu, Dejian; Sun, Yong

    2009-01-01

    We established a HPLC method for content determination of aniracetam in aniracetam inclusion complex. The chromato column was Agilent ODS (4.6mm x 150mm, 5 microm), the mobile phase was methanol-0.01 mol/L Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (25:75, pH 3.0), with the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, column temperature of 30 degrees and the detection wave at 280 nm, the sample size was 20microL. A good linear relationship was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of aniracetam in the range from 5- 80microg/ml (r=0.9998), the mean recovery was 100.1% (n=15), RSD=0.19%. This method is convenient, rapid, accurate, and brings about good recovery; it can be used for content determination of aniracetam in aniracetam inclusion complex.

  1. Beta-cyclodextrin enhanced gastroprotective effect of (-)-linalool, a monoterpene present in rosewood essential oil, in gastric lesion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francilene Vieira; de Barros Fernandes, Hélio; Oliveira, Irisdalva Sousa; Viana, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio; da Costa, Douglas Soares; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; de Lira, Kamila Lopes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; de Sousa, Adriano Antunes; de Cássia Meneses Oliveira, Rita

    2016-11-01

    (-)-Linalool is a monoterpene constituent of many essential oils. This particular monoterpene has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, this compound has been shown to be antinociceptive. However, the poor chemical stability and short half-life prevents the clinical application of (-)-linalool and many other essential oils. Important to the topic of this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been used to increase the solubility, stability, and pharmacological effects of numerous lipophilic compounds in vivo. In this study, the gastroprotective activities of (-)-linalool (LIN) and linalool incorporated into inclusion complex containing β-cyclodextrin (LIN-βCD) were evaluated using models of acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rodents. LIN and LIN-βCD showed strong gastroprotective activity (p linalool and other water-insoluble compounds.

  2. A gamma-cyclodextrin duplex connected with two disulfide bonds: synthesis, structure and inclusion complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, Sergey; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Buděšínský, Miloš; Lepšík, Martin; Dušek, Michal; Kraus, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2015), s. 2980-2985 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12019; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : bridged beta-cyclodextrin * strong binding * molecular recognition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.559, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ob/c4ob02464h

  3. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  4. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose- lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amyloselysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  5. Molecular Modeling and Physicochemical Properties of Supramolecular Complexes of Limonene with α- and β-Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos Menezes, Paula; Dos Santos, Polliana Barbosa Pereira; Dória, Grace Anne Azevedo; de Sousa, Bruna Maria Hipólito; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Nunes, Paula Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; de Matos, Iara Lisboa; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Mendonça Júnior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra; da Silva, Gabriel Francisco; de Aquino, Thiago Mendonça; de Souza Bento, Edson; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Scotti, Luciana; de Souza Araujo, Adriano Antunes

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated three different methods for the formation of an inclusion complex between alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin (α- and β-CD) and limonene (LIM) with the goal of improving the physicochemical properties of limonene. The study samples were prepared through physical mixing (PM), paste complexation (PC), and slurry complexation (SC) methods in the molar ratio of 1:1 (cyclodextrin:limonene). The complexes prepared were evaluated with thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, complexation efficiency through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses, molecular modeling, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that the physical mixing procedure did not produce complexation, but the paste and slurry methods produced inclusion complexes, which demonstrated interactions outside of the cavity of the CDs. However, the paste obtained with β-cyclodextrin did not demonstrate complexation in the gas chromatographic technique because, after extraction, most of the limonene was either surface-adsorbed by β-cyclodextrin or volatilized during the procedure. We conclude that paste complexation and slurry complexation are effective and economic methods to improve the physicochemical character of limonene and could have important applications in pharmacological activities in terms of an increase in solubility.

  6. Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-{beta}-cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Chaofeng [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tang Xianjin; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Zhang Congkai; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liang Fang; Chen Xincai; Zhu Youfeng [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Lin Qi, E-mail: linqi@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Chen, Yingxu [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-12-30

    The crude recycling of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) is now creating soil pollution problems with organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study aimed to compare the phytoremediation potential of four plant species (rice, alfalfa, ryegrass and tall fescue) for PCBs contaminated soil from Taizhou city, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in China. In addition, the enhanced effects of randomly methylated-{beta}-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on PCBs phytoremediation potential were evaluated. Higher PCBs removal percentages of 25.6-28.5% in rhizosphere soil were observed after 120 days, compared with those of the non-rhizosphere (10.4-16.9%) and unplanted controls (7.3%). The average PCBs removal percentages of four plant species increased from 26.9% to 37.1% in the rhizosphere soil with addition of RAMEB. Meanwhile, relatively high microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity were detected in planted soils and a stimulatory effect by RAMEB addition was found. The present study indicated that all the plant candidates were feasible for phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil from the e-waste recycling area, and tall fescue with RAMEB amendment seemed as a promising remediation strategy. High PCBs removal percentage was due to the increased PCBs bioavailability as well as biostimulation of microbial communities after plantation and RAMEB addition.

  7. Chiral separation of synthetic vicinal diol compounds by capillary zone electrophoresis with borate buffer and beta-cyclodextrin as buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xingbin; Jiang, Ru; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Shengyong

    2006-05-01

    The investigation on capillary electrophoretic enantioseparation of six synthetic compounds containing vicinal diol groups has been undertaken to acquire the optimum conditions using native beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) as chiral selector and borate as a background electrolyte. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary (58.5 cm x 75 microm i.d., effective length 48.5 cm) and the effects of several important factors were investigated in detail. The results showed that beta-CD as a chiral selector exhibited good enantioselectivity and that the enantioseparation was greatly influenced by the structure of the diols, the borate concentration and the buffer pH. The optimum performance was obtained for the chiral vicinal diols under the conditions of 200 mM borate buffer of pH 9.8 containing 1.7% beta-CD at an applied voltage of 15 kV and a capillary temperature of 20 degrees C. Under the conditions, four diols were baseline separated with fast analysis time and the good theoretical plate numbers (above 10 x 10(4)) and favorable migration-time reproducibilities (RSDs below 3.0%) were obtained. The separation results were satisfactory.

  8. Preparation and stability of the inclusion complex of astaxanthin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming; Zhuang, Haining; Shen, Wangyang

    2008-07-15

    The inclusion complex of astaxanthin (ASX) with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) proved the formation of the inclusion complex. The water solubility of the inclusion complex was >1.0mg/ml, which is much better than that of ASX. The solid state thermal behaviour of the inclusion complex was investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The starting decomposition temperature of ASX was enhanced to about 290°C. The stability of the inclusion complex in solution was also tested. Forming of the inclusion complex greatly enhanced the stability of ASX against light and oxygen. Furthermore, the release of ASX from the inclusion complex was controlled. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amylose-dicarboxylic acid inclusion complexes: Characterization and comparison to monocarboxylic acid complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the main components in starch, amylose is an essentially linear polymer composed of glucose connected through alpha-1,4-bonds. Amylose is well known to form helical inclusion complexes with various types of ligands such as iodine, medium and long chain fatty acids, alcohols, lactones, and fl...

  10. From Inclusive Identities to Inclusive Societies: Exploring Complex Social Identity in the Macedonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ali Pajaziti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Macedonia is an entity described as cultural mosaic, with strong multiethnic and multi-confessional basis, it is a point where East and West meet, it is well-known for the system of Macedonian salad. But, this society even after 25 year of social transition and 2001 Ohrid Agreement did not achieve to find the way of conclusive peace, stability and social eudemonia. The diversity is issue that from time to time produces turbulences, especially at the line of two main identity groups Macedonians-Christian Orthodox and Albanians-Muslim community. Quantitative data in this study were obtained on a sample of 219 young adults from Skopje (95 of Macedonian and 17 of Albanian ethnicity and Tetovo (76 of Albanian and 31 of Macedonian ethnicity, aged from 18 to 35 years (M = 24.85, SD = 3.2. Main research question is that if there exist differences between young Macedonians and Albanians in their ethnic, religious and national identity? The objective of this paper is to give a scientific picture how categories as gender, marriage, family, ethnicity, religion, living place, Balkan, Europe are perceived by the youth, all this in favour of using them in producing affirmative actions, more productive societal policies and constructive society-building. Multiple social identities: their complexity and inclusiveness, the correlation of identity variables with SII and SIC are among issues analyzed in this paper. National dominance was more frequent among Macedonians. Our findings demonstrate that Albanian participants expressed strong social identity, as Albanians and as being Muslims. Only social identity inclusiveness is significantly related to societal and political attitudes, but ethnicity should be taken into consideration when this relationship is explored.

  11. Enacting understanding of inclusion in complex contexts: classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that every learner is not able to participate fully as an accepted member of their peer group in all classroom activities. Keywords: barriers to learning; deficit approach to learning and development; diverse educational needs; inclusive classrooms; inclusive education; mainstream schools; teacher education for inclusion ...

  12. Exploration of inclusion complexes of neurotransmitters with β-cyclodextrin by physicochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Saha, Subhadeep; Kundu, Mitali; Saha, Binoy Chandra; Barman, Siti

    2016-07-01

    Molecular assemblies of β-cyclodextrin with few of the most important neurotransmitters, viz., dopamine hydrochloride, tyramine hydrochloride and (±)-epinephrine hydrochloride in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic and physicochemical techniques as potential drug delivery systems. Job plots confirm the 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes, while surface tension and conductivity studies illustrate the inclusion process. The inclusion complexes were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and association constants have been calculated by using Benesi-Hildebrand method. Thermodynamic parameters for the formation of inclusion complexes have been derived by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrate that the overall inclusion processes are thermodynamically favorable.

  13. Improvement on dissolution rate of inclusion complex of Rifabutin drug with β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, Arumugam; Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2013-11-01

    The effect of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the improvement of solubility and antimicrobial activity of poorly water soluble drug Rifabutin (RFB) was studied. The solid inclusion complex is prepared under different methods and it is characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DSC and SEM methods. Solubility type, stability constant, stoichiometric ratio were investigated from phase solubility diagram of inclusion complex (RFB with β-CD). The dissolution profiles of the inclusion complexes were carried out and obvious increase in dissolution rate was observed when compared with pure RFB drug. Inclusion complexation process was further confirmed by molecular docking studies using PatchDock server. The in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of RFB sensible microorganisms was significantly increased by on inclusion complexation process. This trend of inclusion complexation of poorly water soluble drugs is highly recognized as a successful and useful approach for the application in pharmaceutical field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inclusion of DNA into organic gelator fibers made of amphipathic molecules and its controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinaga, Ryouji; Jeong, Yeonhwan; Shinkai, Seiji; Kaneko, Kenji; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2005-10-11

    When methyl 4,6-O-(p-nitrobenzylidene)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (p-NO(2)Glu) was dissolved in water, p-NO(2)Glu molecules self-assembled to form a fiber (elemental fiber), and as a result, the solution became a partially transparent gel. When an equal (or more) amount of DNA was added to the gel, a white and crystalline gel was obtained. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled with TEM and confocal microscopy suggested that DNA was included in the gel fibers made of p-NO(2)Glu molecules. The results imply that p-NO(2)Glu molecules are self-assembled to form an elemental fiber and these elemental fibers and DNA are twisted together to form higher hierarchic fibers. When the complexed gel made of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and p-NO(2)Glu was added to E. coli T7 S30 extract solution, the pDNA had less expression ability compared with naked one. When we added methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCyD), the expression rate was recovered with increasing added amount of MbetaCyD. The present paper shows inclusion and controlled release of DNA from a novel supporting material of DNA and that technology could play an important role in the development of localized approaches to gene therapy.

  15. Theoretical Investigation of Inclusion Complex between Omeprazole Enantiomers and Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadji, S.; Sundari, C. D. D.; Ramdhani, M. A.; Umam, A. B. K.; Ivansyah, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Host-guest inclusion complexes between R/S-Omeprazole (R/S-OME) enantiomers with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) is proposed to predicts the separation of its enantiomers that considering the interaction energy and inclusion geometry. The inclusion complex structures were built into two orientations i.e. 1: 1 and 2: 1 as the ratio of host to guest. All structures were optimized by two methods i.e. molecular mechanic docking and quantum semi empiric PM3. Based on the value of binding energy obtained from the computational modelling, it was found that inclusion complex of S-Omeprazole with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (S-OME/CM-β-CD) is more stable than the inclusion complex of R-Omeprazole with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (R-OME/CM-β-CD). Moreover, R/S-Omeprazole can form stable inclusion complexes with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin by the ratio of host: guest equal to 2: 1. Other thermodynamic parameter values, i.e. Enthalpy (ΔH), Entropy (ΔS), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) show that the inclusion complex of S-OME/CM-β-CD is more exothermic, more spontaneous, and preferably formed when compared to inclusion complex of R-OME/CM-β-CD. In addition, the formation of the R/S-OME inclusion complex with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) is an enthalpy driven process based on these values.

  16. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with guest molecules and represents an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose. To overcome this problem a ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, posses...

  17. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose- lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadiabhari, Salomeh; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M. (Lizette); Hamer, Rob J.; Loos, Katja

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  18. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose–lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amylose–lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  19. Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

  20. Synthesis of Amylose-Polystyrene Inclusion Complexes by a Facile Preparation Route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    The formation of amylose-polystyrene inclusion complexes via a novel two-step approach is described. In the first-step, styrene was inserted inside the amylose helical cavity, followed by free radical polymerization in the second step. The inclusion complexes were characterized by attenuated total

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Evaluation, and Preclinical Profiling of beta-Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxane Families for Use As Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher J.

    Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder featuring a loss of proteins responsible for unesterified cholesterol (UC) trafficking through the late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY) of every cell of the body. Disruption of this pathway leads to abnormal accumulation and storage of UC and other lipids. A broad range of visceral and neurological symptoms result from this accumulation exhibiting a variable age of onset and a disease progression that is ultimately fatal. The disease has an incidence of approximately 1 in 120,000 live births and has no known effective treatment. beta-Cyclodextrin (beta-CD) are natural small molecules macrocycles composed of glucose units with a hydrophobic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer rims. beta-CD derivatives have recently been shown to be effective therapeutics for NPC in cellular and animal models. In the mouse model of the disease, beta-CD therapy increases overall lifetime by as much as 50% and slows the progression of neurodegeneration. The progress has led to the initiation of a National Institutes of Health phase I clinical trial. A main drawback of beta-CD administration is the poor pharmacokinetic profile characterized by rapid renal clearance of the drug through the urine. Libraries of beta-CD derivative carrying high molecular weight polyrotaxane (PR) systems have been designed to prevent glomerular filtration of the injected beta-CD dose. An initial family of unmodified beta-CD PRs was synthesized, characterized, and their therapeutic efficacy was tested in NPC fibroblasts. This was followed by screening of PRs consisting of mixed beta-CD derivative threading featuring charged sulfobutylether beta-CD. Finally, we sought to define PR structure-property effects on in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, toxicity, immunogenicity, and protein hard corona composition. This was accomplished using a family of gadolinium carrying PRs composed of triblock Pluronic co-polymers of varying

  2. Chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in rabbit plasma, urine, and vitreous humor using an acetylated beta-cyclodextrin column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, L; Wong, S H; Skrinska, V A

    2000-10-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of major depression. Both fluoxetine (F) and its demethylated metabolite, norfluoxetine (NF), are racemic. S-Fluoxetine (SF) and S-norfluoxetine (SNF) are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than R-fluoxetine (RF) and R-norfluoxetine (RNF). Quantitation of individual enantiomers may provide a greater understanding of pharmacokinetic properties. The objective of this study was to perform a limited chiral selectivity study using rabbit plasma, urine, and vitreous humor analyzed by a solid-phase extraction protocol and a newly developed chiral analysis with an acetylated beta-cyclodextrin (CD) column. Liquid chromatographic parameters for CD were as follows: a mobile phase composition of methanol/0.3% triethylamine buffer, pH 5.6, (30:70), a flow rate of 1 mL/min, detection at 214 nm, and a temperature of 40 degrees C. Elution order was SNF, SF, RNF, and RF with capacity factors of 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The corresponding resolution factors were as follows: R1,2 = 0.8, R2,3 = 1.2, and R3,4 = 0.9. The conditions for solid-phase extraction were optimized for Varian Bond Elut Certify columns. Following sample application, the column was rinsed with water, acetic acid, and then with methanol. Drug enantiomers were eluted with methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ammonium hydroxide (78:20:2). After extract evaporation, the extract residue was reconstituted for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. To investigate chiral pharmacology, a biodistribution study was performed by administering 2 mg/kg of F to five rabbits. Blood, urine, and vitreous specimens were collected. Plasma samples collected 45 min postinjection showed nearly equal concentrations of RF and SE After 24 h, the only metabolite detected in plasma was RNF. Drugs were not detectable in vitreous humor. Urine concentrations of SNF, SF, RNF, and RF were 51, 76, 34, and 8 microg/L, respectively

  3. Enacting understanding of inclusion in complex contexts: classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-08-14

    Aug 14, 2015 ... Keywords: barriers to learning; deficit approach to learning and development; diverse educational needs; inclusive classrooms ..... Methodology. As mentioned earlier, a qualitative design was decided upon for Phase 2 of the project, and in the case of the South African study reported here the focus was on ...

  4. Inclusion Mechanism and Heat Stability of the Complex of 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of the complex were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) while the heat stability of the complex was measured by thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC). Results: The stability constants of the complexes were ...

  5. Recent patents on amylose-flavor inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Zhuang, Hai N; Xiao, Zuo B; Tian, Huai X

    2011-09-01

    Lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds that are solubilized in the form of nano-sized particles, or "nanoparticles", can be used in pharmacology, in the production of food additives, cosmetics, and agriculture, as well as in pet foods and veterinary products, amongst other uses. This review focuses on nanoparticles and methods for the production of soluble nanoparticles and, in particular, inclusion complexes of water-insoluble lipophilic and water-soluble hydrophilic organic materials, especially flavor compounds. The host molecule is namely V-amylose or modified starch molecule, which could form a cavity to fix or secure guest molecules. Thus, the V-amylose molecular properties and the molecular inclusion complex formation mechanism is firstly introduced, then amylose-other ingredients inclusion complex preparation and application are listed, finally amylose-flavor molecular inclusion complex preparations and its application have been overviewed. Through this review, it is concluded that amylose-small chemical molecule inclusion complexes, especially amylose-flavor inclusion complexes have a marvelous application prospect and have great significance to develop the nano-product application field. This paper reviews the recent patents on amylose-flavour inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

  6. Investigation of Inclusion Complex of Patchouli Alcohol with β-Cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangfang; Yang, Qiuxia; Wu, Lilan; Qi, Rui; Wu, Yunshan; Li, Yucui; Tang, Lipeng; Guo, De-An; Liu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the stability and water-solubility of patchouli alcohol by complexing with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The interactions between patchouli alcohol and β-CD were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. According to molecular modeling method, the enthalpy formation of host-guest illustrated the predominant configuration and the lowest value ΔbGo was -10.8174±1.9235 kcal/mol, suggesting the complex could reduce the energy of the system. The characterization analysis confirmed the formation of PA-CD inclusion complex, and the results indicated the advantage of the inclusion complex in stability and dissolution rates. These results identified PA-CD inclusion complex an effective way for the storage of PA, and better inclusion method still needed to be studied.

  7. Inclusion complex of amiodarone hydrochloride with cyclodextrins: preparation, characterization and dissolution rate evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Machado Rubim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to improve the water solubility of amiodarone hydrochloride (AMH via inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complexes were developed by physical mixture, coevaporation, spray-drying and freeze-drying. Solid state analysis was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electronic microscopy. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that the inclusion complexes of drug into different cyclodextrins were an exothermic process that occurred spontaneously. Water solubility and drug dissolution rates were significantly increased after the formation of inclusion complexes with the cyclodextrins evaluated in relation to the physical mixture and pure drug. The present study provides useful information for the potential application of complexation with amiodarone HCl. This may be a good strategy for the development of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complex of Dicationic Ionic Liquid and ?-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Puvaneswary; Mohamad, Sharifah; Alias, Yatimah

    2010-01-01

    The supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with 1,1’,2,2’-tetramethyl-3,3’-(p-phenylenedimethylene) diimidazolium dibromide (TetraPhimBr), a dicationic ionic liquid, has been investigated. The inclusion complex with 1:1 molar ratio was prepared by a kneading method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, 1H NMR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The results...

  9. A comparison of the hot atom reaction with the implantation reaction in metallocene and its cyclodextrin inclusion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, H. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980 (Japan)); Yamaguchi, I. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980 (Japan)); Sekine, T. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980 (Japan)); Yoshihara, K. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980 (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    By comparing implantation reactions with hot atom reactions in ruthenocene derivatives and their [beta]-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds, collision cascade enhancement of the parent yield was confirmed. From the product distribution among MCp[sub 2], MCpCp[sup prime,] MCp[sup prime][sub 2] and others, geminate recombination, substitution and random recombination processes were estimated. The former two processes were sensitive to recoil energy, while no definite energy dependence was found in the last process. A prominent decrease of the yield by inclusion was detected for all the ruthenocene derivatives, indicating that normal reactions in these compounds were evidently restricted in the cavity of cyclodextrin. ((orig.))

  10. Energy dependence of `molecular rocket reaction` in modified metallocene - cyclodextrin inclusion compound and comparison with those in other systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Yamaguchi, I. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Sekine, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Yoshihara, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    `Molecular rocket reaction` was confirmed in modified metallocene-{beta}-cyclodextrin(CD) inclusion compound for the first time. Energy dependence of the reaction was examined in the range between 100 eV and several tens keV. The curve revealed at least an order of 0.5% of rocket survival probability below 126 eV and a nearly constant value ({approx}0.2%) above 130 eV. The energy dependence curve was discussed in relation to those in metal {beta}-diketonates, phtalocyanines, metallocenes and normal metallocene-{beta}-CD inclusion compounds. (orig.)

  11. Acquired Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Care Needs: Access to Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah L.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examined one high school student's access to inclusive education and experiences in an inclusive English class after he acquired severe disabilities and complex health care needs from a nontraumatic brain injury. Multiple sources of data (i.e., interviews, field notes, and documents) were collected and analyzed to formulate…

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complex of Dicationic Ionic Liquid and β-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Puvaneswary; Mohamad, Sharifah; Alias, Yatimah

    2010-01-01

    The supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with 1,1′,2,2′-tetramethyl-3,3′-(p-phenylenedimethylene) diimidazolium dibromide (TetraPhimBr), a dicationic ionic liquid, has been investigated. The inclusion complex with 1:1 molar ratio was prepared by a kneading method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, 1H NMR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The results showed that the host-guest system is a fine crystalline powder. The decomposition temperature of the inclusion complex is lower than that of its parent molecules, TetraPhimBr and β-CD individually. PMID:21152293

  13. Localization and dynamics of amylose-lipophilic molecules inclusion complex formation in starch granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, Marianna; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Mura, Andrea; Loos, Katja; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion complex formation between lipophilic dye molecules and amylose polymers in starch granules is investigated using laser spectroscopy and microscopy. By combining confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with spatial resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we are able to discriminate

  14. Preparation of a ferrofluid using cyclodextrin and magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocanegra-Diaz Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrofluid has been obtained from magnetite and beta-cyclodextrin, with the formation of an inclusion complex. The magnetite and beta-cyclodextrin complex was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (TG/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic absorption spectroscopy. As far as we know, this is the first report on an inclusion compound between a metal oxide and cyclodextrins.

  15. Photochemical and computational studies of inclusion complexes between β-cyclodextrin and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandoss, Sonaimuthu; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2017-04-12

    The formation of an inclusion complex between 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinones (1,2-DHAQ) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been studied by UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The stoichiometric ratio of the inclusion complex was found to be 1 : 1 and the binding constant was evaluated using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The peak currents (I pa and I pc ) change drastically with increasing β-CD concentration and the peak potentials (E pa and E pc ) shifted. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process. A stable solid inclusion complex was prepared using a co-precipitation method and it is characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DSC, SEM, and 1 H NMR that confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The β-CD and 1,2-DHAQ inclusion complex obtained by molecular docking studies is in good correlation with the results obtained through experimental methods using PatchDock and FireDock servers. The virtual study of the energetically favorable complex was carried out by PM3 calculations and molecular orbital energy studies suggest that orientation A is more favourable than orientation B.

  16. Investigation of Inclusion Complex of Patchouli Alcohol with ?-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fangfang; Yang, Qiuxia; Wu, Lilan; Qi, Rui; Wu, Yunshan; Li, Yucui; Tang, Lipeng; Guo, De-an; Liu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the stability and water-solubility of patchouli alcohol by complexing with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The interactions between patchouli alcohol and ?-CD were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. According to molecular modeling method, the enthalpy formation of host-guest illustrated the predomi...

  17. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  18. Studies on the Inclusion Complexes of Daidzein with β-Cyclodextrin and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs, namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5 and (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2 were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution and solid state by methods of phase-solubility, XRD, DSC, SEM, 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY methods. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of daidzein and daidzein-CDs inclusion complexes were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that daidzein formed a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD, Me-β-CD and HP-β-CD. The results also showed that the solubility of daidzein was improved after encapsulating by CDs. 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY analyses show that the B ring of daidzein was the part of the molecule that was most likely inserted into the cavity of CDs, thus forming an inclusion complex. Antioxidant activity studies showed that the antioxidant performance of the inclusion complexes was enhanced in comparison to the native daidzein. It could be a potentially promising way to develop a new formulation of daidzein for herbal medicine or healthcare products.

  19. Triethanolamine stabilization of methotrexate-β-cyclodextrin interactions in ternary complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jahamunna A A; Zoppi, Ariana; Quevedo, Mario A; de Melo, Polyanne N; de Medeiros, Arthur S A; Streck, Letícia; de Oliveira, Alice R; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F; Longhi, Marcela R; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio A

    2014-09-25

    The interaction of methotrexate (MTX) with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) was investigated with the aim to elucidate the mechanism whereby self-assembly cyclodextrin systems work in association with this third component. Solubility diagram studies showed synergic increment of the MTX solubility to be about thirty-fold. Experiments using 2D ROESY and molecular modeling studies revealed the inclusion of aromatic ring III of the drug into β-CD cavity, in which TEA contributes by intensifying MTX interaction with β-CD and stabilizes MTX:β-CD:TEA ternary complex by electrostatic interaction. The maintenance of these interactions in solid phase was also studied in ternary MTX:β-CD:TEA and comparisons were made with freeze dried binary MTX:β-CD and physical mixtures. FTIR studies evidenced that MTX-β-CD interaction remained in solid ternary complexes, which was also supported by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG)/first derivative of TG analysis (DTG) and C,N,H elementary analysis) and structural (X-ray diffraction analysis, (XRD)) studies, mainly regarding the increment of drug stability. The efficient in vitro drug dissolution studies successfully demonstrated the contribution of ternary complexes, which highlights the importance of this possible new raw material for further applications in drug delivery systems.

  20. Production, Characterization, and Stability of Orange or Eucalyptus Essential Oil/β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Dianini Hüttner; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Klein, Bruna; Crizel, Rosane Lopes; Wagner, Roger; de Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize inclusion complexes (IC) between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and orange essential oil (OEO) or eucalyptus essential oil (EEO), and to compare these with their pure compounds and physical mixtures. The samples were evaluated by chemical composition, morphology, thermal stability, and volatile compounds by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). Comparing the free essential oil and physical mixture with the inclusion complex, of both essential oils (OEO and EEO), it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology. These differences show that there was the formation of the inclusion complex and demonstrate the necessity of the precipitation method used to guarantee the interaction between β-CD and essential oils. The slow loss of the volatile compounds from both essential oils, when complexed with β-CD, showed a higher stability when compared with their physical mixtures and free essential oils. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical composition, molecular size, and structure of the essential oils influence the characteristics of the inclusion complexes. The application of the β-CD in the formation of inclusion complexes with essential oils can expand the potential applications in foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Increased water resistance of paper treated with amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the HCl salts of hexadecylamine and octadecylamine. Solutions of the complexes were applied to paper at concentrations of 2-4%. After the treated papers were dried, sodium hydroxide solution was applied to convert the adsorb...

  2. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  3. Preparation of Vegetable Oil Emulsions from Amylose-Sodium Palmitate Inclusion Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to generate amylose sodium palmitate helical inclusion complexes. This preparative method allows sufficient quantities of these complexes to be prepared to examine their propertie...

  4. Inclusion Complexes Between Polytetrahydrofuran-b-Amylose Block Copolymers and Polytetrahydrofuran Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, R; Woortman, Albert; Kumar, Kamlesh; Loos, Katja

    Amylose inclusion complexes are prepared by complexation of synthetic amylose having a covalently attached PTHF block (PTHF-b-amylose) with guest polytetrahydrofuran of molecular weights of 650 and 1000 g · mol−1 (PTHF650 and PTHF1000). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the

  5. Pharmacokinetic study of solid-lipid-nanoparticles of altretamine complexed epichlorohydrin-β-cyclodextrin for enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2017-08-01

    Altretamine is a synthetic drug approved for treatment of ovarian cancer. The only drawback with its formulation is poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability. In the present work an attempt has been made to prepare inclusion complex of altretamine with epichlorohydrin beta cyclodextrin. The complexes were prepared by kneading, co-evaporation and freeze-drying method and were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, DSC, drug content and dissolution study. Kneaded complex possess maximum solubilizing efficiency of 82.63 in 25mM Epi-β-CD solution. SLNs of pure altretamine and ALT complexed with Epi-β-CD were prepared by modified emulsification-ultrasonication method. The particle size and zeta potential was found to be 151.5nm and -21.3mV. The drug release pattern of SLNs was bi-phasic in nature; with an initial burst release followed by sustained drug release. Pharmacokinetic study showed that the average C max was found to be 0.94μg/ml, which was 2.47 times higher as compared to the pure drug. The AUCt for SLNs was 150minμgh/ml and 54minμgh/ml for pure ALT suspension which proved that the SLNs exhibited greater absorption compared to the pure drug. Thus, smaller particle size, higher entrapment efficiency and enhanced aqueous solubility led to improvement in oral bioavailability of ALT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of zofenopril inclusion complex with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrescu Lucreţia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zofenopril calcium (ZOFis one of the newest angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, is one of the highly lipophilic newest angiotensin and with low water solubility. This research investigates the interaction between ZOF and a β-cyclodextrin chemically modified derivative, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD, in order to prove the formation of an inclusion complex with an enhanced water solubility profile of ZOF. In this research is reported for the first time the physicochemical characterization and the solubility profile of an inclusion complex between ZOF and HPBCD. Different spectroscopic techniques (UV absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform IR spectroscopy were applied in order to prove the formation of the ZOF/HPBCD inclusion complex, both in water and in solid state, backed by thermal analysis (TGA/DTG/HF. The obtained results confirm that the physicochemical properties of the ZOF/HPBCD binary system, prepared using the kneading method, are different in comparison both with the parent substances and the corresponding physical mixture, thus suggesting that an inclusion complex was formed. After the formation of the inclusion complex with HPBCD, the solubility test indicated that the water solubility of ZOF was increased by 5 times.

  7. 2,6-Dinitroaniline and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex properties studied by different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-11-26

    The formation of supramolecular host-guest inclusion complex of 2,6-Dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) with nano-hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in solution phase were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer and electrochemical method (cyclic voltammetry, CV). The prototropic behaviors of 2,6-DNA with and without β-CD and the ground state acidity constant (pKa) of host-guest inclusion complex (2,6-DNA-β-CD) was studied by Spectrophotometrically. The binding constant of inclusion complex at 303 K was calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand plot and thermodynamic parameter (ΔG) were also calculated. The solid inclusion complex formation between β-CD and 2,6-DNA was confirmed by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. The β-CD:2,6-DNA inclusion complex obtained by molecular docking studies is in good correlation with the results obtained through experimental methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation Mechanism of Oxide-Sulfide Complex Inclusions in High-Sulfur-Containing Steel Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2018-02-01

    The [S] content in resulfurized steel is controlled in the range of 200 to 800 ppm to ensure good machinability and workability. It is well known that "MgAl2O4(spinel)+CaS" complex inclusions are formed in molten steel during the ladle refining process, and these cause nozzle clogging during continuous casting. Thus, in the present study, the "Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusions (ReSMI)" multiphase reaction model was employed in conjunction with experiments to investigate the influence of slag composition and [S] content in the steel on the formation of oxide-sulfide complex inclusions. The critical [S] and [Al] contents necessary for the precipitation of CaS in the CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 (CAMS) oxide inclusions were predicted from the composition of the liquid inclusions, as observed by scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and calculated using the ReSMI multiphase reaction model. The critical [S] content increases with increasing content of SiO2 in the slag at a given [Al] content. Formation mechanisms for spinel+CaS and spinel+MnS complex inclusions were also proposed.

  9. Inclusion complexes of hydrochlorothiazide and β-cyclodextrin: Physicochemical characteristics, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cassiana; Buttchevitz, Aline; Kruger, Jéssica H; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; de Oliveira Benedet, Patricia; Oliveira, Paulo Renato; Silva, Marcos Antônio Segatto

    2016-02-15

    Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic widely used in clinics to treat arterial hypertension. It is a class IV drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System, that is, it presents low solubility and low permeability and, consequently, low absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. As a strategy to improve stability and biopharmaceutical properties of hydrochlorothiazide, the use of cyclodextrins to produce inclusion complexes, applying different methods, was investigated. In the phase solubility studies, β-cyclodextrin was identified as the cyclodextrin which provided the most promising results in terms of the solubilization of the drug. The thermal analysis verified the interaction between hydrochlorothiazide and β-cyclodextrin, indicating the formation of inclusion complexes, and the thermal stability varied according to the preparation technique. The physicochemical characterization showed that in the inclusion complexes obtained by co-evaporation, kneading followed by freeze-drying and kneading followed by spray-drying the hydrochlorothiazide complexation mostly occurred with different degrees of amorphization and the drug solubility was improved. These three inclusion complexes presented better in vitro characteristics and the inclusion complex obtained by kneading followed by freeze-drying increased the in vivo diuretic activity of the drug accompanied by significant effects on natriuresis, kaliuresis and chloriuresis. The inclusion complex formation was effective in improving the biopharmaceutical properties of hydrochlorothiazide and protecting the drug from hydrolysis. This paper describes an important alternative approach to the development of liquid pharmaceutical formulations to pediatric administration, a real need of the current pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Oxatomide β -Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Fahima M.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Shaker, Mahmoud; Nasr, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of oxatomide β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of the drug. Oxatomide β-cyclodextrin solid complex was prepared with equimolar ratio of both oxatomide and β-cyclodextrin in presence or absence of water soluble polymers using different techniques. The coevaporated complex prepared in presence of PVP-K15 showed a prompt drug release and significantly increased % dissolution efficiency ...

  11. Oxidative Stress Regulation on Endothelial Cells by Hydrophilic Astaxanthin Complex: Chemical, Biological, and Molecular Antioxidant Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zuluaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance in the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid with high antioxidant capacities, has been shown to prevent the first stages of oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate the antioxidant capacities of astaxanthin included within hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD-A to directly and indirectly reduce the induced ROS production. First, chemical methods were used to corroborate the preservation of astaxanthin antioxidant abilities after inclusion. Next, antioxidant scavenging properties of CD-A to inhibit the cellular and mitochondrial ROS by reducing the disturbance in the redox state of the cell and the infiltration of lipid peroxidation radicals were evaluated. Finally, the activation of endogenous antioxidant PTEN/AKT, Nrf2/HO-1, and NQOI gene and protein expression supported the protective effect of CD-A complex on human endothelial cells under stress conditions. Moreover, a nontoxic effect on HUVEC was registered after CD-A complex supplementation. The results reported here illustrate the need to continue exploring the interesting properties of this hydrophilic antioxidant complex to assist endogenous systems to counteract the ROS impact on the induction of cellular oxidative stress state.

  12. Exploration of inclusion complexes of probenecid with α and β-cyclodextrins: Enhancing the utility of the drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aditi; Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report the formation of inclusion complexes between a poor water soluble drug, namely, probenecid and α/β-cyclodextrins. Solubility of probenecid has been enhanced by formation of inclusion complexes with the two cyclodextrins. The stoichiometries of the inclusion complexes were determined by Job's method using UV-visible spectroscopy. Surface tension and conductance study prove the inclusion phenomenon, while stereo-chemical nature of the inclusion complexes has been explained by 2D ROSEY NMR spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra and HRMS study also support the inclusion process. Association constants for both the inclusion complexes have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand method, while the thermodynamic parameters have been estimated with the help of van't Hoff equation. The association constant value was found to be higher in case of β-cyclodextrin than that of α-cyclodextrin which was explained on the basis of their molecular structures.

  13. β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex to Improve Physicochemical Properties of Pipemidic Acid: Characterization and Bioactivity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Malgieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude of cyclodextrins (CDs to form host-guest complexes has prompted an increase in the development of new drug formulations. In this study, the inclusion complexes of pipemidic acid (HPPA, a therapeutic agent for urinary tract infections, with native β-CD were prepared in solid state by kneading method and confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The inclusion complex formation was also characterized in aqueous solution at different pH via UV-Vis titration and phase solubility studies obtaining the stability constant. The 1:1 stoichiometry was established by a Job plot and the inclusion mechanism was clarified using docking experiments. Finally, the antibacterial activity of HPPA and its inclusion complex was tested on P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. aureus to determine the respective EC50s and EC90s. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of HPPA:β-CD against E. coli and S. aureus is higher than that of HPPA. Furthermore, HPPA and HPPA:β-CD, tested on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay, exhibited, for the first time, antitumor activities, and the complex revealed a higher activity than that of HPPA. The use of β-CD allows an increase in the aqueous solubility of the drug, its bioavailability and then its bioactivity.

  14. Inclusion complexes of lanthanides (III) with modified cyclo-dextrins; Complexes d'inclusion de lanthanides (III) avec des cyclodextrines modifiees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delangle, P. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Lab. de Reconnaissance Ionique, UMR E 3 CEA UJF, 38 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cyclo-dextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which contain six ({alpha}, seven ({beta}) or eight ({gamma}) glucose units bound by {alpha} bonds. These molecules are bio-compatible, soluble in water and can incorporate organic substrates in their lipophilic cavity. The chemical modification of these natural cyclo-dextrins to give per-3,6-anhydro derived compounds changes radically the structure of the receptor and give a hydrophilic cavity. This inversion of the inclusion properties allows to obtain compounds able to bind the metallic ions. In order to reinforce the affinity of these molecules towards hard metallic cations, the residual hydroxyl groups (position 2) have been substituted by carboxy-methyl groups to obtain ACX ({alpha}) and BCX ({beta}) cyclo-dextrins. The properties of these new compounds will be presented. The ACX and BCX ligands form mono-metallic and bimetallic complexes with lanthanides (III) in aqueous solution. The structure at the solid state of the compound [Lu{sub 2}(ACX)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] represents the first example of lanthanide-cyclo-dextrin inclusion complex. Indeed, each Lu(III) cation is encapsulated in the cavity and interacts both with carboxylate groups and the ether oxygens of the cyclo-dextrin. At last, the nuclear relaxation properties of the gadolinium(III) mono-metallic complexes will be discussed. (O.M.)

  15. NMR Study on the Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with daidzein and daidzin in D2O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD cavity with different orientations. For the β-CD/daidzin system, a 1:1 complex was formed with the flavonoid part of daidzin entering the CD cavity from the wide rim. The inclusion complexes determined by NMR were constructed using molecular docking. Furthermore, the mixture of puerarin, daidzein and daidzin, which are the major isoflavonoid components present in Radix puerariae, was analyzed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY alone and upon addition of β-CD in order to mimic chromatographic conditions and compare their binding affinities.

  16. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  17. Improved hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films through incorporation of amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer film blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes (Na-Palm) were produced with no plasticizer, and were observed to have improved physical and gas barrier properties as compared with pure HPMC. The crystalline amylose helices incorporating t...

  18. Inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-08-14

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amylose-potassium oleate inclusion complex in plain set-style yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose-potassium oleate inclusion complex (AIC) were used to replace skim milk solids in yogurt. The effect of AIC on yogurt fermentation and small amplitude oscillatory shear flow measurements of storage and loss moduli were studied and compared to full fat samples. Texture, storage modulus, and s...

  20. Commentary on the Inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder in DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2012-01-01

    The DSM-5 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorders Work Group has proposed criteria for Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder (PCBRD) for inclusion in the appendix of DSM-5. The authors feel that it is important that dysfunctional grief will become a formal condition in DSM-5 because that would…

  1. Imaging inclusion complex formation in starch granules using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, Marianna; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja; Loi, Maria A.

    The tendency of amylose to form inclusion complexes with guest molecules has been an object of wide interest due to its fundamental role in food processing. Here we investigated the features of starch granules from several botanical sources using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and

  2. Stability Constants of the Inclusion Complexes of ß-Cyclodextrin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability constants for the inclusion complexes of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) with various adamantane derivatives (ADA), namely the amantadinium (AM), rimantadinium (RIM), and memantinium (MEM) cations have been determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. All experiments have been performed at a pH of 1.7 and 25 º ...

  3. Formation of poly(ethylene glycol) inclusion complexes in aqueous solutions of mixed cyclodextrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horský, Jiří; Walterová, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 203, - (2003), s. 259-264 ISSN 1022-1360. [ International Conference on Polymer-Solvent Complexes and Intercalates /4./. Prague, 22.07.2002-25.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1050101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cyclodextrins * inclusion complexes * phase separation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2003

  4. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of inclusion complexes between Riparin A and β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Éverton José Ferreira de; Silva, Oskar Almeida; Rezende-Júnior, Luís Mário; Sousa, Ian Jhemes Oliveira; Araújo, Danielle Yasmin Moura Lopes de; Carvalho, Rusbene Bruno Fonseca de; Pereira, Sean Telles; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan Chavez; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Lima, Francisco das Chagas Alves

    2017-08-01

    This study performed a physicochemical characterization of the inclusion complex generated between Riparin A and β-cyclodextrin (Rip A/β-CD) and compared the cytotoxic potential of the incorporated Rip A upon Artemia salina larvae. Samples were analyzed by phase solubility diagram, dissolution profile, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and artemicidal action. Riparin A/β-cyclodextrin complexes presented increased water solubility, AL type solubility diagram and Kst constant of 373 L/mol. Thermal analysis demonstrated reduction of the melt peak of complexed Rip A at 116.2 °C. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed generation of inclusion complexes, 1H NMR pointed out the interaction with H-3 of β-CD cavities, alterations in the crystalline natures of Rip A when incorporated within β-CD were observed and inclusion complexes presented higher cytotoxic on A. salina nauplii, with CL50 value of 117.2 (84.9-161.8) μg/mL. So, Rip A was incorporated into β-CDs with high efficiency and water solubility of Rip A was improved. Such solubility was corroborated by cytotoxic evaluation and these outcomes support the improvement of biological properties for complexes between Riparin A/β-cyclodextrin.

  6. Experimental, molecular docking investigations and bioavailability study on the inclusion complexes of finasteride and cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady FM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatma M Mady,1,2 Usama Farghaly Aly2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Abstract: Finasteride (FIN is a Class II candidate of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS. The lipophilic cavity of cyclodextrins (CyDs enables it to construct a non-covalent inclusion complex with different insoluble drugs. Only β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD and hydroxypropyl-β-CyD (HP-β-CyD have been previously examined with FIN. This study aimed to investigate the consistence of FIN with different kinds of β-CyDs, including dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CyD, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CyD, HP-β-CyD, sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CyD, and β-CyD, by the coprecipitation method. The resultant inclusion systems were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and dissolution studies. Moreover, molecular docking for the selected inclusion systems was carried out to explore the suitable arrangements of FIN in the cavity of β-CyD or its derivatives. The results suggested that the DM-β-CyD inclusion system gave the higher complexation efficiency for improvement in solubility of FIN and hence enhancement of its bioavailability. Pharmacokinetic parameters displayed a higher absorption rate and higher area under the curve of the FIN/DM-β-CyD inclusion complex when compared with the drug alone, which indicates an improvement in the absorption and bioavailability of FIN in the DM-β-CyD inclusion system. Keywords: finasteride, cyclodextrins, molecular docking, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability

  7. Study of inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin and diphenylamine: photophysical and electrochemical behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Kayalvizhi, K; Sivakumar, K; Stalin, T

    2011-06-01

    The photophysical, electrochemical and photoprototropic behaviors of diphenylamine (DPA) in aqueous β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solution have been investigated using absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Absorption of the neutral and cationic form of DPA is enhanced due to the formation of a 1:1 complex with β-CD. The formation of this complex has been confirmed by Benesi-Hildebrand plot and docking studies by RasMol tool methods. The solid complex of β-CD with DPA is investigated by FT-IR, XRD and AFM methods. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) of inclusion process are also determined. The pK(a) values of neutral-monocation equilibria have been determined with absorption (conjugate acid-base) titrations. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations and crystal structure from synchrotron powder data of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with atenolol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borodi, G.; Bratu, I.; Dragan, F.; Peschar, R.; Helmholdt, R.B.; Hernanz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusion complexes of atenolol with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solution have been investigated with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of this inclusion complex was established to be equimolar (1:1) and its stability constant was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal

  9. Enhancing Antidepressant Effect of Poloxamer/Chitosan Thermosensitive Gel Containing Curcumin-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solubility and bioavailability are limiting factors for the clinical application of curcumin. This study seeks to develop poloxamer/chitosan thermosensitive gel containing curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex with enhanced brain bioavailability and antidepressant effect. The optimized gel had shorter gelation time and produced sustained release in vitro characterized with non-Fickian diffusion. Pharmacokinetics of gel were evaluated using male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 240 μg/kg of curcumin and curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex through intranasal administration, compared against a control group receiving intravenous curcumin (240 μg/kg. The intranasal administration of gel provided sustained release by maintaining plasma concentrations of curcumin above 21.27 ± 3.26 ng/mL for up to 8 h. Compared to intranasal administration of the inclusion complex, AUC0–8 h of curcumin from thermoreversible gel in plasma and hippocampus was increased 1.62- and 1.28-fold, respectively. The gel exhibited superior antidepressant activity in mice. The findings reported here suggested that the clinical application of curcumin can be better exploited through an intranasal administration of the thermosensitive gel.

  10. Nanodiamonds in sugar rings: an experimental and theoretical investigation of cyclodextrin-nanodiamond inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuhl, Jens; Waller, Mark; Bandaru, Sateesh; Tkachenko, Boryslav A; Fregonese, Carlo; Wibbeling, Birgit; Schreiner, Peter R; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2012-06-21

    We report on the noncovalent interactions of nanodiamond carboxylic acids derived from adamantane, diamantane, and triamantane with β- and γ-cyclodextrins. The water solubility of the nanodiamonds was increased by attaching an aromatic dicarboxylic acid via peptide coupling. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the thermodynamic parameters (K(a), ΔH, ΔG and ΔS) for the host-guest inclusion. The stoichiometry of the complexes is invariably 1:1. It was found that K(a), ΔG and ΔH of inclusion increase for larger nanodiamonds. ΔS is generally positive, in particular for the largest nanodiamonds. β-Cyclodextrin binds all nanodiamonds, γ-cyclodextrin clearly prefers the most bulky nanodiamonds. The interaction of 9-triamantane carboxylic acid shows one of the strongest complexation constants towards γ-cyclodextrin ever reported, K(a) = 5.0 × 10(5) M(-1). In order to gain some insight into the possible structural basis of these inclusion complexes we performed density functional calculations at the B97-D3/def2-TZVPP level of theory.

  11. Crystallographic and theoretical studies of an inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Noriko; Nagase, Hiromasa; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Endo, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Haruhisa; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-10-15

    The crystal structure of an inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with fentanyl was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to the triclinic space group P1 and the complex comprises one fentanyl, two β-CD, and several water molecules. β-CD and fentanyl form a host-guest inclusion complex at a ratio of 2:1 and the asymmetric unit of the complex contains two host molecules (β-CDs) in a head-to-head arrangement that form dimers through hydrogen bonds between the secondary hydroxyl groups of β-CD and one guest molecule. Fentanyl is totally contained within the β-CD cavity and the structure of the phenylethyl part of fentanyl inside the dimeric cavity of the complex is disordered. Furthermore, theoretical molecular conformational calculations were conducted to clarify the mobility of the guest molecule in the β-CD cavity using CONFLEX software. Crystal optimization and crystal energy calculations were also conducted. The results of the theoretical calculations confirmed that the conformation of disorder part 1, which was high in occupancy by crystal structure analysis, was more stable. The phenylethyl part of fentanyl existed in several stable conformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Inclusion Complexes of Pinostrobin and β-Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintawee Kicuntod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinostrobin (PNS belongs to the flavanone subclass of flavonoids which shows several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerogenic, anti-viral and anti-oxidative effects. Similar to other flavonoids, PNS has a quite low water solubility. The purpose of this work is to improve the solubility and the biological activities of PNS by forming inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (βCD and its derivatives, heptakis-(2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (2,6-DMβCD and (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD. The AL-type diagram of the phase solubility studies of PNS exhibited the formed inclusion complexes with the 1:1 molar ratio. Inclusion complexes were prepared by the freeze-drying method and were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR and steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation revealed two different binding modes of PNS, i.e., its phenyl- (P-PNS and chromone- (C-PNS rings preferably inserted into the cavity of βCD derivatives whilst only one orientation of PNS, where the C-PNS ring is inside the cavity, was detected in the case of the parental βCD. All PNS/βCDs complexes had a higher dissolution rate than free PNS. Both PNS and its complexes significantly exerted a lowering effect on the IL-6 secretion in LPS-stimulated macrophages and showed a moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines in vitro.

  13. Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with beta -cyclodextrin ( beta -CD followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- beta -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of beta -CD, were observed after freeze-drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with beta -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.Técnicas de encapsulamento, como "spray-drying" e formação de complexos por inclusão com ciclodextrinas, vêm sendo avaliadas para viabilizar a adição de carotenóides em sistemas hidrofílicos e aumentar a sua estabilidade durante o processamento e estocagem. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter licopeno encapsulado na forma de pó, utilizando processos de "spray-drying" ou de inclusão molecular com beta -ciclodextrina (CD seguido de liofilização. A eficiência do encapsulamento utilizando "spray-drying" variou de 94 a 96% e o rendimento médio foi de 51%, com as microcápsulas apresentando indentações superficiais, porém sem falhas ou aberturas na superfície. A formação de complexo licopeno- beta -CD ocorreu apenas quando utilizada razão molar de 1:4, e estruturas irregulares de diferentes tamanhos que eventualmente formaram agregados, similares às da beta -CD, foram observadas após liofilização. O licopeno não complexado neste processo ficou em torno de 50%. A pureza do licopeno (% área do all-trans-licopeno aumentou de 96,4 para 98,1% ap

  14. Host-guest inclusion complex of mesalazine and β-cyclodextrin and spectrofluorometric determination of mesalazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Altayib Alasha Abdalla, Fatima; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-06-01

    The supramolecular interaction of mesalazine (MSZ) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been examined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light, infra-red (IR) light and fluorescence spectroscopy. The formation of an inclusion complex has been confirmed based on the changes of the spectral properties. MSZ-β-CD host-guest complex was formed in (1:1) stoichiometry and the inclusion constant (K = 1.359 × 10(2)  L mol(-1) ) was ascertained by typical double reciprocal plots. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) of (MSZ-β-CD) were obtained. Based on the remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of MSZ produced through complex formation, a simple, accurate, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorometric method for the determination of MSZ in aqueous solution in the presence of β-CD was developed. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried with excitation at 330 nm and emission 493 nm. All variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.1-0.45 µg/mL. Absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of MSZ, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient values of 0.99989. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were calculated. The validity of the described methods was assessed, and the method was successfully applied to the determination of MSZ in its pharmaceutical formulation. In addition, a solid inclusion complex was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, J.G., E-mail: julianaggalvao@gmail.com [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); França, F.R.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm.

  16. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, J.G.; Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G.; França, F.R.M.; Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B.; Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC 50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC 50 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC 50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC 50 21.5 ppm

  17. GLUCOSYLATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-COMPLEXED PODOPHYLLOTOXIN BY CELL-CULTURES OF LINUM-FLAVUM L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANUDEN, W; OEIJ, H; WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N

    The glucosylation of the cytotoxic lignan podophyllotoxin by cell cultures derived from Linum flavum was investigated. Four cyclodextrins: beta-cyclodextrin, gamma-cyclodextrin, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were used to improve the solubility of podophyllotoxin by

  18. NMR spectroscopic characterization of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex with vanillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirnau, Adrian; Bogdan, Mircea; Floare, Calin G

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of vanillin by β-cyclodextrin was investigated by 1 H NMR. The continuous variation technique was used to evidence the formation of soluble 1:1 complex in aqueous solution. The association constant of vanillin with β-cyclodextrin has been obtained at 298 K by fitting the experimental chemical shifts differences, Δδ obs δ free - δ obs of the observed guest and host protons, with a non-linear regression method. Besides the effective association constant, the fitting procedure allows a precise determination of all chemical shift parameters characterizing the pure complex. They can by used for an analysis of the geometry of the molecular complex in solution.

  19. Theoretical study on β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with propiconazole and protonated propiconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fifere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the β-cyclodextrin/propiconazole nitrate inclusion complex and the advantages of the encapsulation of this drug were recently reported, but the experimental data only partially revealed the structure of the supramolecular complex due to the limitations in understanding the intermolecular association mechanism. The present work describes the equilibrium molecular geometries of β-cyclodextrin/propiconazole and β-cyclodextrin/protonated propiconazole, established by the AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods. The affinity between different parts of the guest molecule and the cyclodextrin cavity was studied considering that propiconazole possesses three residues able to be included into the host cavity through primary or secondary hydroxyl rims. The results have revealed that the most stable complex is formed when the azole residue of the propiconazole enters the cavity of the cyclodextrin through the narrow hydroxyl’s rim.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrins with Chalcone and 2',4'-Dihydroxychalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Matias I; Andujar, Sebastian; Porasso, Rodolfo D; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-03-31

    The inclusion complexes formed by chalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone with β-cyclodextrin have been studied combining experimental (phase solubility diagrams, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and molecular modeling (molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations) techniques. The formation constants of the complexes were determined at different temperatures, and the thermodynamic parameters of the process were obtained. The inclusion of chalcone in β-cyclodextrin is an exothermic process, while the inclusion of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone is endothermic. Free energy profiles, derived from umbrella sampling using molecular dynamics simulations, were constructed to analyze the binding affinity and the complexation reaction at a molecular level. Hybrid QM/MM calculations were also employed to obtain a better description of the energetic and structural aspects of the complexes. The intermolecular interactions that stabilize both inclusion complexes were characterized by means of quantum atoms in molecules theory and reduce density gradient method. The calculated interactions were experimentally observed using FTIR.

  1. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  2. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  3. New compositions of cadmium selenium nanoparticles and dye molecules with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.M.; Anufrik, S.S.; Tarkovsky, V.V.; Sazonko, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of new heterogeneous multicolor compositions based on cadmium selenium (CdSe/ZnS) nano crystal and inclusion complexes of dye molecule with cyclodextrin are presented. Spectral fluorescence of proposed compositions investigated in thin films. Signals from multicolor fluorescence of proposing compositions may be combined to definite spectral codes that could be used for tracking or verification of different objects. Calibration bar of signal within spectral codes guarantee high reliability in practical application of proposed multicolor compositions. Express analysis the size of nanoparticles during their synthesis and purification by spectroscopic methods is suggested. Application of Cyclodextrin molecules as target delivery systems is considered. (authors)

  4. Preparation and characterizations of solid/aqueous phases inclusion complex of 2,4-dinitroaniline with β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, Thambusamy; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Radhakrishnan, S

    2014-07-17

    The formation of host-guest inclusion complex of 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA) with nano-hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in solution phase were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer and electrochemical method (Cyclic Voltammetry, CV). The prototropic behaviors of 2,4-DNA with and without β-CD was studied by spectrophotometrically. The binding constant of the inclusion complex at 303K was calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand plot and thermodynamic parameter (ΔG) were also calculated. The inclusion complex formation between β-CD and 2,4-DNA was confirmed by (1)H NMR, 2D ROESY NMR, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. The 2,4-DNA:β-CD inclusion complex was obtained by molecular docking studies and it was good correlation with the results obtained through experimental methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycaprolactone/Amino-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Prepared by an Electrospinning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Moyers-Montoya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds of neat poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL, poly-ε-caprolactone/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (PCL/β-CD and poly-ε-caprolactone amino derivative inclusion complex (PCL/β-CD-NH2 were prepared by the electrospinning technique. The obtained mats were analyzed by a theoretical model using the Hartree–Fock method with an STO-3G basis set, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, confocal-Raman spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR and contact angle measure (CA. Different mixtures of solvents, such as dimethylformamide (DMF-tetrahydrofuran (THF, dichlormethane (DCM-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE, were tested in the fiber preparation. The results indicate that electrospun nanofibers have a pseudorotaxane structure and when it was prepared using a 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE as solvent, the nanofibers were electrospun well and, with the other solvents, fibers present defects such as molten fibers and bead-like defects into the fiber structure. This work provides insights into the design of PCL/β-CD-NH2 based scaffolds that could have applications in the biomedical field.

  6. Bounds on complex polarizabilities and a new perspective on scattering by a lossy inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2017-09-01

    Here, we obtain explicit formulas for bounds on the complex electrical polarizability at a given frequency of an inclusion with known volume that follow directly from the quasistatic bounds of Bergman and Milton on the effective complex dielectric constant of a two-phase medium. We also describe how analogous bounds on the orientationally averaged bulk and shear polarizabilities at a given frequency can be obtained from bounds on the effective complex bulk and shear moduli of a two-phase medium obtained by Milton, Gibiansky, and Berryman, using the quasistatic variational principles of Cherkaev and Gibiansky. We also show how the polarizability problem and the acoustic scattering problem can both be reformulated in an abstract setting as "Y problems." In the acoustic scattering context, to avoid explicit introduction of the Sommerfeld radiation condition, we introduce auxiliary fields at infinity and an appropriate "constitutive law" there, which forces the Sommerfeld radiation condition to hold. As a consequence, we obtain minimization variational principles for acoustic scattering that can be used to obtain bounds on the complex backwards scattering amplitude. Some explicit elementary bounds are given.

  7. Complexation studies of cyclodextrins with tricyclic antidepressants using ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsami, G N; Koupparis, M A; Macheras, P E

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of six tricyclic antidepressant drugs [amitriptylin (AMN), nortriptylin (NRN), imipramin (IMN), doxepin (DXN), protriptylin (PTN), and maprotilin (MPN)] with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins (CDs) using ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) as drug ion sensors is described. Binding parameters were calculated by nonlinear fitting of the model described by the Scatchard equation, to the experimental data of a titration of a CD solution with the ion of interest. One binding site (the CD cavity) was found in all cases with both CDs. The calculated association constants at 25 degrees C using CD concentrations in the range of 0.0100-0.0010 M, varied from 4.81 x 10(3) M-1 (MPN) to 23.9 x 10(3) M-1 (AMN) in the case of beta-CD and from 50 M-1 (DXN) to 123 M-1 (MPN) in the case of alpha-CD. The precision for the estimation of the binding parameters was 0.1-5.0% (within-run RSD%) and 8-10% (between-run RSD%; n = 3). The complexation of the drugs with beta-CD was also examined as a function of temperature in the range of 5-37 degrees C; it was found to decrease by increasing temperature. Van't Hoff analysis gave good correlations (r greater than or equal to 0.989) for all drug ions studied. The estimates of the thermodynamic parameters indicate that the formation of inclusion complexes is enthalpy driven. A compensation plot based on the thermodynamic parameters delta H and delta S resulted in a linear relationship, which is indicative of a common type of force involved in the complexation of drugs to beta-CD.

  8. pH-Dependent On-off Inclusion Complexation of Carboxymethylated Cyclosophoraoses with Neutral Red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hey Lin; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    This result might also indicate that the binding ability of the complex was affected by changes in the three-dimensional structure of CM-Cys and by the hydrogen bond or electrostatic interactions of CM-Cys and neutral red. We therefore propose that CM-Cys can be applied to the development of biosensors as a kind of conformationally switchable on-off molecule in the near future. Cyclosophoraoses, which are a class of unbranched cyclic (1 → 2)-β-D-glucans, are produced as intraoligosaccharides or extraoligosaccharides by many strains of Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. They form a mixture of large-ring molecules that comprise a variable number of glucose residues (17 to 40) per ring in a neutral or anionic form. The first report of cyclosophoraoses came in 1942 with its discovery in the extracellular media of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cultures. Cyclosophoraoses generally function in periplasmic places as an osmoprotectant against osmotic stress. They are also reportedly involved in the symbiotic interaction between the Rhizobiaceae family and its specific symbiotic plants, such as alfafa, clover and soybean. Throughout this interaction, cyclosophoraoses are suspected of being involved in complexation with various plant flavonoids. In addition, neutral or anionic cyclosophoraoses have been applied as a host molecule in various technologies of inclusion complexation; for example, as a solubility enhancer of poorly soluble guest molecules, and as a chiral additive in capillary electrophoresis (CE)

  9. pH-Dependent On-off Inclusion Complexation of Carboxymethylated Cyclosophoraoses with Neutral Red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hey Lin; Jung, Seun Ho

    2005-01-01

    This result might also indicate that the binding ability of the complex was affected by changes in the three-dimensional structure of CM-Cys and by the hydrogen bond or electrostatic interactions of CM-Cys and neutral red. We therefore propose that CM-Cys can be applied to the development of biosensors as a kind of conformationally switchable on-off molecule in the near future. Cyclosophoraoses, which are a class of unbranched cyclic (1 → 2)-β-D-glucans, are produced as intraoligosaccharides or extraoligosaccharides by many strains of Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. They form a mixture of large-ring molecules that comprise a variable number of glucose residues (17 to 40) per ring in a neutral or anionic form. The first report of cyclosophoraoses came in 1942 with its discovery in the extracellular media of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cultures. Cyclosophoraoses generally function in periplasmic places as an osmoprotectant against osmotic stress. They are also reportedly involved in the symbiotic interaction between the Rhizobiaceae family and its specific symbiotic plants, such as alfafa, clover and soybean. Throughout this interaction, cyclosophoraoses are suspected of being involved in complexation with various plant flavonoids. In addition, neutral or anionic cyclosophoraoses have been applied as a host molecule in various technologies of inclusion complexation; for example, as a solubility enhancer of poorly soluble guest molecules, and as a chiral additive in capillary electrophoresis (CE)

  10. Binding mode and free energy prediction of fisetin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodee Nutho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, our aim is to investigate the preferential binding mode and encapsulation of the flavonoid fisetin in the nano-pore of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD at the molecular level using various theoretical approaches: molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD simulations and binding free energy calculations. The molecular docking suggested four possible fisetin orientations in the cavity through its chromone or phenyl ring with two different geometries of fisetin due to the rotatable bond between the two rings. From the multiple MD results, the phenyl ring of fisetin favours its inclusion into the β-CD cavity, whilst less binding or even unbinding preference was observed in the complexes where the larger chromone ring is located in the cavity. All MM- and QM-PBSA/GBSA free energy predictions supported the more stable fisetin/β-CD complex of the bound phenyl ring. Van der Waals interaction is the key force in forming the complexes. In addition, the quantum mechanics calculations with M06-2X/6-31G(d,p clearly showed that both solvation effect and BSSE correction cannot be neglected for the energy determination of the chosen system.

  11. beta-Cyclodextrin derivatives as carriers to enhance the antiviral activity of an antisense oligonucleotide directed toward a coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, S; Collomb, J; Sallas, F; Marsura, A; Finance, C

    1997-01-01

    The ability of cyclodextrins to enhance the antiviral activity of a phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide has been investigated. A 18-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiation region of the mRNA coding for the spike protein and containing the intergenic consensus sequence of an enteric coronavirus has been tested for antiviral action against virus growth in human adenocarcinoma cells. The phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide only showed a limited effect on virus growth rate (from 12 to 34% viral inhibition in cells treated with 7.5 to 25 microM oligodeoxynucleotide, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 infectious particle per cell). In the same conditions, the phosphorothioate analogue exhibited stronger antiviral activity, the inhibition increased from 56 to 90%. The inhibitory effect of this analogue was antisense and sequence-specific. Northern blot analysis showed that the sequence-dependent mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of mRNA transcription. We conclude that the coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence is a good target for an antisense oligonucleotide antiviral action. The properties of the phosphodiester oligonucleotide was improved after its complexation with cyclodextrins. The most important increase of the antiviral activity (90% inhibition) was obtained with only 7.5 microM oligonucleotide complexed to a cyclodextrin derivative, 6-deoxy-6-S-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-6-thio-cyclomalto-heptaose+ ++ in a molar ratio of 1:100. These studies suggest that the use of cyclodextrin derivatives as carrier for phosphodiester oligonucleotides delivery may be an effective method for increasing the therapeutic potential of these compounds in viral infections.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patch of acyclovir utilizing inclusion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal patch releasing drug in the oral cavity at a predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms, such as tablets, gels and solutions. A buccal patch for systemic administration of acyclovir in the oral cavity was developed using polymers hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K4M, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K15M, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and poly vinyl pyrolidone (K30, plasticizer poly ethylene glycol (400 and a backing membrane of Eudragit (RL100. The films were evaluated in terms of swelling, residence time, mucoadhesion, release, and organoleptic properties. The optimized films showed lower release as compared to controlled drug delivery systems. Hence, an inclusion complex of acyclovir was prepared with hydrophilic polymer hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin in the molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complex was characterized by optical microscopy, FAB mass spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Patches formulated with the acyclovir inclusion complex were evaluated along the same lines as those containing acyclovir alone. The in vitro release data revealed a substantial increase from 64.35% to 88.15% in the case of PS I and PS II batches, respectively, confirming the successful use of inclusion complexes for the formulation of buccal patch of acyclovir.Mucoadesivos bucais liberadores de fármacos para a cavidade oral com taxa de liberação pré-determinada podem apresentar distintas vantagens em relação às formas farmacêuticas convencionais como comprimidos, géis e soluções. Neste trabalho, um adesivo bucal para administração sistêmica de aciclovir através da cavidade oral foi desenvolvido empregando-se os polímeros hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K4M, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K15M, carboximetil celulose sódica e polivinil pirrolidona (K30, polietilenoglicol plastificado (400 e uma membrana suporte de Eudragit (RL100. Os filmes obtidos foram avaliados em termos de

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of β-Cyclodextrin-Epichlorohydrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A water soluble Beta-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin complex (Beta-CDEPI) was synthesized by one-step condensation polymerization. Drug- Beta-CDEPI inclusion complexes were prepared and characterized. Inclusion complexes prepared using lyophilization technique was used to formulate orodispersible tablets.

  14. Characterization, inclusion mode, phase-solubility and in vitro release studies of inclusion binary complexes with cyclodextrins and meglumine using sulfamerazine as model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Carolina; Gomes de Oliveira, Anselmo; Longhi, Marcela

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect on the aqueous solubility and release rate of sulfamerazine (SMR) as model drug, inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (βCD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and a binary system with meglumine (MEG) were developed. The formation of 1:1 inclusion complexes of SMR with the CDs and a SMR:MEG binary system in solution and in solid state was revealed by phase solubility studies (PSS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis and X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) studies. The CDs solubilization of SMR could be improved by ionization of the drug molecule through pH adjustments. The higher apparent stability constants of SMR:CDs complexes were obtained in pH 2.00, demonstrating that CDs present more affinity for the unionized drug. The best approach for SMR solubility enhancement results from the combination of MEG and pH adjustment, with a 34-fold increment and a Smax of 54.8 mg/ml. The permeability of the drug was reduced due to the presence of βCD, MβCD, HPβCD and MEG when used as solubilizers. The study then suggests interesting applications of CD or MEG complexes for modulating the release rate of SMR through semipermeable membranes.

  15. Colorimetric determination of alpha and beta-cyclodextrins and studies on optimization of CGTase production from B. firmus using factorial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19, CGTase production from B. firmus, isolated from soil of Curitiba, PR, was optimized in shake flask using an experimental design approach. The CGTase was produced when the carbon source was starch and beta-CD, but when simple sugars such as glucose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose were used, there was no enzyme production. CGTase production was the same with either organic nitrogen or inorganic nitrogen source. CGTase activity decreased 2-fold when incubation temperature was increased from 28 to 37 ° C, and decreased 2.1- fold when the initial pH was lowered from 10.3 to 7.4. The colorimetric determinations of alpha - and beta -CD were analyzed as a non-linear relationship and the equilibrium constant for alpha -CD/methyl orange and beta -CD/phenolphthalein complexes were 7.69 x 10³ L / mol and 2.33 x 10³ L/ mol, respectively.A produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase (EC2.4.1.19, CGTase de B. firmus isolada de solo de Curitiba, PR, foi otimizada com o uso de modelo estatístico fatorial. Foi estudado o efeito de componentes no meio básico bem como pH inicial e temperatura na produção da enzima. O modelo de fatorial 2k-1 foi usado. A atividade da CGTase foi monitorada pelo método colorimétrico com alaranjado de metila. Houve produção da CGTase quando a fonte de carbono era amido e beta-CD, mas quando galactose, lactose, sacarose e maltose foram usadas, nγo houve nenhuma produηγo de enzima. A produηão de CGTase foi a mesma com a fonte de nitrogênio orgânico ou inorgânico. A atividade da CGTase diminuiu 2 vezes quando a temperatura de incubação foi aumentada de 28 a 37 ° C, e diminuiu 2,1 vezes quando o pH inicial foi abaixado de 10,3 a 7,4. As determinações colorimetricas de alfa e beta - CD foram analisadas como regressão não linear e a constante de equilíbrio para os complexos alfa -CD/alaranjado de metila e beta -CD/fenolftaleina foram 7,69 x 10³ L/mol e 2

  16. Inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of tamibarotene by complexing it with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD. The inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Am80-HP-β-CD was prepared through a freeze-drying method at the mole ratio of 1:1 (Am80: HP-β-CD. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC indicated the formation of Am80-HP-β-CD. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the solubility and dissolution percentage of Am80-HP-β-CD was improved substantially compared to Am80. An improved dissolution with approximately 97% drug release in 3 min was observed, in comparison with Am80 with approximately 60% release in 45 min. In vivo studies indicated that the AUC0-∞ has increased 2.79 times and the Cmax 4.37 times after the formation of inclusion complex. The decrease of tmax indicated the Am80-HP-β-CD inclusion complex can be absorbed into blood faster. In short, the solubility and bio-availability of Am80 has notably increased with the complexation of HP-β-CD. Therefore, using the inclusion technique is a promising method to improve the solubility of insoluble drugs.

  17. Amylose-potassium oleate inclusion complex in plain set-style yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Kenar, James A

    2014-05-01

    Health and wellness aspirations of U.S. consumers continue to drive the demand for lower fat from inherently beneficial foods such as yogurt. Removing fat from yogurt negatively affects the gel strength, texture, syneresis, and storage of yogurt. Amylose-potassium oleate inclusion complexes (AIC) were used to replace skim milk solids to improve the quality of nonfat yogurt. The effect of AIC on fermentation of yogurt mix and strength of yogurt gel was studied and compared to full-fat samples. Texture, storage modulus, and syneresis of yogurt were observed over 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C. Yogurt mixes having the skim milk solids partially replaced by AIC fermented at a similar rate as yogurt samples with no milk solids replaced and full-fat milk. Initial viscosity was higher for yogurt mixes with AIC. The presence of 3% AIC strengthened the yogurt gel as indicated by texture and rheology measurements. Yogurt samples with 3% AIC maintained the gel strength during storage and resulted in low syneresis after storage for 4 wk. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Co-solvation effect on the binding mode of the α-mangostin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompoonut Rungnim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs have been extensively utilized as host molecules to enhance the solubility, stability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drug molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. It was previously reported that the use of co-solvents in such studies may result in ternary (host:guest:co-solvent complex formation. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the inclusion complex formation between α-mangostin (α-MGS and β-CD, using both experimental and theoretical studies. Experimental phase-solubility studies were carried out in order to assess complex formation, with the mechanism of association being probed using a mathematical model. It was found that α-MGS was poorly soluble at low ethanol concentrations (0–10% v/v, but higher concentrations (10–40% v/v resulted in better α-MGS solubility at all β-CD concentrations studied (0–10 mM. From the equilibrium constant calculation, the inclusion complex is still a binary complex (1:1, even in the presence of ethanol. The results from our theoretical study confirm that the binding mode is binary complex and the presence of ethanol as co-solvent enhances the solubility of α-MGS with some effects on the binding affinity with β-CD, depending on the concentration employed.

  19. Higher value films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid derivatives inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose fatty acid and fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes (AIC) were prepared by jet cooked high amylose corn starch with water soluble salts of long chain fatty acids or fatty amines. The formation of AIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried samples. After dissoluti...

  20. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  1. Rheological characterization of solutions and thin films made from amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes and polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions and films made from blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) were investigated to better understand the polymer interactions and processing parameters. Aqueous solutions of Hex-Am displayed ...

  2. Key Players in Inclusion: Are We Meeting the Professional Needs of Learning Support Assistants for Pupils with Complex Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lesley; McConkey, Roy; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Under the aegis of inclusion, greater numbers of learning support assistants (LSAs) in mainstream and special schools are increasingly required to assist teachers with pupils who have complex needs across the full age range. Because of the numerous and wide-ranging learning difficulties and learning disabilities in addition to sensory impairment,…

  3. Comparison of microwave processing and excess steam jet cooking for spherulite production from amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helical inclusion complexes of amylose with fatty acids can form spherulites of various morphological types. Previous studies have described the spherulites obtained by cooling dispersions of steam jet cooked corn starch either by itself or supplemented with various fatty acids. In light of potent...

  4. Inclusion Complex of Fungicide Vinclozoline and á-Cyclodextrin. The Influence of Host-Guest Interaction on the Reduction Mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, M.; Giannarelli, S.; Fuoco, R.; Colombini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 1 (2001), s. 28-36 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D15.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : inclusion complex es * pesticides * á-cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2001

  5. Statistically designed enzymatic hydrolysis of an icariin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex optimized for production of icaritin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation and enzymic hydrolysis of an icariin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to efficiently generate icaritin. The physical characteristics of the inclusion complex were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized for the conversion of icariin/β-cyclodextrin complex to icaritin by Box–Behnken statistical design. The inclusion complex formulation increased the solubility of icariin approximately 17-fold, from 29.2 to 513.5 μg/mL at 60 °C. The optimum conditions were predicted by Box–Behnken statistical design as follows: 60 °C, pH 7.0, the ratio of enzyme/substrate (1:1.1 and reaction time 7 h. Under the optimal conditions the conversion of icariin was 97.91% and the reaction time was decreased by 68% compared with that without β-CD inclusion. Product analysis by melting point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR confirmed the authenticity of icaritin with a purity of 99.3% and a yield of 473 mg of icaritin from 1.1 g icariin.

  6. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  7. Enacting Understanding of Inclusion in Complex Contexts: Classroom Practices of South African Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Petra; Nel, Mirna; Nel, Norma; Tlale, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While the practice of inclusive education has recently been widely embraced as an ideal model for education, the acceptance of inclusive education practices has not translated into reality in most mainstream classrooms. Despite the fact that education policies in South Africa stipulate that all learners should be provided with the opportunities to…

  8. Inclusion Complexes of Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne Oleoresin and Cyclodextrins: Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gabriel de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CMO, which presents anti-inflammatory activity, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD by kneading (KND and slurry (SL methods. Physicochemical characterization was performed to verify the occurrence of interactions between CMO and the cyclodextrins. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO alone as well as complexed with CDs. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of inclusion complex of CMO with both β-CD and HP-β-CD by KND and SL methods. Carrageenan-induced paw edema test showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO was maintained after complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD, where they were able to decrease the levels of nitrite and myeloperoxidase. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to produce inclusion complexes of CMO with CDs by KND and SL methods without any change in CMO’s anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Spectroscopic methods for aqueous cyclodextrin inclusion complex binding measurement for 1,4-dioxane, chlorinated co-contaminants, and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-03-01

    Recalcitrant organic contaminants, such as 1,4-dioxane, typically require advanced oxidation process (AOP) oxidants, such as ozone (O3), for their complete mineralization during water treatment. Unfortunately, the use of AOPs can be limited by these oxidants' relatively high reactivities and short half-lives. These drawbacks can be minimized by partial encapsulation of the oxidants within a cyclodextrin cavity to form inclusion complexes. We determined the inclusion complexes of O3 and three common co-contaminants (trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane) as guest compounds within hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both direct (ultraviolet or UV) and competitive (fluorescence changes with 6-p-toluidine-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid as the probe) methods were used, which gave comparable results for the inclusion constants of these species. Impacts of changing pH and NaCl concentrations were also assessed. Binding constants increased with pH and with ionic strength, which was attributed to variations in guest compound solubility. The results illustrate the versatility of cyclodextrins for inclusion complexation with various types of compounds, binding measurement methods are applicable to a wide range of applications, and have implications for both extraction of contaminants and delivery of reagents for treatment of contaminants in wastewater or contaminated groundwater.

  10. Amorphous solid dispersion studies of camptothecin-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in PEG 6000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Sofiane; Bournine, Lamine; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane; Lahiani-Skiba, Malika; Bouchal, Fatiha; Skiba, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The present work focused on the solubility enhancement of the poorly water-soluble anti-cancer agent camptothecin which, in its natural state, presents poor solubility inducing lack of activity with a marked toxicity. A new approach is adopted by using a ternary system including camptothecin (CPT) and cyclodextrins (CDs) dispersed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Camptothecin solubility variations in the presence of α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, hydroxypropyl-α-CD (HPα-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HPβ-CD), permethyl-β-CD (PMβ-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBEβ-CD), were evaluated by Higuchi solubility experiments. In the second part, the most efficient camptothecin/P-CDs binary systems, mainly HPβ-CD and PMβ-CD, were dispersed in PEG 6000. In addition to a drug release and modeling evaluation, the CPT interactions with CDs and PEG 6000 to prepared the amorphous solid dispersion in the binary and ternary systems were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The results showed that HPβ-CD and PMβ-CD were the most efficient for camptothecin solubilization with highest apparent equilibrium constants. Dissolution studies showed that percentage of CPT alone after two hour in 0.1 M HCI medium, did not exceed 16%, whereas under the same conditions, CPT/PMβ-CD complex reached 76%. When dispersing the binary systems CPT/β-CDs in PEG 6000, the velocity and the percentage of CPT release were considerably improved whatever the CD used, reaching the same value of 85%. The binary and ternary systems characterization demonstrated that CPT inclused into the CDs cavity, replacing the water molecules. Furthermore, a drug transition from crystalline to amorphous form was obtained when solid dispersion is realized. The present work demonstrated that ternary complexes are promising systems for CPT encapsulation, and offer opportunities to

  11. ;Host-guest; interactions in Captisol®/Coumestrol inclusion complex: UV-vis, FTIR-ATR and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Valentina; Stancanelli, Rosanna; Acri, Giuseppe; Crupi, Vincenza; Paladini, Giuseppe; Testagrossa, Barbara; Tommasini, Silvana; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Majolino, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    The ability of Captisol® (sulphobutylether-β-cyclodextrin, SBE-β-CD), to form inclusion complexes, both in solution and in the solid state, has been tested in order to improve some unfavorable chemical-physical characteristics, such as poor solubility in water, of a bioflavonoid, Coumestrol (Coum), well known for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity. In pure water, a phase-solubility study was carried out to evaluate the enhancement of the solubility of Coum and, therefore, the occurred complexation with the macrocycle. The stoichiometry and the stability constant of the SBE-β-CD/Coum complex were calculated with the phase solubility method and through the Job's plot. After that, the solid SBE-β-CD/Coum complex was prepared utilizing a kneading method. The spectral changes induced by complexation on characteristic vibrational band of Coum were complementary investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance geometry (FTIR-ATR) and Raman spectroscopy, putting into evidence the guest chemical groups involved in the "host-guest" interactions responsible of the formation and stabilization of the complex. Particular attention was paid to the Cdbnd O and Osbnd H stretching vibrations, whose temperature-evolution respectively furnished the enthalpy changes associated to the binding of host and guest in solid phase and to the reorganization of the hydrogen bond scheme upon complexation. From the whole set of results, an inclusion geometry is also proposed.

  12. Heterogenous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim and the Margin of a Refractory Inclusion from Leoville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims [1] surrounding many refractory inclusions represent marker events in the early evolution of the Solar System in which many inclusions were exposed to changes in pressure [2], temperature [3], and isotopic reservoirs [4-7]. The effects of these events can be complex, not only producing mineralogical variability of WL rims [2], but also leading to mineralogical [8-10] and isotopic [7, 11, 12] changes within inclusion interiors. Extreme oxygen isotopic heterogeneity measured in CAIs has been explained by mixing between distinct oxygen gas reservoirs in the nebula [13]. Some WL rims contain relatively simple mineral layering and/or are isotopically homogeneous [14, 15]. As part of a larger effort to document and understand the modifications observed in some CAIs, an inclusion (L6) with a complex WL rim from Leoville, a member of the reduced CV3 subgroup was studied. Initial study of the textures and mineral chemistry was presented by [16]. Here we present NanoSIMS oxygen isotopic measurements to complement these petrologic observations.

  13. Inclusion complexes of 2-methoxyestradiol with dimethylated and permethylated β-cyclodextrins: models for cyclodextrin–steroid interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mino R. Caira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the potent anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME and a series of cyclodextrins (CDs was investigated in the solid state using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction, while the possibility of enhancing its poor aqueous solubility with CDs was probed by means of equilibrium solubility and dissolution rate measurements. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the inclusion complexes between 2ME and the derivatised cyclodextrins heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl-β-CD (DIMEB and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-CD (TRIMEB revealed for the first time the nature of the encapsulation of a bioactive steroid by representative CD host molecules. Inclusion complexation invariably involves insertion of the D-ring of 2ME from the secondary side of each CD molecule, with the 17-OH group generally hydrogen bonding to a host glycosidic oxygen atom within the CD cavity, while the A-ring and part of the B-ring of 2ME protrude from the secondary side. In the case of the TRIMEB·2ME complex, there is evidence that complexation proceeds with mutual conformational adaptation of host and guest molecules. The aqueous solubility of 2ME was significantly enhanced by CDs, with DIMEB, TRIMEB, randomly methylated β-CD and hydroxypropyl-β-CD being the most effective hosts. The 2:1 host–guest β-CD inclusion complex, prepared by two methods, yielded very rapid dissolution in water at 37 °C relative to untreated 2ME, attaining complete dissolution within 15 minutes (co-precipitated complex and 45 minutes (complex from kneading.

  14. Mafic inclusions in Yosemite granites and Lassen Pk lavas: records of complex crust-mantle interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.B. Jr.; Flinn, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study compares three small-scale magmatic systems dominated by mafic/felsic interaction that appear to be analogs to the evolution of their larger host systems: mafic inclusions from modern Lassen Pk lavas along with inclusions and related synplutonic dike materials from granitoids in the Tuolumne Intrusive Series. Each system represents quickly chilled mafic melt previously contaminated by digestion of rewarmed, super-solidus felsic hosts. Contaminants occur in part as megacrysts of reworked oligoclase with lesser hb and biot. Within each group MgO-variation diagrams for Fe, Ca, Ti, Si are strikingly linear (r>.96); alkalis are decidedly less regular, and many hybrid rocks show a curious, pronounced Na enrichment. Field data, petrography, and best fit modeling suggests this may result from flow concentration of oligoclase xenocrysts within contaminated synplutonic dikes, and is preserved in the inclusions when dike cores chill as pillows in their felsic host. Dissolution of mafic inclusions erases these anomalies and creates a more regular series of two-component mafic-felsic mixtures in the large host system. The inclusions and dikes thus appear to record a variety of late-stage mafic-felsic interactive processes that earlier and on a larger scale created much of the compositional variety of their intermediate host rocks.

  15. N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex as a new fluorescent probe for rapid and visual detection of Pd(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyazagan, Munisamy; Mohandoss, Sonaimuthu; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-12-10

    Inclusion complex between N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied by FT-IR, (1)H and 2D NMR, XRD, FT-Raman, SEM and DSC techniques. The formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex of NPN with β-CD was proposed based on the Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Molecular docking study. The molecular encapsulation of host-guest inclusion complex based on simple chemosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of Pd(2+) ion. Host-guest inclusion complex as a spectroscopic probe is used for the detection of transition metal cation Pd(2+). Coordination of this Pd(2+) with (NPN/β-CD) inclusion complex exhibited a noticeable color change in the solution state it used for naked-eye detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanosuspensions Containing Oridonin/HP-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Oral Bioavailability Enhancement via Improved Dissolution and Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Lan, Yali; Wu, Baojian; Shi, Zhihai

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy via oral route of anticancer drugs offers much convenience and compliance to patients. However, oral chemotherapy has been challenged by limited absorption due to poor drug solubility and intestinal efflux. In this study, we aimed to develop a nanosuspension formulation of oridonin (Odn) using its cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to enhance oral bioavailability. Nanosuspensions containing Odn/2 hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (Odn-CICs) were prepared by a solvent evaporation followed by wet media milling technique. The nanosuspensions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dissolution. The resulting nanosuspensions were approximately 313.8 nm in particle size and presented a microcrystal morphology. Nanosuspensions loading Odn-CICs dramatically enhanced the dissolution of Odn. Further, the intestinal effective permeability of Odn was markedly enhanced in the presence of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and poloxamer. Bioavailability studies showed that nanosuspensions with Odn-CICs can significantly promote the oral absorption of Odn with a relative bioavailability of 213.99% (Odn suspensions as reference). Odn itself possesses a moderate permeability and marginal intestinal metabolism. Thus, the enhanced bioavailability for Odn-CIC nanosuspensions can be attributed to improved dissolution and permeability by interaction with absorptive epithelia and anti-drug efflux. Nanosuspensions prepared from inclusion complexes may be a promising approach for the oral delivery of anticancer agents.

  17. Enacting understanding of inclusion in complex contexts: Classroom practices of South African teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Engelbrecht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the practice of inclusive education has recently been widely embraced as an ideal model for education, the acceptance of inclusive education practices has not translated into reality in most mainstream classrooms. Despite the fact that education policies in South Africa stipulate that all learners should be provided with the opportunities to participate as far as possible in all classroom activities, the implementation of inclusive education is still hampered by a combination of a lack of resources and the attitudes and actions of the teachers in the classroom. The main purpose of this paper was to develop a deeper understanding of a group of South African teachers' personal understanding about barriers to learning and how their understanding relates to their consequent actions to implement inclusive education in their classrooms. A qualitative research approach placed within a cultural-historical and bio-ecological theoretical framework was used. The findings, in this paper, indicate that the way in which teachers understand a diversity of learning needs is based on the training that they initially received as teachers, which focused on a deficit, individualised approach to barriers to learning and development, as well as contextual challenges, and that both have direct and substantial effects on teachers' classroom practices. As a result, they engage in practices in their classrooms that are less inclusive, by creating dual learning opportunities that are not sufficiently made available for everyone, with the result that every learner is not able to participate fully as an accepted member of their peer group in all classroom activities.

  18. The preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic studies of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye YJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Jing Ye,1 Yun Wang,1 Kai-Yan Lou,1 Yan-Zuo Chen,1 Rongjun Chen,2 Feng Gao1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel biocompatible and biodegradable drug-delivery nanoparticle (NP has been developed to minimize the severe side effects of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX for clinical use. PTX was loaded into the hydrophobic cavity of a hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD, using an aqueous solution-stirring method followed by lyophilization. The resulting PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex dramatically enhanced the solubility of PTX in water and was directly incorporated into chitosan (CS to form NPs (with a size of 323.9–407.8 nm in diameter using an ionic gelation method. The formed NPs had a zeta potential of +15.9–23.3 mV and showed high colloidal stability. With the same weight ratio of PTX to CS of 0.7, the loading efficiency of the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs was 30.3-fold higher than that of the PTX-loaded CS NPs. Moreover, it is notable that PTX was released from the DM-β-CD/CS NPs in a sustained-release manner. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with reference formulation (Taxol®, the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h (the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and mean residence time by 2.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Therefore, the novel drug/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs have promising applications for the

  19. The evolution of complex type B Allende inclusion - An ion microprobe trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Lundberg, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed trace-element and isotopic analyses of the constituent phases in each of the major textural parts (mantle, core, and islands) of a Type B refractory inclusion, the USNM 5241 inclusion from Allende, first described by El Goresy et al. (1985). The REE data on 5241 were found to be largely consistent with a model in which the mantle and the core of 5241 formed sequentially out of a single melt by fractional crystallization. The numerical models of REE evolution in the 5241 melt, especially that of Eu, require that a significant mass of spinel-free island material was assimilated into the evolving melt during the last half of the solidification history of 5241. The trace element results pbtained thus strongly support the interpretation of El Goresy et al. (1985) that the spinel-free islands in the 5241 are trapped xenoliths.

  20. A molecular inclusion complex of atenolol with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin; the production and characterization thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular inclusion complex of atenolol with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cy­clodextrin was synthesized using the coprecipitation method. The complex obtained was characterized by FT-IR, 1H‑NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by DSC and X-ray diffraction analysis. The DSC analysis confirmed the existence of the com­plex with the endothermic atenolol melting peak at about 155 ºC disappearing. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the complex and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin were very similar, thus confirming the complete inclusion of the atenolol molecule within the cavity of the 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin. The peaks originating from ate­nolol were completely absent in the diffractogram of the complex. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra showed certain changes in the chemical shifts of protons and C atoms from atenolol and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, indicating that a complex had been formed and also which protons participated in the hydrogen bonds which formed the complex. The atenolol solubility in water was improved (254 mg com­plex cm-3, i.e., 37.5 mg atenolol cm-3, and in pH 3 HCl solution (251 mg com­plex cm-3, i.e., 37 mg atenolol cm-3 when compared to pure atenolol, and even when compared to the atenolol complex with b-cyclodextrin. The increased solubility en­sures greater bioavailability of the active component and, due to the low solubility, significantly corrects for the lack of the basic active substance and, simultaneously, increases its overall therapeutic effect, combined with reduced side effects.

  1. Multiphase inclusions in plagioclase from anorthosites in the Stillwater Complex, Montana: implications for the origin of the anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, P.J.; Arculus, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multiphase inclusions, consisting of clinopyroxene+ilmenite+apatite, occur within cumulus plagioclase grains from anorthosites in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and in other rocks from the Middle Banded series of the intrusion. The textures and constant modal mineralogy of the inclusions indicate that they were incorporated in the plagioclase as liquid droplets that later crystallized rather than as solid aggregates. Their unusual assemblage, including a distinctive manganiferous ilmenite and the presence of baddeleyite (ZrO2), indicates formation from an unusual liquid. A process involving silicater liquid immiscibility is proposed, whereby small globules of a liquid enriched in Mg, Fe, Ca, Ti, P, REE, Zr and Mn exsolved from the main liquid that gave rise to the anorthosites, became trapped in the plagioclase, and later crystallized to form the inclusions. The immiscibility could have occurred locally within compositional boundaries around crystallizing plagioclase grains or it could have occurred pervasively throughout the liquid. It is proposed that the two immiscible liquids were analogous, n terms of their melt structures, to immiscible liquid pairs reported in the literature both in experiments and in natural basalts. For the previously reported pairs, immiscibility is between a highly polymerized liquid, typically granitic in composition, and a depolymerized liquid, typically ferrobasaltic in composition. In the case of the anorthosites, the depolymerized liquid is represented by the inclusions, and the other liquid was a highly polymerized aluminosilicate melt with a high normative plagioclase content from which the bulk of the anorthosites crystallized. Crystallization of the anorthosites from this highly polymerized liquid accounts for various distinctive textural and chemical features of the anorthosites compared to other rocks in the Stillwater Complex. A lack of correlation between P contents and chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) ratios

  2. Kinetic and physical-chemical study of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin containing carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; de Carvalho, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes; Soares Santana, Dayanne Valéria; Lima, Bruno Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; de Aquino, Thiago Mendonça; Sabino, Adilson Rodrigues; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Grangeiro-Júnior, Severino; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Carvacrol is a good natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent; however, its poor aqueous solubility and high volatility limit its application in food systems. Different methods of complexation have been used to preserve aromas in food products and complexation in cyclodextrins (CDs) is among the most efficient ways. In the present study, we investigated the complexation efficiency of carvacrol in β-CD using methods different from those already reported in the literature for this compound. The supramolecular structure of the carvacrol/β-CD complex was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), docking, complexation efficiency, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and Karl Fischer titration. Results clearly showed the formation of a supramolecular complex in which the guest molecule, carvacrol, was entrapped inside the cavity of the host, β-CD mainly by slurry method. These results contribute to other studies involving this type of system.

  3. Supra-molecular inclusion complexation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulphate with α- and β-cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjare, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Kamalakanta; Satnami, Manmohan L.; Pandey, Siddharth; Ghosh, Kallol K.

    2017-12-01

    Host-guest complexation between ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulphate [Bmim][OS] and cyclodextrins (α- and β- CDs) have been studied. Surface tension, conductivity measurements revealed the formation of 1:1 (M) stoichiometry for inclusion complexes (ICs) and further confirmed by UV-Visible and FT-IR results. The nature of the complexes has been established using interfacial and thermodynamic parameters. The aggregation number, Stern-Volmer constants, association constants were obtained from fluorescence quenching and Benesi-Hildebrand methods. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and association constants of [Bmim][OS] are higher for β-CD as compared to α-CD. FT-IR spectra indicated that CDs and [Bmim][OS] could from ICs with stoichiometry 1:1 (M).

  4. Electronic structure and driving forces in β-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Diana; Morari, C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of β-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries

  5. Solvent-Responsive Behavior of Inclusion Complexes Between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofuran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, R; Woortman, Albert J.J.; Loos, Katja

    Highly crystalline amylose–polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) complexes can be obtained by employing organic solvents as washing agents after complex formation. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the washed complexes appear sharp at 12.9°–13.2° and 19.6°–20.1°, clear signs of the presence of V6I-amylose. Other

  6. Preparation, release and physicochemical characterisation of ethyl butyrate and hexanal inclusion complexes with β- and γ-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Yibin; Cao, Shengnan; Li, Songnan; Jin, Shanshan; Zhang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of ethyl butyrate and hexanal encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) were prepared by coprecipitation, and gas chromatography was used to quantity the flavour compounds in the complexes. The ethyl butyrate-γ-CD complex had the highest inclusion ratio (12.20%) followed by the ethyl butyrate-β-CD, hexanal-β-CD and hexanal-γ-CD complexes (11.29, 4.41 and 3.33%, respectively). Release experiments were performed under different relative humidities (RH 93, 75 and 52%) and temperatures (4 and 25 °C). The flavour release behaviours of the complexes were described by the Avrami equation. The rate of flavour release was enhanced with both increasing temperature and RH, although the effect of RH was stronger. Physicochemical characterisation using FT-IR, XRD, DSC and SEM analyses demonstrated that crystalline complexes were formed. Both β-CD and γ-CD were able to encapsulate ethyl butyrate and hexanal, and lower RH and temperature were more suitable for the storage of these complexes.

  7. Tiara-like octanuclear palladium(II) and platinum(II) thiolates and their inclusion complexes with dihalo- or iodoalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Yukari; Kataoka, Yasutaka; Ura, Yasuyuki

    2014-04-07

    A tiara-like octanuclear palladium thiolate complex, [Pd(μ-SCH2CO2Me)2]8, that has a toroidal structure was synthesized via reactions of either PdCl2 with methyl thioglycolate/N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) (conventional method) or [PdCl2(MeCN)2] with m-C6H4(CMe2SCH2CO2Me)2 (alternative method). In the latter method, the tiara-like complex formed via the corresponding SCS-pincer complex and/or 1:1 PdCl2 and ligand complexes. With respect to the platinum analogues, the alternative method efficiently produced the tiara-like octanuclear complex [Pt(μ-SCH2CO2Me)2]8 in high purity. Small molecules, such as CH2Cl2, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH2Br2, and CH3I, were accommodated in the inner voids of the tiara rings to form 1:1 inclusion complexes. These complexes are stabilized not only by weak CH···X hydrogen bonds (X = Cl or Br) between the methylene protons of four or eight axially positioned methoxycarbonylmethyl groups on the tiara rings and the halogen atoms of the guest molecules but also by weak coordination of the halogen atoms to the transition-metal atoms.

  8. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  9. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhai, Yuanming [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  10. Inclusion complexes of cefuroxime axetil with β-cyclodextrin: Physicochemical characterization, molecular modeling and effect of l-arginine on complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Sapte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of poorly water-soluble cephalosporin, cefuroxime axetil (CFA, were prepared with β-cyclodextrin (βCD with or without addition of l-arginine (ARG to improve its physicochemical properties. We also investigated the effect of ARG on complexation efficiency (CE of βCD towards CFA in an aqueous medium through phase solubility behaviour according to Higuchi and Connors. Although phase solubility studies showed AL (linear type of solubility curve in presence and absence of ARG, the CE and association constant (Ks of βCD towards CFA were significantly promoted in presence of ARG, justifying its use as a ternary component. The solid systems of CFA with βCD were obtained by spray drying technique with or without incorporation of ARG and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and saturation solubility and dissolution studies. The molecular modeling studies provided a better insight into geometry and inclusion mode of CFA inside βCD cavity. The solubility and dissolution rate of CFA were significantly improved upon complexation with βCD as compared to CFA alone. However, ternary system incorporated with ARG performed better than binary system in physicochemical evaluation. In conclusion, ARG could be exploited as a ternary component to improve the physicochemical properties of CFA via βCD complexation.

  11. Cyclodextrin--piroxicam inclusion complexes: analyses by mass spectrometry and molecular modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Richard T.; Ball, Christopher P.; Gatehouse, Deborah R.; Gates, Paul J.; Lobell, Mario; Derrick, Peter J.

    1997-11-01

    Mass spectrometry has been used to investigate the natures of non-covalent complexes formed between the anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam and [alpha]-, [beta]- and [gamma]-cyclodextrins. Energies of these complexes have been calculated by means of molecular modelling. There is a correlation between peak intensities in the mass spectra and the calculated energies.

  12. 26 CFR 1.662(a)-1 - Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of amounts in gross income of beneficiaries of estates and complex trusts; general. 1.662(a)-1 Section 1.662(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(a)-1 Inclusion of amounts in gross...

  13. Polymer-free nanofibers from vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: high thermal stability, enhanced solubility and antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-07-13

    Vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanofibers (vanillin/CD-IC NFs) were successfully obtained from three modified CD types (HPβCD, HPγCD and MβCD) in three different solvent systems (water, DMF and DMAc) via an electrospinning technique without using a carrier polymeric matrix. Vanillin/CD-IC NFs with uniform and bead-free fiber morphology were successfully produced and their free-standing nanofibrous webs were obtained. The polymer-free CD/vanillin-IC-NFs allow us to accomplish a much higher vanillin loading (∼12%, w/w) when compared to electrospun polymeric nanofibers containing CD/vanillin-IC (∼5%, w/w). Vanillin has a volatile nature yet, after electrospinning, a significant amount of vanillin was preserved due to complex formation depending on the CD types. Maximum preservation of vanillin was observed for vanillin/MβCD-IC NFs which is up to ∼85% w/w, besides, a considerable amount of vanillin (∼75% w/w) was also preserved for vanillin/HPβCD-IC NFs and vanillin/HPγCD-IC NFs. Phase solubility studies suggested a 1 : 1 molar complexation tendency between guest vanillin and host CD molecules. Molecular modelling studies and experimental findings revealed that vanillin : CD complexation was strongest for MβCD when compared to HPβCD and HPγCD in vanillin/CD-IC NFs. For vanillin/CD-IC NFs, water solubility and the antioxidant property of vanillin was improved significantly owing to inclusion complexation. In brief, polymer-free vanillin/CD-IC NFs are capable of incorporating a much higher loading of vanillin and effectively preserve volatile vanillin. Hence, encapsulation of volatile active agents such as flavor, fragrance and essential oils in electrospun polymer-free CD-IC NFs may have potential for food related applications by integrating the particularly large surface area of NFs with the non-toxic nature of CD and inclusion complexation benefits, such as high temperature stability, improved water solubility and an enhanced

  14. Molecular Tethering or Aggregation: Is the Existence of Charge-Transfer Bands Indicative of the Formation of Blue-Box/Tetrathiafulvalene Inclusion Complexes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejerina, Baudilio; Gothard, Chris M.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2012-03-27

    The interaction between tetrathiafulvalene and tetracation cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) fragments—the key elements of many rotaxane systems—was investigated theoretically by using ab-initio second-order perturbation methods. In addition to the inclusion complex observed in the solid state, a thermodynamically stable “exterior” complex was identified. Calculation of the UV/Vis spectra for the inclusion and the exterior complexes indicated that the charge-transfer band that is often used to predict the formation of the inclusion complexes in solution is, in reality, due to the exterior mode of complexation. These results suggest that UV/Vis spectroscopy is not a reliable method for assigning the complexation modes in TTF:BB4+ rotaxanes and related systems.

  15. Electrospinning of cyclodextrin/linalool-inclusion complex nanofibers: Fast-dissolving nanofibrous web with prolonged release and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Yildiz, Zehra Irem; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-09-15

    The volatility and limited water solubility of linalool is a critical issue to be solved. Here, we demonstrated the electrospinning of polymer-free nanofibrous webs of cyclodextrin/linalool-inclusion complex (CD/linalool-IC-NFs). Three types of modified cyclodextrin (HPβCD, MβCD, and HPγCD) were used to electrospin CD/linalool-IC-NFs. Free-standing CD/linalool-IC-NFs facilitate maximum loading of linalool up to 12% (w/w). A significant amount of linalool (45-89%) was preserved in CD/linalool-IC-NFs, due to enhancement in the thermal stability of linalool by cyclodextrin inclusion complexation. Remarkably, CD/linalool-IC-NFs have shown fast-dissolving characteristics in which these nanofibrous webs dissolved in water within two seconds. Furthermore, linalool release from CD/linalool-IC-NFs inhibited growth of model Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria to a great extent. Briefly, characteristics of liquid linalool have been preserved in a solid nanofiber form and designed CD/linalool-IC-NFs confer high loading capacity, enhanced shelf life and strong antibacterial activity of linalool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of PEG molecular weights on the thermal stability and dissolution behaviors of griseofulvin-PEG crystalline inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Zhong, Zhi; Huang, Yanbin

    2016-07-11

    Co-crystals formed between small molecular drugs and hydrophilic co-formers have shown great potential to optimize the dissolution profiles of drug substances. So far most of the co-formers used are small molecules. However, linear polymers are also able to form drug-polymer crystalline inclusion complexes (ICs). In contrast to the small molecular co-formers, molecular weight of the polymer co-formers can be easily changed without disrupting the IC crystal structure, and hence represents an interesting approach to tune the IC properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of PEG molecular weights on the thermal stability and dissolution behavior of Gris-PEG ICs. It was found that the thermal stability of Gris-PEG IC crystals first increased with PEG molecular weight, and then reached a plateau value, while an optimized PEG molecular weight existed for the dissolution profile. The experimental results were explained by the formation of two types of crystal defects during the IC growth in PEG melt: the void defects and the grain boundary defects. This is the first study on the pharmaceutical profiles of drug-polymer crystalline inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a UV-spectrophotometric analytical method for determination of LPSF/AC04 from inclusion complex and liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Siqueira Ferraz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a UV spectrophotometric method for determination of LPSF/AC04 from inclusion complex and encapsulated into liposomes. The validation parameters were determined according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH and National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA guidelines. LPSF/AC04 was determined at 250 nm in methanol by a UV spectrophotometric method, exhibiting linearity in the range from 0.3 to 2 µg.mL−1 (Absorbance=0.18068 x [LPSF/AC04 µg.mL-1] + 0.00348, (r2=0.9995. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.047µg.mL−1 and 0.143µg.mL−1, respectively. The method was accurate, precise, reproducible and robust since all the samples analyzed had coefficient of variation of less than 5% and no statistically significant difference between theoretical and practical concentrations was detected. Thus, a rapid, simple, low cost and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for determining the content of inclusion complex and liposomes containing LPSF/AC04.

  18. HOST- GUEST INTERACTION OF 3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1-CYCLOPROPYL-2-(2-FLUOROPHENYL)-5-(4-FLUOROPHENYL) PENTANE-1, 5-DIONE: Β-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Ragi; H. Manikandan; K. Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion complex of 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-cyclopropyl-2-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl) pentane-1, 5-dione (CFPD) and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated using UV and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The binding constant and 1:1 stoichiometry of the inclusion complex were determined using Benesi- Hildebrand plots. 1:1 stoichiometry for CFPD: β-CD has been confirmed by Job’s plot. The thermodynamic parameter (ΔG) of inclusion process was determined. The formation of the i...

  19. Amylose inclusion complexes produced by combining various ligands with jet-cooked amylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research on starch-lipid composites obtained by steam jet cooking showed the involvement of amylose/fatty acid complexes in both spherulite formation and the coatings that form on oil droplets, imparting composite stability. Native fatty acids present in cornstarch granules serve as ligands for...

  20. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  1. Alex in the Middle: Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.

    This case study describes the 2-year process of moving a young child with severe disabilities and complex medical needs from a special school setting to a special class in a regular education setting. The child had Marshall-Smith Syndrome, characterized by respiratory, pulmonary, and skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delays due to the…

  2. Inhalable Andrographolide-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia by Regulating Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongtong; Zhu, Lifei; Li, Miao; Hu, Yuzhen; Zhang, Erfeng; Jiang, Qingcheng; Han, Guang; Jin, Yiguang

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a serious disease with high mortality if no appropriate and immediate therapy is available. Andrographolide (AG) is an anti-inflammatory agent extracted from a traditional Chinese herb andrographis paniculata. Oral AG tablets and pills are clinically applied for treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, the low solubility and bioavailability of AG lead to high doses and long-term therapy. Here we developed an andrographolide-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (AG-β-CD) for inhalation therapy of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. AG-β-CD was identified with X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Surprisingly, both AG-β-CD and AG showed little in vitro anti-S. aureus activity. However, pulmonary delivery of AG, AG-β-CD, or penicillin had significant anti-S. aureus pneumonia effects. Leukocytes, neutrophils, white blood cells, total proteins, TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB p65 expression, and bacterial colonies in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were detected. Pulmonary delivery of AG and AG-β-CD led to bacterial inhibition and inflammation alleviation by regulating immune responses, while penicillin only killed bacteria without significant immune regulation. Moreover, the antipneumonia activity of AG-β-CD was much higher than that of AG, probably resulting from locally accelerated AG dissolution due to β-CD inclusion. The aerodynamic diameter of AG-β-CD powders was 2.03 μm, suitable for pulmonary delivery. Inhalable AG-β-CD is a promising antibacterial and anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of S. aureus pneumonia by regulating immune responses, and the effect is enhanced by β-CD inclusion. AG and its formulations might be potent weapons against the resistant bacterial pneumonia due to their specific mechanism in the future.

  3. Embracing the complexity of inclusive science classrooms: Professional development through collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digisi, Lori Lyman; Nix, Andrea; Daniels, Karen; Kramer, Leslie; Cyr, Susan

    1999-06-01

    There are no panaceas and no shortcuts. Man is an amphibious being who lives simultaneously or successively in several universes: in the world of matter, the world of mind, the world of spirit; in the individual world and in the social world; in the homemade universe of his own artifacts, institutions, and imaginings, and in the given, the God-made universe of nature and grace. In the very nature of things none of the major problems confronting such a being can possibly be a simple problem. Those who seek simple solutions for complex problems may have the best of intentions; but unfortunately there is an original sin of the intellect in our habit of arbitrary oversimplification. Those who act without taking precautions against this vice of their intellectual nature doom themselves and their fellows to perpetual disappointment. (Aldous Huxley, 1953, p. 1.)

  4. Augmentative and Alternative Communication System (AAC) for Social Inclusion of People With Complex Communication Needs in the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Simone; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of people with special needs in the labor market has been increasing in some regions of Brazil as a result of the Articles 6 and 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and the Quota Law (No. 8.213/91, Art. 93) which entitle people with disabilities to work in order to improve their social condition. To support persons with complex communication needs in the workplace, 40 graphic symbols termed "symbols of industrial expressions" were developed within the framework of the COMMUNIS package. The symbols were developed for a company of the food sector in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Individual interviews were held with the human resources professionals, as well as with employees with complex communication needs in order to identify problems, assess requirements, and generate a list of specific symbols to develop. The symbols were then validated with regard to their ease of recognition. Only five symbols needed revision. The results suggest that it is possible to develop a set of symbols for the workplace that are judged to be iconic by human resources professionals and employees with complex communication needs.

  5. Thermoresponsive Delivery of Paclitaxel by β-Cyclodextrin-Based Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Star Polymer via Inclusion Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xia; Wen, Yuting; Zhu, Jing-Ling; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Xing; Li, Jun

    2016-12-12

    Paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, is facing several clinical limitations such as low bioavailability and drug resistance. To solve the problems, a well-defined β-cyclodextrin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) star polymer was synthesized and used as a nanocarrier to improve the water solubility and aim to thermoresponsive delivery of PTX to cancer cells. The star polymer was able to form supramolecular self-assembled inclusion complex with PTX via host-guest interaction at room temperature, which is below the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of the star polymer, significantly improving the solubilization of PTX. At body temperature (above LCST), the phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) segments induced the formation of nanoparticles, which greatly enhanced the cellular uptake of the polymer-drug complex, resulting in efficient thermoresponsive delivery of PTX. In particular, the polymer-drug complex exhibited better antitumor effects than the commercial formulation of PTX in overcoming the multi-drug resistance in AT3B-1 cells.

  6. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.castronuovo@unina.it [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Niccoli, Marcella [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  7. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina; Niccoli, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  8. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  9. Ternary inclusion complex formation and stabilization of limaprost, a prostaglandin E1 derivative, in the presence of α- and β-cyclodextrins in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Iohara, Daisuke; Sekiya, Noboru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Sakiyama, Yoko; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Arima, Hidetoshi; Uekama, Kaneto

    2016-07-25

    Limaprost/α-cyclodextrin (CD)/β-CD ternary inclusion complex was prepared by freeze-drying a solution containing all three components. Under humid conditions, limaprost was more stable in the ternary α-/β-CD inclusion complex than in the binary α- or β-CD complex. Specifically, during storage at 30°C/75% relative humidity (R.H.) for 4 weeks, about 19% of limaprost degraded into 17S,20-dimethyl-trans-Δ(2)-prostaglandin A1 (referred as 11-deoxy-Δ(10)) in the β-CD complex, 8.1% degraded in the α-CD complex, and only 2.2% degraded in the α-/β-CD complex. The mechanism of limaprost stabilization in the presence of both CDs was investigated by Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The fast degradation of limaprost to 11-deoxy-Δ(10) in the β-CD complex was due to the rapid crystallization of β-CD from the complex, liberating the free amorphous drug, which is susceptible to degradation. The dissociation and crystallization of β-CD from the inclusion complex were suppressed by freeze-drying limaprost in the presence of both α- and β-CDs. In addition, the interaction between limaprost and the two CDs was reinforced by inclusion of different moieties of limaprost: α-CD predominantly included the alkyl ω-chain, whereas β-CD included the five-membered ring. Thus, a stable ternary inclusion complex was formed that included limaprost, maintaining the amorphous state of the complex and dramatically stabilizing the drug under humid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTION OF MYELOPIDUM UNDER ITS INCLUSION IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH PENETRATING OCULAR INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gavrilova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Examination of immunomodulatory actions and clinical efficiency of myelopidum when included into complex therapy that was carried out in 24 male patients with severe (stage 3 penetrating eye injury in the course of trauma treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein, lactoferrin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and activity of complement system were measured in peripheral blood, and concentrations of lactoferrin and IL-8 were determined in tears. An increase in lactoferrin, C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-8, and C5 complement component levels was detected during early post-traumatic period, as compared with data from the control group. As compared to effects of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs included into standard therapy, treatment with myelopidum has led to a more favorable clinical course of traumatic process, and resulted into more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect that was manifested by decrease in lactoferrin and C-reactive protein levels, reduction of IL-1β concentration, and C5 complement component activity. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 239-244.

  11. Design of Safer Flame Retardant Textiles through Inclusion Complex Formation with Cyclodextrins: A Combined Experimental and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nanshan

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is widely used as a phosphorus flame retardant. It is also one component of a commercial flame retardant mixture known as Firemaster 550. TPP is likely to be released into the environment due to its high volatility and has been detected at a concentration as high as 47,000 ng/m3 in air. Recent studies have also indicated that FRs like TPP could contribute to obesity and osteoporosis in humans. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are enzymatic degradation products of starch and consist of several (alpha-1,4)-linked alpha-Dglucopyranose units. CDs own a hydrophilic outside and a hydrophobic inner cavity, which enables the formation of non-covalently bonded cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) with a vast array of molecules. We hypothesize that the formation of inclusion complexes between TPP and cyclodextrins will reduce its exposure yet also retain flame retarding properties of TPP, since the formation of FR-CD-ICs is expected to eliminate unnecessary loss of FRs, especially volatile FR compounds like TPP, and release them only during a fire when they are actually needed. After creating the TPP-beta-CD-IC, we applied it to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films by a hot press technique. Flame tests indicated TPP-beta-CD-IC exhibited flame resistant performance matching that of neat TPP, even though much less TPP was contained in its beta-CD-IC. Incorporation of FRs and other chemical additives into textile substrates in the form of their crystalline CD-ICs is a promising way to reduce the exposure of hazardous chemicals to humans and to our environment while not impacting their efficacy. Two other parent CDs (alpha-CD and gamma-CD) were applied and their abilities to form ICs with guest TPP were studied. Results from a series of characterization methods, including FTIR, DSC, TGA, XRD and NMR indicated the successful synthesis of TPP-gamma-CD-IC via two routes. However, alpha-CD appears unable to form an IC with TPP, which is likely attributable to a

  12. Fast-Dissolving, Prolonged Release, and Antibacterial Cyclodextrin/Limonene-Inclusion Complex Nanofibrous Webs via Polymer-Free Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Yildiz, Zehra Irem; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; San Keskin, Nalan Oya; Kusku, Semran Ipek; Durgun, Engin; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-10-05

    We have proposed a new strategy for preparing free-standing nanofibrous webs from an inclusion complex (IC) of a well-known flavor/fragrance compound (limonene) with three modified cyclodextrins (HPβCD, MβCD, and HPγCD) via electrospinning (CD/limonene-IC-NFs) without using a polymeric matrix. The experimental and computational modeling studies proved that the stoichiometry of the complexes was 1:1 for CD/limonene systems. MβCD/limonene-IC-NF released much more limonene at 37, 50, and 75 °C than HPβCD/limonene-IC-NF and HPγCD/limonene-IC-NF because of the greater amount of preserved limonene. Moreover, MβCD/limonene-IC-NF has released only 25% (w/w) of its limonene, whereas HPβCD/limonene-IC-NF and HPγCD/limonene-IC-NF released 51 and 88% (w/w) of their limonene in 100 days, respectively. CD/limonene-IC-NFs exhibited high antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. The water solubility of limonene increased significantly and CD/limonene-IC-NFs were dissolved in water in a few seconds. In brief, CD/limonene-IC-NFs with fast-dissolving character enhanced the thermal stability and prolonged the shelf life along with antibacterial properties could be quite applicable in food and oral care applications.

  13. Effects of the Preparation Method on the Formation of True Nimodipine SBE-β-CD/HP-β-CD Inclusion Complexes and Their Dissolution Rates Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcheddine, Farouk; Guissi, Nida El Islem; Liu, XueYin; Wu, ZuoMin; Wang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of nimodipine (ND) by preparing the inclusion complexes of ND with sulfobutylether-b-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and to study the effect of the preparation method on the in vitro dissolution profile in different media (0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 7.4, and distilled water). Thus, the inclusion complexes were prepared by kneading, coprecipitation, and freeze-drying methods. Phase solubility studies were conducted to characterize the complexes in the liquid state. The inclusion complexes in the solid state were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (X-RD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Stable complexes of ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD were formed in distilled water in a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex as indicated by an AL-type diagram. The apparent stability constants (Ks) were 1334.4 and 464.1 M(-1) for ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD, respectively. The water-solubility of ND was significantly increased in an average of 22- and 8-fold for SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD, respectively. DSC results showed the formation of true inclusion complexes between the drug and both SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD prepared by the kneading method. In contrast, crystalline drug was detectable in all other products. The dissolution studies showed that all the products exhibited higher dissolution rate than those of the physical mixtures and ND alone, in all mediums. However, the kneading complexes displayed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison with drug and other complexes, confirming the influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of the products.

  14. Inclusion Complexes of a New Family of Non-Ionic Amphiphilic Dendrocalix[4]arene and Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Naproxen and Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of a new family of nonionic amphiphilic calix[4]arenes with the anti-inflammatory hydrophobic drugs naproxen (NAP and ibuprofen (IBP were investigated. The effects of the alkyl chain’s length and the inner core of calix[4]arenes on the interaction of the two drugs with the calix[4]arenes were explored. The inclusion complexes of Amphiphiles 1a–c with NAP and IBP increased the solubility of these drugs in aqueous media. The interaction of 1a–c with the drugs in aqueous media was investigated through fluorescence, molecular modeling, and 1H-NMR analysis. TEM studies further supported the formation of inclusion complexes. The length of lipophilic alkyl chains and the intrinsic cyclic nature of cailx[4]arene derivatives 1a–c were found to have a significant impact on the solubility of NAP and IBP in pure water.

  15. Gold nanoparticles interacting with β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine inclusion complex: a ternary system for photothermal drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpe, Rodrigo; Lang, Erika; Jara, Paul; Guerrero, Ariel R; Chornik, Boris; Kogan, Marcelo J; Yutronic, Nicolás

    2015-07-22

    We report the synthesis of a 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine (βCD-PhEA) inclusion complex (IC) and the adhesion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto microcrystals of this complex, which forms a ternary system. The formation of the IC was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and NMR analyses ((1)H and ROESY). The stability constant of the IC (760 M(-1)) was determined using the phase solubility method. The adhesion of AuNPs was obtained using the magnetron sputtering technique, and the presence of AuNPs was confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy (surface plasmon resonance effect), which showed an absorbance at 533 nm. The powder X-ray diffractograms of βCD-PhEA were similar to those of the crystals decorated with AuNPs. A comparison of the one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of the IC with and without AuNPs suggests partial displacement of the guest to the outside of the βCD due to attraction toward AuNPs, a characteristic tropism effect. The size, morphology, and distribution of the AuNPs were analyzed using TEM and SEM. The average size of the AuNPs was 14 nm. Changes in the IR and Raman spectra were attributed to the formation of the complex and to the specific interactions of this group with the AuNPs. Laser irradiation assays show that the ternary system βCD-PhEA-AuNPs in solution enables the release of the guest.

  16. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inkjet printing of antiviral PCL nanoparticles and anticancer cyclodextrin inclusion complexes on bioadhesive film for cervical administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Cem; Wickström, Henrika; Sandler, Niklas; Aktaş, Yeşim; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Personalized medicine is an important treatment approach for diseases like cancer with high intrasubject variability. In this framework, printing is one of the most promising methods since it permits dose and geometry adjustment of the final product. With this study, a combination product consisting of anticancer (paclitaxel) and antiviral (cidofovir) drugs was manufactured by inkjet printing onto adhesive film for local treatment of cervical cancers as a result of HPV infection. Furthermore, solubility problem of paclitaxel was overcome by maintaining this poorly soluble drug in a cyclodextrin inclusion complex and release of cidofovir was controlled by encapsulation in polycaprolactone nanoparticles. In vitro characterization studies of printed film formulations were performed and cell culture studies showed that drug loaded film formulation was effective on human cervical adenocarcinoma cells. Our study suggests that inkjet printing technology can be utilized in the development of antiviral/anticancer combination dosage forms for mucosal application. The drug amount in the delivery system can be accurately controlled and modified. Moreover, prolonged drug release time can be obtained. Printing of anticancer and antiviral drugs on film seem to be a potential approach for HPV-related cervical cancer treatment and a good candidate for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of solubility, dissolution release profile and reduction in ulcerogenicity of piroxicam by inclusion complex with skimmed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanka, Krishna; Munjulury, Venkata Saidheeraj; Mohd, Abdul Bari; Diwan, Prakash V

    2014-11-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is poorly soluble in water and ulcerogenic. Milk has been used against the gastric disturbances caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this study, skimmed milk (SKM) is used as the carrier for inclusion complex (IC) due to its surface active agent and amino acid content. To enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and prevent ulcerogenicity of PXM though IC with SKM. IC of PXM were prepared with SKM by solvent evaporation method using rota evaporator and were evaluated for solubility, dissolution, solid state characterization, drug excipient interaction, rat intestinal permeation, ulcerogenicity and histopathological studies. Solubility of PXM was enhanced 2.5 times with IC. The dissolution release and amount of PXM permeated through rat small intestine was enhanced significantly with IC. Decreases in the gastric lesion index values of IC were observed than physical mixture (PM) and free PXM. The histopathological studies revealed significant reduction in ulceration in rat stomach after treatment with IC. It is concluded that SKM is a good carrier to prepare IC of PXM for oral administration.

  19. Improved thermal stability of polylactic acid (PLA) composite film via PLA-β-cyclodextrin-inclusion complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Youngjae; Rodriguez, Katia; Han, Jung H; Kim, Young Teck

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the incorporation of PLA-β-cyclodextrin-inclusion complex (IC) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on biopolyester PLA films were investigated. Thermal stability, surface morphology, barrier, and mechanical properties of the films were measured at varying IC (1, 3, 5, and 7%) and β-CD (1 and 5%) concentrations. The PLA-IC-composite films (IC-PLA-CFs) showed uniform morphological structure, while samples containing β-CD (β-CD-PLA-CFs) showed high agglomeration of β-CD due to poor interfacial interaction between β-CD and PLA moieties. According to the thermal property analysis, the 5% IC-PLA-CFs showed 6.6 times lower dimensional changes (6.5%) at the temperature range of 20-80°C than that of pure PLA film (43.0%). The increase of IC or β-CD content in the PLA-composite films shifted the glass transition and crystallization temperature to higher temperature regions. The crystallinity of both composite films improved by increasing IC or β-CD content. Both composite films had higher oxygen and water vapor permeability as IC or β-CD content increased in comparison to pure PLA film. All the composite films had less flexibility and lower tensile strength than the pure PLA film. In conclusion, this study shows that the IC technique is valuable to improve the thermal expansion stability of PLA-based films. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Is Inclusive Education Right for Every Child? An Account by the Parent of a Child with High and Complex Needs Due to Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Stuart J.

    2013-01-01

    There is often intense and passionate debate about the inclusion of those students with the most complex social learning and behavioural needs. This paper, written from a parent's perspective, is based on a case study of a 15-year-old adolescent with severe and high functioning autism that was comparatively well-resourced through the new…

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of inclusion complexes formed by isoniazid and modified β-cyclodextrins: 1H NMR structural determination and antibacterial activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Milena G; de Assis, João V; Soares, Cássia G P; Venâncio, Mateus F; Lopes, Juliana F; Nascimento, Clebio S; Anconi, Cleber P A; Carvalho, Guilherme S L; Lourenço, Cristina S; de Almeida, Mauro V; Fernandes, Sergio A; de Almeida, Wagner B

    2014-01-09

    Me-β-cyclodextrin (Me-βCD) and HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) inclusion complexes with isoniazid (INH) were prepared with the aim of modulating the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the guest molecule, a well-known antibuberculosis drug. The architectures of the complexes were initially proposed according to NMR data Job plot and ROESY followed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (1)H NMR spectra using the PBE1PBE functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set, including the water solvent effect with the polarizable continuum model (PCM), for various inclusion modes, providing support for the experimental proposal. An analysis of the (1)H NMR chemical shift values for the isoniazid (H6',8' and H5',9') and cyclodextrins (H3,5) C(1)H hydrogens, which are known to be very adequately described by the DFT methodology, revealed them to be extremely useful, promptly confirming the inclusion complex formation. An included mode which describes Me-βCD partially enclosing the hydrazide group of the INH is predicted as the most favorable supramolecular structure that can be used to explain the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated drug. Antibacterial activity was also evaluated, and the results indicated the inclusion complexes are a potential strategy for tuberculosis treatment.

  2. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method developed for estimating the stoichiometric ratio of solid-state {alpha}-cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Wang, Jinpeng; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Feng, Tao [School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Xueming [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jin, Zhengyu, E-mail: jinlab2008@yahoo.com [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tian, Yaoqi, E-mail: yqtian@jiangnan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a TGA method for the measurement of the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of formulas are deduced to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method is applicable. - Abstract: An approach mainly based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was developed to evaluate the stoichiometric ratio (SR, guest to host) of the guest-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (Guest-{alpha}-CD) inclusion complexes (4-cresol-{alpha}-CD, benzyl alcohol-{alpha}-CD, ferrocene-{alpha}-CD and decanoic acid-{alpha}-CD). The present data obtained from Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared in a solid-state form. The stoichiometric ratios of {alpha}-CD to the relative guests (4-cresol, benzyl alcohol, ferrocene and decanoic acid) determined by the developed method were 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. These SR data were well demonstrated by the previously reported X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the NMR confirmatory experiments, except the SR of decanoic acid with a larger size and longer chain was not consistent. It is, therefore, suggested that the TGA-based method is applicable to follow the stoichiometric ratio of the polycrystalline {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes with smaller and shorter chain guests.

  3. Properties of extruded starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers prepared from spherulites formed from amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixtures of high amylose corn starch and oleic acid were processed by steam jet-cooking, and the dispersions were rapidly cooled to yield amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes as sub-micron spherulites and spherulite aggregates. Dispersions of these spherulite particles were then graft polymerized ...

  4. Preparation, characterization and binding behaviors of host-guest inclusion complexes of metoclopramide hydrochloride with α- and β-cyclodextrin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Siti; Barman, Biraj Kumar; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-03-01

    The supramolecular interaction of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MP) with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been inspected by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light, infra-red (IR) light, fluorescence and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The formation of an inclusion complex greatly affects the physical-chemical properties of the guest molecules, such as solubility, chemical reactivity and the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Thus the changes in the spectral properties and physico-chemical properties confirm the inclusion complex formation. Surface tension, conductivity studies and Job's plot indicate a 1: 1 stoichiometry of the MP:CD host-guest inclusion complexes. The binding/association constants have been evaluated by both UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic study indicating a higher degree of encapsulation for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Furthermore, the negative value of thermodynamic parameter (ΔG°) of the host-guest system suggests that the inclusion process proceeded spontaneously at 298.15 K. Based on the NMR data, the plausible mode of interaction of MP:α-CD and MP:β-CD complexes were proposed, which suggested that lipophilic aromatic ring of the MP entered into the cavity of CDs from the wider side, with the amide (sbnd CONH) and methoxy (-OMe) residues inside the CD cavity.

  5. Theoretical investigation of inclusion complex formation of Gold (III – Dimethyldithiocarbamate anticancer agents with cucurbit[n = 5,6]urils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiollah Mahdavifar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold (III-N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate [DMDT(AuX2] complexes have recently gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents because of their strong tumor cell growth–inhibitory effects, generally achieved by exploiting non-cisplatin-like mechanisms of action. The goal of our research work is to encapsulate the gold(III dimethyldithiocarbamate complexes as anticancer with cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n = 5, 6] by accurate calculations, to predict the inclusion complex formation of gold(III species with cucurbiturils (CB[n = 5, 6]. The calculations were carried out just for the 1:1 stoichiometric complexes. Upon encapsulation, binding energy, thermodynamic parameters, structural parameters and electronic structures of complexes are investigated. The results of the thermodynamic calculations and the binding energy show that the inclusion process is exothermic and the CB[6]/[DMDT(AuBr2] complex is more stable than other complexes. The final geometry of CB[n]/drugs indicates that the drugs were expelled from the cavity of CB[n]. NBO calculations reveal that the hydrogen bonding between CB[n] and drugs and electrostatic interactions are the major factors contributing to the overall stabilities of the complexes.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Supermolecular Structure of Isoliquiritigenin and 6-O-α-D-Maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoliquiritigenin (ILTG possesses many pharmacological properties. However, its poor solubility and stability in water hinders its wide applications. The solubility of bioactive compounds can often be enhanced through preparation and delivery of various cyclodextrin (CD inclusion complexes. The 6-O-α-D-maltosyl-β-CD (G2-β-CD, as one of the newest developments of CDs, has high aqueous solubility and low toxicity, especially stable inclusion characteristics with bioactive compounds. In this work, we for the first time construct and characterize the supermolecular structure of ILTG/G2-β-CD by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The solubility of ILTG in water at 25 °C rises from 0.003 to 0.717 mg/mL by the encapsulation with G2-β-CD. Our experimental observations on the presence of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion complex are further supported by the ONIOM(our Own N-layer Integrated Orbital molecular Mechanics-based QM/MM (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations, typically substantiating these supermolecular characteristics, such as detailed structural assignments, preferred binding orientations, selectivity, solvent effects, interaction energies and forces of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion complex. Our results have elucidated how ILTG interacts with G2-β-CD, demonstrating the primary host-guest interactions between ILTG and G2-β-CD, characterized by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic forces, and conformational effects, are favored for the formation of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion.

  7. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HPβCD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D.; Grady, B.; Awasthi, V.

    2011-06-01

    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a "drug-in-CD-in liposome" approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HPβCD mixture provided k 1:1 value of 9.9 M-1. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HPβCD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 ± 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 ± 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 μM dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an α- t 1/2 of 21.4 min and β- t 1/2 of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using "drug-in-CD-in liposome" approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.

  9. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2017-03-01

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  10. Validation of quantitative analysis method for triamcinolone in ternary complexes by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE DARLOS A. AQUINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone (TRI, a drug widely used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases, is practically insoluble in water, which limits its use in eye drops. Cyclodextrins (CDs have been used to increase the solubility or dissolution rate of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to validate a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of TRI in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (B-CD associated with triethanolamine (TEA (ternary complex. The proposed analytical method was validated with respect to the parameters established by the Brazilian regulatory National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA. The analytical measurements of absorbance were made at 242nm, at room temperature, in a 1-cm path-length cuvette. The precision and accuracy studies were performed at five concentration levels (4, 8, 12, 18 and 20μg.mL-1. The B-CD associated with TEA did not provoke any alteration in the photochemical behavior of TRI. The results for the measured analytical parameters showed the success of the method. The standard curve was linear (r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range from 2 to 24 μg.mL-1. The method achieved good precision levels in the inter-day (relative standard deviation-RSD <3.4% and reproducibility (RSD <3.8% tests. The accuracy was about 80% and the pH changes introduced in the robustness study did not reveal any relevant interference at any of the studied concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate a simple, rapid and affordable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method that could be applied to the quantitation of TRI in this ternary complex. Keywords: Validation. Triamcinolone. Beta-cyclodextrin. UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Ternary complexes. RESUMO Validação de método de análise quantitativa para a triancinolona a partir de complexo ternário por espectrofotometria de UV-Vis A triancinolona (TRI é um fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias do globo ocular e

  11. Robust Cross-Linked Stereocomplexes and C60 Inclusion Complexes of Vinyl-Functionalized Stereoregular Polymers Derived from Chemo/Stereoselective Coordination Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2016-08-03

    The successful synthesis of highly syndiotactic polar vinyl polymers bearing the reactive pendant vinyl group on each repeat unit, which is enabled by perfectly chemoselective and highly syndiospecific coordination polymerization of divinyl polar monomers developed through this work, has allowed the construction of robust cross-linked supramolecular stereocomplexes and C60 inclusion complexes. The metal-mediated coordination polymerization of three representative polar divinyl monomers, including vinyl methacrylate (VMA), allyl methacrylate (AMA), and N,N-diallyl acrylamide (DAA) by Cs-ligated zirconocenium ester enolate catalysts under ambient conditions exhibits complete chemoselectivity and high stereoselectivity, thus producing the corresponding vinyl-functionalized polymers with high (92% rr) to quantitative (>99% rr) syndiotacticity. A combined experimental (synthetic, kinetic, and mechanistic) and theoretical (DFT) investigation has yielded a unimetallic, enantiomorphic-site-controlled propagation mechanism. Postfunctionalization of the obtained syndiotactic vinyl-functionalized polymers via the thiol-ene click and photocuring reactions readily produced the corresponding thiolated polymers and flexible cross-linked thin-film materials, respectively. Complexation of such syndiotactic vinyl-functionalized polymers with isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) and fullerene C60 generates supramolecular crystalline helical stereocomplexes and inclusion complexes, respectively. Cross-linking of such complexes affords robust cross-linked stereocomplexes that are solvent-resistant and also exhibit considerably enhanced thermal and mechanical properties compared with the un-cross-linked stereocomplexes.

  12. Robust Crosslinked Stereocomplexes and C60 Inclusion Complexes of Vinyl-Functionalized Stereoregular Polymers Derived from Chemo/Stereoselective Coordination Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Fernando

    2016-07-07

    The successful synthesis of highly syndiotactic polar vinyl polymers bearing the reactive pendant vinyl group on each repeat unit, which is enabled by perfectly chemoselective and highly syndiospecific coordination polymerization of divinyl polar monomers developed through this work, has allowed the construction of robust crosslinked supramolecular stereocomplexes and C60 inclusion complexes. The metal-mediated coordination polymerization of three representative polar divinyl monomers, including vinyl methacrylate (VMA), allyl methacrylate (AMA), and N,N-diallyl acrylamide (DAA) by Cs-ligated zirconocenium ester enolate catalysts under ambient conditions exhibits complete chemoselectivity and high stereoselectivity, thus producing the corresponding vinyl-functionalized polymers with high (92% rr) to quantitative (>99% rr) syndiotacticity. A combined experimental (synthetic, kinetic, and mechanistic) and theoretical (DFT) investigation has yielded a unimetallic, enantiomorphic-site controlled propagation mechanism. Post-functionalization of the obtained syndiotactic vinyl-functionalized polymers via the thiol-ene click and photocuring reactions readily produced the corresponding thiolated polymers and flexible crosslinked thin film materials, respectively. Complexation of such syndiotactic vinyl-functionalized polymers with isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) and fullerene C60 generates supramolecular crystalline helical stereocomplexes and inclusion complexes, respectively. Crosslinking of such complexes afforded robust crosslinked stereocomplexes that are solvent resistant and also exhibit considerably enhanced thermal and mechanical properties as compared to the uncrosslinked stereocompexes.

  13. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  14. Identification of Guest-Host Inclusion Complexes in the Gas Phase by Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, De´bora C.; Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan; Da Silva, Jose´ P.

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students follow a step-by-step procedure to prepare and study guest-host complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Model systems are the complexes of hosts cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) with the guest 4-styrylpyridine (SP). Aqueous solutions of CB7 or CB8…

  15. Physicochemical, thermodynamic and analytical studies on binary and ternary inclusion complexes of bosentan with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jadhav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of poorly aqueous soluble endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan (BOS with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD were assessed in presence and absence of an amino acid l-arginine (ARG, to improve its physicochemical properties. Initially, the phase solubility studies conducted in distilled water followed by thermodynamic investigations demonstrated an AL type of solubility profile and an enthalpy driven exothermic complexation process, respectively, in all cases. The analytical evidences for the formation of lyophilized binary and ternary complexes in solid state were generated and confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffractometry (XPRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solubility and dissolution of binary and ternary complexes were significantly improved upon complexation as compared to BOS alone, supported by decreased logP values of the complexes. However, the complexation efficiency of ternary system was found to be higher than binary, justifying the addition of ARG as an auxiliary substance to reduce the workable amount of HPβCD during formulation.

  16. Single and double reduction of C{sub 60} in 2:1 {gamma}-cyclodextrin/[60]fullerene inclusion complexes by cyclodextrin radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, Annamaria [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Substances Naturelles, MNHN, UMR5154 CNRS-MNHN/USM50502, 63 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: annamaria.quaranta@cea.fr; Zhang Yongmin [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, UMR 7611 CNRS, Tour 44/45, C. 181, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: yongmin.zhang@upmc.fr; Wang Yali [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, UMR 7611 CNRS, Tour 44/45, C. 181, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Edge, Ruth [Free Radical Research Facility, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK, and North East Wales Institute, Wrexham, LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); Free Radical Research Facility, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Navaratnam, Suppiah [Free Radical Research Facility, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK, and North East Wales Institute, Wrexham, LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); BioScience Research Institute, PEEL Building, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Land, Edward J. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Bensasson, Rene V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Substances Naturelles, MNHN, UMR5154 CNRS-MNHN/USM50502, 63 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: rvb@mnhn.fr

    2008-12-10

    Spectroscopic and chemical properties of {gamma}-CD{sup {center_dot}} radicals, resulting from the abstraction by HO{sup {center_dot}} radicals of hydrogen atoms, have been investigated using pulse radiolysis. The reactions of {gamma}-CD{sup {center_dot}} radicals with C{sub 60} in 2:1 {gamma}-CD/C{sub 60} inclusion complexes have been studied in aqueous solutions. It has been demonstrated that the {gamma}-CD{sup {center_dot}} radicals are reducing species producing C{sub 60}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} monoanion radicals, as well as doubly reduced C{sub 60}{sup 2-}, well characterised by their absorption spectra in the near IR. The oxidation potential of {gamma}-CD{sup {center_dot}} radical is estimated to be more negative than -390 mV vs. NHE. The kinetics of the C{sub 60} reduction by {gamma}-CD{sup {center_dot}} radicals have been determined and compared with kinetics by other reducing species including the solvated electron (e{sub aq}{sup -}) and CO{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} radicals. It was observed that the method of preparation of the 2:1 {gamma}-CD/C{sub 60} inclusion complexes modifies the C{sub 60} reduction mechanism.

  17. Electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance characterization of β-cyclodextrin-based self-assembled monolayers and evaluation of their inclusion complexes with glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Mazzei, Franco

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the characterization of a self-assembled β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-derivative monolayer (β-CD-SAM) on a gold surface and the study of their inclusion complexes with glucocorticoids. To this aim the arrangement of a self-assembled β-cyclodextrin-derivative monolayer on a gold surface was monitored in situ by means of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and double-layer capacitance measurements. Film thickness and dielectric constant were evaluated for a monolayer of β-CD using one-color-approach SPR. The selectivity of the β-CD host surface was verified by using electroactive species permeable and impermeable in the β-CD cavity. The redox probe was selected according to its capacity to permeate the β-CD monolayer and its electrochemical behavior. In order to evaluate the feasibility of an inclusion complex between β-CD-SAM with some steroids such as cortisol and cortisone, voltammetric experiments in the presence of the redox probes as molecules competitive with the steroids have been performed. The formation constant of the surface host-guest by β-CD-SAM and the steroids under study was calculated.

  18. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  19. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Mortensen, Stig Skov

    With a starting point in the tradition of geisteswissenschaftliche Pädagogik this article presents a challenge to inclusive education research to engage a continental perspective on educational research. The motivation is to entice inclusive education researchers to begin to ask educational...... questions of inclusion, as opposed to inclusive questions of education. Recent years has seen a call to re-think inclusive education research and this paper attempts to answer this call by turning to a Continental perspective and the emphasis on an at least relative autonomy for the theory and practice...... and the politicisation of inclusive education, and a positive aim in the form of an argument for a move towards constructing a pedagogical ideal of inclusion....

  20. Enhancement of Solubility and Antioxidant Activity of Some Flavonoids Based on the Inclusion Complexation with Sulfobutylether β-Cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Eun; Kim, Hyun Myung; Jung, Seun Ho; Park, Se Yeon

    2010-01-01

    β-CD and SBE-β-CD functioned as a solubilizing agent against three flavonoids. SBE-β-CD is more efficient than native β-CD in solubility enhancement of tested flavonoids. All three tested flavonoids have antioxidant ability. Flavonoid-CD complex positively affected the antioxidant activity comparing with free flavonoids. Throughout this research, SBE-β-CD showed better complexation capacity for the solubility enhancement and bioavailability of tested flavonoids comparing with native β-CD. Flavonoids are polyphenolic photochemicals generally found in plants, foods, and beverages. They contribute to plant colors in fruit, leaves providing a wide spectrum of color from red to blue in flowers. Flavonoids have many good physiological activities such as the antioxidant, antitumor, and antibacterial activities which have been a focus of the attention of many researchers. There are four subgroups of flavonoids, flavone, flavonol, flavanone, and isoflavone, according to their chemical structure

  1. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust Inclusion Complexes of Crown Ether Fused Tetrathiafulvalenes with Li+@C-60 to Afford Efficient Photodriven Charge Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supur, M.; Kawashima, Y.; Larsen, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    ) obtained by UV/Vis titrations in benzonitrile (PhCN) at room temperature. On the basis of DFT studies at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, the orbital interactions between the crown ether moieties and the p surface of the fullerene together with the endohedral Li+ have a crucial role in robust complex formation....... Interestingly, complexation of Li+@C-60 with crown ethers accelerates the intersystem crossing upon photoexcitation of the complex, thereby yielding 3(Li+@C-60)*, when no charge separation by means of 1Li(+)@C-60* occurs. Photoinduced charge separation by means of 3Li(+)@C-60* with lifetimes of 135 and 120 ms...... for 1 center dot Li+@C-60 and 2 center dot Li+@C-60, respectively, and quantum yields of 0.82 in PhCN have been observed by utilizing time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and then confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at 4 K. The difference in crown ether structures...

  3. One-step affinity tag purification of full-length recombinant human AP-1 complexes from bacterial inclusion bodies using a polycistronic expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, A-Young; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2008-05-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is a dimeric protein complex formed primarily between Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) family members. These distinct AP-1 complexes are expressed in many cell types and modulate target gene expression implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. Although the importance of AP-1 has long been recognized, the biochemical characterization of AP-1 remains limited in part due to the difficulty in purifying full-length, reconstituted dimers with active DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. Using a combination of bacterial coexpression and epitope-tagging methods, we successfully purified all 12 heterodimers (3 Junx4 Fos) of full-length human AP-1 complexes as well as c-Jun/c-Jun, JunD/JunD, and c-Jun/JunD dimers from bacterial inclusion bodies using one-step nickel-NTA affinity tag purification following denaturation and renaturation of coexpressed AP-1 subunits. Coexpression of two constitutive components in a dimeric AP-1 complex helps stabilize the proteins when compared with individual protein expression in bacteria. Purified dimeric AP-1 complexes are functional in sequence-specific DNA binding, as illustrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting, and are also active in transcription with in vitro-reconstituted human papillomavirus (HPV) chromatin containing AP-1-binding sites in the native configuration of HPV nucleosomes. The availability of these recombinant full-length human AP-1 complexes has greatly facilitated mechanistic studies of AP-1-regulated gene transcription in many biological systems.

  4. Inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin and the extended viologen dication: a model of an insulated molecular wire

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Kolivoška, Viliam; Gál, Miroslav; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Sokolová, Romana; Valášek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 70, 3-4 (2011), s. 461-469 ISSN 0923-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB041006; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk OC 140; GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GA203/09/1607; GA AV ČR IAA400400802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alpha-cyclodextrin * extended viologen * complex formation Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.886, year: 2011

  5. Synergistic effects of resveratrol (free and inclusion complex) and sulfamethoxazole-trimetropim treatment on pathology, oxidant/antioxidant status and behavior of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Tonin, Alexandre A; Rech, Virginia C; Alves, Catiane B; D'Avila, Fernanda; Thomé, Gustavo R; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Luchese, Cristiane; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Tochetto, Camila; Fighera, Rafael; Nishihira, Vivian S K; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of resveratrol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on the treatment of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii during the chronic phase of the disease considering infection, behavior, and oxidative/antioxidants profile aspects. For the study, 60 mice were initially divided into two groups: uninfected (n = 24) and infected by T. gondii (n = 36). These two groups were later subdivided into other groups and treated with resveratrol (free and inclusion complex containing resveratrol) alone and co-administered with ST: groups A to D were composed by healthy mice and groups E to J were consisted of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Treatments began 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg(-1) of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), and lastly an co-administration of both drugs (groups I and J). Behavioral tests (memory, anxiety and locomotion) were performed after treatment. Liver and brain fragments were collected to evaluate pathological changes, brain cysts counts, as well as oxidant and antioxidant levels. A reduction on the number of cysts in the brain of animals treated with both drugs combined was observed; there was also reduced number of lesions on both organs. This drug combined effect was also able to reduce oxidative and increase antioxidant levels in infected mice, which might be interpreted as a resveratrol protective effect. In addition, the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to prevent behavioral changes in infected mice. Therefore, the use of co-administration drugs enhances the therapeutic effect acting on a synergic way, reducing the oxidizing effects of the chemical treatment for toxoplasmosis. In addition, resveratrol in inclusion complex when co-administered with ST showed an improved

  6. Generalized inclusion of short-range ordering effects in the coherent potential approximation for complex-unit-cell materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmodoro, Alberto; Ernst, Arthur; Ostanin, Sergei; Staunton, Julie B.

    2013-03-01

    The coherent potential approximation has historically allowed the efficient study of disorder effects over a variety of solid state systems. Its original formulation is, however, limited to a single-site or uncorrelated model of local substitutions. This neglects the effects of correlation and short-range ordering, often found in real materials. Recent theoretical work has shown one possible way to systematically address such shortcomings for simple materials with only one element per unit cell. We briefly review the basic ideas of such development within the framework of multiple scattering theory and suggest its generalization to materials with complex lattices. We validate our extension through a systematic comparison with a classic Cu1-cZnc reference test case and propose, for further illustration of local environment effects, the example of the yttria-stabilized cubic phase of zirconia, re-examined through various techniques for the first-principles treatment of disorder.

  7. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...

  8. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  9. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in

  10. New insights on the spectrophotometric determination of melatonin pKa values and melatonin-βCD inclusion complex formation constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Roldán, A.; Corona-Avendaño, S.; Montes-Sánchez, R.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Ramírez-Silva, M. T.

    2018-02-01

    Using UV-Vis spectrophotometry a stability study of melatonin at different pH values was done in aqueous media, finding that at acidic pH melatonin is unstable when interacting with the environment, however it becomes stable protecting it from light and oxygen. From the UV-Vis spectra and SQUAD software, melatonin pKa values, in a completely protected aqueous medium, were estimated as 5.777 ± 0.011 and 10.201 ± 0.024. Using the same techniques, the melatonin and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex formation constants were assessed at pH 3, 7 and 11.5, giving the values of log β = (3.07 ± 0.06), (2.94 ± 0.01) and (3.07 ± 0.06) M- 1, respectively. From the global acidity formation constants and the complexes' formation constants, the molar fractions were determined for each species of MT and MT - βCD, to build the molar fraction-[βCD]-pH 3D diagram and the molar fraction-pH 2D diagrams, where it was possible to observe the predominance of the MT species with and without βCD. A voltammetric study at pH 3, allowed obtaining a value of log β = (3.15 ± 0.01) M- 1, which corroborates that obtained through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, supporting strongly the rationale behind using simple, straightforward techniques.

  11. Application of Nanoparticle Technology to Reduce the Anti-Microbial Resistance through β-Lactam Antibiotic-Polymer Inclusion Nano-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Constain H; Yarce, Cristhian J; Roman, Yony; Davalos, Andrés F; Rivera, Gustavo R

    2018-02-10

    Biocompatible polymeric materials with potential to form functional structures in association with different therapeutic molecules have a high potential for biological, medical and pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, the capability of the inclusion of nano-Complex formed between the sodium salt of poly(maleic acid- alt -octadecene) and a β-lactam drug (ampicillin trihydrate) to avoid the chemical and enzymatic degradation and enhance the biological activity were evaluated. PAM-18Na was produced and characterized, as reported previously. The formation of polymeric hydrophobic aggregates in aqueous solution was determined, using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. Furthermore, the formation of polymer-drug nano-complexes was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC, viscometric, ultrafiltration/centrifugation assays, zeta potential and size measurements were determined by dynamic light scattering-DLS. The PAM-18Na capacity to avoid the chemical degradation was studied through stress stability tests. The enzymatic degradation was evaluated from a pure β-lactamase, while the biological degradation was determined by different β-lactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. When ampicillin was associated with PAM-18Na, the half-life time in acidic conditions increased, whereas both the enzymatic degradation and the minimum inhibitory concentration decreased to a 90 and 75%, respectively. These results suggest a promissory capability of this polymer to protect the β-lactam drugs against chemical, enzymatic and biological degradation.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethanes derived from cyclodextrins and poli (ethyleneglycol); Sintese, caracterizacao e avaliacao da capacidade de inclusao de poliuretanos derivados de cicodextrina e poli(etileno)glicol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcia V.G. de; Vieira, Joao V.F.; Zawadzki, Sonia F., E-mail: zawadzki@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Dept. de Quimica, Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos (LABPOL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cyclodextrins are natural cyclic oligosaccharides that have the ability to form inclusion complexes with various chemical species. In this work, the polymers with beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) or hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) were synthesized from the reaction with poly (ethylene) glycol (PEG400, PEG1500, PEG4000) and diisocyanate, toluene 2,4 and 3,6 (TDI) in a solution of dimethylformamide (DMF). The polymers were characterized by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The encapsulation capacity was evaluated by calorimetric method of discoloration of the alkaline solution of phenolphthalein. FTIR analysis revealed that assignments confirmed the formation of urethane linkages. TGA was evidenced by the mass loss in three stages and the evaluation results by XRD showed a crosslinking process. The evaluation of the encapsulation capacity of the units of the cyclodextrin crosslinked polymer showed that encapsulation increased proportionally to the mass of polymer used. (author)

  13. Cyclodextrin-facilitated bioconversion of 17 beta-estradiol by a phenoloxidase from Mucuna pruriens cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Frijlink, H.W.; Lerk, C.F.; Malingré, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    After complexation with beta-cyclodextrin, the phenolic steroid 17 beta-estradiol could be ortho-hydroxylated into a catechol, mainly 4-hydroxyestradiol, by a phenoloxidase from in vitro grown cells of Mucuna pruriens. By complexation with beta-cyclodextrin the solubility of the steroid increased

  14. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks from chiral square-pyramidal copper(II) complexes: Enantiospecific inclusion and perfectly polar alignment of guest and host molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muppidi, Vamsee Krishna; Zacharias, Panthapally S.; Pal, Samudranil

    2007-01-01

    The physical properties of [CuL 1 2 (H 2 O)] (1) and [CuL 2 2 (H 2 O)] (2) and preparation and crystal structures of the inclusion compounds 1.(P)-C 2 H 4 Br 2 , 2.(M)-C 2 H 4 Br 2 , 1.CH 3 CN and 2.CH 3 CN are described. HL 1 and HL 2 (H represents the dissociable phenolic proton) are the N,O-donor chiral reduced Schiff bases N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-(R)-α-methyl-benzylamine and N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-(S)-α-methylbenzylamine, respectively. All the compounds crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group C2. In the crystal lattice, the host [CuL n 2 (H 2 O)] (1 and 2) molecules connected by O-H...O and C-H...O interactions form perfectly polar two-dimensional networks. In these chiral and polar host frameworks, enantiospecific inclusion with polar ordering of the right-handed (P) and the left-handed (M) gauche form of 1,2-dibromoethane as well as polar alignment of acetonitrile molecules are observed. The host and guest molecules are linked by C-H...O interactions. The O-atoms of the nitro substituent on the ligands of 1 and 2 act as the acceptors in all these intermolecular O-H...O and C-H...O interactions. The structures reported in this work provide rare examples of enantiospecific trapping of the chiral rotamers of 1,2-dibromoethane as well as perfectly polar alignment of both guest and host molecules. - Graphical abstract: The square-pyramidal Cu(II) complexes [CuL n 2 (H 2 O)] with the bidentate HL n (HL 1 =N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-(R)-α-methyl-benzylamine and HL 2 =N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-(S)-α-methylbenzylamine) form 1:1 host-guest compounds with Br(CH 2 ) 2 Br and CH 3 CN. The X-ray structures of these species reveal the enantiospecific confinement of the chiral rotamers of Br(CH 2 ) 2 Br and perfectly polar ordering of both host and guest molecules in the crystal lattice. The figure shows the polar alignments of (a) [CuL 1 2 (H 2 O)].(P)-C 2 H 4 Br 2 and (b) [CuL 2 2 (H 2 O)].CH 3 CN

  16. Study of inclusion complex between 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid and β-cyclodextrin by 1H NMR, 2D 1H NMR (ROESY), FT-IR, XRD, SEM and photophysical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-09-15

    The formation of host-guest inclusion complex of 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) with nano-hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in solution phase has been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis (cyclic voltammetry, CV). The effect of acid-base concentrations of 2,6-DNB has been studied in presence and absence of β-CD to determination for the ground state acidity constant (pKa). The binding constant of inclusion complex at 303 K was calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand plot and thermodynamic parameter (ΔG) was also calculated. The solid inclusion complex formation between β-CD and 2,6-DNB was confirmed by 1H NMR, 2D 1H NMR (ROESY), FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. A schematic representation of this inclusion process was proposed by molecular docking studies using patch dock server. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  18. Formation conditions of leucogranite dykes and aplite-pegmatite dykes in the eastern Mt. Capanne plutonic complex (Elba, Italy): fluid inclusion studies in quartz, tourmaline, andalusite and plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ronald J.; Schilli, Sebastian E.

    2016-02-01

    Leucogranite and aplite-pegmatite dykes are associated with the Mt. Capanne pluton (Elba) and partly occur in the thermally metamorphosed host rock (serpentinites). Crystallization conditions of these dykes in the late magmatic-hydrothermal stage are estimated from fluid inclusion studies and mineralogical characterisation, obtained from detailed microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analyses. Fluid inclusion assemblages are analysed in andalusite, quartz, and plagioclase from the leucogranite dykes, and in tourmaline and quartz from the aplite-pegmatite dykes. The fluid inclusion assemblages record multiple pulses of low salinity H2O-rich magmatic and reduced metamorphic fluid stages. Magmatic fluids are characterized by the presence of minor amounts of CO2 and H3BO3, whereas the metamorphic fluids contain CH4 and H2. The highly reduced conditions are also inferred from the presence of native arsenic in some fluid inclusions. Several fluid inclusion assemblages reveal fluid compositions that must have resulted from mixing of both fluid sources. In leucogranite dykes, magmatic andalusite contains a low-density magmatic CO2-rich gas mixture with minor amounts of CH4 and H2. Accidentally trapped crystals (mica) and step-daughters (quartz and diaspore) are detected in some inclusions in andalusite. The first generation of inclusions in quartz that crystallized after andalusite contains a highly reduced H2O-H2 mixture and micas. The second type of inclusions in quartz from the leucogranite is similar to the primary inclusion assemblage in tourmaline from the aplite-pegmatite, and contains up to 4.2 mass% H3BO3, present as a sassolite daughter crystal or dissolved ions, in addition to a CO2-CH4 gas mixture, with traces of H2, N2, H2S, and C2H6. H2O is the main component of all these fluids ( x = 0.91 to 0.96) with maximally 7 mass% NaCl. Some accidentally trapped arsenolite and native arsenic are also detected. These fluids were trapped in the

  19. Social imaginaries and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...

  20. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of directly educational process by consequences of inclusive training and education is urgent now.The aims of the research are the following: to identify the major risks that characterize the current stage of the implementation process of inclusion in the Russian educational organizations; to consider the main causes that lead to their occurrence; to present a comparative analysis of the views of respondents in comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools. Methodology and research methods. The Sector Monitoring Studies of Moscow State University of Psychology & Education in 2010 and 2014 implemented a sociological study on the process of introduction of inclusion in the Russian schools. 200 teachers and 244 parents were interviewed in 2010; in 2014, in addition, 178 teachers and 386 parents were interviewed; 47 senior students including those with disabilities were interviewed too.Results. According to the results, the main concerns of the parents of students of comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools are reduced to a few basic risks: lack of individual approach while teaching children with different educational needs, increased emotional pressure on the child, and child’s perception of the complexity of disability as an equal. These risks arise primarily because of the acute shortage of especially prepared-governmental teachers and socio-cultural, psychological unpreparedness of most contemporary children with disabilities to the perception of

  1. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...

  2. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in ?-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in ?-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50?200?mg/kg,?p.o.), vehi...

  3. Study on effect of L-arginine on solubility and dissolution of Zaltoprofen: Preparation and characterization of binary and ternary cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherje, Atul P.; Patel, Forum; Murahari, Manikanta; Suvarna, Vasanti; Patel, Kavitkumar

    2018-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the binary and ternary complexes of Zaltoprofen (ZPF) with β-CD and HP-β-CD. The products were characterized using solubility, in vitro dissolution, and DSC studies. The mode of interaction of guest and host was revealed through 1H NMR and FT-IR studies. A significant increase was noticed in the stability constant (Kc) and complexation efficiency (CE) of β-CD and HP-β-CD due to addition of L-Arg in ternary complexes. The ternary complexes showed greater increase in solubility and dissolution of ZPF than binary complexes. Thus, ternary system of ZPF could be an innovative approach for its solubility and dissolution enhancement.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks from chiral square-pyramidal copper(II) complexes: Enantiospecific inclusion and perfectly polar alignment of guest and host molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppidi, Vamsee Krishna; Zacharias, Panthapally S.; Pal, Samudranil

    2007-01-01

    The physical properties of [CuL 12(H 2O)] ( 1) and [CuL 22(H 2O)] ( 2) and preparation and crystal structures of the inclusion compounds 1·( P)-C 2H 4Br 2, 2·( M)-C 2H 4Br 2, 1·CH 3CN and 2·CH 3CN are described. HL 1 and HL 2 (H represents the dissociable phenolic proton) are the N,O-donor chiral reduced Schiff bases N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-( R)- α-methyl-benzylamine and N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-( S)- α-methylbenzylamine, respectively. All the compounds crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group C2. In the crystal lattice, the host [CuL n2(H 2O)] ( 1 and 2) molecules connected by O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O interactions form perfectly polar two-dimensional networks. In these chiral and polar host frameworks, enantiospecific inclusion with polar ordering of the right-handed ( P) and the left-handed ( M) gauche form of 1,2-dibromoethane as well as polar alignment of acetonitrile molecules are observed. The host and guest molecules are linked by C-H⋯O interactions. The O-atoms of the nitro substituent on the ligands of 1 and 2 act as the acceptors in all these intermolecular O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O interactions. The structures reported in this work provide rare examples of enantiospecific trapping of the chiral rotamers of 1,2-dibromoethane as well as perfectly polar alignment of both guest and host molecules.

  5. Inclusion Complex of Zerumbone with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Induces Apoptosis in Liver Hepatocellular HepG2 Cells via Caspase 8/BID Cleavage Switch and Modulating Bcl2/Bax Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilah Muhammad Nadzri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone (ZER isolated from Zingiber zerumbet was previously encapsulated with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD to enhance ZER’s solubility in water, thus making it highly tolerable in the human body. The anticancer effects of this new ZER-HPβCD inclusion complex via apoptosis cell death were assessed in this study for the first time in liver hepatocellular cells, HepG2. Apoptosis was ascertained by morphological study, nuclear stain, and sub-G1 cell population accumulation with G2/M arrest. Further investigations showed the release of cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon the ZER-HPβCD treatment as well as modulating proapoptotic and anti-apototic Bcl-2 family members. A significant increase in caspase 3/7, caspase 9, and caspase 8 was detected with the depletion of BID cleaved by caspase 8. Collectively, these results prove that a highly soluble inclusion complex of ZER-HPβCD could be a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

  6. Controlling the particle size of interpolymer complexes through host-guest interaction for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Jieli; Su, Yue; Liu, Jinyao; Wang, Ruibin; Zhu, Bangshang; Yao, Yefeng; Yan, Deyue; Zhu, Xinyuan; Chen, Qun

    2010-06-01

    A new method to adjust the particle size of interpolymer complexes has been developed by introduction of host-guest interaction into the dilute aqueous solution of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Because of the cooperative hydrogen-bonding interaction, PAA can form the interpolymer complexes with PEG. Putting beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) into dilute PAA/PEG aqueous solution, the competition between host-guest and hydrogen-bonding interactions happens. The beta-CD/PAA/PEG ternary systems have been well characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffusion NMR spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the hydrophobic cavity of beta-CD is threaded by linear polymers so that the hydrophilicity of PAA/PEG interpolymer complexes is improved greatly. Adjusting the amounts of beta-CD, the particle size of the interpolymer complexes can be readily controlled. The low cytotoxicity of various beta-CD/PAA/PEG ternary complexes has been confirmed using the MTT assay in COS-7 cell line. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, has been encapsulated into the beta-CD/PAA/PEG ternary complexes. The DOX-loaded beta-CD/PAA/PEG ternary complexes have been analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), flow cytometry analysis, and the MTT assay against human cervical carcinoma cell (Hela). The results indicate that beta-CD/PAA/PEG ternary complexes with controlled particle size could be used as safe and promising drug carriers.

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Priscila L; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Oliveira, Makson G B; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; Santos, Marcio R V; Alves, Pericles B; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination.

  8. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS. The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG. Male Swiss mice (2-3 months were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o., vehicle (distilled water, p.o., or standard drug (i.p. and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min was carried out. Geraniol (37.57% was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p<0.05 reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p<0.01, locus coeruleus (p<0.001, trigeminal nucleus (p<0.05, and trigeminal thalamic tract (p<0.05. LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination.

  9. Intramolecular charge transfer effects on 3-aminobenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, T. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendiran, N. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: drrajendiran@rediffmail.com

    2006-03-20

    Effect of solvents, buffer solutions of different pH and {beta}-cyclodextrin on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of 3-aminobenzoic acid (3ABA) have been investigated. The solid inclusion complex of 3ABA with {beta}-CD is discussed by UV-Vis, fluorimetry, semiempirical quantum calculations (AM1), FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H, {delta}G and {delta}S) of the inclusion process are also determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion processes is an exothermic and spontaneous. The large Stokes shift emission in solvents with 3ABA are correlated with different solvent polarity scales suggest that, 3ABA molecule is more polar in the S{sub 1} state. Solvent, {beta}-CD studies and excited state dipole moment values confirms that the presence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in 3ABA. Acidity constants for different prototropic equilibria of 3ABA in the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states are calculated. {beta}-Cyclodextrin studies shows that 3ABA forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with {beta}-CD. {beta}-CD studies suggest COOH group present in non-polar part and amino group present in hydrophilic part of the {beta}-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  10. Molecular Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives Enhance Aqueous Solubility and Cellular Internalization of Paclitaxel: Preformulation andIn vitroAssessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Milin; Shah, Vatsal; Ghosh, Anasuya; Zhang, Zheng; Minko, Tamara

    2015-01-10

    Drugs with low aqueous solubility and permeability possess substantial challenges in designing effective and safe formulations. Synergistic solubility and permeability enhancement in a simple formulation can increase bioavailability and efficacy of such drugs. To overcome limitations of the clinical formulation of Taxol®, Paclitaxel (PTX) was reformulated with various β-cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives suitable for parenteral administration. Results indicated that β-CDs can efficiently form complexes with PTX at lower molar ratios, enhance aqueous solubility up to 500 times and improved cellular internalization of PTX. All β-CD derivatives were found to be safe as excipient since none showed detectable signs of cyto-genotoxicity. As a result, the CD-PTX complexes significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug. The study concluded that CD-PTX formulations could substitute the current intravenous infusion of PTX obviating the use of non-inert excipient Cremophor EL.

  11. Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of Genistein Chemopreventive Capacity as a Result of Esterification and Cyclodextrin Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Danciu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma, A2780 (ovary carcinoma, and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma. The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment.

  12. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  13. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  14. Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation data set shares the status of action items under the Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation. Each action or project has been assigned...

  15. Teachers becoming inclusive practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , construct their identities in the light of inclusive education, and how they negotiate the tensions and contradictions emerging from the processof becoming inclusive practitioners. Central to this discussion is the understanding that teachers' ...

  16. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize such processes as foresighting. We focus on how the ex-ante desi...... in foresight cases in two emerging economies: Brazil and South Korea. We conclude that better systemic and innovation oriented foresight is needed to enhance inclusive development....

  17. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  18. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  19. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  20. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  1. The Full Inclusion Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rodney E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews background of the movement toward full inclusion of special education students into regular classrooms, including legal issues and successful educational practices. Suggests that full inclusion does not benefit all students and that inclusion should be one of several alternatives to meeting students' educational needs. Of approximately…

  2. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  3. Documenting Your Inclusion Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Marie F.; Miller, Maury

    This paper briefly addresses critical issues in documenting studies of the effectiveness of inclusive education for students with disabilities and includes a summary table of the existing literature and guidelines for problem solving about inclusion. The importance of sound methodology in documenting effects of inclusion and the dangers of value…

  4. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation policy processes more inclusive, which in turn makes innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future-oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize...... and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. We develop a conceptual framework and use it to study design...

  5. Physicochemical Characterization of Inclusion Complex of Catechin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its physicochemical properties were investigated by ultravioletvisible spectrometry (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The characteristic UV absorption peaks for catechin, the physical ...

  6. Inclusion complexation of tetrabutylammonium iodide by cyclodextrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Datta

    Hydrophobic effect, structural effect, electrostatic force and H-bonding interactions were mainly exploited to ... static agents, detergent sanitizers, softener for textiles, paper products, etc. In this article, we explored the ... The conductivity cell was calibrated using 0.01 M aqueous. KCl solution. The densities (ρ) of the solutions ...

  7. Inclusion complexation of tetrabutylammonium iodide by cyclodextrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Datta

    Conc. of CD. Figure 2. Plot of limiting molar volume (φ0. V ) against mass fraction (w) of aqueous α-CD (blue) and aqueous β-CD (pur- ple) for but4NI at 298.15 K. the interior of CD due to insertion of guest ionic solid molecule inside the cavity of host CD through the wider rim (Scheme S1 in Supplementary Information). Due.

  8. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…

  9. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  10. SUPPORT IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Belma Čičkušić; Ševala Tulumović; Selma Bakić; Salem Bakić

    2016-01-01

    In order for inclusive class to be successful, associates are of great help to teachers. Besides associates, teachers' specialization can be accomplished through educational seminars on the inclusion topic. However, information about inclusion, working with children with special needs, can also be found in scientific journals that offer more information on methods of working with children with special needs, didactic materials customized according to abilities of children. Aim of ...

  11. Self-assembled monolayers of methylated-beta-cyclodextrin on mercury and gold electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolivoška, Viliam; Gál, Miroslav; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Valášek, Michal; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Lachmanová, Štěpánka; Kocábová, Jana; Loukou, Ch.; Mallet, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 13 (2011), s. 153-153 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /63./. 05.09.2011-09.09.2011, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400802; GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GA203/09/1607; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  12. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research agenda will cover four themes: linkages between trade and inclusive growth; negotiation issues with poorly understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; liberalization of trade in services, and the emerging regional trade policy architecture. The idea is to promote a better ...

  13. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  14. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  15. Ladle Metallurgy Kinetics: Inclusion-Inclusion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, P. Chris

    An example is presented to illustrate the joint effect of local reaction equilibria and mass transfer limitations, for reactions during ladle refining of steel. The example relies on some of the kinetic principles that David Robertson has employed to quantify many metallurgical processes. In calcium treatment of alumina inclusions in aluminum-killed steels, solid CaS forms as an intermediate reaction product. During subsequent reaction, CaS disappears and calcium aluminate forms; at the same time, aluminum and sulfur dissolve in the steel. Kinetic analysis shows that the rate of this reaction is not limited by mass transfer of dissolved aluminum and sulfur away from the reacting inclusions. The reaction rate is likely limited by transport of dissolved calcium. This example also illustrates the use of FactSage macros for kinetic modeling.

  16. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  17. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  19. Mapping Inclusive Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Almeida Ramos; Rafael Ranieri; Jan-Willem Lammes

    2013-01-01

    Since its emergence around the turn of the century the concept of inclusive growth has been substantially debated by researchers and practitioners, has increasingly gained space in domestic and international political circles, has inspired the design of and generated projects and policies, and has impacted the views and the lives of many people. While the conceptual debate and the practical application of various definitions of inclusive growth have taken place simultaneously, they have recen...

  20. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of dire...

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of igneous inclusions in recent Merapi deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P.; Troll, V.R.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2013-01-01

    basalt to andesite compositions. Results for mineral geobarometry on the inclusions suggest a crystallisation history for the plutonic inclusions and the recent and historic Merapi magmas that spans the full depth of the crust, indicating a multi-chamber magma system with high amounts of semi......Recent basaltic-andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant and varied igneous inclusions suggesting a complex sub-volcanic magmatic system for Merapi volcano. In order to better understand the processes occurring beneath Merapi, we have studied this suite of inclusions by petrography......, geochemistry and geobarometric calculations. The inclusions may be classified into four main suites: (1) highly crystalline basaltic-andesite inclusions, (2) co-magmatic enclaves, (3) plutonic crystalline inclusions and (4) amphibole megacrysts. Highly crystalline basaltic-andesite inclusions and co...

  3. Study of Meteoritic Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg

    ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Moreover, we have shown that combining careful petrological investigations with high-precision isotope measurements of multiple systems on single meteoritic inclusions can potentially provide unique insights into the formation history of the solar system's earliest solids...... and the observation of a reduced initial abundance of 26Al in the accretion regions of chondrules and asteroidal bodies impacts our understanding of the accretion timescales of protoplanets in a significant way. Combining high-precision isotope measurements of multiple systems on individual meteoritic inclusions...

  4. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  5. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  6. Inclusive Education in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Mayzel

    2013-01-01

    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  7. Inclusion body myositis : a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badrising, Umesh Arvind

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis aimed to survey the prevalence of inclusion body myositis (IBM), to describe its clinical features and course, to investigate whether the major histocompatibility complex predisposed subjects to IBM and autoimmune disorders (AID), to investigate the possible

  8. Thermodynamic Study of Inclusion Interactions between Gemini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion complexes of gemini surfactants, (CnN)2C12 (where n=12, 14), and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solutions were investigated by an isothermal titration calorimetric method and 1H NMR spectroscopy at 293.15 K. The stability constants, stoichiometry, formation enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies for ...

  9. Thermodynamic Study of Inclusion Interactions between Gemini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-11-25

    Nov 25, 2014 ... The inclusion complexes of gemini surfactants, (CnN)2C12 (wheren= 12, 14), andβ-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solutions were investigated by an isothermal titration calorimetric method and 1H NMR spectroscopy at 293.15 K. The stability constants, stoichiometry, formation enthalpies, entropies and ...

  10. Developing a financial inclusion index and inclusive growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Susanta Kumar SETHY

    2016-01-01

    Financial inclusion is one of the systems through which Inclusive Growth can be achieved in developing countries like India where large sections are unable or hopeless to contribute in the financial system. An inclusive financial system mobilizes more resources for productive purposes leading to higher economic growth, better opportunities and reduction of poverty. This study, proposed an Index of financial inclusion – a multidimensional measure. The Financial Inclusion Index c...

  11. Models of pesticides inside cavities of molecular dimensions. A role of the guest inclusion in the dechlorination process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fanelli, N.; Giannarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2005), s. 1923-1930 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP203/02/P082; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/0821 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OCD31.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : beta-cyclodextrin * electrochemical reduction * gamma-cyclodextrin * alpha-cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.705, year: 2005

  12. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  13. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing the qua...

  14. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...

  15. Peer Tutoring for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Lynnes, Michelle D.

    2008-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a pedagogical technique that has promise to improve outcomes for students with a disability within existing resource constraints. Published empirically-based papers on peer-tutoring were descriptively analysed. Synthesis of these studies revealed that peer tutoring is effective in inclusive physical education contexts. Evidence…

  16. Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shazly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.

  17. Supporting Inclusive Growth

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    msandilands

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... United Nations Development Programme. WRC. Women's Rights and Citizenship ... The goal of the Supporting Inclusive Growth (SIG) program is to support rigorous and policy-oriented research that ... Exploring synergies with IDRC's Environmental Economics program and other lead players outside the ...

  18. Multilingualism and social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Adamo, S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role in

  19. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  20. Minimal Gersgorin tensor eigenvalue inclusion set and its numerical approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoqian; Li, Yaotang

    2015-01-01

    For a complex tensor A, Minimal Gersgorin tensor eigenvalue inclusion set of A is presented, and its sufficient and necessary condition is given. Furthermore, we study its boundary by the spectrums of the equimodular set and the extended equimodular set for A. Lastly, for an irreducible tensor, a numerical approximation to Minimal Gersgorin tensor eigenvalue inclusion set is given.

  1. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  2. Multilingualism and Social Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... into practice. This lead to forced linguistic assimilation and the elimination of cultural and linguistic heritage. Now, in the present age of globalization, linguistic diversity at the national state level has been recognized and multilingual states have been developing where all types of languages can be used...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...

  3. INTEGRATION-INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    KERAMITCHIEVSKA-BILJANOVSKA Vesna; MITREVSKA Roberta; SABOLICH Nada

    2015-01-01

    By defining the terms, we would like to show that mentally disabled children cannot follow the regular educational process, in the same way children without learning disabilities can.The process of rehabilitation and education of disabled persons with different kind of disabilities, enables independent social integration and good quality of living in our country in the last 50 years; throw there is no need of changes in the inclusive education.

  4. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  5. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook ... As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal ...

  6. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  7. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  8. Singing and social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  9. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  10. Study of Meteoritic Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg

    . The manuscripts presented in this thesis have provided critical insights into the origin and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes as well as the formation and transport history of chondrules and, by extension, the precursor material to asteroidal and planetary bodies. The proposal of 26Al heterogeneity...... and the observation of a reduced initial abundance of 26Al in the accretion regions of chondrules and asteroidal bodies impacts our understanding of the accretion timescales of protoplanets in a significant way. Combining high-precision isotope measurements of multiple systems on individual meteoritic inclusions...

  11. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaba, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  12. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  13. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankom Arun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional perspectives on the policies and practices of financial inclusion in India, South Africa, and Australia.

  14. Inclusive Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh

    2015-01-01

    EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) chao@phmetropol.dk The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... and ability to participate in PE must be understood in specific socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions. The hypothesis of the study is that the experience of being acknowledged for your efforts in physical education by significant others can form the basis for the construction of physical capital. EN323...... - Iranian Female Adolescent Immigrants’ Experiences of the Canadian Physical Education System Bahar Tajrobehkar, University of Toronto (CA) btajro@gmail.co...

  15. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily......, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based...... and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural solutions that are good for one specific group are also beneficial for all children...

  16. Between psychopathology and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn Frithiof; Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Langager, Søren

    2017-01-01

    and social pedagogy. We thus enquire into how the rise of diagnostics and medicalisation affects our understanding of children’s difficulties. We discuss a paradox that is present in Denmark and other countries. As educational policies emphasise inclusion, the field of schooling experiences a huge rise......This article reports on a Danish study on interprofessional collaboration between child psychiatrists and educational psychologists concerning children who are categorised as being at risk. Methodologically, the analysis is grounded in qualitative interviews with psychologists. A Foucauldian...... approach is applied to narratives and experiences that occur within these interviews concerning external collaboration with child psychiatrists. The article is informed by the research tradition that has problematised the significance of psychiatry and diagnoses in the field of special needs education...

  17. IPads in Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Bente Tobiesen

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on data from a research project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning resources in five classes in lower...... secondary school. I conceptualize the systems of related technologies observed in this school as ecologies of learning resources as they present themselves as carefully balanced systems in which educational resources circulate in different ways that make sense for learners’ needs. Inspired by Actor...... in by pupils the paper argues that we should disengage approaches to the iPad in education from ideas of what the properties of these technologies are, and see the device as a more relational and situated actor, avoiding the definition of properties of technologies outside the contexts specific to their use....

  18. Patterns of inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Köppe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reconsidering the concept of digital citizenship and the essential component of education the authors propose that the concept of Hybrid Education may serve both as a guideline for the utilization of digital technologies in education and as a methodology for fostering new forms of participation......, inclusion and engagement in society. Following T.H. Marshall’s conception of citizenship the authors suggest that becoming, belonging and the capabilities to do so is essential to digital citizenship in a culturally diverse and digitally mediated world. The paper presents a theory-based, value driven...... and practical orientated framework for innovation in education. The paper documents a process where participants situated around the globe worked in collaboration with a group of participants gathered at a workshop on the concept of hybridity in education and on identifying and describing educational patterns...

  19. Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.

  20. Inclusion and Participation: Working with the Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Calder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is crucially about inclusion: a theory of democracy must account for who is to be included in the democratic process, how, and on what terms. Inclusion, if conceived democratically, is fraught with tensions. This article identifies three such tensions, arising respectively in: (i the inauguration of the democratic public; (ii enabling equal participation; and (iii the relationship between instrumental and non-instrumental accounts of democracy’s value. In each case, I argue, rather than seeking somehow to dissolve or avoid such tensions, theories of democracy should allow us to live with their implications reflexively: to work with them. Such tensions are counter-democratic to the extent that they derail what Nancy Fraser calls “participatory parity,” under which citizens count as “full partners in social interaction.” But the extent to which they do this is not itself dependent on points of paradox in the very idea of inclusion. Such parity relies on complex factors, social and economic, which democratic institutions and procedures will not by themselves address. To achieve full democratic inclusion we must already have addressed such factors; no account of democracy itself, however finely-tuned, will do this.

  1. Inclusive spectra in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unified mechanism of hadronization in hard processes results in universality of inclusive spectra of soft hadrons. Inclusive spectrum of hadrons in energy share in deep-inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is calculated. The spectrum obtained is calculated with analogous distribution in e + e - annihilation. It is noted that inclusive spectrum of soft hadrons in hard processes is described by a universal function

  2. Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines

    2014-01-01

    Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...

  3. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  4. Inclusion by Design: Engineering Inclusive Practices in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Charles; Lamar-Dukes, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    In order to help teachers understand the importance of intentional design for inclusive education, this article describes the design process an engineer might use when designing a new project. If teachers learn to think like engineers, it is possible for them to design inclusive education. This conceptual design can then be combined with…

  5. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  6. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  7. Persons with Epilepsy: Between Social Inclusion and Marginalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Simona; Petek, Davorina; Cotič, Živa; Mencin Čeplak, Metka; Zaletel, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can lead to complex psychosocial consequences. Epilepsy can change the social status of persons with epilepsy (PWE) and has an effect on their social inclusion as well as their perception of social inclusion. This study aims to explore subjective experiences with social inclusion of PWE in Slovenia. This study takes a qualitative approach. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted with eleven participants. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Epilepsy has physical, emotional, and social consequences. Physical consequences of epilepsy are mainly tiredness and exhaustion following an epileptic episode, frequently accompanied by headaches. Emotional consequences are different forms of fear. The main social consequence identified is a negative effect on PWE's social network, which leads to (self-)isolation and social distrust. PWE experience of social inclusion depends on various psychosocial factors and differs from person to person. The consequences of epilepsy are shown in PWE social contacts and their sense of social inclusion and autonomy.

  8. Creative Educational Practices for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro; Stoltz, Tania; Machado, Jarci

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of gifted students depends on several aspects to happen in the school context, and one of the most important aspects to include these children at school is creative educational practices. Teaching with art is a good possibility to make children feel motivated to attend school. In the school context, the inclusion of these children could…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  10. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  11. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  14. Supporting inclusive design of mobile devices with a context model

    OpenAIRE

    Kirisci, Pierre T.; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Klein, Patrick; Hilbig, Martin; Modzelewski, Markus; Lawo, Michael; Fennell, Antoinette; O'Connor, Joshue; Fiddian, Thomas; Mohamad, Yehya; Klann, Markus; Bergdahl, Thomas; Gokmen, Haluk; Klen, Edmilson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of inclusive product design is to successfully integrate a broad range of diverse human factors in the product development process with the intention of making products accessible to and usable by the largest possible group of users. However, the main barriers for adopting inclusive product design include technical complexity, lack of time, lack of knowledge and techniques, and lack of guidelines. Although manufacturers of consumer products are nowadays more likely to invest efforts i...

  15. The infidelity of melt inclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide important information about magmatic systems and represent unique records of magma composition and evolution. However, it is also clear that melt inclusions do not necessarily constitute a petrological 'magic bullet', and potential exists for trapped melt compositions to be modified by a range of inclusion-specific processes. These include trapping of diffusional boundary layers, crystallization of the host mineral after trapping and dissolution of co-trapped minerals during homogenization, diffusional exchange between trapped liquid and the host mineral and external melt, and cryptic alteration of trapped material during weathering or hydrothermal alteration. It clearly important to identify when melt inclusions are unmodified, and which compositional indices represent the most robust sources of petrogenetic information. In this presentation I review and discuss various approaches for evaluating compositions and compositional variations in inclusion suites. An overriding principle is that the variations evident in melt inclusions should be able to be understood in terms of petrological processes that are known, or can be reasonably inferred to also effect bulk magma compositions. One common approach is to base petrological conclusions on species that should be more robust, and many workers use variations in incompatible trace elements for this purpose. However important information may also be obtained from a comparison of variations in melt inclusions and the lavas that host them, and in most cases this comparison is the key to identifying inclusions and suites that are potentially suspect. Comparisons can be made between individual inclusions and lavas, although comparison of average inclusion composition and the host lava, after correction for differences in crystal fractionation, may also be valuable. An important extension of this is the comparison of the variability of different species in inclusions and host lavas. This also provides

  16. The Trace Detection of Nitrite Ions Using Neutral Red Functionalized SH-β-Cyclodextrin @Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Du

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescence sensor of NR-β-CD@AuNPs was prepared for the trace detection of nitrite in quantities as low as 4.25 × 10−3 μg∙mL−1 in an aqueous medium. The fluorescence was due to the host-guest inclusion complexes between neutral red (NR molecules and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which were modified by per-6-mercapto-beta-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CDs as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer under microwave radiation. The color of the NR-β-CD@AuNPs changed in the presence of nitrite ions. A sensor was applied to the determination of trace nitrites in environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  18. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  19. Interaction of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin with peptides, studied by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gere-Pászti, E.; Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Illés, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 16 (2005), s. 2619-2632 ISSN 1082-6076 Grant - others:CZ-HU(CZ) Cooperation program Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cyclodextrin * peptides * nonlinear map Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2005

  20. Photocontrolled release and uptake of a porphyrin guest by dithienylethene-tethered beta-cyclodextrin host dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.; Jukovic, A.; van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Kooijman, Huub; Spek, Anthony L.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Two photoswitchable dithienylethene-tethered ß-cyclodextrin dimers were synthesized to function as host molecules with an externally controllable binding affinity. The cyclodextrin cavities of these dimers are linked through their secondary sides by a photochromic dithienylethene unit that is

  1. Effects of Two Surfactants and Beta-Cyclodextrin on Beta-Cypermethrin Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis B-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiayuan; Chi, Yuanlong; Liu, Fangfang; Jia, Dongying; Yao, Kai

    2015-12-23

    The biodegradation efficiency of beta-cypermethrin (β-CY) is low especially at high concentrations mainly due to poor contact between this hydrophobic pesticide and microbial cells. In this study, the effects of two biodegradable surfactants (Tween-80 and Brij-35) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the growth and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 were studied. Furthermore, their effects on the solubility, biosorption, and degradation of β-CY were investigated. The results showed that Tween-80 could slightly promote the growth of the strain while Brij-35 and β-CD exhibited little effect on its growth. The CSH of strain B-1 and the solubility of β-CY were obviously changed by using Tween-80 and Brij-35. The surfactants and β-CD could enhance β-CY biosorption and degradation by the strain, and the highest degradation was obtained in the presence of Brij-35. When the surfactant or β-CD concentration was 2.4 g/L, the degradation rate of β-CY in Brij-35, Tween-80, and β-CD treatments was 89.4%, 50.5%, and 48.1%, respectively. The half-life of β-CY by using Brij-35 was shortened by 69.1 h. Beta-CY content in the soil with both strain B-1 and Brij-35 decreased from 22.29 mg/kg to 4.41 mg/kg after incubation for 22 d. This work can provide a promising approach for the efficient degradation of pyrethroid pesticides by microorganisms.

  2. Beta-cyclodextrin-modified monolothic stationaty phases for capillatry electrochromatography and nano-HPLC chiral analysis of ephedrine and ibuprofen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pumera, M.; Jelínek, I.; Jindřich, J.; Benada, Oldřich

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 16 (2002), s. 2473-2484 ISSN 1082-6076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nano-hplc * chiral Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.810, year: 2002

  3. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  4. Computational study on the molecular inclusion of andrographolide by cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongwei; Lai, Wai-Ping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wai-Kee; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2009-03-01

    Due to the poor water solubility of andrographolide (andro), an inclusion technique has been developed to modify its physical and chemical properties so as to improve its bioavailability. In contrast with the immense experimental studies on the inclusion complexes of andro:cyclodextrin, no computational study has so far been carried out on this system. In this work, preliminary docking experiments with AutoDock were performed. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Austin Model 1 (AM1) calculations upon the docking instances were applied to investigate the two possible modes of molecular inclusions between andro and x-cyclodextrin ( xCD, where x is α, β or γ). Atoms-in-Molecules (AIM) analysis based on the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ wavefunction was applied to verify the existence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. It was found that the most stable complex among the six possible inclusion complexes was the one formed between andro and βCD with andro's decalin ring moiety wrapped by CD at a ratio of 1:1. The hydrogen bonds between andro and CD were responsible for the stability of the inclusion complexes. The calculated data were found to be consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the results of this study can aid new drug design processes.

  5. The effects of cyclodextrins on the disposition of intravenously injected drugs in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Franssen, E J; Eissens, Anko; Oosting, Roelof; Lerk, C F; Meijer, D K

    Naproxen and flurbiprofen form complexes with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin; with stability constants of 2207 and 12515 M-1, respectively. However, only small fractions of the drug remain complexed when the drug-cyclodextrin complex is added to plasma in vitro. This result can be explained by

  6. Inclusão e governamentalidade Inclusion and governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Veiga-Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo parte dos conceitos de governamento, biopoder, norma e governamentalidade para argumentar no sentido de que as políticas de inclusão - especialmente as políticas de inclusão escolar - são dispositivos biopolíticos para o governamento e o controle das populações. Tomam-se esses e outros conceitos foucaultianos como ferramentas analíticas para argumentar que é preciso examinar as políticas e práticas inclusivas sem assumir antecipadamente qualquer juízo de valor sobre elas. Entendendo a diferença como manifestação da diversidade, e o diferente como um exótico, um portador de algo que os outros não possuem, as políticas de inclusão - nos modos como vêm sendo formuladas e em parte executadas no Brasil - parecem ignorar a própria diferença. Assim, ao invés de promoverem uma educação para todos, elas correm o risco de realizar uma inclusão excludente das diferenças. Discute-se a distinção entre campanhas públicas e políticas de inclusão em termos dos âmbitos em que ambas se efetivam.Based on the concepts of government, biopower, norm and governmentality, this paper argues that the inclusion policies - especially those of school inclusion - are biopolitical devices to govern and control the populations. These and other concepts by Foucault are used as analytical tools to argue that we have to explore the including policies and practices without any previous value judgment on them. Since they understand the difference as a manifestation of diversity, and the different as the exotic, what carries something the others do not have, the inclusion policies - as they are being formulated and partly enforced in Brazil - seem to ignore difference itself. Thus, instead of promoting education for all, they may lead to an inclusion that excludes the differences. The text finally discusses the distinction between public campaigns and inclusion policies in terms of the settings in which both take place.

  7. Inclusion for Customer with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2010-01-01

    For many people with disabilities, licensed premises design and lack of sufficient staff training can act as powerful barriers to their full inclusion in the activities of bars, restaurants and nightclubs.

  8. EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION AND CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Molina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the basic principles of educational inclusion, focusingspecifically on the inclusion of disabled students in mainstream classrooms, and arguesthat inclusive education should be understood as a process of transforming traditionalschools into spaces of learning for all students. The article uses the lens of critical pedagogyto argue that exclusionary educational practices have been developed through themedicalization of learning disabilities which focused on the disability rather than theabilities of disabled students. Following the same line of thinking, the article providesscientific evidence to debunk myths related to the education of disabled students; especiallymyths that contributed to their exclusion from mainstream classrooms. Finally,based on the Learning Communities model, we provide some concrete strategies fortransforming mainstream classrooms into fully inclusive environments.

  9. Study on inclusion interaction of piroxicam with β-cyclodextrin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiliang, Guo; Yu, Yang; Guoyan, Zhao; Guomei, Zhang; Jianbin, Chao; Shaomin, Shuang

    2003-12-01

    The inclusion behavior of piroxicam (PX) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) was investigated by using steady-state fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The various factors affecting the inclusion process were examined in detail. The remarkable fluorescence emission enhancement upon addition of CDs suggested that cyclodextrins (CDs) were most suitable for inclusion of the uncharged species of PX. The stoichiometry of the PX-CDs inclusion complexes was 1:1, except for β-CD where a 1:2 inclusion complex was formed. The formation constants showed the strongest inclusion capacity of β-CD. NMR showed the inclusion mode of PX with CDs.

  10. PSYCHOANALYSIS, ETHICS AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Coutinho Lerner; Rinaldo Voltolini

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the central ways in which the discourse on Inclusive Education assumes in contemporary times and some the effects of this discourse on the subjectivity of children, parents and school professionals. In order to accomplish this goal, we first review the literature concerning Inclusive Education, showing the origins of this movement, the main legal frameworks that organize this subject and the current theoretical perspectives. We then analyze discursive elements c...

  11. Forum, Dedicated to Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 – 27 of February 2015 in Kazan, in the University of Management “TISBI” been held National (All-Russian forum of promotion of ideas and principles of inclusive education (with international participants “Study and live together: open space of inclusion”. During the work of Forum the most topical questions of inclusive education implement in Russian Federation been discussed.

  12. Inclusion bodies are a site of ebolavirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Shabman, Reed S; Groseth, Allison; Herwig, Astrid; Weber, Michaela; Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Basler, Christopher F; Becker, Stephan; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-11-01

    Inclusion bodies are a characteristic feature of ebolavirus infections in cells. They contain large numbers of preformed nucleocapsids, but their biological significance has been debated, and they have been suggested to be aggregates of viral proteins without any further biological function. However, recent data for other viruses that produce similar structures have suggested that inclusion bodies might be involved in genome replication and transcription. In order to study filovirus inclusion bodies, we fused mCherry to the ebolavirus polymerase L, which is found in inclusion bodies. The resulting L-mCherry fusion protein was functional in minigenome assays and incorporated into virus-like particles. Importantly, L-mCherry fluorescence in transfected cells was readily detectable and distributed in a punctate pattern characteristic for inclusion bodies. A recombinant ebolavirus encoding L-mCherry instead of L was rescued and showed virtually identical growth kinetics and endpoint titers to those for wild-type virus. Using this virus, we showed that the onset of inclusion body formation corresponds to the onset of viral genome replication, but that viral transcription occurs prior to inclusion body formation. Live-cell imaging further showed that inclusion bodies are highly dynamic structures and that they can undergo dramatic reorganization during cell division. Finally, by labeling nascent RNAs using click technology we showed that inclusion bodies are indeed the site of viral RNA synthesis. Based on these data we conclude that, rather than being inert aggregates of nucleocapsids, ebolavirus inclusion bodies are in fact complex and dynamic structures and an important site at which viral RNA replication takes place.

  13. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Abdallah, Hassan H; Halim, Hairul N Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = -14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = -5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems.

  14. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Halim, Hairul N. Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = −14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = −5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems. PMID:26839848

  15. GIS for the Valorization of Hardly Accessible Alpine Areas with Complex Potentials for Tourism, with a View to Their Inclusion in Tourist Routes. Development of the Valleys of Lotru and Olteţ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available VALOT originates in the experience of European countries from the Alpine Space that succeeded to establish three top priorities for hardly accessible mountain areas based on communitarian programs (Natura 2000, Interreg IIIB – AlpNa Tour, VIADVENTURE, RegioMarket, etc.: competitiveness and attractiveness of the Alpine Space, accessibility and connectivity between high altitude settlements, environmental protection and prevention of natural hazards and disasters (snow falls, land slides, etc.. Starting from the project of Law on Approving the National Spatial Plan – Section VI – Tourism, the project aims at evaluating the current resources of hardly accessible mountain areas with complex potentials for tourism according to the experience of the European Union. GIS analysis will underline national/regional disparities of these areas, leading to conclusions on their typology and intervention proposals. The second part will focus on a case study of a hardly accessible area with a high landscape value and still un-valorized potentials for tourism. The existing situation of the area between the Lotru and Parâng mountains, consisting of the territories of four communes and a city, belonging to the counties of Vâlcea and Gorj, will be analyzed. Based on a spatial development scenario using selected statistical and geographic indicators, intervention priorities will be analyzed with the SPATIAL ANALYST, as well as funding possibilities for the creation of a cluster of mountain resorts (Rânca, Vidra, Voineasa in order to valorize the recreational and balneary patrimony of the area, observing principles and objectives of sustainable development in mountain areas. The project will create a methodology for diagnosing problems and dysfunctions of such areas, development possibilities based on the experience of the pilot study, proposals for improving the institutional framework for implementing, monitoring and evaluating the results and (last but not

  16. Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. I. Theoretical solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    derived by combining the complex potentials technique with the newly derived series expansions. This solution is valid for any non-uniform far load and is finite and exact in the case of polynomial far field. Applying the superposition principle expands this theory to the multiple inclusion problem......A complete solution has been obtained of the elasticity problem for a plane containing a finite array of partially debonded circular inclusions, regarded as the open-crack model of fibrous composite with interface damage. A general displacement solution of the single-inclusion problem has been...... and provides a simple and rapidly convergent iterative algorithm. The presented numerical data show an accuracy and numerical efficiency of the proposed method and discover the way and extent to which the elastic interaction between the partially debonded inclusions affects the local fields, stress intensity...

  17. Becoming Inclusive: A Code of Conduct for Inclusion and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bonnie J; MacWilliams, Brent R; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    There are increasing concerns about exclusionary behaviors and lack of diversity in the nursing profession. Exclusionary behaviors, which may include incivility, bullying, and workplace violence, discriminate and isolate individuals and groups who are different, whereas inclusive behaviors encourage diversity. To address inclusion and diversity in nursing, this article offers a code of conduct. This code of conduct builds on existing nursing codes of ethics and applies to nursing students and nurses in both educational and practice settings. Inclusive behaviors that are demonstrated in nurses' relationships with patients, colleagues, the profession, and society are described. This code of conduct provides a basis for measureable change, empowerment, and unification of the profession. Recommendations, implications, and a pledge to action are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social inclusion and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  19. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  20. The Sociology of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at social inclusion from a sociological perspective. It argues that sociology complements biological and other natural order explanations of social stratification. The article interrogates a variety of forms of social integration, including ostracism within 5th century b.c. Greece, 19th-century solidarism, and Goffman’s mid-20th-century work on stigma. It does so to demonstrate how in each of these contexts, social inclusion and exclusion can function as apparati that problematize people on the margins, and by extension, contribute to their governance and control. The article proposes that sociology provides a valuable orientation from which to consider social inclusion because it illuminates how social integration maintains and manages the ways in which people move about and through their socially stratified worlds.

  1. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  2. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  3. Physico-Chemical Characterization and In Vitro Dissolution Assessment of Clonazepam—Cyclodextrins Inclusion Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rakesh; Purohit, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of clonazepam with β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of clonazepam, a water-insoluble lipid-lowering drug. The phase-solubility profiles with both cyclodextrins were classified as AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} ...

  4. Inclusiveness program - a SWOT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dósa, M.; Szegő, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Inclusiveness Program was created with the aim to integrate currently under-represented countries into the mainstream of European planetary research. Main stages of the working plan include setting up a database containing all the research institutes and universities where astronomical or geophysical research is carried out. It is necessary to identify their problems and needs. Challenging part of the project is to find exact means that help their work in a sustainable way. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the program were identified based on feedback from the inclusiveness community. Our conclusions, further suggestions are presented.

  5. Patriots, Puppets, Dissidents and the Politics of Inclusion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the complex politics of inclusion and exclusion in Zimbabwe dating back to the time of the liberation struggle. It focuses on two case studies of the forgotten Internal Settlement of 1978-1979, and the Patriotic Front-Zimbabwe African People\\'s Union (PF-ZAPU) in the period 1980-1987 that was ...

  6. Including Psychology in Inclusive Pedagogy: Enriching the Dialogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a complex field of study and practice that requires good communication and dialogue between all involved. Psychology has to some extent been marginalised in these educational dialogues. This is, in part, due to psychology's perceived heritage in the standardised testing that has been used to support the educational…

  7. Magmas and inclusions of Monte Amiata volcano, Tuscany, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, a Pleistocene volcanic complex in south Tuscany consists mainly of silicic (62-67 wt.% Si02) lavas and domes, many of which contain abundant metamorphic and mafic igneous inclusions. The results of a detailed geochemical and petrological study indicate a bimodal magmatic system where

  8. Chains, clusters, inclusion compounds, paramagnetic labels, and organic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zanello, P

    1994-01-01

    The role of stereochemistry to elucidate reaction patterns and physico-chemical properties in topical subjects ranging from inorganic to organic chemistry are treated in the fifth and final volume of this series. Detailed accounts are given to study: chaining in polyphosphates, electron-transfers in carbonyl clusters, inclusion of organometallic molecules in cyclodextrins, stereochemistry of paramagnetic metal complexes by labeling with nitroxyl radicals, stereocontrol in organic syntheses assisted by inorganic complexes.

  9. Social Inclusion and Integrative Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time valuable lessons have been learnt about both effective practices for program and system integration and the sizable barriers, including the challenges in sustaining constructive integration. This paper is a reflection on sustainable integrative practices and is grounded in the direct experience of one of the authors, who held the post of the South Australian Social Inclusion Commissioner. We reflect upon the structure and mechanism of the South Australian Social Inclusion Initiative (2002–2011 as well as using a case study of a successful integrative program of the Social Inclusion Initiative, a program in South Australia’s School Retention Action Plan 2004 Making the Connections (South Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2004 that was implemented to improve school retention. The case study draws out salient factors of clear rationale, coordination, collaboration, communication, team work and trust as skills and ingredients to bring about integration in policy and programs. While the integration literature affirms that these ingredients are primary skills for the development of an integrative framework, we also assert that they are not enough for successful and sustained integration. Absent from much of the literature is a discussion about the use of power and the manner in which horizontal integrative work occurs. We take up this theme to draw out some implications for analysis of sustainable integrative practices.

  10. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...

  11. Inclusion body myositis. Clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Fieke Maria Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Sporadische inclusion body myositis (IBM) is een van de meest voor voorkomende verworven spierziekte die ontstaat na het 50e levensjaar. In dit proefschrift worden de klinische aspecten van sporadische IBM beschreven. Uit de studie met betrekking tot het natuurlijk beloop blijkt dat de ziekte niet

  12. Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  14. Teacher preparedness for inclusive education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    Since the report of the National Department of Education, “Quality. Education for All” was published in 1997, it has became evident that inclusive education is going to be the way forward in special (and regular) education. Both the Consultative Paper on Special Educa- tion (30 August 1999) and the Draft White Paper on ...

  15. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  16. Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Paperet sætter fokus på inklusion i en dans sammenhæng, med særligt fokus på mobning. Der tages udgangspunkt i et fællesskabsorienteret mobbesyn, der udpeger særlige opmærksomhedspunkter til såvel forebyggelse som intervention....

  17. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  18. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  19. computation of the stability constants for the inclusion complexes of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PrF MU

    CD) with various adamantane derivatives (ADA), namely the amantadinium (AM), rimantadinium (RIM), and memantinium (MEM) cations have been determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. All experiments have been performed at a pH of 1.7 ...

  20. Amylose inclusion complexation of ferulic acid via lipophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferulic acid is an interesting phytochemical that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, UV-absorber, and anticarcinogenic activities. These properties make it of interest in food formulations, cosmetics, polymer, and pharmaceutical applications. However, delivery of ferulic acid in...

  1. Structural characterization of inclusion complex of arbutin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surfaces and hollow hydrophobic interiors, CDs are very attractive ingredients for making artificial enzymes and other biomimetic materials. They are readily available. They can bind hydrophobic substrates into their cavities in aqueous solutions, and they have two rows of hydroxyl groups that can either react with substrates.

  2. Intersectionality as a Framework for Inclusive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    To create more inclusive environments for the advancement of scientific inquiry, it is critical to consider the role of intersectionality. Originating in activism and legal scholarship grounded in the realities of women of color, the concept of intersectionality emphasizes how societal power dynamics shape the differential construction of life opportunities of diverse demographic groups across a variety of social identities, contexts, and historical conditions. Importantly, intersectionality also recognizes that individuals can simultaneously hold privileged and marginalized identities. For example, while white women scientists are less represented in leadership and decision-making positions than their male counterparts, but they typically do not experience the marginalization of being mistaken for cleaning staff at their institutions, as many African American and Latina scientists report. Thus, white women are relatively privileged in this context. This case and national survey data demonstrate the critical importance of recognizing that the intersection of racial and gender identities creates complex and multi-faceted challenges for diverse women scientists in navigating the organizational culture of science. Educational research indicates that interventions seeking to create more inclusivity in science should take into account the relationships between various social identities, contexts, and broader historical conditions that affect the advancement of historically underrepresented minority groups. Therefore, this presentation will provide a conceptual framework of intersectionality to guide interventions to encourage all scientists to recognize the distinctive intellectual and social contributions of those from diverse gender, race, class, disability, sexual orientation, and other identity backgrounds. It will also address how this framework can be applied to develop programs, policies, and practices that transform organizational cultures to be more inclusive

  3. Inclusive teaching strategies - dimensions and agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbæk, Mette

    2017-01-01

    will contribute to an enrichment of the two research fields and give teachers and researchers new opportunities for developing more inclusive schools. Based on research focused on teaching strategies that support students’ opportunities for learning, four dimensions of inclusive teaching strategies are presented...... those teachers working with inclusion can be supported with more tangible and meaningful ways of understanding and developing inclusive classrooms. This article argues that seeing research in inclusion in close connection with research in effective teaching strategies and classroom management...

  4. Inclusion control in high-performance steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, L.E.K.; Helle, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress of clean steel production, fundamentals of oxide and sulphide inclusions as well as inclusion morphology in normal and calcium treated steels are described. Effects of cleanliness and inclusion control on steel properties are discussed. In many damaging constructional and engineering applications the nonmetallic inclusions have a quite decisive role in steel performance. An example of combination of good mechanical properties and superior machinability by applying inclusion control is presented. (author)

  5. The Tree Inclusion Problem: In Linear Space and Faster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    of nodes, the number of leaves, and the depth of a tree S ε {P, T}. In this article we show that the tree inclusion problem can be solved in space O(nT ) and time: Eqation Presented ∑ This improves or matches the best known time complexities while using only linear space instead of quadratic......Given two rooted, ordered, and labeled trees P and T the tree inclusion problem is to determine if P can be obtained from T by deleting nodes in T. This problem has recently been recognized as an important query primitive in XML databases. Kilpel äinen and Mannila [1995] presented the first...

  6. Inclusion type radiochromic gel dosimeter for threedimensional dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shuji; Yoshioka, Munenori; Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    For the verification of 3D dose distributions in modern radiation therapy, a new inclusion type radiochromic gel detector has been developed. In this gel, a hydrophobic leuco dye (leucomalachite green: LMG) was dissolved in water as an inclusion complex with highly branched cyclic dextrin. The radiation induced radical oxidation property of the LMG gel with various sensitizers was investigated. As a result, the optical dose responses were enhanced by the addition of bromoacetic acid and manganese (II) chloride. Unfavorable auto-oxidation of the gel was reduced when it was stored at 4°C.

  7. Social Exclusion, Social Inclusion and "Passing": The Experiences of Dalit Students at One Elite Indian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovichegan, Samson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold; first the paper explores and describes the complex ways in which social exclusion can (sometimes) be reconstituted within policy attempts at social inclusion: the quota policy in India. Second, the paper provides a grounded account of the connectedness of inclusion/exclusion and an illustration of how those…

  8. STUDENTS’ RESPONSES TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    . This technology is designed help to citizens to be 'master of his or her own life' while off-setting capability changes due declining physical ability. Welfare technology includes smarter working practices or service concepts, which frees up labor resources and it also covers robotics, telemedicine, IT solutions...... and intelligent devices. This paper will show the results of students' work with the problem of changed demographics and emerging needs in products and services. In so doing it looks at how the use of inclusive design methods affects students´work processes. This is done by the use of work diaries which provided......This paper looks at how students’ design process responds to the requirements of inclusive design. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss...

  9. The HLT inclusive B triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorov, Vladimir V; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The inclusive HLT strategy relies on triggering any B decay based on two signatures: a single significantly displaced, high transverse momentum track, and a significantly displaced vertex containing this track and 1-3 other tracks, with high total transverse momentum. In order to provide optimal signal efficiency and background rejection the displaced vertex selection is implemented in a novel boosted decision tree algorithm incorporating information about the experimental resolution in the boosting procedure to protect against overtraining. The performance of these triggers has been commissioned using data taken during 2011 LHCb running and is evaluated here in a data-driven manner. The HLT inclusive triggers are found to have a rejection factor of around 1000 with respect to events selected by the L0 hardware trigger and a bbar purity close to 100%.

  10. Interprofessional development in inclusive schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy; Arndal, Lars Stubbe

    circles (Persson, 2007). The design development was theory oriented, with our introducing theories about the different aspects of professional collaboration, co-creation and social innovation (Conger, S. 2002, Edwall et. al. 2008)).In accordance with the processes of design-based research (iteration...... required to work with these students. This paper describes the challenges [education/school] professionals (teachers and child and youth educators) face in striving to develop inclusive school practice, and how these challenges relate to differences in skills and competencies between the professions....... The knowledge for the paper was generated in a research project entitled “Interprofessional development in inclusive schools”. The project worked from a basic understanding that we need to develop preventive educational strategies for children and young people with learning difficulties and in social risk...

  11. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  12. Social inclusion and integrative practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cappo, David; Verity, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    With the passage of time valuable lessons have been learnt about both effective practices for program and system integration and the sizable barriers, including the challenges in sustaining constructive integration. This paper is a reflection on sustainable integrative practices and is grounded in the direct experience of one of the authors, who held the post of the South Australian Social Inclusion Commissioner. We reflect upon the structure and mechanism of the South Australian Social Inclu...

  13. Student' responses to inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    ” and “disordered”, this study visualises it and finds patterns underlying a process which is perceived to be chaotic. It provides a rough measure of the dynamics of a project in the form of the “switch between” ratio: how many changes in activity take place from the start to the finish of a project. The article...... was originally written for the DRTS 2012 conference "Articulating Design Thinking" and proposed for inclusion in a special edition of Design Issues....

  14. The Sociology of Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Allman

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at social inclusion from a sociological perspective. It argues that sociology complements biological and other natural order explanations of social stratification. The article interrogates a variety of forms of social integration, including ostracism within 5th century b.c. Greece, 19th-century solidarism, and Goffman’s mid-20th-century work on stigma. It does so to demonstrate how in each of these c...

  15. Student Engagement In Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    There is general agreement that to thrive and learn at their best, students must be engaged. However, schools face a particular challenge to provide a suitable and engaging learning environment for SEN (special educational needs) students who are educated in general education classes. Using data......-students as for other students. This highlights the need for better inclusion initiatives aimed at strengthening engagement of SEN-students in regular classrooms....

  16. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However......, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues....

  17. Formation of distinct inclusion bodies by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junho; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Joe, Cheol O.; Kang, Seok-Seong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Distinct inclusion bodies are developed by inhibition of UPP and ALP. → The inclusion bodies differ in morphology, localization and formation process. → The inclusion bodies are distinguishable by the localization of TSC2. → Inhibition of both UPP and ALP simultaneously induces those inclusion bodies. -- Abstract: Accumulation of misfolded proteins is caused by the impairment of protein quality control systems, such as ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). In this study, the formation of inclusion bodies was examined after the blockade of UPP and/or ALP in A549 cells. UPP inhibition induced a single and large inclusion body localized in microtubule-organizing center. Interestingly, however, ALP inhibition generated dispersed small inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 was selectively accumulated in the inclusion bodies of UPP-inhibited cells, but not those of ALP-inhibited cells. Blockade of transcription and translation entirely inhibited the formation of inclusion body induced by UPP inhibition, but partially by ALP inhibition. Moreover, the simultaneous inhibition of two protein catabolic pathways independently developed two distinct inclusion bodies within a single cell. These findings clearly demonstrated that dysfunction of each catabolic pathway induced formation and accumulation of unique inclusion bodies on the basis of morphology, localization and formation process in A549 cells.

  18. Genesis of diamond inclusions: An integrated cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) study on eclogitic and peridotitic inclusions and their diamond host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Quint; Matveev, Sergei; Drury, Martyn; Gress, Michael; Chinn, Ingrid; Davies, Gareth

    2017-04-01

    Diamond inclusions are potentially fundamental to understanding the formation conditions of diamond and the volatile cycles in the deep mantle. In order to fully understand the implications of the compositional information recorded by inclusions it is vital to know whether the inclusions are proto-, syn-, or epigenetic and the extent to which they have equilibrated with diamond forming fluids. In previous studies, the widespread assumption was made that the majority of diamond inclusions are syngenetic, based upon observation of cubo-octahedral morphology imposed on the inclusions. Recent work has reported the crystallographic relationship between inclusions and the host diamond to be highly complex and the lack of crystallographic relationships between inclusions and diamonds has led some to question the significance of imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. This study presents an integrated EBSD and CL study of 9 diamonds containing 20 pyropes, 2 diopsides, 1 forsterite and 1 rutile from the Jwaneng and Letlhakane kimberlite clusters, Botswana. A new method was developed to analyze the crystallographic orientation of the host diamond and the inclusions with EBSD. Diamonds plates were sequentially polished to expose inclusions at different levels in the diamond. CL imaging at different depths was performed in order to produce a 3D view of diamond growth zones around the inclusions. Standard diamond polishing techniques proved too aggressive for silicate inclusions as they were damaged to such a degree that EBSD measurements on the inclusions were impossible. The inclusions were milled with a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) at a 12° angle to clean the surface for EBSD measurements. Of the 24 inclusions, 9 have an imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. Of these inclusions, 6 have faces orientated parallel to diamond growth zones and/or appear to have nucleated on a diamond growth surface, implying syngenesis. In contrast, other diamonds record resorption events such that

  19. Nanoparticles inclusions in self assembly thin smectic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, B.; Charara, J.; Zaiour, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text. Processing of nanocomposites based on nanoparticles inclusion in thin smectic-A liquid crystal was reviewed. Thin smectic-A liquid crystal consists of a stack of regularly spaced membranes that are frequently formed in thin diblock copolymers. Particular attention was given to the scientific concepts that underpin the fabrication of special composite derived copolymer components. The complex interplay between suspension stability and its structural evolution during nanomaterials processing was highlighted. Inclusions, such as nanoparticles, coupled locally to the smectic may deform the membranes over a large length scale. We determined the distortion field due to one inclusion using the Landau-de Gennes description of smectic liquid crystals and by neglecting the interactions between nanoparticles. The equilibrium position of the particle was shown to depend on both the surface tension at the film boundary and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles

  20. Inclusive and semi-inclusive hadron interactions at ISR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments at the CERN proton-antiproton collider and at the ISR have recently provided a wealth of information on high-energy, low-transverse momentum hadron-hadron interactions. These data are changing the picture of inelastic collisions at high-energies. In this paper will be mainly discussed high-statistics data from the ABCDHW collaboration using the Split Field Magnet (SFM) detector at the CERN-ISR. In particular will be discussed inclusive distributions as functions of x and y, the multiplicity and rapidity dependence of the mean transverse momentum, its fluctuations, correlations in rapidity, Bose-Einstein correlations, charged multiplicity distributions and rapidity fluctuations

  1. Towards sustainable infrastructure development through integrated contracts : Experiences with inclusiveness in Dutch infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Sander; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    Current complex society necessitates finding inclusive arrangements for delivering sustainable road infrastructure integrating design, construction and maintenance stages of the project lifecycle. In this article we investigate whether linking stages by integrated contracts can lead to more

  2. Application of an E. coli signal sequence as a versatile inclusion body tag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wouter S.P.; Vikström, David; Houben, Diane; Berg van Saparoea, H. Bart; de Gier, Jan Willem; Luirink, Joen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli often suffers from bottlenecks such as proteolytic degradation, complex purification procedures and toxicity towards the expression host. Production of proteins in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies (IBs) can alleviate these

  3. Event by Event fluctuations and Inclusive Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Bialas, A.; Koch, V.

    1999-01-01

    Event-by-event observables are compared with conventional inclusive measurements. We find that moments of event-by-event fluctuations are closely related to inclusive correlation functions. Implications for upcomming heavy ion experiments are discussed.

  4. Inclusive outreach practices in Palaeontology: Inclusive-Coworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Frank, Alejandra; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Fesharaki, Omid

    2017-04-01

    Previous experiences with people with both physical and intellectual functional diversity around palaeontological issues have demonstrated the important value of science outreach directed to people with disabilities. The aforementioned practices act twofold: as a learning tool and also improving the quality of life of the participants and thus, their self-image. All these pioneer experiences were the first step in a process of developing new attitudes contributing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of United Nations, where among the 17 goals proposed an effective social inclusion of people with disabilities is required. For this, real inclusive practices in geological outreach are imperious. A close cooperation with all the parts (researchers and participants), in a kind of coworking attitude is needed. This Inclusive-Coworking is considered in the sense of social gathering in order to share equal values and look for the synergy that this different outlook implies. And what is more important: the change of role of the previously learners into an active part of the scientific outreach, providing the adequate methodology for that. The offer of non-formal learning activities normally includes the participation of university professors and researchers in Science Week editions. During the 2016 session in Madrid, four adults with intellectual disability who were participants in the previous edition, contributed in the palaeontological workshop. They were in charge of four of the eight modules explaining the origin of fossils and how to collect them, the evolution of equids' limbs, and the main dentition types in vertebrates to the twenty 16 year old secondary students who attended the workshop. During the development of the experience all the students were pleased with the inclusive approach, and the interaction of all participants was fruitful. Although the explanations took a bit more time when made by our functional diverse fellows, all the abstracts concepts

  5. Microvillous inclusion disease (microvillous atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulet Olivier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID or microvillous atrophy is a congenital disorder of the intestinal epithelial cells that presents with persistent life-threatening watery diarrhea and is characterized by morphological enterocyte abnormalities. MVID manifests either in the first days of life (early-onset form or in the first two months (late-onset form of life. MVID is a very rare disorder of unknown origin, probably transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. To date, no prevalence data are available. Ultrastructural analyses reveal: 1 a partial to total atrophy of microvilli on mature enterocytes with apical accumulation of numerous secretory granules in immature enterocytes; 2 the highly characteristic inclusion bodies containing rudimentary or fully differentiated microvilli in mature enterocytes. Light microscopy shows accumulation of PAS-positive granules at the apical pole of immature enterocytes, together with atrophic band indicating microvillus atrophy and, in parallel, an intracellular PAS or CD10 positive line (marking the microvillous inclusion bodies seen on electron microscopy. Intestinal failure secondary to diarrhea is definitive. To date, no curative therapy exists and children with MVID are totally dependent on parenteral nutrition. Long-term outcome is generally poor, due to metabolic decompensation, repeated states of dehydration, infectious and liver complications related to the parenteral nutrition. As MVID is a very rare disorder, which is extremely difficult to diagnose and manage, children with MVID should be transferred to specialized pediatric gastro-intestinal centers, if possible, a center equipped to perform small bowel transplantation. Early small bowel transplantation resulting in intestinal autonomy gives new hope for disease management and outcome.

  6. Changes in the anti-inflammatory activity of soy isoflavonoid genistein versus genistein incorporated in two types of cyclodextrin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danciu CorinaTiulea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isoflavonoid genistein represents the major active compound from soybean, the vegetal product from Glycine max (Fabaceae. The aim of this study is to prove that genistein was incorporated in two semisynthetic cyclodextrins, beta-cyclodextrin derivatives: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and randomly-methylated-beta-cyclodextrin as well as to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of genistein with that of genistein incorporated in these two types of semisynthetic cyclodextrins. Results The animal studies were conducted on 8-week old C57BL/6 J female mice. Inflammation was induced in both ears of each mouse by topical application of 10 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-3-acetate dissolved in 0.1 ml solvent (acetone : dimethylsulfoxide in a molar ratio 9:1. Thirty minutes later treatment was applied. The inflammatory reaction was correlated with increased values in ear thickness. Treatment with genistein and genistein incorporated in the two cyclodextrins led to decreased values for ear thickness. Better anti-inflammatory action was found for the complexes of genistein. Both haematoxylin-eosin analysis and CD45 marker expression are in agreement with these findings. Conclusions Results allow concluding that genistein is an active anti-inflammatory phytocompound and its complexation with hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin derivatives leads to a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  8. Teaching Competences and Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teaching competencies that are conducive to good educational practices in relation to inclusion, from the perspective of teachers. The methodology employed in the study is descriptive/comprehensive, and of an exploratory nature. By means of four case studies, the perceptions of teachers from two secondary schools—characterized by the Spanish Educational Administration as having “good practices”— are examined. The techniques used for information collection in this study include documentary analysis, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The findings emphasize the importance of strategic skills, combined with innovation and creativity, among others.

  9. Principals' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carol; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 65 elementary, junior, and high school principals investigated attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusion. No clear definition of inclusion emerged, but principals generally viewed inclusion as most appropriate for students with mild disabilities. Also, results indicated that teachers were not adequately prepared to implement…

  10. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  11. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  12. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  13. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  14. "Inclusion in Practice": Does Practice Make Perfect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Discusses four issues raised in this special issue: (1) problems with the term "inclusion"; (2) reductionist approaches to inclusive education; (3) politics of special education research and the need to include parent and student voices; and (4) preparation of teachers for inclusive education. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  15. Inclusive Classes in Physical Education: Teachers' Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloi, Gabriela Gallucci; Manzini, Eduardo José; Spoldaro, Diego Machado; Zacarias, Lucas Ventura

    2016-01-01

    The successful inclusion of students with special needs in physical education classes requires much planning and preparation. Lack of preparation of physical education teachers working in inclusive settings in Brazil has demonstrated the need for specialized training in strategies for implementing inclusion. The goal of this study was to identify,…

  16. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  17. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  18. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  19. Existence of solutions of functional differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions of a functional differential inclusion. By using the variation of parameters formula we convert the functional differential inclusion into an integral inclusion and prove the existence of a fixed point of the set-valued mapping with the help of the Kakutani-Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem.

  20. Semi-inclusive DIS: Factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-10

    In this talk, we will present a QCD factorization theorem for the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. There has been considerable experimental and theoretical interest in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. For example, by studying the polarized and unpolarized SIDIS, one will be able to identify the sea quark distribution and polarization in nucleon, and the experimental results from the HERMES collaboration have revealed nontrivial sea structure in nucleon [1]. More recently, SIDIS opened a new window to study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions and fragmentation functions from the low transverse momentum hadron production. The transverse momentum distribution of the final state hadron is directly related to the transverse momentum dependence of the parton distributions and fragmentation. These studies will provide new opportunities to explore the partonic structure of nucleon, especially the three-dimension distribution of partons inside nucleon. The DIS experiments, including HERMES, COMPAS, and JLab Hall B collaborations, have studied various azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS. In particular, the HERMES collaboration found sizable single spin asymmetries in these processes involving nontrivial QCD effects and hadron structure.