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Sample records for beta-aminobutyric acid-induced stress

  1. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Swathy, S. S.; Indira, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The o...

  2. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathy, S S; Indira, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 microL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies.

  3. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  4. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    , and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...... morphological hippocampal damage, oxidative stress and apoptotic neuronal death were increased. Since metallothionein-I+II levels were lower, and those of inducible nitric oxide synthase higher, these concomitant changes are likely to contribute to the observed increased oxidative stress and neuronal death...

  5. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  6. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h{sup −1} and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y{sub X/S} of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m{sup 2}.

  7. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario

    2014-02-28

    Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100-1100mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15mg/gh were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum YX/S of 0.5g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16g/m(2).

  8. Salidroside protects against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus via suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Pei-Pei; Zhen, Jun-Li; Cai, Yun-Lei; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous mechanisms by which the brain generates seizures. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Salidroside (SDS) extracted from Rhodiola rosea L. shows multiple bioactive properties, such as neuroprotection and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explored the role of SDS in kainic acid (KA)-induced SE and investigated the underlying mechanism. Latency to SE increased in the SDS-pretreated mice compared to the KA group, while the percentage of incidence of SE was significantly reduced. These results suggested that pretreatment with SDS not only delayed SE, but it also decreased the incidence of SE induced by KA. KA increased MDA level and reduced the production of SOD and GSH at multiple timepoints after KA administration. SDS inhibited the change of MDA, SOD and GSH induced by KA prior to SE onset, indicating that SDS protects against KA-induced SE via suppressing oxidative stress. Based on these results, we investigated the possible molecular mechanism of SDS. Pretreatment with SDS reversed the KA-induced decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); increased the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity in KA-treated mice, which had no demonstrable effect on SIRT1 mRNA and protein; and suppressed the KA-induced increase in Ace-FoxO1. These results showed that AMPK/SIRT1/FoxO1 signaling is possibly the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection by SDS.

  9. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide. Silenced catalase expression increased the susceptibility of the formerly resistant cancer cell line BT-20 to oxidative stress.

  10. Quantification of induced resistance against Phytophthora species expressing GFP as a vital marker: beta-aminobutyric acid but not BTH protects potato and Arabidopsis from infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Mauch, Felix

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY Induced resistance was studied in the model pathosystem Arabidopsis-Phytophthora brassicae (formerly P. porri) in comparison with the agronomically important late blight disease of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. For the quantification of disease progress, both Phytophthora species were transformed with the vector p34GFN carrying the selectable marker gene neomycine phosphotransferase (nptII) and the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (gfp). Eighty five per cent of the transformants of P. brassicae and P. infestans constitutively expressed GFP at high levels at all developmental stages both in vitro and in planta. Transformants with high GFP expression and normal in vitro growth and virulence were selected to quantify pathogen growth by measuring the in planta emitted GFP fluorescence. This non-destructive monitoring of the infection process was applied to analyse the efficacy of two chemical inducers of disease resistance, a functional SA-analogue, benzothiadiazole (BTH), and beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) which is involved in priming mechanisms of unknown nature. BABA pre-treatment (300 microm) via soil drench applied 24 h before inoculation completely protected the susceptible Arabidopsis accession Landsberg erecta (Ler) from infection with P. brassicae. A similar treatment with BTH (330 microm) did not induce resistance. Spraying the susceptible potato cultivar Bintje with BABA (1 mm) 2 days before inoculation resulted in a phenocopy of the incompatible interaction shown by the resistant potato cultivar Matilda while BTH (1.5 mm) did not protect Bintje from severe infection. Thus, in both pathosystems, the mechanisms of induced resistance appeared to be similar, suggesting that the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae pathosystem is a promising model for the molecular analysis of induced resistance mechanisms of potato against the late blight disease.

  11. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that mitochondr

  12. Melatonin Mediates Protective Effects against Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Death through Safeguarding ER Stress and Mitochondrial Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feixiao; Shi, Cai; Chen, Qingjie; Hang, Weijian; Xia, Liangtao; Wu, Yue; Tao, Sophia Z.; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Anbing; Chen, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. Melatonin is known to protect hippocampal neurons from KA-induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanisms underlying melatonin protective effects against neuronal mitochondria disorder and ER stress remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the sheltering roles of melatonin during KA-induced apoptosis by focusing on mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress mediated signal pathways. KA causes mitochondrial dynamic disorder and dysfunction through calpain activation, leading to neuronal apoptosis. Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and calpain inhibitor calpeptin can significantly restore mitochondrial morphology and function. ER stress can also be induced by KA treatment. ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuates ER stress-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial disorder. It is worth noting that calpain activation was also inhibited under PBA administration. Thus, we concluded that melatonin effectively inhibits KA-induced calpain upregulation/activation and mitochondrial deterioration by alleviating Ca2+ overload and ER stress. PMID:28293167

  13. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  15. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  16. Interaction between caspase-8 activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Toru; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oyamada, Hideto; Morio, Yuri; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2007-11-30

    The accumulation of hydrophobic bile acid, such as glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), in the liver has been thought to induce hepatocellular damage in human chronic cholestatic liver diseases. We previously reported that GCDCA-induced apoptosis was promoted by both mitochondria-mediated and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways in rat hepatocytes. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between these pathways in GCDCA-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with GCDCA (100-500microM) with or without a caspase-8 inhibitor, Z-IETD-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK) (30microM) for 3-24h. We demonstrated the presence of both apoptotic pathways in these cells; that is, we showed increases in cleaved caspase-3 proteins, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the expression of ER resident molecular chaperone Bip mRNA and ER stress response-associated transcription factor Chop mRNA. On the other hand, pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK significantly reduced the increases, compared with treatment with GCDCA alone. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis showed that treatment with GCDCA increased the cleavage of BAP31, an integral membrane protein of ER, and pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK suppressed the increase of caspase-8 and BAP31 cleavage. In conclusion, these results suggest that intact activated caspase-8 may promote and amplify the ER stress response by cleaving BAP31 in GCDCA-induced apoptotic cells.

  17. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  18. Astaxanthin improves behavioral disorder and oxidative stress in prenatal valproic acid-induced mice model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Khan, Fazlur Rahman; Zaman, Fahmida; Mahmud Reza, Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to valproic acid on gestational day 12.5 may lead to the impaired behavior in the offspring, which is similar to the human autistic symptoms. To the contrary, astaxanthin shows neuroprotective effect by its antioxidant mechanism. We aimed to (i) develop mice model of autism and (ii) investigate the effect of astaxanthin on such model animals. Valproic acid (600 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to the pregnant mice on gestational day 12.5. Prenatal valproic acid-exposed mice were divided into 2 groups on postnatal day 25 and astaxanthin (2mg/kg) was given to the experimental group (VPA_AST, n=10) while saline was given to the control group (VPA, n=10) for 4 weeks. Behavioral test including social interaction, open field and hot-plate were conducted on postnatal day 25 and oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, advanced protein oxidation product, nitric oxide, glutathione, and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were estimated on postnatal day 26 to confirm mice model of autism and on postnatal day 56 to assess the effect of astaxanthin. On postnatal day 25, prenatal valproic acid-exposed mice exhibited (i) delayed eye opening (ii) longer latency to respond painful stimuli, (iii) poor sociability and social novelty and (iv) high level of anxiety. In addition, an increased level of oxidative stress was found by determining different oxidative stress markers. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (pAstaxanthin improves the impaired behavior in animal model of autism presumably by its antioxidant activity.

  19. Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 in Arachidonic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in HUVECs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-hua; WANG Yun; CHEN Li-da; CAO Jin-xiu; ZHOU Wen-jing

    2005-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with arachidonic acid (AA). After 24 h exposure to AA, typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by Giemsa stain and transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic ratio in HUVECs treated with 50 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L and 150 μmol/L AA were (20.7±3.6) %, (38.6±4.3) % and (52.5±7.5) % respectively. Contrarily, low concentration of AA (≤25 μmol/L) exerted no influence on cell viability by MTT assay. Intracellular malondialdehyde increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner upon AA treatment and the opposite tendency was found for the reduced glutathione. Western Blots show that apoptosis triggered by AA was associated with the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, but not with Bax and p53. Pretreatment with 50 μmol/L α-tocopherol reduced AA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, also inhibited the down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggested that high concentration of free AA could induce apoptosis in HUVECs probably via oxidative stress and down-regulation of Bcl-2.

  20. Soyasaponins Protect Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes:Structure-Activity Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-zhi HE; Jia-ding CHEN; Yan-hong HU; Jin-bin CHEN; Jian-lin LV; Long-ying ZHA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the structure and activity in protection of soyasaponins against palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress in primary mouse hepatocytes.Methods The primary mouse hepatocytes were treated with 0.05 mmol/L PA in the presence or absence of soyasaponins (10μg/ml) for 16h. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), triglyceride (TG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined.Results PA treatment significantly lowered cellular SOD and GSH-Px activities (P<0.05), increased the contents of MDA and TG (P<0.05) and the production of ROS in mitochondria was elevated (P<0.05). When compared to the treatment of PA alone, the combined treatment of soyasaponins and PA significantly increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px (P<0.05) and decreased the contents of MDA, TG and ROS (P<0.05). It was found that soyasaponin-A1 or A2 significantly increased the cellular activities of SOD and GSH-Px (P<0.05) and decreased the contents of MDA and ROS as compared with soyasapogenol-A (P<0.05). Similarly, soyasaponin-I significantly increased activities of cellular SOD and GSH-Px (P<0.05) and decreased the content of ROS as compared with soyasapogenol-B (P<0.05).Conclusion Soyasaponins possess antioxidant activity against PA-induced oxidative stress in primary mouse hepatocytes. Soyasaponin-A1, A2 and I are stronger than their corresponding soyasapogenols (soyasapogenol-A and B) in antioxidant activity, probably due to the sugar moieties presented in their chemical structures.

  1. Protopanaxtriol protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced oxidative stress in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-feng; Li, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhao; Yan, Jia-qing; Wen, Zhi-lin; Xia, Cong-yuan; Mou, Zheng; Wang, Zhen-zhen; He, Wen-bin; Guo, Xiao-feng; Wei, Gui-ning; Chen, Nai-hong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Protopanaxtriol (Ppt) is extracted from Panax ginseng Mayer. In the present study, we investigated whether Ppt could protect against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced oxidative stress in a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD) and explored the mechanisms of action. Methods: Male SD rats were treated with 3-NP (20 mg/kg on d 1, and 15 mg/kg on d 2–5, ip). The rats received Ppt (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, po) daily prior to 3-NP administration. Nimodipine (12 mg/kg, po) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 100 mg/kg, po) was used as positive control drugs. The body weight and behavior were monitored within 5 d. Then the animals were sacrificed, neuronal damage in striatum was estimated using Nissl staining. Hsp70 expression was detected with immunohistochemistry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. The levels of components in the Nrf2 pathway were measured with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: 3-NP resulted in a marked reduction in the body weight and locomotion activity accompanied by progressive striatal dysfunction. In striatum, 3-NP caused ROS generation mainly in neurons rather than in astrocytes and induced Hsp70 expression. Administration of Ppt significantly alleviated 3-NP-induced changes of body weight and behavior, decreased ROS production and restored antioxidant enzymes activities in striatum. Moreover, Ppt directly scavenged free radicals, increased Nrf2 entering nucleus, and the expression of its downstream products heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidase 1 (NQO1) in striatum. Similar effects were obtained with the positive control drugs nimodipine or NAC. Conclusion: Ppt exerts a protective action against 3-NP-induced oxidative stress in the rat model of HD, which is associated with its anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25640478

  2. Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy enhances bile acid-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria J; Velasco, Elena; Monte, Maria J; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-08-15

    Ethanol is able to cross the placenta, which may cause teratogenicity. Here we investigated whether ethanol consumption during pregnancy (ECDP), even at doses unable to cause malformation, might increase the susceptibility of fetal rat liver to oxidative insults. Since cholestasis is a common condition in alcoholic liver disease and pregnancy, exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) has been used here as the oxidative insult. The mothers received drinking water without or with ethanol from 4 weeks before mating until term, when placenta, maternal liver, and fetal liver were used. Ethanol induced a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio in these organs, together with enhanced gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase activities in both placenta and fetal liver. Lipid peroxidation in placenta and fetal liver was enhanced by ethanol, although it had no effect on caspase-3 activity. Although the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher by fetal (FHs) than by maternal (AHs) hepatocytes in short-term cultures, the production of ROS in response to the presence of varying GCDCA concentrations was higher in AHs and was further increased by ECDP, which was associated to a more marked impairment in mitochondrial function. Moreover, GCDCA-induced apoptosis was increased by ECDP, as revealed by enhanced Bax-alpha/Bcl-2 ratio (both in AHs and FHs) and the activity of caspase-8 (only in AHs) and caspase-3. In sum, our results indicate that although AHs are more prone than FHs to producing ROS, at doses unable to cause maternal liver damage ethanol consumption causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal liver.

  3. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Li, Le; Gao, Zhaozhou; Wu, Honghong; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.

  4. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro...... respond to gibberellic acid by secreting an array of proteins and provide a unique system for the analysis of plant protein secretion. Perturbation of protein secretion in gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers by two independent mechanisms, heat shock and tunicamycin treatment, demonstrated overlapping...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  5. Gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers responding to heat shock or tunicamycin provide insight into the N-glycoproteome, protein secretion, and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2014-02-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro respond to gibberellic acid by secreting an array of proteins and provide a unique system for the analysis of plant protein secretion. Perturbation of protein secretion in gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers by two independent mechanisms, heat shock and tunicamycin treatment, demonstrated overlapping effects on both the intracellular and secreted proteomes. Proteins in a total of 22 and 178 two-dimensional gel spots changing in intensity in extracellular and intracellular fractions, respectively, were identified by mass spectrometry. Among these are proteins with key roles in protein processing and secretion, such as calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase, proteasome subunits, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. Sixteen heat shock proteins in 29 spots showed diverse responses to the treatments, with only a minority increasing in response to heat shock. The majority, all of which were small heat shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions. This represents major progress in characterization of the barley N-glycoproteome, since only four of these sites were previously described. Overall, these findings considerably advance knowledge of the plant protein secretion system in general and emphasize the versatility of the aleurone layer as a model system for studying plant protein secretion.

  6. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  7. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  8. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  9. Kainic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress model%红藻氨酸诱导内质网应激模型的途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁磊; 张海霞; 钱诗蕾; 徐斌; 龚济钦; 刘湘华; 唐园; 禹华旭

    2014-01-01

    背景:前期研究表明,海马内注射红藻氨酸海可诱发兴奋性红藻氨酸受体KA1亚受体在海马神经元的表达明显上调,内质网应激标志物磷酸化真核翻译起始因子2α表达增加并伴随细胞死亡。目的:探讨红藻氨酸海马内注射后内质网应激发生的机制。方法:取昆明小鼠32只,将0.15 nmol 红藻氨酸注入海马CA1区域,注射时间为60 s。分别于红藻氨酸注射后第1,2,3,4,5,6,8,12小时灌注取脑,灌注取脑前进行Bederson体征评分,然后行全脑切片FJB染色分析与免疫荧光双标记观察。结果与结论:①红藻氨酸注射后第3,4,5,6,8小时,Bederson 体征评分表明中枢神经功能出现明显损伤,FJB染色示小鼠海马内神经元死亡明显;注射后第1,2,12小时,Bederson体征评分中枢神经功能未见明显损伤,FJB染色小鼠海马神经元死亡结果不明显。②根据FJB结果,取第3,8小时的脑片做免疫组化。海马内注射红藻氨酸后导致海马神经元中KA1和磷酸化真核翻译起始因子2α在相同的时间点表达明显上调,将KA1与磷酸化真核翻译起始因子2α图片结果进行叠加处理,两者完全重合,表明KA1的表达和内质网应激发生在同一个神经细胞内。结果表明红藻氨酸首先诱导了兴奋性膜上受体KA1表达的上调,其KA1的表达上调可能引起细胞内质网功能紊乱,导致内质网应激反应,并进一步促进了神经细胞的死亡。%BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that kainic acid injected into hippocampus can significantly upregulate the expression of excitatory KA1 subunit of the kainate receptor in the hippocampus, and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, accompanied by celldeath. OBJECTIVE:To explore the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress after kainic acid is injected into the

  10. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis.

  11. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  12. Sulindac attenuates valproic acid-induced oxidative stress levels in primary cultured cortical neurons and ameliorates repetitive/stereotypic-like movement disorders in Wistar rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Cailing; Yuan, Guoyan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Li, Ruixi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants have neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodevelopental disorders, such as autism. In the present study, the possible neuroprotective properties of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were investigated in vitro using cultured cortical neurons with valproic acid (VPA)-induced neurotoxicity, as well as in vivo through the behavioral analysis of rats prenatally exposed to VPA as a model of autism. VPA induced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cell viability in primary cultured cortical neurons established from timed-pregnant (embryonic day 18) Wistar rat pups. However, co-incubation of the neurons with VPA and sulindac reduced oxidative stress and increased cell viability. The rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection with one of the following: VPA, sulindac, VPA and sulindac, or physiological saline, and their offspring were subjected to the open field test. During the test trials, repetitive/stereotypic-like movements for each rat were recorded and analyzed. The results revealed that treatment with both sulindac and VPA reduced the VPA-induced repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and the sulindac and VPA-treated animals responded better in the open field test compared to the VPA-treated animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of sulindac may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autism, suggesting that the upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway disrupts oxidative homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to autism.

  13. Bile Acid-Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In nucleated cells, bile acids may activate cation channels subsequently leading to entry of Ca2+. In erythrocytes, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity triggers eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Eryptosis is triggered by bile duct ligation, an effect partially attributed to conjugated bilirubin. The present study explored, whether bile acids may stimulate eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes have been identified utilizing annexin V binding, cell volume estimated from forward scatter, cytosolic Ca2+ activity determined using Fluo-3 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface utilizing specific antibodies. Results: The exposure of human erythrocytes to glycochenodesoxycholic (GCDC and taurochenodesoxycholic (TCDC acid was followed by a significant decrease of forward scatter and significant increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence, ceramide abundance as well as annexin V binding. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusion: Bile acids stimulate suicidal cell death, an effect paralleled by and in part due to Ca2+ entry and ceramide. The bile acid induced eryptosis may in turn lead to accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes and, thus, may contribute to anemia in cholestatic patients.

  14. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  15. Quinolinic acid induces oxidative stress in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, A; Galván-Arzate, S; Lisý, V; Ali, S F; Duhart, H M; Osorio-Rico, L; Ríos, C; St'astný, F

    2001-03-26

    The oxidative action of quinolinic acid (QUIN), and the protective effects of glutathione (GSH), and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), were tested in rat brain synaptosomes, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified after the exposure of synaptosomes to increasing concentrations of QUIN (25-500 microM). The potency of QUIN to induce lipid peroxidation (LP) was tested as a regional index of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production, and the antioxidant actions of both GSH (50 microM) and APV (250 microM) on QUIN-induced LP were evaluated in synaptosomes prepared from different brain regions. QUIN induced concentration-dependent increases in ROS formation and TBARS in all regions analyzed, but increased production of fluorescent peroxidized lipids only in the striatum and the hippocampus, whereas both GSH and APV decreased this index. These results suggest that the excitotoxic action of QUIN involves regional selectivity in the oxidative status of brain synaptosomes, and may be prevented by substances exhibiting antagonism at the NMDA receptor.

  16. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  17. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  18. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.

  19. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Faccenda, Franco; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variety of pemphigus, presenting with clinical and histopathologic features identical to idiopathic form. Medical history plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of drug-induced pemphigus. A large variety of drugs have been implicated in its pathogenesis and they may induce acantholysis via biochemical and/or immune mechanism. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman affected by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus and discuss its pathogenetic mechanism.

  20. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  1. [Sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis of the jaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Balázs; Vajta, László; Szalma, József

    2015-11-15

    The tendency for bisphosphonate and non-bisphosphonate (eg.: antiresorptive or anti-angiogenesis drugs) induced osteonecrosis is increasing. Treatment of these patients is a challenge both for dentists and for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Cooperation with the drug prescribing general medicine colleagues to prevent osteonecrosis is extremely important. Furthermore, prevention should include dental focus elimination, oral hygienic instructions and education, dental follow-up and, in case of manifest necrosis, referral to maxillofacial departments. Authors outline the difficulties of conservative and surgical treatment of a patient with sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis. The patient became symptomless and the operated area healed entirely six and twelve months postoperatively. A long term success further follow-up is necessary to verify long-term success.

  2. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  3. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  4. Structure and rheological properties of acid-induced egg white protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Velde, van de F.; Stijnman, A.; Pijpekamp, van de A.; Visschers, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the rheological properties of acid-induced gels prepared of industrial spray-dried egg white proteins (EWP) with the acid-induced gels prepared of ovalbumin (OA) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Also we aimed to form transparent gels of EWP by means of the cold-gelation process. W

  5. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products.

  6. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  7. Nucleotide sequence and spatial expression pattern of a drought- and abscisic Acid-induced gene of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, A L; Cohen, A; Moses, M S; Bray, E A

    1991-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of le16, a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gene induced by drought stress and regulated by abscisic acid specifically in aerial vegetative tissue, is presented. The single open reading frame contained within the gene has the capacity to encode a polypeptide of 12.7 kilodaltons and is interrupted by a small intron. The predicted polypeptide is rich in leucine, glycine, and alanine and has an isoelectric point of 8.7. The amino terminus is hydrophobic and characteristic of signal sequences that target polypeptides for export from the cytoplasm. There is homology (47.2% identity) between the amino terminus of the LE 16 polypeptide and the corresponding amino terminal domain of the maize phospholipid transfer protein. le16 was expressed in drought-stressed leaf, petiole, and stem tissue and to a much lower extent in the pericarp of mature green tomato fruit and developing seeds. No expression was detected in the pericarp of red fruit or in drought-stressed roots. Expression of le16 was also induced in leaf tissue by a variety of other abiotic stresses including polyethylene glycol-mediated water deficit, salinity, cold stress, and heat stress. None of these stresses or direct applications of abscisic acid induced the expression of le16 in the roots of the same plants. The unique expression characteristics of this gene indicates that novel regulatory mechanisms, in addition to endogenous abscisic acid, are involved in controlling gene expression.

  8. Linoleic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux causes peroxynitrite generation and protein nitrotyrosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available It is well known that excessive non-esterified fatty acids in diabetes contribute to the pathogenesis of renal complications although the mechanism remains elusive. Enhanced oxidative stress has been hypothesized as a unified factor contributing to diabetic complications and increased protein nitrotyrosylation has been reported in the kidneys of diabetic patients. In the current manuscript we described that linoleic acid (LA caused mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux and peroxynitrite production, along with increased nitrotyrosine levels of cellular proteins in primary human mesangial cells. The peroxynitrite production by LA was found to depend on mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux. Downregulation of hsp90beta1, which has been previously shown to be essential for polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux, significantly diminished LA-responsive mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux and the coupled peroxynitrite generation, implicating a critical role of hsp90beta1 in the LA responses. Our results further demonstrated that mitochondrial complexes I and III were directly involved in the LA-induced peroxynitrite generation. Using the well established type 2 diabetic animal model db/db mice, we observed a dramatically enhanced LA responsive mitochondrial Ca(2+ efflux and protein nitrotyrosylation in the kidney. Our study thus demonstrates a cause-effect relationship between LA and peroxynitrite or protein nitrotyrosylation and provides a novel mechanism for lipid-induced nephropathy in diabetes.

  9. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Satoh, Kiyotoshi; Hamada, Hironobu; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2010-04-02

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related fatal disease with no effective cure. Recently, high dose of ascorbate in cancer treatment has been reexamined. We studied whether high dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of four human mesothelioma cell lines. High dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of all mesothelioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. We further clarified the cell killing mechanism that ascorbic acid induced reactive oxygen species and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo experiment, intravenous administration of ascorbic acid significantly decreased the growth rate of mesothelioma tumor inoculated in mice. These data suggest that ascorbic acid may have benefits for patients with mesothelioma.

  10. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  11. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.

  12. Extracellular and intracellular arachidonic acid-induced contractions in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipeanu, CM; Brailoiu, E; Petrescu, G; Nelemans, SA

    1998-01-01

    Arachidonic acid induced contractions of de-endothelized rat aortic rings. A more potent effect was obtained after intracellular administration of arachidonic acid using liposomes. Contractions induced by extracellular arachidonic acid were inhibited similarly to phenylephrine-induced contractions b

  13. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  14. Oral Grapeseed Oil and Sesame Oil in Experimental Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Ulcerative colitis (UC is a multi-factorial disease with unknown etiology and has many clinical manifestations. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of sesame oil (SO and grapeseed oil (GSO on acetic acid-induced UC in rats. Materials and Methods Eighty male rats were divided into eight groups as health control (HC1, received normal saline; HC2, received SO; HC3, received GSO; negative control (NC, UC and normal saline; positive control (PC, UC and mesalamine; SO, UC and SO; GSO, UC and GSO, and SO + GSO. The daily weight changes, serum levels of oxidative stress markers and lipid profile plus colon macroscopic and microscopic histological changes were measured at the end of the seventh day. Results Significant differences were detected between HC1 and PC on the 3rd (P = 0.002, 4th (0.013 and 6th days (0.014 and between HC1 and NC on the 4th day (0.027 in weight of rats. Use of GSO alone or in combination with SO decreased the extent of the changes both in macroscopic and microscopic indices and also at the inflammation level. The most significant decrease in the MDA level and the most obvious increase in the TAC belonged to the GSO group in comparison to the NC group. The lowest cholesterol (51.43 ± 5.62 mg/dL and HDL levels (29.29 ± 6.24 mg/dL were detected in response to SO consumption in comparison to NC group (P = 0.030 and P = 0.257, respectively. Conclusions GSO in combination with SO may be considered as the treatment of choice for UC based on antioxidant and histopathological evaluations.

  15. Pistacia lentiscus resin regulates intestinal damage and inflammation in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Triantafillidis, John K; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2011-11-01

    Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) of the Anacardiaceae family has exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in patients with Crohn's disease. This study was based on the hypothesis that mastic inhibits intestinal damage in inflammatory bowel disease, regulating inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelium. Four different dosages of P. lentiscus powder in the form of powder were administered orally to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats. Eighty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: A, control; B, colitic; C-F, colitic rats daily supplemented with P. lentiscus powder at (C) 50 mg/kg, (D) 100 mg/kg, (E) 200 mg/kg, and (F) 300 mg/kg of body weight; and G, colitic rats treated daily with cortisone (25 μg/kg of body weight). Colonic damage was assessed microscopically. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and malonaldehyde were measured in colonic specimens. Results were expressed as mean ± SE values. Histological amelioration of colitis (P≤.001) and significant differences in colonic indices occurred after 3 days of treatment. Daily administration of 100 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight decreased all inflammatory cytokines (P≤.05), whereas 50 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight and cortisone treatment reduced only ICAM-1 (P≤.05 and P≤.01, respectively). Malonaldehyde was significantly suppressed in all treated groups (P≤.01). IL-10 remained unchanged. Cytokines and malonaldehyde remained unaltered after 6 days of treatment. Thus P. lentiscus powder could possibly have a therapeutic role in Crohn's disease, regulating oxidant/antioxidant balance and modulating inflammation.

  16. Bile-acid-induced cell injury and protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria J Perez; Oscar Briz

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have characterized the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatocyte injury caused by the retention of hydrophobic bile acids (BAs) in cholestatic diseases. BAs may disrupt cell membranes through their detergent action on lipid components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen species that, in turn, oxidatively modify lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and eventually cause hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Several pathways are involved in triggering hepatocyte apoptosis. Toxic BAs can activate hepatocyte death receptors directly and induce oxidative damage, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. When these compounds are taken up and accumulate inside biliary cells, they can also cause apoptosis. Regarding extrahepatic tissues, the accumulation of BAs in the systemic circulation may contribute to endothelial injury in the kidney and lungs. In gastrointestinal cells, BAs may behave as cancer promoters through an indirect mechanism involving oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as acting as selection agents for apoptosis-resistant cells. The accumulation of BAs may have also deleterious effects on placental and fetal cells. However, other BAs, such as ursodeoxycholic acid, have been shown to modulate BA-induced injury in hepatocytes. The major beneficial effects of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid are protection against cytotoxicity due to more toxic BAs; the stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion; antioxidant activity, due in part to an enhancement in glutathione levels; and the inhibition of liver cell apoptosis. Other natural BAs or their derivatives, such as cholyl-Nmethylglycine or cholylsarcosine, have also aroused pharmacological interest owing to their protective properties.

  17. Pu-Erh tea and GABA attenuates oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pu-Erh tea is one of the most-consumed beverages due to its taste and the anti-anxiety-producing effect of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) if contains. However the protective effects of Pu-Erh tea and its constituent, GABA to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure have not been fully investigated. Methods We analyzed the effect of Pu-Erh tea leaf (PETL) and GABA on KA-induced neuronal injury in vivo and in vitro. Results PETL and GABA reduced the maximal seizure classes, pred...

  18. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  19. Protective effect of hispidulin on kainic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane; Huang, Shu Kuei

    2015-05-15

    Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound which is an active ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hispidulin protects against seizures induced by kainic acid, a glutamate analog with excitotoxic properties. The results indicated that intraperitoneally administering hispidulin (10 or 50mg/kg) to rats 30 min before intraperitoneally injecting kainic acid (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and decreased seizure score. In addition, hispidulin substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the suppression of microglial activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, hispidulin reduced kainic acid-induced c-Fos expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. These data suggest that hispidulin has considerable antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiinflammatory effects on kainic acid-induced seizures in rats.

  20. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Shun; Chen, Xue-Mei; Wan, Jiang-Min; Gui, Hai-Bo; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Du, Xiao-Gang

    2017-02-22

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis.

  1. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-shun; Chen, Xue-mei; Wan, Jiang-min; Gui, Hai-bo; Ruan, Xiong-zhong; Du, Xiao-gang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis. PMID:28225005

  2. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  3. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Clavulanic acid induces penile erection and yawning in male rats: comparison with apomorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Angioni, Laura; Argiolas, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning in a dose dependent manner when given intraperitoneally (IP, 0.05-5mg/kg), perorally (OS, 0.1-5mg/kg) and intracereboventricularly (ICV, 0.01-5 μg/rat) to male rats. The effect resembles that of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine given subcutaneously (SC) (0.02-0.25mg/kg), although the responses of the latter followed a U inverted dose-response curve, disappearing at doses higher than 0.1mg/kg. Clavulanic acid responses were reduced by about 55% by haloperidol, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg IP), and by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist (2 μg/rat ICV), both given 15 min before clavulanic acid. A higher reduction of clavulanic acid responses (more than 80%) was also found with morphine, an opioid receptor agonist (5mg/kg IP), and with mianserin, a serotonin 5HT(2c) receptor antagonist (0.2mg/kg SC). In contrast, no reduction was found with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (1mg/kg IP). The ability of haloperidol, d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin and morphine to reduce clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning suggests that clavulanic acid induces these responses, at least in part, by increasing central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine in turn activates oxytocinergic neurotransmission and centrally released oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning. However, since both penile erection and yawning episodes were reduced not only by the blockade of central dopamine and oxytocin receptors and by the stimulation of opioid receptors, which inhibits oxytocinergic neurotransmission, but also by mianserin, an increase of central serotonin neurotransmission is also likely to participate in these clavulanic acid responses.

  5. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  6. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

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    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis.

  7. Comparative neuroprotective profile of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    A possible neuroprotective role has been recently suggested for 3H3MGCoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Here, we sought to determine neuroprotective effect of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were surgically administered quinolinic acid and treated with Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (15, 30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (5, 10 mg/kg) once daily up to 3 weeks. Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated the quinolinic acid induced behavioral (locomotor activity, rotarod performance and beam walk test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, SOD and catalase), mitochondrial enzyme complex alterations in rats suggesting their free radical scavenging potential. Additionally, atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) significantly decrease the TNF-α level and striatal lesion volume in quinolinic acid treated animals indicating their anti-inflammatory effects. In comparing the protective effect of different statins, atorvastatin is effective at both the doses while simvastatin and fluvastatins at respective lower doses were not able to produce the protective effect in quinolinic acid treated animals. These modulations can account, at least partly, for the beneficial effect of statins in our rodent model of striatal degeneration. Our findings show that statins could be explored as possible neuroprotective agents for neurodegenerative disorders such as HD.

  8. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  9. Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid.

  10. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  11. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up.

  12. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  13. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids induce mesenchymal stem cells to increase secretion of angiogenic mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andria N; Muffley, Lara A; Bell, Austin N; Numhom, Surawej; Hocking, Anne M

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent emerging cell-based therapies for diabetes and associated complications. Ongoing clinical trials are using exogenous MSC to treat type 1 and 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-healing wounds due to diabetes. The majority of these trials are aimed at exploiting the ability of these multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to release soluble mediators that reduce inflammation and promote both angiogenesis and cell survival at sites of tissue damage. Growing evidence suggests that MSC secretion of soluble factors is dependent on tissue microenvironment. Despite the contribution of fatty acids to the metabolic environment of type 2 diabetes, almost nothing is known about their effects on MSC secretion of growth factors and cytokines. In this study, human bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to linoleic acid, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, or oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, for seven days in the presence of 5.38 mM glucose. Outcomes measured included MSC proliferation, gene expression, protein secretion and chemotaxis. Linoleic and oleic acids inhibited MSC proliferation and altered MSC expression and secretion of known mediators of angiogenesis. Both unsaturated fatty acids induced MSC to increase secretion of interleukin-6, VEGF and nitric oxide. In addition, linoleic acid but not oleic acid induced MSC to increase production of interleukin-8. Collectively these data suggest that exposure to fatty acids may have functional consequences for MSC therapy. Fatty acids may affect MSC engraftment to injured tissue and MSC secretion of cytokines and growth factors that regulate local cellular responses to injury.

  15. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Tamayama, Y; Nishibe, S

    1995-10-01

    The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

  16. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover.

  17. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  18. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  19. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

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    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  20. Key Proteins of Activating Cell Death Can Be Predicted through a Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxic Stress

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    Hsiu-Ling Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a major neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous seizures accompanied by neurophysiological changes. Repeated seizures can damage the brain as neuronal death occurs. A better understanding of the mechanisms of brain cell death could facilitate the discovery of novel treatments for neurological disorders such as epilepsy. In this study, a model of kainic acid- (KA- induced neuronal death was established to investigate the early protein markers associated with apoptotic cell death due to excitotoxic damage in the rat cortex. The results indicated that KA induces both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the cortex. Incubation with high concentrations (5 and 500 μM, >75% and low concentrations (0.5 pM: 95% and 50 nM: 8% of KA for 180 min led to necrotic and apoptotic cell death, respectively. Moreover, proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated that antiapoptotic proteins, including heat shock protein 70, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, tubulin-B-5, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, were significantly higher in apoptosis than in necrosis induced by KA. Our findings provide direct evidence that several proteins are associated with apoptotic and necrotic cell death in excitotoxicity model. The results indicate that these proteins can be apoptotic biomarkers from the early stages of cell death.

  1. Swertiamarin ameliorates oleic acid induced lipid accumulation and oxidative stress by attenuating gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Soni, Sanket; Gupta, Sarita

    2016-10-01

    Swertiamarin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, is an antidiabetic drug with lipid lowering activity meliorates insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes condition. Therefore, the study was designed to explore the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of swertiamarin in ameliorating NAFLD caused due to hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin resistance. Steatosis was induced in HepG2 cells by supplementing 1mM oleic acid (OA) for 24h which was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets. This was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining and triglyceride accumulation. Swertiamarin (25μg/ml) decreased triglyceride content by 2 folds and effectively reduced LDH release (50%) activity by protecting membrane integrity thus, preventing apoptosis evidenced by reduced cleavage of Caspase 3 and PARP1. We observed that swertiamarin significantly increased the expressions of major insulin signaling proteins like Insulin receptor (IR), PI(3)K, pAkt with concomitant reduction in p307 IRS-1. AMPK was activated by swertiamarin action, thus restoring insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. In addition, qPCR results confirmed OA up-regulated Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS), resulting in increased fatty acid synthesis. Swertiamarin effectively modulated PPAR-α, a major potential regulator of carbohydrate metabolism which, in turn, decreased the levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK, further restricting hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis. Cumulatively, swertiamarin targets potential metabolic regulators AMPK and PPAR-α, through which it regulates hepatic glycemic burden, fat accumulation, insulin resistance and ROS in hepatic steatosis which emphasizes clinical significance of swertiamarin in regulating metabolism and as a suitable candidate for treating NAFLD.

  2. Targeting oxidative stress attenuates trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced inflammatory bowel disease like symptoms in rats: Role of quercetin

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Dodda; Ruchi Chhajed; Jitendriya Mishra; Monalisa Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of quercetin (QCT) against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced clinical, morphological, and biochemical alterations in rats. Materials and Methods: Colitis in rats was induced by administration of TNBS (25 mg dissolved in 0.25 ml of 30% ethanol) 8 cm into the rectum of the rat using a catheter. The animals were divided into six experimental groups (n = 6); naive (saline only without TNBS administration), contro...

  3. Primary and secondary genetic responses after folic acid-induced acute renal injury in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, J P; Chadwick, L J

    1994-12-01

    Folic acid-induced acute renal injury results in dramatic changes in gene expression. Among the genes affected by folic acid treatment are the primary response genes, c-fos and c-myc, which are thought to function to initiate cell cycle events. In this report, changes in the expression of three other genes in response to folic acid injury have been investigated: ornithine decarboxylase, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2). Renal injury was found to cause a rapid decrease in EGF mRNA, which remained absent for several days after the initial injury, gradually returning to normal levels over an approximately 3-wk regeneration and recovery period. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA showed a similar decrease. In contrast, folic acid caused a rapid increase in SGP-2 mRNA, which peaked several days after treatment, decreasing to normal levels over the 3-wk period. The mRNAs for the primary response genes were superinduced in the injured kidneys in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. In contrast, the changes in EGF and SGP-2 mRNA levels were blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that these responses required new protein synthesis during the first few hours after folic acid injury. The opposite but parallel responses in the expression of the EGF and SGP-2 genes suggest that their regulation is coupled to the initial injury-induced dedifferentiation and subsequent return to the fully differentiated state.

  4. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  5. Acupuncture suppresses kainic acid-induced neuronal death and inflammatory events in mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

    2012-09-01

    The administration of kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and produces neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. The present study investigated a possible role of acupuncture in reducing hippocampal cell death and inflammatory events, using a mouse model of kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture treatments at acupoint HT8 or in the tail area bilaterally once a day for 2 days and again immediately after an intraperitoneal injection of KA (30 mg/kg). HT8 is located on the palmar surface of the forelimbs, between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones. Twenty-four hours after the KA injection, neuronal cell survival, the activations of microglia and astrocytes, and mRNA expression of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured in the hippocampus. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, significantly reduced the KA-induced seizure, neuron death, microglial and astrocyte activations, and IL-1β mRNA expression in the hippocampus. The acupuncture stimulation also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α, but it was not significant. These results indicate that acupuncture at HT8 can inhibit hippocampal cell death and suppress KA-induced inflammatory events, suggesting a possible role for acupuncture in the treatment of epilepsy.

  6. Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahboubeh; Madadlou, Ashkan; Khosrowshahi, Asghar; Mohammadifar, Mohammadamin

    2014-09-01

    Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G') measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G' of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G' and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G' but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G' was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G' = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

  7. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

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    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  8. Effect of partial liquid ventilation on oleic acid-induced inflammatory responses in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; WANG Qiang; LIU Ying-long; LI Xiao-feng; LI Jian-an; L(U) Xiao-dong; LING Feng; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury (ALI) in children often results in a high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic cytokines in an immature piglet model of ALI induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced to develop ALI by oleic acid.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=6): (1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with FC-77 (10 ml/kg) group.Results Compared with MV group, PLV group got better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate, mean blood pressure, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), PaO2/FiO2 and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).Partial liquid ventilation reduced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TN F-α both in plasma and tissue concentrations compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusions Partial liquid ventilation provides protective effects against inflammatory responses in the lungs of oleic acid-induced immature piglets.

  9. Viscoelastic properties and fractal analysis of acid-induced SPI gels at different ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-jun; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-01-30

    The viscoelastic property and scaling behavior of acid (glucono-δ-lactone)-induced soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were investigated at various ionic strengths (0-800mM) and five protein concentrations ranging between 4% and 8% (w/w). The infinite storage modulus ( [Formula: see text] ) and the gelation start time (t(g)) which indicate the progress of gelation process exhibited strong ionic strength dependence. The storage modulus and critical strain were found to exhibit a power-law relationship with protein concentration. Rheological analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis were applied to estimate the fractal dimensions (D(f)) of the gels and the values were found to vary between 2.319 and 2.729. The comparison of the rheological methods and the CLSM image analysis method showed that the Shih, Shih, Kim, Liu, and Aksay (1990) model was better suited in estimating the D(f) value of acid-induced SPI gel system.

  10. PGC-1alpha inhibits oleic acid induced proliferation and migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oleic acid (OA stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration. The precise mechanism is still unclear. We sought to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha on OA-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oleate and palmitate, the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid in plasma, respectively, differently affect the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1alpha in VSMCs. OA treatment resulted in a reduction of PGC-1alpha expression, which may be responsible for the increase in VSMC proliferation and migration caused by this fatty acid. In fact, overexpression of PGC-1alpha prevented OA-induced VSMC proliferation and migration while suppression of PGC-1alpha by siRNA enhanced the effects of OA. In contrast, palmitic acid (PA treatment led to opposite effects. This saturated fatty acid induced PGC-1alpha expression and prevented OA-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. Mechanistic study demonstrated that the effects of PGC-1alpha on VSMC proliferation and migration result from its capacity to prevent ERK phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: OA and PA regulate PGC-1alpha expression in VSMCs differentially. OA stimulates VSMC proliferation and migration via suppression of PGC-1alpha expression while PA reverses the effects of OA by inducing PGC-1alpha expression. Upregulation of PGC-1alpha in VSMCs provides a potential novel strategy in preventing atherosclerosis.

  11. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  12. Involvement of Sp1 in Butyric Acid-Induced HIV-1 Gene Expression

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    Kenichi Imai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The ability of human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1 to establish latent infection and its re-activation is considered critical for progression of HIV-1 infection. We previously reported that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid, acting as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs, could lead to induction of HIV-1 transcription; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid on HIV-1 gene expression. Methods: Butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 gene expression was determined by luciferase assay and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used for the detection of HIV-1. Results: We found that Sp1 binding sites within the HIV-1 promoter are primarily involved in butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 activation. In fact, Sp1 knockdown by small interfering RNA and the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effect of butyric acid. We also observed that cAMP response element-binding-binding protein (CBP was required for butyric acid-induced HIV-1 activation. Conclusions: These results suggest that butyric acid stimulates HIV-1 promoter through inhibition of the Sp1-associated HDAC activity and recruitment of CBP to the HIV-1 LTR. Our findings suggest that Sp1 should be considered as one of therapeutic targets in anti-viral therapy against HIV-1 infection aggravated by butyric acid-producing bacteria.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of MK-801 on L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R E; Lock, E A; Bachelard, H S

    2001-02-01

    L-2-Chloropropionic acid is selectively toxic to the cerebellum in rats; the granule cell necrosis observed within 48 h can be prevented by prior administration of MK-801. Short-term treatment (2 h) with L-2-chloropropionic acid has also been shown to activate the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fasted adult rats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior exposure to MK-801 on the biochemical and neurotoxicological effects of L-2-chloropropionic acid. Extracts were prepared from the forebrain and cerebellum of animals that had been treated with L-2-chloropropionic acid, with and without prior treatment with MK-801, and were analysed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. Glucose metabolism was studied by monitoring the metabolism of [1-(13)C]-glucose using GC/MS. L-2-Chloropropionic acid caused increased glucose metabolism in both brain regions 6 h after administration, confirming activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was not prevented by MK-801. After 48 h an increase in lactate and a decrease in N-acetylaspartate was observed only in the cerebellum, whereas phosphocreatine and ATP decreased in both tissues. MK-801 prevented the changes in lactate and N:-acetylaspartate, but not those on the energy state. These studies suggest that L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity is only partly mediated by the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor.

  14. Effect of terbutaline on alveolar liquid clearance after oleic acid-induced lung injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; YANG Tian-de; LI Hong; DU Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether terbutaline affects alveolar liquid clearance after oleic acid-induced lung injury in rats.Methods: Forty healthy Wistar rats ( weighing 250-280 g) were randomly divided into five groups ( n = 8 in each group): the normal control group ( control group),oleic acid injury group ( injury group), terbutaline-treated group (terbutaline group ), terbutaline plus amiloridetreated group (terbutaline + amiloride group ) and terbutaline plus ouabain-treated group (terbutaline + ouabain group). Acute lung injury model was induced by intravenous oleic acid (0. 25 mi/kg body weight). 24 hours later, 1.5 μCi 125I-labeled 5% albumin solution (5 ml/kg body weight) was dripped into the lungs through trachea.The alveolar liquid clearance rate, extravascular lung water content, and arterial blood gas were measured 1 hour thereafter.Results: At 24 hours after infusion of oleic acid, the rats developed pulmonary edema and severe hypoxemia,with the alveolar liquid clearance rate decreased by 49.2 % and the extravascular lung water content elevated by 47.9%. Compared with the rats in the injury group,terbutaline (10-4 mol/L ) significantly increased the alveolar liquid clearance rate, decreased the extravascular lung water content and improved hypoxemia. The effect of terbutaline was partly blocked by amiloride and ouabain,which were inhibitors of sodium transport. Terbutaline increased the alveolar liquid clearance rate by 63.7 %, and amiloride and ouabain reduced the alveolar liquid clearance rate by 54.7% and 56.8%, respectively.Conclusions: Terbutaline can accelerate alveolar liquid clearance through increasing sodium transport to attenuate pulmonary edema, thus improving gas exchange,which may have therapeutical effect on pulmonary edema after acute lung injury.

  15. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

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    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  16. Mechanism of Ascorbic Acid-induced Reversion Against Malignant Phenotype in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA-XUAN SUN; QIU-SHENG ZHENG; GANG LI; DE-AN GUO; ZI-REN WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find out the mechanisms of redifferentiation and reversion of malignant human gastric cancer cells induced by ascorbic acid. Methods Human gastric cancer cells grown in the laboratory were used. The Trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine the cell doubling time. The electrophoresis rate and colonogenic potential were the indices used to measure the rate of redifferentiation. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured using the thiobarbituric acid(TBA) method. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the content of H2O2 were evaluated by spectrophotography. Results Six mmol/L ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Human gastric cancer cells were treated with 75 μm hydrogen peroxide, which alleviated many of the malignant characteristics. For example, the cell surface charge obviously decreased and the electrophoresis rate dropped from 2.21 to 1.10 μm·s-1·V-1·cm-1. The colonogenic potential, a measure of cell differentiation, decreased 90.2%. After treatment with ascorbic acid, there was a concentration- and time-dependent increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the activity of catalase (CAT) resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent decrease. SOD and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) exhibited some effects, but there were statistically significant differences between the SOD and AT group and the H2O2 group. Conclusions Ascorbic acid induces growth inhibition and redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells through the production of hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

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    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  18. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio eLlorens; Gemma eCamañes; Leonor eLapeña; Pilar eGarcía-Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria altern...

  19. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

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    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  20. Effect of CMC Molecular Weight on Acid-Induced Gelation of Heated WPI-CMC Soluble Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2016-02-01

    Acid-induced gelation properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soluble complex were investigated as a function of CMC molecular weight (270, 680, and 750 kDa) and concentrations (0% to 0.125%). Heated WPI-CMC soluble complex with 6% protein was made by heating biopolymers together at pH 7.0 and 85 °C for 30 min and diluted to 5% protein before acid-induced gelation. Acid-induced gel formed from heated WPI-CMC complexes exhibited increased hardness and decreased water holding capacity with increasing CMC concentrations but gel strength decreased at higher CMC content. The highest gel strength was observed with CMC 750 k at 0.05%. Gels with low CMC concentration showed homogenous microstructure which was independent of CMC molecular weight, while increasing CMC concentration led to microphase separation with higher CMC molecular weight showing more extensive phase separation. When heated WPI-CMC complexes were prepared at 9% protein the acid gels showed improved gel hardness and water holding capacity, which was supported by the more interconnected protein network with less porosity when compared to complexes heated at 6% protein. It is concluded that protein concentration and biopolymer ratio during complex formation are the major factors affecting gel properties while the effect of CMC molecular weight was less significant.

  1. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    the cranium and abnormal changes of the metencephalon and face.cDNA microarray analysis suggested that the changes in expression of seven different genes were similar on both days E10.5 and E11.5. These were downregulation of NekT, Igfbp5, Zw10,Csf3r, Psmc6 and Rbl, and upregulation of Apoa-4. This study also indicated that Cdk5 expression was downregulated in the retinoic acid group on day E11.5. The results of the cDNA microarray analysis were partly confirmed by Northern blotting.CONCLUSION: Cdk5, NekT, Igfbp5, ZwlO, Csf3r, Psmc6, Rb 1 and Apoa-4 may be key factors in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  2. Effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; LIU Ying-long; LIU Ai-jun; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial dysfunction in lungs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The beneficial effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution (LPD) have been reported in lung preservation, and LPD enables injured alveolar pneumocytes to recover. So we hypothesized that systemic administration of LPD may have benefits in treating acute lung injury. We investigated the effects of LPD on arterial blood gas and levels of some cytokines in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.Methods Oleic acid (0.1 ml/kg) was intrapulmonarily administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. Ten animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5 each): oleic acid-induced group (control group) with intravenous infusion of 12.5 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution 30 minutes before administration of oleic acid and LPD group with systemic administration of LPD (12.5 ml/kg) 30 minutes before injecting oleic acid. Blood gas variables and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, endothelin 1 and interleukin 10 were measured before and every 1 hour for 6 hours after initial lung injury.Results Compared with control group, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure in LPD group were improved (P<0.05or 0.01). Six hours after lung injury, concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue was lower in LPD group than control group (P<0.05). Plasmic concentration of endothelin 1 showed lower in LPD group while plasmic concentration of interleukin 10 showed higher in LPD group (P<0.05).Conclusions Before lung injury, systemic administration of LPD can improve gas exchange, attenuate pulmonary hypertension, decrease plasmic levels of endothelin 1, increase interleukin 10 and decrease concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.

  3. Importance of interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins and retinoic acid inducible gene I for influenza virus replication: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between Influenza viruses and host cells is key to elucidating the pathogenesis of these viruses. Several host factors have been identified that exert antiviral functions; however, influenza viruses continue to replicate utilizing host cell machinery. Herein, we review the mechanisms of action of two host-derived proteins on conferring cellular resistance to the influenza virus; (1) the interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins, 1, 2 and 3, a recently identified family of early restriction factors; and (2) retinoic acid inducible gene I, a key mediator of antiviral immunity. These data may contribute to the design of novel and efficient anti-influenza treatments.

  4. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  5. Saturated Fatty Acid Induces Insulin Resistance Partially Through Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jun Zhou; Yin-si Tang; Yu-ling Song; Ai Li; Hui Zhou; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), a component of the innate immune system, in mediating lipid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Methods Adipocytes from Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency mice were used for stimulation experiments. The effect of oleate/palmitate mixture on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was analyzed by reporter plasmid assay. The release of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines production was determined by using real-time PCR. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Chemokine/cytokine expression and glucose uptake in adipocytes transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOD1 upon fatty acids treatment were analyzed. Results Oleate/palmitate mixture activated the NF-κB pathway and induced interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expressions in adipocytes from mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4, and these effects were blocked by siRNA targeting NOD1. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids decreased the ability of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, siRNA targeting NOD1 partially reversed saturated fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion NOD1 might play an important role in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced NOD1 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment.

  7. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  8. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  9. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  10. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

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    Xinhua Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone (EDA is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA- induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities.

  11. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhu, Longjun; Wang, Liang; Guo, Baojian; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Zhang, Zaijun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Edaravone (EDA) is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA-) induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities. PMID:26557222

  12. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-09-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  13. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin against kainic acid-induced neuronal damage in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbau, V; Camins, A; Romay, C; González, R; Pallàs, M

    1999-12-03

    The neuroprotective role of C-phycocyanin was examined in kainate-injured brains of rats. The effect of three different treatments with C-phycocyanin was studied. The incidence of neurobehavioral changes was significantly lower in animals receiving C-phycocyanin. These animals also gained significantly more weight than the animals only receiving kainic acid, whereas their weight gain did not differed significantly from controls. Equivalent results were found when the neuronal damage in the hippocampus was evaluated through changes in peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (microglial marker) and heat shock protein 27 kD expression (astroglial marker). Our results are consistent with the oxygen radical scavenging properties of C-phycocyanin described elsewhere. Our findings and the virtual lack of toxicity of C-phycocyanin suggest this drug could be used to treat oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

  14. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-mei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Jun, E-mail: lu-jun75@163.com [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Yan-qiu [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Yuan-lin, E-mail: ylzheng@xznu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Bin [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Wei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-09-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders.

  15. Gallic acid induces necroptosis via TNF-α signaling pathway in activated hepatic stellate cells.

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    Ya Ju Chang

    Full Text Available Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA, a natural phenolic acid widely found in gallnuts, tea leaves and various fruits, possesses several bioactivities against inflammation, oxidation, and carcinogenicity. The beneficial effect of GA on the reduction of animal hepatofibrosis has been indicated due to its antioxidative property. However, the cytotoxicity of GA autoxidation causing cell death has also been reported. Herein, we postulated that GA might target activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs, the cell type responsible for hepatofibrosis, to mitigate the process of fibrosis. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms that GA exerted on aHSCs were then analyzed. The results indicated that GA elicited aHSC programmed cell death through TNF-α-mediated necroptosis. GA induced significant oxidative stress through the suppression of catalase activity and the depletion of glutathione (GSH. Elevated oxidative stress triggered the production of TNF-α facilitating the undergoing of necroptosis through the up-regulation of key necroptotic regulatory proteins TRADD and receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3, and the inactivation of caspase-8. Calmodulin and calpain-1 activation were engaged, which promoted subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP. The TNF-α antagonist (SPD-304 and the RIP1 inhibitor (necrostatin-1, Nec-1 confirmed GA-induced TNFR1-mediated necroptosis. The inhibition of RIP1 by Nec-1 diverted the cell death from necroptosis to apoptosis, as the activation of caspase 3 and the increase of cytochrome c. Collectively, this is the first report indicating that GA induces TNF signaling-triggered necroptosis in aHSCs, which may offer an alternative strategy for the amelioration of liver fibrosis.

  16. Regulation of Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I Activation by the Histone Deacetylase 6

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    Helene Minyi Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I is a cytosolic pathogen recognition receptor that initiates the immune response against many RNA viruses. Upon RNA ligand binding, RIG-I undergoes a conformational change facilitating its homo-oligomerization and activation that results in its translocation from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to bind its signaling adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Here we show that RIG-I activation is regulated by reversible acetylation. Acetyl-mimetic mutants of RIG-I do not form virus-induced homo-oligomers, revealing that acetyl-lysine residues of the RIG-I repressor domain prevent assembly to active homo-oligomers. During acute infection, deacetylation of RIG-I promotes its oligomerization upon ligand binding. We identify histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 as the deacetylase that promotes RIG-I activation and innate antiviral immunity to recognize and restrict RNA virus infection.

  17. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known.

  18. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient.

  19. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  20. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, protects liver against valproic acid induced toxicity

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    Cakmak Neziha Hacihasanoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, is a well established anticonvulsant drug that has been increasingly used in the treatment of many forms of generalized epilepsy. Edaravone (EDA; 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one is a potent free radical scavenger. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of EDA on VPA-induced hepatic damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group I was control animals. Group II was control rats given valproic acid (500 mg kg-1 day for seven days. Group III was given only EDA (30 mg kg-1day for seven days. Group IV was given VPA+EDA (in same dose and time. EDA and VPA were given intraperitoneally. On the 8th day of experiment, blood samples and liver tissue were taken. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, liver myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, adenosine deaminase, Na+/K+ATPase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, DT-diaphorase, arginase and thromboplastic activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl levels were increased whereas paraoxonase, biotinidase activities and glutathione levels were decreased in VPA group. Application of EDA with VPA protected against VPA-induced effects. These results demonstrated that administration of EDA is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce hepatic damage in VPA induced hepatotoxicity, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

  1. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid induced resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Pal, Amita

    2011-03-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing resistance to MYMIV infection in Vigna mungo has been elucidated by proteomics. Twenty-nine proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, predicted to be involved in stress responses, metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, showed increased abundance upon SA treatment. Susceptible plants showed characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms upon MYMIV infection. A concentration dependent decrease in physiological symptoms associated with MYMIV was observed upon exogenous SA treatment prior to viral inoculation; and no visible symptom was observed at 100 μM SA. SA treatment stimulated SOD and GPX activity and inhibited CAT activity thus preventing ROS mediated damage. Significant increase in chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, phenolic content and H(2)O(2) were observed. Involvement of calmodulin for transmission of defense signal by SA is suggested. A metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced synthesis of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolisms is necessary for SA mediated resistance to MYMIV. Identification of proteins showing increased abundance, involved in photosynthetic process is a significant finding which restores virus-induced degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and provides enhanced metabolites required for repartition of resources towards defense.

  2. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  3. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis in male rats

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    Nader Tanideh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20% were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  4. Correlation of HSP110 expression with all-trans retinoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, L; Vanmuylder, N; Dourov, N; Hermans, C; Biermans, J; Werry-Huet, A; Rooze, M; Louryan, S

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed the strong expression of a stress protein of the HSP100/Clp family (HSP110) in apoptotic mesectodermal cells during early mouse facial development. In the present study, we describe the strong expression of the same HSP110 in mesectodermal cells undergoing apoptosis after all-trans retinoic acid (RA) administration. We used a teratological model known to increase cell deaths mainly in the first and second branchial arches during mammalian cephalogenesis: the treatment of E9 mouse embryos with all-trans RA, which results in craniofacial malformations comparable to those that characterize mandibulofacial dysostosis in man. Pregnant NMRI mice were treated with 60 mg/kg body weight of all-trans RA, given orally on day 9 of gestation; embryos were taken 4, 12 or 24 hr after RA administration. The apoptotic pattern of RA-induced cell deaths was confirmed using the dUTP biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HSP110 expression was detected using an immunohistochemical approach. The increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells and HSP110-positive cells after all-trans RA administration was quantified in the first branchial arch using a computerized method. Twelve hours after RA administration, the increase in the number of HSP110-positive cells is greater than the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Twenty-four hours after RA administration, only TUNEL-positive cells remain strong in number. We suggest that HSP110 expression could represent a biochemical event of apoptotic cell death induced by RA, associated with early stages of the apoptotic process. In order to find out if HSP110 expression resulted from neosynthesis, we performed in situ hybridization, which demonstrated that the expression of HSP110 occurred at the level of mRNA.

  5. Abscisic Acid Induces Rapid Reductions in Mesophyll Conductance to Carbon Dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sorrentino

    Full Text Available The rate of photosynthesis (A of plants exposed to water deficit is a function of stomatal (gs and mesophyll (gm conductance determining the availability of CO2 at the site of carboxylation within the chloroplast. Mesophyll conductance often represents the greatest impediment to photosynthetic uptake of CO2, and a crucial determinant of the photosynthetic effects of drought. Abscisic acid (ABA plays a fundamental role in signalling and co-ordination of plant responses to drought; however, the effect of ABA on gm is not well-defined. Rose, cherry, olive and poplar were exposed to exogenous ABA and their leaf gas exchange parameters recorded over a four hour period. Application with ABA induced reductions in values of A, gs and gm in all four species. Reduced gm occurred within one hour of ABA treatment in three of the four analysed species; indicating that the effect of ABA on gm occurs on a shorter timescale than previously considered. These declines in gm values associated with ABA were not the result of physical changes in leaf properties due to altered turgor affecting movement of CO2, or caused by a reduction in the sub-stomatal concentration of CO2 (Ci. Increased [ABA] likely induces biochemical changes in the properties of the interface between the sub-stomatal air-space and mesophyll layer through the actions of cooporins to regulate the transport of CO2. The results of this study provide further evidence that gm is highly responsive to fluctuations in the external environment, and stress signals such as ABA induce co-ordinated modifications of both gs and gm in the regulation of photosynthesis.

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  7. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors.

  8. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  9. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  10. Chromosomal localization of a novel retinoic acid induced gene RA28 and the protein distribution of its encoded protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene RA28 is a retinoic acid induced novel gene isolated in our laboratory previously. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used to induce lung adenocarcinoma cell line GLC-82, and RA28 was obtained by subtractive hybridization. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has emerged as a unique tool for examining introcellular phenomena in living cells. GFP possesses an intrinsic fluorescence at 488 nm that does not require other co-factors. In this report, an eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1-RA28 was constructed and transfected with parental cell line GLC-82 to analyze protein expression and its distribution in living cells. Moreover, radiation hybrid (RH) technique was used to localize RA28 to the chromosome. The results show that gene RA28 is mapped to the chromosome 19q13.1 region, its encoded protein is distributed on cell membrane. All the results further demonstrate that GFP and RH techniques are accurate, fast, repetitive, and will be powerful methods for investigating the gene and protein localization.

  11. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hag Dong [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chang-Young [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jeong Min [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jeongwon, E-mail: biojs@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon, E-mail: joonkim@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  12. The effect of alginates on deoxycholic-acid-induced changes in oesophageal mucosal biology at pH 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmar, Peter W; Strugala, Vicki; Tselepis, Chris; Jankowski, Janusz A

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) can give rise to Barrett's oesophagus (BM), a metaplastic condition and precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (AC). Oesophageal cancer was once rare but is now the 5th biggest cancer killer in the U.K. Reflux of bile acids into the oesophagus is implicated in the progression to BM as bile acids at pH 4 have been shown to induce c-myc expression, an oncogene upregulated in BM and AC. In the present study we investigated the role of the biopolymer alginate on bile acid induced molecular changes in oesophageal cell lines. OE21, OE33 and TE-7 oesophageal cell lines were exposed to 100 microM deoxycholic acid at pH 4 in the presence or absence of alginates. Levels of c-myc, E-cadherin, beta-catenin and Tcf signalling were determined by Real-Time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluoresence and reporter assays. All alginates tested were able to prevent the induction of c-myc by acidified deoxycholic acid in vitro. The upstream effects of acidified deoxycholic acid on E-cadherin, beta-catenin and Tcf signalling were also suppressed by alginate. Therefore, we have demonstrated that reflux of bile acids into the oesophagus initiates a potentially damaging molecular cascade of events using an in vitro model and that a biopolymer, alginate, can protect against these effects.

  13. Rheological and physical properties of camel and cow milk gels enriched with phosphate and calcium during acid-induced gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohammad; Foukani, Mohammed; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid-induced coagulation of camel and cow milk gels following the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4*2H2O) were investigated using a dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology. For a considered condition, the final values of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of camel milk gels were significantly lower than those of cow milk gels. The increase of the added CaCl2 levels improved significantly the gelation properties of camel and cow milk gels, since a reduction in the gelation time and an increase in the gel firmness were observed. Following the addition of Na2HPO4*2H2O at 10 and 20 mM, no significant effect on the gelation rate and the firmness of camel milk gels was observed, while, a significant decrease in the gelation rate and firmness were observed for cow milk gels.

  14. Isobolographic analysis of interaction between cyclooxygenase inhibitors and tramadol in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Padi S V; Jain, Naveen K; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K

    2004-07-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are the most commonly used analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain. Combined use of NSAIDs and opioids has been indicated for achieving better analgesia with reduced side effects. The present study was aimed at evaluating the combination of different NSAIDs, which inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and tramadol against acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The expected beneficial effect of combination regimen was analyzed by isobolographic analysis. The oral and intrathecally administered tramadol, a mu-opioid and naproxen, a nonselective COX inhibitor produced dose-dependent antinociception, however, rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor lacked analgesic efficacy in writhing test. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic or supra-additive interactions for the combinations of naproxen and tramadol after oral and intrathecal administration. However, similar interaction was not observed when tramadol was combined with rofecoxib. Pretreatment with naloxone partially reversed the antinociceptive effect of tramadol per se and its combination with naproxen without modifying the per se effect of NSAID. The results demonstrated marked synergistic interaction between naproxen and tramadol and such interaction involved opioid as well as non-opioid mechanisms of tramadol and inhibition of COX-1 but not COX-2 by naproxen.

  15. Possible protective role of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile in lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity through enhanced hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sotodate, Fumiaki; Mizuki, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Nagayasu, Miho; Yokokawa, Shinya; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-06-25

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from the point of modification of lipid metabolism. At an early stage of LCA feeding, an imbalance of biliary bile acid and phospholipid excretion was observed. Co-treatment with PCN reversed the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and hepatic hydrophobic bile acid levels. LCA feeding decreased hepatic mRNA levels of several fatty acid- and phospholipid-related genes before elevation of serum ALT and ALP activities. On the other hand, PCN co-treatment reversed the decrease in the mRNA levels and hepatic levels of phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids. PCN co-treatment also reversed the decrease in biliary phospholipid output in LCA-fed mice. Treatment with PCN alone increased hepatic phospholipid, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine synthetic activities increased in mice treated with PCN alone or PCN and LCA, compared to control mice, whereas these activities decreased in LCA-fed mice. These results suggest the possibility that PCN-mediated stimulation of lipogenesis contributes to the protection from lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. The effect of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough have been studied in conscious tracheostomised dogs. 2. Nedocromil sodium (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) and codeine phosphate (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly increased the time to the first cough when dogs were challenged with citric acid aerosol. The mean number of coughs in the initial period of coughing fell after treatment of dogs with nedocromil sodium or with codeine phosphate, but this reduction in mean cough number was not statistically significant. 3. Neither sodium cromoglycate (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) nor saline had significant effect on a citric acid challenge. 4. It is concluded that nedocromil sodium, but not sodium cromoglycate, possesses an anti-tussive action that may result from inhibition of sensory nerve activity in the lung. Nedocromil sodium may prove useful in the treatment of unproductive cough in situations where the use of a centrally-acting antitussive is undesirable. PMID:2836011

  17. Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Eileen; Li, Kui; Sumpter, Rhea; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Johnson, Cynthia L.; Wang, Chunfu; Fish, Penny Mar; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Lemon, Stanley M.; Gale, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that infects 170 million people. A hallmark of HCV is its ability to establish persistent infections reflecting the evasion of host immunity and interference with α/β-IFN innate immune defenses. We demonstrate that disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling by the viral NS3/4A protease contributes to the ability of HCV to control innate antiviral defenses. RIG-I was essential for virus or HCV RNA-induced signaling to the IFN-β promoter in human hepatoma cells. This signaling was disrupted by the protease activity of NS3/4A, which ablates RIG-I signaling of downstream IFN regulatory factor 3 and NF-κB activation, attenuating expression of host antiviral defense genes and interrupting an IFN amplification loop that otherwise suppresses HCV replication. Treatment of cells with an active site inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease relieved this suppression and restored intracellular antiviral defenses. Thus, NS3/4A control of RIG-I supports HCV persistence by preventing IFN regulatory factor 3 and NF-κB activation. Our results demonstrate that these processes are amenable to restoration through pharmacologic inhibition of viral protease function. PMID:15710892

  18. Biocontrol agents-mediated suppression of oxalic acid induced cell death during Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-pea interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-05-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) is an important pathogenic factor during early Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-host interaction and might work by reducing hydrogen peroxide production (H2 O2 ). In the present investigation, oxalic acid-induced cell death in pea was studied. Pea plants treated with biocontrol agents (BCAs) viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Bacillus subtilis BHHU100, and Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 either singly and/or in consortium acted on S. sclerotiorum indirectly by enabling plants to inhibit the OA-mediated suppression of oxidative burst via induction of H2 O2 . Our results showed that BCA treated plants upon treatment with culture filtrate of the pathogen, conferred the resistance via. significantly decreasing relative cell death of pea against S. sclerotiorum compared to control plants without BCA treatment but treated with the culture filtrate of the pathogen. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the microbes especially in consortia play significant role in protection against S. sclerotiorum by modulating oxidative burst and partially enhancing tolerance by increasing the H2 O2 generation, which is otherwise suppressed by OA produced by the pathogen.

  19. Inhibition of acid-induced apoptosis by targeting ASIC1a mRNA with short hairpin RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie-chuan WENG; Jian-quan ZHENG; Qing-e JIN; Xiao-yun MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the role of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) la in the cell death and apoptosis induced by extracellular acid in C6 glioma cells. Methods: The stable ASICla-silenced C6 cell line, built with RNA interference technology, were con-firmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The cell viability following acid exposure was analyzed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic cells dyed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide were measured with a flow cytometer, while the changes of cell cycle were also assayed. Results: The downregulation of ASIC 1 a proteins by stable transfection of short hairpin RNA decreased the cell death percentage and increased cell viability following acid exposure with LDH and the MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was lower in the ASIC la-silenced cell line than that in the wild-type C6 cell line. The percentage of sub-G0 cells was lower in the ASICla-silenced C6 cells than that in the wild-type cells. Conclusion: Extracellular acid induced cell death and apoptosis viaASICla mechanisms in the C6 glioma cells.

  20. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  1. Niflumic acid-induced increase in potassium currents in frog motor nerve terminals: effects on transmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, F; Marsal, J; Peres, J; Solsona, C

    1996-04-01

    The actions of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug niflumic acid were studied on frog neuromuscular preparations by conventional electrophysiological techniques. Niflumic acid reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of endplate potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. Neuromuscular junctions pretreated with niflumic acid (0.05-0.5 mM) showed much less depression than control when they were stimulated with trains of impulses. Inhibition of acetylcholine release was reverted by raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration but not by simply washing out the preparations with niflumic acid-free solutions. Pretreatment with indomethacin (0.1 mM), another nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, did not affect the niflumic acid-induced inhibition of evoked responses. Niflumic acid (0.1 mM) did not change the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials and had a dual action on the frequency of miniatures: it decreased their frequency at 0.1 mM whereas it produced an enormous increase in the rate of spontaneous discharge at 0.5 mM. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) reversibly increased the amplitude and affected the kinetics of presynaptic voltage-activated K+ current and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in a concentration-dependent manner. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) irreversibly decreased the amplitude and reversibly affected the kinetics of the nodal Na(+) current. Indomethacin (0.1 mM) had no effect on presynaptic currents. In conclusion, niflumic acid reduces acetylcholine release by increasing presynaptic K+ currents. This may shorten the depolarizing phase of the presynaptic action potential and may reduce the entry of Ca(2+) with each impulse.

  2. Glia activation and cytokine increase in rat hippocampus by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Massimo; Perego, Carlo; Aliprandi, Marisa; Richichi, Cristina; Ravizza, Teresa; Colella, Daniele; Velískŏvá, Jana; Moshé, Solomon L; De Simoni, M Grazia; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2003-12-01

    In adult rats, status epilepticus (SE) induces cytokine production by glia especially when seizures are associated with neuronal injury. This suggests that cytokines may play a role in seizure-induced neuronal damage. As SE-induced injury is age-specific, we used rats of different ages (with distinct susceptibilities to seizure-induced neuronal injury) to elucidate the role of cytokines in this process. Thus, we investigated the activation of microglia and astrocytes, induction of cytokines, and hippocampal neuronal injury 4 and 24 h following kainic acid-induced SE in postnatal day (PN) 9, 15, and 21 rats. At PN9, there was little activation of microglia and astrocytes at any time point studied. Interleukin-1beta (IL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and IL-6 or the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra) mRNA expression did not increase. No evidence of cell injury has been detected. At PN15, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced, but only IL-1beta mRNA expression was increased. These changes were observed 4 h after SE. Scattered injured neurons in CA3 and subiculum, but not in any other region, were present 24 h following SE. At PN21, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes and the mRNA expression of all cytokines studied was significantly increased already 4 h after SE. At 24 h, many injured neurons were present in CA1 and CA3 regions and in 40% of rats in other forebrain areas. These data show that (i) the pattern of glia activation and cytokine gene transcription induced by SE is age-dependent and (ii) neuronal injury in the hippocampus occurs only when cytokines are induced and their synthesis precedes the appearance of neuronal damage. Thus, cytokine expression in immature brain is associated specifically with cell injury rather than with seizures per se, suggesting that proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurence of SE-induced hippocampal damage.

  3. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used (13)C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of (13)C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  5. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Masashi; Kurokawa, Haruna; Shimada, Akinori; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Hajime; Morita, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS.

  6. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Kumar

    Full Text Available The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI, which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA induced acute kidney injury (AKI characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI. Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  7. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

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    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Ko, Mee Jung; Lee, Eun Joo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; You, Jueng Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Yang, Sung Min; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA) induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  8. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

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    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  9. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

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    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  10. Protective effect of the methanolic extract of malva parviflora l. leaves on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

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    Aisha Dugani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP and aqueous (AEMP extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6. Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d. Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally.

  11. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

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    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.

  12. "THE ROLE OF PROSTAGLANDINS AND MAST CELLS IN THE MODULATION OF ACUTE ACID-INDUCED TRACHEAL CONTRACTION IN RAT"

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    M. H. Pipelzadeh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The exact role of the epithelial lining of the trachea in modulating the bronchial tone is controversial. The present study was an attempt to verify the role of both prostaglandins and mast cells in the acute phase of acid inspiration in rat. Four groups (n = 6 of N. Mari rats were employed. The first group was used as placebo control, and normal saline was injected. To the second group hydrochloric acid (25 µl with pH of 1.3 was injected into the trachea through the criothyroid membrane. The third and fourth groups were pretreated for three consecutive days either with indomethacin (10 mg/Kg or nebulized sodium cromoglycate (20 mg/Kg, 1 hour prior to installation of the acid. Three minutes after instillation of acid, the trachea was removed. The tracheal spirals were prepared and immediately suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution. Dose response curves to acetylcholine (10-9 to 10-3M were constructed. The results showed that the responses to acetylcholine in the acid treated trachea were significantly (P<0.01 reduced compared with the control saline treated trachea due to acute acid-induced tracheal contraction. Incubation with atropine, induced reduction of baseline tension and reversed the responses to acetylcholine. Both indomethacin and sodium cromoglycate, reversed the responses to acetylcholine and were in similar range as the control trachea. In conclusion, it seems that both prostaglandins and mast cells are important mediators in the acute phase of airway smooth muscle contraction following instillation of acid.

  13. The Healing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum on Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats

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    Nader Tanideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Anti-inflammatory effect of Hypericum have long been considered. Ulcerative Colitis (UC is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. In this study, the effects of Hypericum perforatum on histopathological changes and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA level of colonic tissue in rats with induced UC were evaluated. Materials & Methods: 70 rats were divided into seven equal groups. Colitis was induced by acetic acid.. Groups I and II received 1 mL of 600 and 300 mg/kg H. perforatum extract orally per day respectively; groups III and IV received 1 mL of 20% and 10% intra-colonic gel form of H. perforatum extract daily respectively; group V, as positive control, received 1 mL of intra-colonic Asacol; group VI received 1 mL of normal saline as negative control; group VII received just intra-colonic gel base. All the animals were evaluated for histological changes and tissue MDA level of colon seven days after the treatment. Results: H. perforatum extract in the two forms of trans-rectal and oral administration could result in a more healing effect on acetic acid-induced damaged colonic tissue with a reduction in the MDA activity. In trans-rectal administration, the 20% gel had a better healing response than the 10% gel. In oral administration, the 600 mg/kg dosage had a better healing response than the 300 mg/kg. Conclusions: Therefor, H. perforatum can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC especially in trans-rectal gel form.

  14. Berberine reverses free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of berberine on improving insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) in 3T3-LI adipocytes.METHODS:The model of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was established by adding palmic acid (0.5 mmol/L) to the culture medium.Berberine treatment was performed at the same time.Glucose uptake rate was determined by the 2-deoxy-[3H]-Dglucose method.The levels of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ)Ser181 phosphorylation,insulin receptor substrate1(IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation,expression of IKKβ,IRS-1,nuclear transcription factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65),phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85(PI-3K p85) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins were detected by Western blotting.The distribution of NF-κB p65 proteins inside the adipocytes was observed through confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM).RESULTS:After the intervention of palmic acid for 24 h,the insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was inhibited by 67%.Meanwhile,the expression of IRS-1 and PI-3K p85 protein was reduced,while the levels of IKKβ Ser181 and IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation,and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein were increased.However,the above indexes,which indicated the existence of insulin resistance,were reversed by berberine although the expression of GLUT4,IKKβ and total NF-κB p65 protein were not changed during this study.CONCLUSION:Insulin resistance induced by FFAs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can be improved by berberine.Berberine reversed free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ.

  15. Functional and cellular characterization of human Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1 mutations associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

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    Carmona-Mora Paulina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome in which the dosage sensitive gene has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1. Little is known about the function of human RAI1. Results We generated the full-length cDNA of the wild type protein and five mutated forms: RAI1-HA 2687delC, RAI1-HA 3103delC, RAI1 R960X, RAI1-HA Q1562R, and RAI1-HA S1808N. Four of them have been previously associated with SMS clinical phenotype. Molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcription factor activity of the wild type and mutant forms were studied by western blot, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays respectively. The wild type protein and the two missense mutations presented a higher molecular weight than expected, localized to the nucleus and activated transcription of a reporter gene. The frameshift mutations generated a truncated polypeptide with transcription factor activity but abnormal subcellular localization, and the same was true for the 1-960aa N-terminal half of RAI1. Two different C-terminal halves of the RAI1 protein (1038aa-end and 1229aa-end were able to localize into the nucleus but had no transactivation activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that transcription factor activity and subcellular localization signals reside in two separate domains of the protein and both are essential for the correct functionality of RAI1. The pathogenic outcome of some of the mutated forms can be explained by the dissociation of these two domains.

  16. Effects of Changtai granules, a traditional compound Chinese medicine, on chronic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Bing Cao; Yah Wang; Yuan-Ying Jiang; Jun-Dong Zhang; Ya-Ying Diao; Lan Yan; De-Jun Wang; Xin-Ming Jia; Ping-Hui Gao; Ming-He Cheng; Zheng Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Changtai granules (CTG), a traditional compound Chinese medicine, on chronic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes, weighing 250-300 g, were employed in the present study. The rat colitis models were induced by 2, 4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enemas at a concentration of 100 mg/kg in 50% ethanol. The experimental animals were randomly divided into dexamethasone (DX) treatment, CTG treatment, and model control groups, which were intracolicly treated daily with DX (0.2 mg/kg), CTG at doses of 2.9, 5.7 and 11.4 g crude drug/kg, and the equal amount of saline respectively from 6 h following induction of the colitis in rats inflicted with TNBS to the end of study. A normal control group of rats treated without TNBS but saline enema was also included in the study. After 3 wk of treatment, the animals were assessed for colonal inflammatory and ulcerative responses with respect to mortality, frequency of diarrhea, histology and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO).RESULTS: The therapeutic effect of CTG on ulcerative colitis (UC) was better than DX. CTG effectively inhibited the activity of granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes in a dosedependent manner. Also it reduced MPO and formation of inflammation in colonic mucosal tissue. Furthermore, administration of CTG significantly prevented body mass loss and death, and decreased frequency of diarrhea in UC rats, when compared with the model control group rats.CONCLUSION: CTG would prove to be an ideal drug for chronic UC, and is warranted to be studied further.

  17. Chronic activity wheel running reduces the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures in the rat: possible role of galanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, J I; Dishman, R K; Boyd, H E; Robinson, J K; Holmes, P V

    2009-04-17

    Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that exercise can be neuroprotective, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus. Galanin is a neuropeptide extensively coexisting with norepinephrine that decreases neuronal hyperexcitability both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, exercise may diminish neural hyperexcitability through a galaninergic mechanism. The current experiments tested whether voluntary activity wheel running would protect against kainic acid-evoked seizures and whether galaninergic signaling is a necessary factor in this protection. In experiment 1, rats were given access to running wheels or remained sedentary for three weeks. After this period, rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 7, 10 or 14 mg/kg kainic acid. Exercise decreased the severity of or eliminated seizure behaviors and hippocampal c-fos expression induced by kainic acid. In experiment 2, exercising or sedentary rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 0.2 or 0.4 microg of kainic acid following either an injection of M-40 (a galanin receptor antagonist) or saline. Exercise decreased kainic acid-induced seizures at the 0.2 microg dose, and M-40 (6 nmol) decreased this effect. In contrast, there were no detectable differences between exercising and sedentary rats in behavior at the 0.4 microg dose. The results suggest that the protective effects of exercise against seizures are at least partially mediated by regulation of neural excitability through a process involving galanin.

  18. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

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    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  19. Palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells is increased by liver X receptor agonist and attenuated by eicosapentaenoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huasheng; Zhong, Yuhua; Zhou, Shaobi; Li, Qingdi Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of diabetes via the impairment of pancreatic islet β-cell viability and function. Liver X receptors (LXRs) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) are known regulators of fatty acid metabolism. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes remain incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EPA and the LXR agonist T0901317 on saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid)-induced apoptosis in the insulinoma β-cell line INS-1, a model for insulin-secreting β-cells. T0901317 significantly promoted palmitic acid-induced apoptotic cell death in the INS-1 cells. Consistent with these results, caspase-3 activity and BAX and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA levels were markedly increased in INS-1 cells co-administered palmitic acid and T0901317. The production of reactive oxygen species was considerably higher in the cells cultured concurrently with T0901317 and palmitic acid than in the cells incubated with either agent alone. EPA treatment attenuated the cellular death promoted by palmitic acid and T0901317 in the INS-1 cells, disclosing a possible mediating mechanism involving the inhibition of SREBP-1c. Finally, T0901317 up-regulated the palmitic acid-induced expression of p27(KIP1), transforming growth factor beta 1, and SMAD3 proteins in INS-1 cells. These results demonstrate that palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in β-cells is enhanced by T0901317 via the activation of LXRs and is blocked by EPA via the inhibition of SREBP-1c, suggesting that the regulation of lipogenesis and lipotoxicity affecting pancreatic β-cell viability and insulin production may be a unique strategy for diabetes therapy.

  20. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

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    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  2. Inhibition of Calcium Influx Reduces Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Lipotoxic Pancreatic β-Cells via Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

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    Yuren Zhou

    Full Text Available Lipotoxicity plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged exposure of β-cells to elevated free fatty acids level could cause deterioration of β-cell function and induce cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of fatty acids-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis might provide benefit for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. The present study examined whether regulation of fatty acids-triggered calcium influx could protect pancreatic β-cells from lipotoxicity. Two small molecule compounds, L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine and potassium channel activator diazoxide were used to inhibit palmitic acid-induced calcium influx. And whether the compounds could reduce palmitic acid-induced β-cell failure and the underlying mechanism were also investigated. It was found that both nifedipine and diazoxide protected MIN6 pancreatic β-cells and primary cultured murine islets from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, the impaired insulin secretion was also recovered to varying degrees by these two compounds. Our results verified that nifedipine and diazoxide could reduce palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress to generate protective effects on pancreatic β-cells. More importantly, it suggested that regulation of calcium influx by small molecule compounds might provide benefits for the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative stress and mortality in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of MAPK and COX-2 activation

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    Lin Ching-Huei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus (SE was involved with release of free radicals. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant from sesame seeds and it scavenges free radicals in several brain injury models. However the neuroprotective mechanism of sesamin to KA-induced seizure has not been studied. Methods Rodents (male FVB mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with sesamin extract (90% of sesamin and 10% sesamolin, 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg, for 3 days before KA subcutaneous injection. The effect of sesamin on KA-induced cell injury was also investigated on several cellular pathways including neuronal plasticity (RhoA, neurodegeneration (Caspase-3, and inflammation (COX-2 in PC12 cells and microglial BV-2 cells. Results Treatment with sesamin extract (30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma α-tocopherol level 50% and 55.8% from rats without and with KA treatment, respectively. It also decreased malondialdehyde (MDA from 145% to 117% (p = 0.017 and preserved superoxide dismutase from 55% of the vehicle control mice to 81% of sesamin-treated mice, respectively to the normal levels (p = 0.013. The treatment significantly decreased the mortality from 22% to 0% in rats. Sesamin was effective to protect PC12 cells and BV-2 cells from KA-injury in a dose-dependent manner. It decreased the release of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and MDA from PC12 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin significantly reduced ERK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Caspase-3, and COX-2 expression in both cells and RhoA expression in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, Sesamin was able to reduce PGE2 production from both cells under KA-stimulation. Conclusions Taken together, it suggests that sesamin could protect KA-induced brain injury through anti-inflammatory and partially antioxidative mechanisms.

  4. Identification of genes involved in the response of Arabidopsis to simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nicky J; Lilley, Catherine J; Urwin, Peter E

    2013-08-01

    In field conditions, plants may experience numerous environmental stresses at any one time. Research suggests that the plant response to multiple stresses is different from that for individual stresses, producing nonadditive effects. In particular, the molecular signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact and antagonize one another. The transcriptome response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to concurrent water deficit (abiotic stress) and infection with the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii (biotic stress) was analyzed by microarray. A unique program of gene expression was activated in response to a combination of water deficit and nematode stress, with 50 specifically multiple-stress-regulated genes. Candidate genes with potential roles in controlling the response to multiple stresses were selected and functionally characterized. RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR-LIKE8 (AtRALFL8) was induced in roots by joint stresses but conferred susceptibility to drought stress and nematode infection when overexpressed. Constitutively expressing plants had stunted root systems and extended root hairs. Plants may produce signal peptides such as AtRALFL8 to induce cell wall remodeling in response to multiple stresses. The methionine homeostasis gene METHIONINE GAMMA LYASE (AtMGL) was up-regulated by dual stress in leaves, conferring resistance to nematodes when overexpressed. It may regulate methionine metabolism under conditions of multiple stresses. AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 (AZI1), involved in defense priming in systemic plant immunity, was down-regulated in leaves by joint stress and conferred drought susceptibility when overexpressed, potentially as part of abscisic acid-induced repression of pathogen response genes. The results highlight the complex nature of multiple stress responses and confirm the importance of studying plant stress factors in combination.

  5. Benefits of agomelatine in behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alterations in prenatal valproic acid induced autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Valproic acid administration during gestational period causes behavior and biochemical deficits similar to those observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder. Although worldwide prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the social impairment are very limited. The present study has been structured to investigate the therapeutic potential of melatonin receptor agonist, agomelatine in prenatal valproic acid (Pre-VPA) induced autism spectrum disorder in animals. Pre-VPA has produced reduction in social interaction (three chamber social behavior apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complex I, II, IV). Furthermore, Pre-VPA has increased locomotor activity (actophotometer), anxiety, brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, and catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage in animals. Treatment with agomelatine has significantly attenuated Pre-VPA induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, agomelatine also attenuated Pre-VPA induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage. It is concluded that, Pre-VPA has induced autism spectrum disorder, which was attenuated by agomelatine. Agomelatine has shown ameliorative effect on behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alteration in Pre-VPA exposed animals. Thus melatonin receptor agonists may provide beneficial therapeutic strategy for managing autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Myristic acid potentiates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity and steatohepatitis associated with lipodystrophy by sustaning de novo ceramide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Laura; Torres, Sandra; Baulies, Anna; Alarcón-Vila, Cristina; Elena, Montserrat; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Caballeria, Joan; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-12-08

    Palmitic acid (PA) induces hepatocyte apoptosis and fuels de novo ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Myristic acid (MA), a free fatty acid highly abundant in copra/palmist oils, is a predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and stimulates ceramide synthesis. Here we investigated the synergism between MA and PA in ceramide synthesis, ER stress, lipotoxicity and NASH. Unlike PA, MA is not lipotoxic but potentiated PA-mediated lipoapoptosis, ER stress, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH). Moreover, MA kinetically sustained PA-induced total ceramide content by stimulating dehydroceramide desaturase and switched the ceramide profile from decreased to increased ceramide 14:0/ceramide16:0, without changing medium and long-chain ceramide species. PMH were more sensitive to equimolar ceramide14:0/ceramide16:0 exposure, which mimics the outcome of PA plus MA treatment on ceramide homeostasis, than to either ceramide alone. Treatment with myriocin to inhibit ceramide synthesis and tauroursodeoxycholic acid to prevent ER stress ameliorated PA plus MA induced apoptosis, similar to the protection afforded by the antioxidant BHA, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-Fmk and JNK inhibition. Moreover, ruthenium red protected PMH against PA and MA-induced cell death. Recapitulating in vitro findings, mice fed a diet enriched in PA plus MA exhibited lipodystrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver ceramide content and cholesterol levels, ER stress, liver damage, inflammation and fibrosis compared to mice fed diets enriched in PA or MA alone. The deleterious effects of PA plus MA-enriched diet were largely prevented by in vivo myriocin treatment. These findings indicate a causal link between ceramide synthesis and ER stress in lipotoxicity, and imply that the consumption of diets enriched in MA and PA can cause NASH associated with lipodystrophy.

  7. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Goldman

    Full Text Available Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells. Typically, bile acids induce apoptosis. However during gastrointestinal (GI tumorigenesis the cancer cells develop resistance to bile acid-induced cell death. To understand how bile acids induce apoptosis resistance we first need to identify the molecular pathways that initiate apoptosis in response to bile acid exposure. In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE and Na(+ influx in esophageal cells. In vitro studies revealed that the exposure of esophageal cells (JH-EsoAd1, CP-A to DCA (0.2 mM-0.5 mM caused lysosomal membrane perturbation and transient cytoplasmic acidification. Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry demonstrated that this effect on lysosomes correlated with influx of Na(+, subsequent loss of intracellular K(+, an increase of Ca(2+ and apoptosis. However, ethylisopropyl-amiloride (EIPA, a selective inhibitor of NHE, prevented Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ changes and caspase 3/7 activation induced by DCA. Ouabain and amphotericin B, two drugs that increase intracellular Na(+ levels, induced similar changes as DCA (ion imbalance, caspase3/7 activation. On the contrary, DCA-induced cell death was inhibited by medium with low a Na(+ concentrations. In the same experiments, we exposed rat ileum ex-vivo to DCA with or without EIPA. Severe tissue damage and caspase-3 activation was observed after DCA treatment, but EIPA almost fully prevented this response. In summary, NHE-mediated Na(+ influx is a critical step leading to DCA-induced apoptosis. Cells tolerate acidification but evade DCA-induced apoptosis if NHE is inhibited. Our data suggests that suppression of NHE by endogenous or exogenous inhibitors may lead to apoptosis resistance during GI tumorigenesis.

  8. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  9. Probucol increases striatal glutathione peroxidase activity and protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced pro-oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Hartwig, Juliana Montagna; dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; Zimmermann, Luciana Teixeira; Hort, Mariana Appel; Farina, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by symptoms attributable to the death of striatal and cortical neurons. The molecular mechanisms mediating neuronal death in HD involve oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an irreversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, in rodents has been proposed as a useful experimental model of HD. This study evaluated the effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, on the biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress, as well as on the behavioral parameters related to motor function in an in vivo HD model based on 3-NP intoxication in rats. Animals were treated with 3.5 mg/kg of probucol in drinking water daily for 2 months and, subsequently, received 3-NP (25 mg/kg i.p.) once a day for 6 days. At the end of the treatments, 3-NP-treated animals showed a significant decrease in body weight, which corresponded with impairment on motor ability, inhibition of mitochondrial complex II activity and oxidative stress in the striatum. Probucol, which did not rescue complex II inhibition, protected against behavioral and striatal biochemical changes induced by 3-NP, attenuating 3-NP-induced motor impairments and striatal oxidative stress. Importantly, probucol was able to increase activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an enzyme important in mediating the detoxification of peroxides in the central nervous system. The major finding of this study was that probucol protected against 3-NP-induced behavioral and striatal biochemical changes without affecting 3-NP-induced mitochondrial complex II inhibition, indicating that long-term probucol treatment resulted in an increased resistance against neurotoxic events (i.e., increased oxidative damage) secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data appeared to be of great relevance when

  10. Caregiver Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Caregiver stress Caregiver stress > A-Z Health Topics Caregiver fact sheet (PDF, ... receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Caregiver stress Caregivers care for someone with an illness, injury, ...

  11. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking.

  12. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-93 protects rat cerebral cortical neurons from N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Liu; Cui Ma; Ruixian Xing; Weiwei Zhang; Buxian Tian; Xidong Li; Qiushi Li; Yanhui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons of Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μM calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-93 after 50 μM N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced injury. Results showed that, compared with N-methyl-Daspartic acid-induced injury neurons, the activity of cells markedly increased, apoptosis was significantly reduced, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase decreased, and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in neurons reduced after KN-93 treatment. The expression of caspase-3, phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and total calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II protein decreased after KN-93 treatment. And the effect was apparent at a dose of 1.0 μM KN-93. Experimental findings suggest that KN-93 can induce a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect, and that the underlying mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of caspase-3 and calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II expression.

  13. Acid stress in the pathology of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Gaston, Benjamin; Hunt, John

    2004-04-01

    Although alteration of airway pH may serve an innate host defense capacity, it also is implicated in the pathophysiology of obstructive airway diseases. Acid-induced asthma appears in association with gastroesophageal reflux after accidental inhalation of acid (fog, pollution, and workplace exposure) and in the presence of altered airway pH homeostasis. Endogenous and exogenous exposures to acids evoke cough, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperreactivity, microvascular leakage, and heightened production of mucous, fluid, and nitric oxide. Abnormal acidity of the airways is reflected in exhaled breath assays. The intimate mechanisms of acid-induced airway obstruction are dependent on activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Protons activate these nerves with the subsequent release of tachykinins (major mediators of this pathway) that, in conjunction with kinins, nitric oxide, oxygen radicals, and proteases, modulate diverse aspects of airway dysfunction and inflammation. The recognition that acid stress might initiate or exacerbate airway obstructive symptomatology has prompted the consideration of new therapies targeting pH homeostasis.

  14. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  15. Somatic pain sensitivity during formation and healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushkina, Natalya; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Filaretova, Ludmila

    2006-06-30

    A classical feature of visceral pain is its referring to somatic locations. Gastric ulcer is a source of visceral pain. In the present study we investigated whether gastric ulcers may trigger the changes in somatic nociception. For this aim somatic pain sensitivity was estimated under conditions of gastric ulcer development and healing. Gastric ulcers were induced by luminal application of 60% acetic acid under surgical conditions. Control rats were subjected to the same surgical procedure, but with the application of saline instead of the acid. Somatic pain sensitivity (tail flick latency), plasma corticosterone level, adrenal and thymus weight were investigated under conditions of the formation and the healing of gastric ulcers. The application of the acid resulted in the formation of kissing gastric ulcers, the increase of somatic pain sensitivity (the decrease of tail flick latency) as well as the appearance of typical signs of chronic stress: long-lasting increase of plasma corticosterone level, adrenal gland hypertrophy and thymus gland involution. Natural healing of gastric ulcers was accompanied by restoration of pain sensitivity as well as attenuation of the signs of chronic stress. Delay of ulcer healing by the daily indomethacin administration (2 mg/kg, s.c.) prevented the restoration of somatic pain sensitivity. The results suggest that chronic gastric ulcers may trigger somatic hypersensitivity.

  16. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    We examined metallothionein (MT)-induced neuroprotection during kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity by studying transgenic mice with MT-I overexpression (TgMT mice). KA induces epileptic seizures and hippocampal excitotoxicity, followed by inflammation and delayed brain damage. We show...... for the first time that even though TgMT mice were more susceptible to KA, the cerebral MT-I overexpression decreases the hippocampal inflammation and delayed neuronal degeneration and cell death as measured 3 days after KA administration. Hence, the proinflammatory responses of microglia......, such as oxidative stress (formation of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxoguanine), neurodegeneration (neuronal accumulation of abnormal proteins), and apoptotic cell death (judged by TUNEL and activated caspase-3). This reduced bystander damage in TgMT mice could be due to antiinflammatory and antioxidant...

  17. Bile acids induce glucagon-like peptide 2 secretion with limited effects on intestinal adaptation in early weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Tedó, Gemma; Menoyo, David;

    2013-01-01

    Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve...... intestinal adaptation in weanling pigs. During the first 6 d after weaning, piglets were intragastrically infused once daily with either deionized water (control), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC; 60 mg/kg body weight), or β-sitoesterol (BSE; 100 mg/kg body weight). Infusing CDC increased plasma GLP-2 (P ....05) but did not affect plasma GLP-1 and feed intake. The intestinal expression of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor, sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, farnesoid X receptor, and guanosine protein-coupled bile acid receptor genes were not affected by CDC treatment. The intragastric administration of CDC...

  18. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is related to the development of salicylic acid-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongtao; Pan, Qiuhong; Yang, Haoru; Zhan, Jicheng; Huang, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM H(+)-ATPase, EC.3.6.1.35) plays a key role in the plant response to environmental stress. In this study, a possible mechanistic link between the PM H(+)-ATPase and salicylic acid (SA)-induced thermotolerance was investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. NingXia) leaves. The burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation (38 +/- 0.5 degrees C) was observed, and peaks appeared subsequently both in activity and amount of PM H(+)-ATPase in pea leaves during heat acclimation. Similarly, exogenous SA also triggered the two peaks in the room temperature (25 +/- 0.5 degrees C). Paclobutrazol (PAC) was employed to infiltrate onto pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the peaks of both free SA and activity of PM H(+)-ATPase still occurred after the PAC pretreatment. In acquired thermotolerance assessment (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting), spraying SA and fusicoccin (FC, the activator of PM H(+)-ATPase) separately could protect pea leaves from heat injury. Results from RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that the increase in activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase was due to its transcriptional and translational regulation. The subcellular localizations of PM H(+)-ATPase after the FC or SA pretreatment also showed that the PM H(+)-ATPase is important to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane against the heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest PM H(+)-ATPase is related to the development of SA-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

  19. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Cunha

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC50 values of 18 µM and Emax of 100% (N = 10 or 20 µM and Emax of 92% (N = 10, respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 ± 7.0, 43 ± 3.9 and 78 ± 5.6% in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively. Tetraethylammonium (100 µM, a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 µM, a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 ± 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 µM, at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 µM, a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N G-nitroarginine (100 µM, a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 µM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 µM or ODQ (1 µM, the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-P-Cl-Phe6,Leu17[VIP] (0.1 µM, a VIP receptor antagonist

  20. Genetic variation in toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene I and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: a candidate gene association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen Nygaard, Louise; Ladelund, S; Weis, N;

    2014-01-01

    with resolution in the discovery cohort were genotyped in a validation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for sex, hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV infection and the interleukin-28B rs12979860 SNP was performed in the combined cohort. Haplotype reconstruction and linkage disequilibrium analysis......We evaluated the effects of genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and their signalling pathways on spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) resolution. We screened 95 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 genes. SNPs significantly associated...... were performed. srs2233437, rs730775 and rs28362857 in Inhibitor of NF-kB ε (IkBε) and rs352140 in TLR9 were associated with spontaneous HCV resolution (P ≤ 0.05) in the discovery cohort (n = 308). In the validation cohort (n = 216), we replicated a significant association with HCV resolution for two...

  1. Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 may be responsible for basal and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration ('proton leak'). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein levels were similar in brown-fat mitochondria from wild-type mice and in liver mitochondria, but the level was increased in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice. However, in liver, only Ant2 mRNA was found, whereas in brown adipose tissue, Ant1 and Ant2 mRNA levels were equal. The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  3. Valproic acid increases conservative homologous recombination frequency and reactive oxygen species formation: a potential mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoort, Ericka N; Kim, Perry M; Winn, Louise M

    2006-04-01

    Valproic acid, a commonly used antiepileptic agent, is associated with a 1 to 2% incidence of neural tube defects when taken during pregnancy; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs has not been elucidated. Previous research suggests that valproic acid exposure leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA damage due to ROS can result in DNA double-strand breaks, which can be repaired through homologous recombination (HR), a process that is not error-free and can result in detrimental genetic changes. Because the developing embryo requires tight regulation of gene expression to develop properly, we propose that the loss or dysfunction of genes involved in embryonic development through aberrant HR may ultimately cause neural tube defects. To determine whether valproic acid induces HR, Chinese hamster ovary 3-6 cells, containing a neomycin direct repeat recombination substrate, were exposed to valproic acid for 4 or 24 h. A significant increase in HR after exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) for 24 h was observed, which seems to occur through a conservative HR mechanism. We also demonstrated that exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) significantly increased intracellular ROS levels, which were attenuated by preincubation with polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEG)-catalase. A significant change in the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/2'-de-oxyguanosine, a measure of DNA oxidation, was not observed after valproic acid exposure; however, preincubation with PEG-catalase significantly blocked the increase in HR. These data demonstrate that valproic acid increases HR frequency and provides a possible mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  4. Protective Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Skeletal Muscle Cells is not Mediated by PPARδ Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumova, Jana; Malisova, Lucia; Andel, Michal; Trnka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) are able to prevent deleterious effects of saturated FFA in skeletal muscle cells although the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. FFA act as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of PPARδ, the most common PPAR subtype in skeletal muscle, plays a role in mediating the protective effect of unsaturated FFA on saturated FFA-induced damage in skeletal muscle cells and to examine an impact on mitochondrial respiration. Mouse C2C12 myotubes were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of saturated FFA (palmitic acid), unsaturated FFA (oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid), and their combinations. PPARδ agonist GW501516 and antagonist GSK0660 were also used. Both mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, but not GW501516, prevented palmitic acid-induced cell death. Mono- and polyunsaturated FFA proved to be effective activators of PPARδ compared to saturated palmitic acid; however, in combination with palmitic acid their effect on PPARδ activation was blocked and stayed at the levels observed for palmitic acid alone. Unsaturated FFA at moderate physiological concentrations as well as GW501516, but not palmitic acid, mildly uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. Our results indicate that although unsaturated FFA are effective activators of PPARδ, their protective effect on palmitic acid-induced toxicity is not mediated by PPARδ activation and subsequent induction of lipid regulatory genes in skeletal muscle cells. Other mechanisms, such as mitochondrial uncoupling, may underlie their effect.

  5. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  6. Ameliorative effects of a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid on ibotenic acid-induced dementia model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the therapeutic effects and acting mechanism of a combination of Chinese herb active components, i.e., a combination of baicalin, jasminoidin and cholic acid (CBJC on Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHODS: Male rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with ibotenic acid (IBO, and CBJC was orally administered. Therapeutic effect was evaluated with the Morris water maze test, FDG-PET examination, and histological examination, and the acting mechanism was studied with DNA microarrays and western blotting. RESULTS: CBJC treatment significantly attenuated IBO-induced abnormalities in cognition, brain functional images, and brain histological morphology. Additionally, the expression levels of 19 genes in the forebrain were significantly influenced by CBJC; approximately 60% of these genes were related to neuroprotection and neurogenesis, whereas others were related to anti-oxidation, protein degradation, cholesterol metabolism, stress response, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Expression of these genes was increased, except for the gene related to apoptosis. Changes in expression for 5 of these genes were confirmed by western blotting. CONCLUSION: CBJC can ameliorate the IBO-induced dementia in rats and may be significant in the treatment of AD. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to CBJC's modulation of a number of processes, mainly through promotion of neuroprotection and neurogenesis, with additional promotion of anti-oxidation, protein degradation, etc.

  7. Abscisic acid induces biosynthesis of bisbibenzyls and tolerance to UV-C in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akito; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-09-01

    Environmental stresses are effective triggers for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites in plants, and phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and abscisic acid are known to mediate such responses in flowering plants. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of secondary metabolism in bryophytes remains unclear. In this study, the induction mechanism of secondary metabolites in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha was investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C) were found to induce the biosynthesis of isoriccardin C, marchantin C, and riccardin F, which are categorized as bisbibenzyls, characteristic metabolites of liverworts. UV-C led to the significant accumulation of ABA. Overexpression of MpABI1, which encodes protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, suppressed accumulation of bisbibenzyls in response to ABA and UV-C irradiation and conferred susceptibility to UV-C irradiation. These data show that ABA plays a significant role in the induction of bisbibenzyl biosynthesis, which might confer tolerance against UV-C irradiation in M. polymorpha.

  8. Ultrastructural changes to rat hippocampus in pentylenetetrazol- and kainic acid-induced status epilepticus: A study using electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, Mzia G; Ksovreli, Mariam; Japaridze, Nadezhda J; Lordkipanidze, Tamar G

    2015-07-01

    A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus model in rats was used in the study. The brains were studied one month after treatment. Ultrastructural observations using electron microscopy performed on the neurons, glial cells, and synapses, in the hippocampal CA1 region of epileptic brains, demonstrated the following major changes over normal control brain tissue. (i) There is ultrastructural alterations in some neurons, glial cells and synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. (ii) The destruction of cellular organelles and peripheral, partial or even total chromatolysis in some pyramidal cells and in interneurons are observed. Several astrocytes are proliferated or activated. Presynaptic terminals with granular vesicles and degenerated presynaptic profiles are rarely observed. (iii) The alterations observed are found to be dependent on the frequency of seizure activities following the PTZ treatment. It was observed that if seizure episodes are frequent and severe, the ultrastructure of hippocampal area is significantly changed. Interestingly, the ultrastructure of CA1 area is found to be only moderately altered if seizure episodes following the status epilepticus are rare and more superficial; (iv) alterations in mitochondria and dendrites are among the most common ultrastructural changes seen, suggesting cell stress and changes to cellular metabolism. These morphological changes, observed in brain neurons in status epilepticus, are a reflection of epileptic pathophysiology. Further studies at the chemical and molecular level of neurotransmitter release, such as at the level of porosomes (secretory portals) at the presynaptic membrane, will further reveal molecular details of these changes.

  9. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Action: Relax 3. Relax with deep breathing or meditation. Deep breathing and meditation are 2 ways to relax your muscles and ... time, stress can lead to serious problems like depression, anxiety, or PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). If ...

  10. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... events. People who were neglected or abused as children tend to be particularly vulnerable to stress. The ...

  11. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action.

  12. Assessment of the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin alone or in combination with morphine during acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Keyhanfar, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Visceral pain currently represents one of the most important pain treatment challenges in clinical practice, and investigators across the world are continuously designing and conducting numerous studies in search of new analgesics and new combination therapies. The current study assessed the analgesic effects of saline, pregabalin (2, 5, 17, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) alone or in combination on acetic-acid induced abdominal contractions in mice. The number of writhes and the inhibitory effects (as percentages, %E) were calculated as antinociception indexes. These indexes indicated that both pregabalin (Prg) and morphine (Mrp) produced dose-dependent antinociception. Pregabalin at 5 mg/kg (%E=32.5±4.0) or 2 mg/kg (%E=20.8±4.5) and morphine at 0.25 mg/kg (%E=20.2±7.8) and 0.5 mg/kg (%E=43.6±4.5) exhibited antinociceptive effects, and the combination of pregabalin and morphine produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects (%E=62.4±5.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.25; %E=71.7±4.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.5; and %E=54.1±4.0 for Prg2+Mrp0.25), although this enhancement was not observed when morphine was combined with 17 mg/kg pregabalin. Pre-treatment with 2 mg/kg (i.p.) naloxone did not affect increased analgesia when combined with these drugs. A dose-response curve was established for pregabalin at a fixed morphine dose and revealed that, at low doses, pregabalin dose-dependently enhanced the antinociceptive effects, while the opposite was true at high doses (17 and 25 mg/kg). In conclusion, pregabalin can produce levels of antinociception that are similar to those of morphine in acetic acid-induced viscero-somatic pain. The enhancement of antinociception produced by the co-administration of morphine and pregabalin is termed a supra-additive interaction and occurred at low doses but not at high doses. These findings militate for increased attention and caution in clinical settings.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel retinoic acid-inducible orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRC5B and GPRC5C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M J; Michalovich, D; Hill, J; Calver, A R; Medhurst, A D; Gloger, I; Sims, M; Middlemiss, D N; Pangalos, M N

    2000-07-01

    Using homology searching of public databases with a metabotropic glutamate receptor sequence from Caenorhabditis elegans, two novel protein sequences (named RAIG-2 (HGMW-approved symbol GPRC5B) and RAIG-3 (HGMW-approved symbol GPRC5C) were identified containing seven putative transmembrane domains characteristic of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAIG-2 and RAIG-3 encode open reading frames of 403 and 442 amino acid polypeptides, respectively, and show 58% similarity to the recently identified retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RAIG-1, HGMW-approved symbol RAI3). Analysis of the three protein sequences places them within the type 3 GPCR family, which includes metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(B) receptors, calcium-sensing receptors, and pheromone receptors. However, in contrast to other type 3 GPCRs, RAIG-1, RAIG-2, and RAIG-3 have only short N-terminal domains. RAIG-2 and RAIG-3 cDNA sequences were cloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3 with c-myc or HA epitope tags inserted at their N-termini, respectively. Transient transfection experiments in HEK239T cells using these constructs demonstrated RAIG-2 and RAIG-3 expression at the cell surface. Distribution profiles of mRNA expression obtained by semiquantitative Taq-Man PCR analysis showed RAIG-2 to be predominantly expressed in human brain areas and RAIG-3 to be predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues. In addition, expression of RAIG-2 and RAIG-3 mRNA was increased following treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid in a manner similar to that previously described for RAIG-1. Finally, RAIG-2 was mapped to chromosome 16p12 (D16S405-D16S3045) and RAIG-3 to chromosome 17q25 (D17S1352-D17S785). These results suggest that RAIG-1, RAIG-2, and RAIG-3 represent a novel family of retinoic acid-inducible receptors, most closely related to the type 3 GPCR subfamily, and provide further evidence for a linkage between retinoic acid and G-protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways.

  14. Preconcentration and fluorimetric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on the acid-induced cloud-point extraction with sodium dodecylsulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryacheva, Irina Yu.; Shtykov, Sergei N.; Loginov, Alexander S.; Panteleeva, Irina V. [Saratov State University, Chemistry Department, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The acid-induced cloud-point extraction (CPE) technique based on sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles has been used for preconcentration of ten representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the following fluorescence determination. The effect of the acidity of solution, SDS and electrolyte concentrations, centrifugation time and rate on the two-phase separation process and extraction percentages of PAHs have systematically been examined. Extraction percentages have been obtained for all PAHs after CPE ranged from 67 to 93%. Pyrene was used as a fluorescent probe to monitor the micropolarity of the surfactant-rich phase compared with SDS micelles and this allows one to conclude that water content in micellar phase after CPE is reduced. The spectral, metrological and analytical characteristics of PAH fluorimetric determination after acid-based CPE with sodium dodecylsulfate are presented. Advantages provided by using CPE in combination with fluorimetric determination of PAHs are discussed. The determination of benz[a]pyrene in tap water is presented as an example. (orig.)

  15. Alkali- or acid-induced changes in structure, moisture absorption ability and deacetylating reaction of β-chitin extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Alkali- or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and their moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. β-Chitin was converted into the α-form after 3h in 40% NaOH or 1-3 h in 40% HCl solution, and α-chitin obtained from NaOH treatment had higher MAA than had native α-chitin, due to polymorphic destructions. In contrast, induced α-chitin from acid treatment of β-chitin had few polymorphic modifications, showing no significant change (P>0.05) in MAA. β-Chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than was α-chitin, and required a lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. These results demonstrate that alkali- or acid-treated β-chitin retained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or application as edible coatings and films for various food applications.

  16. Increase in α-tubulin modifications in the neuronal processes of hippocampal neurons in both kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hang Thi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ikegami, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration includes acute changes and slow-developing alterations, both of which partly involve common cellular machinery. During neurodegeneration, neuronal processes are impaired along with dysregulated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cytoskeletal proteins. In neuronal processes, tubulin undergoes unique PTMs including a branched form of modification called glutamylation and loss of the C-terminal tyrosine residue and the penultimate glutamic acid residue forming Δ2-tubulin. Here, we investigated the state of two PTMs, glutamylation and Δ2 form, in both acute and slow-developing neurodegenerations, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody, DTE41, which had 2-fold higher affinity to glutamylated Δ2-tubulin, than to unmodified Δ2-tubulin. DTE41 recognised glutamylated Δ2-tubulin preferentially in immunostaining than in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. In normal mouse brain, DTE41 stained molecular layer of the cerebellum as well as synapse-rich regions in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. In kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure, DTE41-labelled signals were increased in the hippocampal CA3 region, especially in the stratum lucidum. In the hippocampi of post-mortem patients with Alzheimer’s disease, intensities of DTE41 staining were increased in mossy fibres in the CA3 region as well as in apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons. Our findings indicate that glutamylation on Δ2-tubulin is increased in both acute and slow-developing neurodegeneration. PMID:28067280

  17. Receptor for advanced glycation end products plays a more important role in cellular survival than in neurite outgrowth during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan; Huttunen, Henri; Rauvala, Heikki; Munch, Gerald

    2002-03-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is known to interact with amphoterin. This interaction has been proposed to play a role in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neurodifferentiation. However, there is as yet no direct evidence of the relevance of this pathway to neurodifferentiation under physiological conditions. In this study we have investigated a possible role of RAGE and amphoterin in the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. The functional inactivation of RAGE by dominant negative and antisense strategies showed that RAGE is not required for process outgrowth or differentiation, although overexpression of RAGE accelerates the elongation of neuritic processes. Using the antisense strategy, amphoterin was shown to be essential for process outgrowth and differentiation, suggesting that amphoterin may interact with other molecules to exert its effect in this context. Interestingly, the survival of the neuroblastoma cells treated with retinoic acid was partly dependent on the expression of RAGE, and inhibition of RAGE function partially blocked the increase in anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following retinoic acid treatment. Based on these results we propose that a combination therapy using RAGE blockers and retinoic acid may prove as a useful approach for chemotherapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  18. The protective effect of myo-inositol on hippocamal cell loss and structural alterations in neurons and synapses triggered by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaria, Nato; Kiladze, Maia; Zhvania, Mzia G; Japaridze, Nadezhda J; Bikashvili, Tamar; Solomonia, Revaz O; Bolkvadze, Tamar

    2013-07-01

    It is known that myo-inositol pretreatment attenuates the seizure severity and several biochemical changes provoked by experimentally induced status epilepticus. However, it remains unidentified whether such properties of myo-inositol influence the structure of epileptic brain. In the present light and electron microscopic research we elucidate if pretreatment with myo-inositol has positive effect on hippocampal cell loss, and cell and synapses damage provoked by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with (i) saline, (ii) saline + kainic acid, (iii) myo-inositol + kainic acid. Assessment of cell loss at 2, 14, and 30 days after treatment demonstrate cytoprotective effect of myo-inositol in CA1 and CA3 areas. It was strongly expressed in pyramidal layer of CA1, radial and oriental layers of CA3 and in less degree-in other layers of both fields. Ultrastructural alterations were described in CA1, 14 days after treatment. The structure of neurons, synapses, and porosomes are well preserved in the rats pretreated with myo-inositol in comparing with rats treated with only kainic acid.

  19. Role of Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene I in endogenous production of type I interferon in dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Dai, Tingjun; Lv, Jingwei; Ji, Kunqian; Liu, Junling; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-08-15

    To explore the possible mechanisms implicated in the endogenous production of type I interferons within the muscle tissue of dermatomyositis (DM) patients. We detected the co-localization of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-I by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Western blotting confirmed the expression of TLRs and RIG-I. TLR-3 and RIG-I was preferentially expressed in the perifascicular atrophy fibers of DM. TLR-7 was only in inflammatory infiltrates of a few DM patients. TLR-4 and TLR-9 was expressed mainly in inflammatory infiltrates. Immunofluorescence showed extensive co-localization of BDCA-2 with TLR-9 and little co-localization with TLR-7. Western blotting showed upregulation of expression of TLRs and RIG-I in DM compared with the controls. Our findings indicate that endogenous production of type I IFN in DM is generated by pDCs, mainly through the TLR-9 pathway and in part by TLR-7. TLR-3 and RIG-I are implicated in the formation of perifascicular atrophy in DM.

  20. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, “R2-Δ2” analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30–40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5′-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  1. Manuka Honey Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities That Promote Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasaudi, Saad B.; Al-Hindi, Rashad R.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Ali, Soad S.; Saleh, Rasha M.; Al Jaouni, Soad K.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are a major problem worldwide with no effective treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of manuka honey in the treatment of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Different groups of rats were treated with three different concentrations of honey. Stomachs were checked macroscopically for ulcerative lesions in the glandular mucosa and microscopically for histopathological alterations. Treatment with manuka honey significantly reduced the ulcer index and maintained the glycoprotein content. It also reduced the mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) as compared to untreated control group. In addition, honey-treated groups showed significant increase in enzymatic (GPx and SOD) and nonenzymatic (GSH) antioxidants besides levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Flow cytometry studies showed that treatment of animals with manuka honey has normalized cell cycle distribution and significantly lowered apoptosis in gastric mucosa. In conclusion, the results indicated that manuka honey is effective in the treatment of chronic ulcer and preservation of mucosal glycoproteins. Its effects are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that resulted in a significant reduction of the gastric mucosal MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and caused an elevation in IL-10 levels. PMID:28250794

  2. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  3. Therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Rong Jiang; Hui-Nan Ge; Guo-Qiang Liang; Liang Zhou; Lu-Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. Methods: A total of 138 SD rats were selected to make rat models with gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid (24 rats with sham operation served as sham operation group), and were randomly divided into model group (n=30), western medicine group (n=30), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (n=24) and combination group (combined western medicine and TCM group, n=30). Western medicine group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with iso-volumetric distilled water in the afternoon; TCM group and TCM sham operation group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon;combination group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon; sham operation group and model group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water both in the morning and afternoon. Ulcer indexes and degree of mucosal degree in rats at different time points after gavage were observed. Twenty-eight days after gavage, interleukin (IL)-1β was given to induce ulcer recurrence so as to observethe recurrent severity and rate of ulcer in each group. Results: Compared with model group and western medicine group, treatment in combination group could prominently reduce the ulcer index of rats with peptic ulcer, and increase the healing rate and inhibition rate of peptic ulcer. After IL-1β-induced ulcer recurrence, combination group was significantly superior to modelgroup and western medicine group in ulcer recurrent rate [50% (3/6) vs. 100% (6/6)] and severity. Conclusions: Basic acid-suppression therapy combined with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula can effectually improve the ulcer healing quality and reduce ulcer recurrence.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  5. Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Lee, Ilho; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population, attenuated the expression of procapase 9, cyclin D1, pAKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha/beta (pGSK3α/β), β-catenin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and also cleaved caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mesothelioma cells. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment blocked epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules by activating E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and attenuating Vimentin, and Twist as mesenchymal molecules. Interestingly, miRNA array revealed that 23 miRNAs (>2 folds) including let-7b and miRNA3613-5p, miRNA134 and miRNA196b were significantly upregulated while 33 miRNAs were downregulated in ursolic acid treated H2452 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of let 7b using let-7b mimics enhanced the antitumor effect of ursolic acid to attenuate the expression of procaspases 3, pro-PARP, pAKT, β-catenin and Twist and increase sub-G1 accumulation in H2452 mesothelioma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via inhibition of EMT and activation of let7b in mesothelioma cells as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant mesotheliomas.

  6. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  7. 胆汁酸诱导的肠道激素与肝脏糖代谢%Bile acid induced gut hormones and hepatic glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏伟; 姜崴

    2015-01-01

    [Summary] Bile acid is a main component of bile ,which plays a key role in keeping cholesterol metabolism balance in vivo and promoting lipids digestion in intestine. Recently ,more and more researches focus on bile acid for its regulating effect on glucose ,lipid and energy metabolism as a signal molecule. The reabsorbed bile acid stimulates the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) in the intestine by activating a nuclear receptor farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) and a membrane receptor TGR5. FGF19 and GLP-1 regulate hepatic glucose metabolism through different pathways. Here ,we briefly summarize the research progress and relationship between bile acid induced gut hormones and hepatic glucose metabolism.%胆汁酸是胆汁的主要成分,其主要作用是维持体内胆固醇代谢的平衡和促进肠道脂肪的消化。近年,胆汁酸作为一种信号分子,对葡萄糖、脂质及能量代谢的调节作用日趋受到重视。胆汁酸在肠道重吸收时分别通过核受体法呢醇X受体(FXR)、膜受体TGR5促进肠道细胞分泌成纤维细胞生长因子19(FGF19)及胰升血糖素样肽-1(GLP-1)。FGF19和GLP-1通过不同的作用途径影响肝脏的糖代谢。本文就胆汁酸诱导的肠道激素与肝脏糖代谢的关系及研究进展进行综述。

  8. Dose dependent activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I promotes both proliferation and apoptosis signals in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Hu

    Full Text Available The retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG-like receptor (RLR family proteins are major pathogen reorganization receptors (PRR responsible for detection of viral RNA, which initiates antiviral response. Here, we evaluated the functional role of one RLR family member, RIG-I, in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. RIG-I is abundantly expressed both in poorly-differentiated primary cancer and lymph node metastasis, but not in normal adjacent tissues. Activation of RIG-I by transfection with low dose of 5'-triphosphate RNA (3p-RNA induces low levels of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines and promotes NF-κB- and Akt-dependent cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by a high dose of 3p-RNA induces robust mitochondria-derived apoptosis accompanied by decreased activation of Akt, which is independent of the interferon and TNFα receptor, but can be rescued by over-expression of constitutively active Akt. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CARD domain of RIG-I is essential for inducing apoptosis by interacting with caspase-9. Together, our results reveal a dual role of RIG-I in HNSCC through regulating activation of Akt, in which RIG-I activation by low-dose viral dsRNA increases host cell survival, whereas higher level of RIG-I activation leads to apoptosis. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of dsRNA mediated RIG-I activation in the treatment of HNSCC.

  9. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 augments saturated fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Matsui

    Full Text Available Mismatch between the uptake and utilization of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium leads to abnormally high intracellular fatty acid concentration, which ultimately induces myocardial dysfunction. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1 is a rate-limiting enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs to monounsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies have shown that SCD1-deficinent mice are protected from insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity; however, the role of SCD1 in the heart remains to be determined. We examined the expression of SCD1 in obese rat hearts induced by a sucrose-rich diet for 3 months. We also examined the effect of SCD1 on myocardial energy metabolism and apoptotic cell death in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in the presence of SFAs. Here we showed that the expression of SCD1 increases 3.6-fold without measurable change in the expression of lipogenic genes in the heart of rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Forced SCD1 expression augmented palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation, but attenuated excess fatty acid oxidation and restored reduced glucose oxidation. Of importance, SCD1 substantially inhibited SFA-induced caspase 3 activation, ceramide synthesis, diacylglycerol synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Experiments using SCD1 siRNA confirmed these observations. Furthermore, we showed that exposure of cardiac myocytes to glucose and insulin induced SCD1 expression. Our results indicate that SCD1 is highly regulated by a metabolic syndrome component in the heart, and such induction of SCD1 serves to alleviate SFA-induced adverse fatty acid catabolism, and eventually to prevent SFAs-induced apoptosis.

  10. Citric acid induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Chen, Chia-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Hung, Sung-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) widely used in cosmetic dermatology and skincare products. However, there is concern regarding its safety for the skin. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of citric acid on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. HaCaT cells were treated with citric acid at 2.5-12.5 mM for different time periods. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Citric acid not only inhibited proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also induced apoptosis and cell cycle-arrest at the G2/M phase (before 24 h) and S phase (after 24 h). Citric acid increased the level of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and reduced the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Citric acid also activated death receptors and increased the levels of caspase-8, activated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) protein, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Endonuclease G (EndoG). Therefore, citric acid induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The study results suggest that citric acid is cytotoxic to HaCaT cells via induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in vitro.

  11. Metabolomics study with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for predicting valproic acid-induced hepatotoxicity and discovery of novel biomarkers in rat urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Sun; Jung, Byung Hwa; Chung, Bong Chul; Cho, Sung Hee; Kim, Ki Young; Kwon, Oh Seoung; Nugraha, Boya; Lee, Young-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Three different doses of valproic acid (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/d) are administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days, and the feasibility of metabolomics with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a predictor of the hepatotoxicity of valproic acid is evaluated. Body weight is found to decrease with the 100-mg/kg/d dose and significantly decrease with the 500-mg/kg/d dose. Mean excreted urine volume is lowest in the 500-mg/kg/d group among all groups. The plasma level of alpha-glutathione-S-transferase, a sensitive and earlier biomarker for hepatotoxicity, increases significantly with administration of 100 and 500 mg/kg/d; however, there is not a significant difference in alpha-glutathione-S-transferase plasma levels between the control and 20-mg/kg/d groups. Clusters in partial least squares discriminant analysis score plots show similar patterns, with changes in physiological conditions and plasma levels of alpha-glutathione-S-transferase; the cluster for the control and 20-mg/kg/d groups does not clearly separate, but the clusters are separate for 100- and 500-mg/kg/d groups. A biomarker of hepatotoxicity, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and octanoylcarnitine, is identified from nontargeted and targeted metabolic profiling. These results validate that metabolic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be a useful tool for finding novel biomarkers. Thus, a nontargeted metabolic profiling method is established to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of valproic acid and demonstrates proof-of-concept that metabolomic approach with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has great potential for predicting valproic acid-induced hepatotoxicity and discovering novel biomarkers.

  12. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Retinoic acid-induced gene-I (RIG-I) associates with nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) to negatively regulate inflammatory signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosky, Stefanie A; Zhu, Jianzhong; Mukherjee, Amitava; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2011-08-12

    Cytoplasmic caspase recruiting domain (CARD)-containing molecules often function in the induction of potent antimicrobial responses in order to protect mammalian cells from invading pathogens. Retinoic acid-induced gene-I (RIG-I) and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) serve as key factors in the detection of viral and bacterial pathogens, and in the subsequent initiation of innate immune signals to combat infection. RIG-I and NOD2 share striking similarities in their cellular localization, both localize to membrane ruffles in non-polarized epithelial cells and both exhibit a close association with the junctional complex of polarized epithelia. Here we show that RIG-I and NOD2 not only colocalize to cellular ruffles and cell-cell junctions, but that they also form a direct interaction that is mediated by the CARDs of RIG-I and multiple regions of NOD2. Moreover, we show that RIG-I negatively regulates ligand-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling mediated by NOD2, and that NOD2 negatively regulates type I interferon induction by RIG-I. We also show that the three main Crohn disease-associated mutants of NOD2 (1007fs, R702W, G908R) form an interaction with RIG-I and negatively regulate its signaling to a greater extent than wild-type NOD2. Our results show that in addition to their role in innate immune recognition, RIG-I and NOD2 form a direct interaction at actin-enriched sites within cells and suggest that this interaction may impact RIG-I- and NOD2-dependent innate immune signaling.

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  15. Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1) in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Blancato, Jan K; Cox, Gerald F; Deshpande, Charu; Introne, Wendy J; Gahl, William A; Smith, Ann C M; Huizing, Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS.

  16. Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1 in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Vilboux

    Full Text Available Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1 is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion, were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS.

  17. [The microglial activation and the expression of heat shock protein 27 through the propagation pathway of kainic acid-induced hippocampal seizure in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Y

    2001-02-01

    We studied activation of microglia and expression of the 27 kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) in the brain during kainic acid-induced acute hippocampal seizures in rats. The microglial activation was observed at 6 hrs after seizure induction, but the expression of HSP27 was delayed until 3 days after seizure induction. The gross anatomical distributions of the two phenomena in the brain structures were almost identical, being localized not only in the primary focus at the dorsal hippocampus ipsilateral to the kainic acid injection, but also in selected remote brain structures that was highly consistent with the propagation pathways of the hippocampal seizure as detected previously by metabolic mapping. These structures included the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, piriform cortex, sensorimotor cortex, hypothalamus and thalamus. A close observation, however, revealed a difference in distribution of the two phenomena in the layers of the contralateral hippocampus: The HSP27 expression showed a layer-specific distribution, being localized selectively in the molecular layer and hilus of the dentate gyrus, and the radiatum and molecular layers of the CA-3 subfield suggesting the expression in the neuropil. On the other hand, the distribution of the microglial activation was non-specific to the layers, being scattered in the whole regions of the dorsal hippocampus. There were no apparent morphological changes in the neurons in these structures except for the ipsilateral dorsal hippocampus, by light microscopic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining. These findings thus indicate that activation of microglial cells and expression of HSP27 occur transsynaptically by epileptic activities through the propagation pathways of hippocampal seizure and suggest that these phenomena may reflect a part of early microenvironmental alterations in epileptic brain.

  18. Stress echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 14. Read More Exercise stress test Review Date 4/20/2015 Updated ...

  19. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    short of individual need while high degrees of fit will mitigate stress. The analysis is based on a stratified random sample including 2127 researchers at 64 Danish university departments and covering all main areas of research and all academic staff categories. The results show that fit with regard......Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  20. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias How to Talk to Your Child About the ... on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © ...

  1. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Cold Stress Cold Related Illnesses Cold Water Immersion Recommendations Resources Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the Heat Read " Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the ...

  2. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles weaken, anything that exerts force on the abdominal and pelvic muscles — sneezing, bending over, lifting, laughing hard, for instance — ... is associated with higher rates of the later development of stress incontinence. Many of these women may ...

  3. Imaging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielle, Shlomi; Gura, Rotem; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Recent innovations in cell biology and imaging approaches are changing the way we study cellular stress, protein misfolding, and aggregation. Studies have begun to show that stress responses are even more variegated and dynamic than previously thought, encompassing nano-scale reorganization of cytosolic machinery that occurs almost instantaneously, much faster than transcriptional responses. Moreover, protein and mRNA quality control is often organized into highly dynamic macromolecular assemblies, or dynamic droplets, which could easily be mistaken for dysfunctional "aggregates," but which are, in fact, regulated functional compartments. The nano-scale architecture of stress-response ranges from diffraction-limited structures like stress granules, P-bodies, and stress foci to slightly larger quality control inclusions like juxta nuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ) and insoluble protein deposit compartment (IPOD), as well as others. Examining the biochemical and physical properties of these dynamic structures necessitates live cell imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution, and techniques to make quantitative measurements with respect to movement, localization, and mobility. Hence, it is important to note some of the most recent observations, while casting an eye towards new imaging approaches that offer the possibility of collecting entirely new kinds of data from living cells.

  4. What Is Stress Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit What Is Stress Management? Updated:Jul 7,2016 What is Stress Management? ... FAQs About Stress Last reviewed - 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction FAQs ...

  5. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascante Marta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. Methods We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. Results HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. Conclusion All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic

  6. Parvalbumin interneurons and calretinin fibers arising from the thalamic nucleus reuniens degenerate in the subiculum after kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, M; Preidt, A P; Kirchmair, E; Sperk, G

    2011-08-25

    The subiculum is the major output area of the hippocampus. It is closely interconnected with the entorhinal cortex and other parahippocampal areas. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in TLE patients it exerts increased network excitability and may crucially contribute to the propagation of limbic seizures. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ-hybridization we now investigated neuropathological changes affecting parvalbumin and calretinin containing neurons in the subiculum and other parahippocampal areas after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. We observed prominent losses in parvalbumin containing interneurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex, and in the principal cell layers of the pre- and parasubiculum. Degeneration of parvalbumin-positive neurons was associated with significant precipitation of parvalbumin-immunoreactive debris 24 h after kainic acid injection. In the subiculum the superficial portion of the pyramidal cell layer was more severely affected than its deep part. In the entorhinal cortex, the deep layers were more severely affected than the superficial ones. The decrease in number of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex correlated with the number of spontaneous seizures subsequently experienced by the rats. The loss of parvalbumin neurons thus may contribute to the development of spontaneous seizures. On the other hand, surviving parvalbumin neurons revealed markedly increased expression of parvalbumin mRNA notably in the pyramidal cell layer of the subiculum and in all layers of the entorhinal cortex. This indicates increased activity of these neurons aiming to compensate for the partial loss of this functionally important neuron population. Furthermore, calretinin-positive fibers terminating in the molecular layer of the subiculum, in sector CA1 of the hippocampus proper and in the entorhinal cortex degenerated together with their presumed perikarya in the thalamic nucleus reuniens. In

  7. Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4%Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 2.7, P < 0.01) and the total square area of damage (10 ± 2 vs 21 ± 7, P < 0.01)were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. OP was shown to decrease the tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons (42 ± 11 vs 112 ± 40, P < 0.01) and enhance the amount of mucus of colitis mice (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.01). The level of colonic malondialdehyde was noted to decrease in OP-pretreated mice (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).OP was found to decrease the inflammatory status of mice as was determined by reduction of vascular permeability (161 ± 34 vs 241 ± 21, P < 0.01). Adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages was also shown to decrease after administration of OP (141 ± 50vs 235 ± 37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP,on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected.A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

  8. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  9. Stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Salustri (Alessandro)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn the studies reported in this thesis, stress echocardiography (either with exercise or with pharmacological agents) and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy have been performed in different groups of patients and in different clinical conditions. Some practical aspects on the protocols of

  10. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of accidental contact with hot surfaces or steam. Workers at risk of heat stress include outdoor workers and workers in hot environments such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and others. Workers at ...

  11. Stress incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000891.htm Stress urinary incontinence To use the ... irritation. Smoking also increases your risk for bladder cancer. Avoid alcohol ... keep the muscle around your urethra strong and working well. This may help keep ...

  12. DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by acetylsalicylic acid in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely

    2014-08-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory widely used due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This compound has been found in water bodies worldwide and is toxic to aquatic organisms; nevertheless its capacity to induce oxidative stress in bioindicators like Daphnia magna remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate toxicity in D. magna induced by acetylsalicylic acid in water, using oxidative stress and DNA damage biomarkers. An acute toxicity test was conducted in order to determine the median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) and the concentrations to be used in the subsequent subacute toxicity test in which the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation, oxidized protein content, activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and level of DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation level and oxidized protein content were significantly increased (pacetylsalicylic acid induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in D. magna.

  13. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that Okadaic acid (OA induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD.

  14. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  15. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or not advancing in your career. How Job Stress Affects Your Health Like any kind of stress, job stress that continues for a long time can affect your health. Job stress may increase your risk for health problems such ...

  16. Post-Translational Modification and Secretion of Azelaic Acid Induced 1 (AZI1, a Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis EARLI-type hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs consist of a putative N-terminal secretion signal, a proline-rich domain (PRD, and a characteristic eight-cysteine-motif (8-CM. They have been implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. AZI1 is required for systemic acquired resistance and it has recently been identified as a target of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. AZI1 gel migration properties strongly indicate AZI1 to undergo major post-translational modifications. These occur in a stress-independent manner and are unrelated to phosphorylation by MAPKs. As revealed by transient expression of AZI1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Tropaeolum majus, the Arabidopsis protein is similarly modified in heterologous plant species. Proline-rich regions, resembling arabinogalactan proteins point to a possible proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation of AZI1. Consistently, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase reduces its apparent protein size. AZI1 secretion was examined using Arabidopsis protoplasts and seedling exudates. Employing Agrobacterium-mediated leaf infiltration of N. benthamiana, we attempted to assess long-distance movement of AZI1. In summary, the data point to AZI1 being a partially secreted protein and a likely new member of the group of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Its dual location suggests AZI1 to exert both intra- and extracellular functions.

  17. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  18. Formaldehyde stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde,one of the most toxic organic compounds,is produced and processed in human cells.The level of human endogenous formaldehyde is maintained at a low concentration(0.01-0.08 mmol L-1 in blood) under physiological conditions,but the concentration increases during ageing(over 65 years old).Clinical trials have shown that urine formaldehyde concentrations are significantly different between elderly Alzheimer’s patients(n=91) and normal elderly volunteers(n=38)(P<0.001).Abnormally high levels of intrinsic formaldehyde lead to dysfunction in cognition such as learning decline and memory loss.Excess extracellular and intracellular formaldehyde could induce metabolic response and abnormal modifications of cellular proteins such as hydroxymethylation and hyperphosphorylation,protein misfolding,nuclear translocation and even cell death.This cellular response called formaldehyde stress is dependent upon the concentration of formaldehyde.Chronic impairments of the brain resulted from formaldehyde stress could be one of the mechanisms involved in the process of senile dementia during ageing.

  19. Palmitic acid induces production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α via a NF-κB-dependent mechanism in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-rong; Zhang, Jia-an; Zhang, Qian; Permatasari, Felicia; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Yin, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether palmitic acid can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations. Secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), NF- κ B nuclear translocation, NF- κ B activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) mRNA and protein levels, as well as the cell proliferation ability were measured at the end of the treatment and after 24 hours of recovery. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a selective chemical inhibitor of NF- κ B) and goat anti-human IL-6 polyclonal neutralizing antibody were used to inhibit NF- κ B activation and IL-6 production, respectively. Our results showed that palmitic acid induced an upregulation of IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β secretions, accompanied by NF- κ B nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, the effect of palmitic acid was accompanied by PPAR α activation and Stat3 phosphorylation. Palmitic acid-induced IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β productions were attenuated by NF- κ B inhibitor PDTC. Palmitic acid was administered in amounts able to elicit significant hyperproliferation and can be attenuated by IL-6 blockage. These data demonstrate for the first time that palmitic acid can stimulate IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β productions in HaCaT keratinocytes and cell proliferation, thereby potentially contributing to acne inflammation and pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization.

  20. Domain-confined catalytic soot combustion over Co3O4 anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst prepared by mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiale; Yu, Yifu; Dai, Fangfang; Meng, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Tiandou

    2013-11-01

    Herein, we introduce a specially designed domain-confined macroporous catalyst, namely, the Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst, which was synthesized by using the mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting method. This catalyst exhibits much better performance for catalytic soot combustion than the conventional TiO2 powder supported one in gravitational contact mode (GMC).Herein, we introduce a specially designed domain-confined macroporous catalyst, namely, the Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst, which was synthesized by using the mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting method. This catalyst exhibits much better performance for catalytic soot combustion than the conventional TiO2 powder supported one in gravitational contact mode (GMC). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The images of XRD, UV-vis, EDX and soot-TPR. The table providing information on Co/Ti-NA catalysts. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03757f

  1. Therapeutic Effect of Oridonin Tablet on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice%冬凌草甲素片对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧凯宏; 杜丽东; 刘晓梅; 马骏; 任远

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用.方法 醋酸诱导的溃疡性结肠炎小鼠分别给予不同剂量的冬凌草甲素片灌胃给药,给药7d后,考察冬凌草甲素片对溃疡性结肠炎小鼠病变活动(体质量、便潜血及粪便性状)的影响,以及对结肠病理组织学变化,结肠髓过氧化物酶活性及胸腺和脾脏指数的影响.结果 冬凌草甲素片口服给药可剂量依赖性的降低结肠炎小鼠的病变活动、减轻结肠炎症、降低髓过氧化物酶活性,改善免疫器官脏器指数,以冬凌草甲素片高剂量给药组的作用更为显著.结论 高剂量冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎具有治疗作用,其机制可能与冬凌草甲素的抗炎和免疫调节作用有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the therapeutic effect of Oridonin tablet on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.METHODS Oridonin tablets at different dosages were administered orally to acetic acid-induced colitis mice.After 7 days of treatment,the effects of Oridonin tablet on disease activity (i.e.body weight,stool blood,and stool consistency),colonic macroscopic and histological score,myleoperoxidase activity,and thymic and splenic indexes were evaluated in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.RESULTS Oridonin tablet treatment dose-dependently reduced the disease activity,attenuated colonic inflammation and myleoperoxidase activity,and improved the thymic and splenic indexes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,especially in high dose of Oridonin tablet treated group.CONCLUSION High dose of Oridonin tablet treatment shows therapeutic effect on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,the underlying mechanism may have close correlation with its anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects.

  2. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  3. Intrahippocampal Administration of Ibotenic Acid Induced Cholinergic Dysfunction via NR2A/NR2B Expression: Implications of Resveratrol against Alzheimer Disease Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, Chennakesavan; Periyasamy, Sabapathy; Jayachandran, Kesavan S; Anusuyadevi, Muthuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression toward Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO) in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5 μg/μl) lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility, and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the hippocampal

  4. Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol against palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell death through modulation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ritu; Gupta, Sumeet; Roy, Partha

    2017-02-22

    Lipotoxicity of pancreatic β-cells is the pathological manifestation of obesity-linked type II diabetes. We intended to determine the cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on pancreatic β-cells undergoing apoptosis in palmitic acid (PA)-stressed condition. The data showed that kaempferol treatment increased cell viability and anti-apoptotic activity in PA-stressed RIN-5F cells and murine pancreatic islets. Furthermore, kaempferol's ability to instigate autophagy was illustrated by MDC-LysoTracker red staining and TEM analysis which corroborated well with the observed increase in LC3 puncta and LC3-II protein expressions along with the concomitant decline in p62 expression. Apart from this, the data showed that kaempferol up/down-regulates AMPK/mTOR phosphorylation respectively. Subsequently, upon inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK inhibitors, kaempferol mediated autophagy was abolished which further led to the decline in β-cell survival. Such observations collectively lead to the conclusion that, kaempferol exerts its cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity by activation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

  5. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  6. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  7. Protective effect of montelukast against quinolinic acid/malonic acid induced neurotoxicity: possible behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial and tumor necrosis factor-α level alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, H; Kumar, P; Kumar, A; Nehru, B

    2010-11-24

    The present study has been designed to explore the protective effect of montelukast (leukotriene receptor antagonist) against intrastriatal quinolinic acid (QA; 300 nmol) and malonic acid (MA; 6 μmol) induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Quinolinic acid has been reported to induce excitotoxicity by stimulating the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, causing calcium overload which in turn leads to the neurodegeneration. On the other hand, MA, being a reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial enzyme complex-II, leads to energy crisis and free radical generation. Recent studies have reported the therapeutic potential of leukotriene receptor antagonists in different neurodegenerative disorders. However, their exact role is yet to be established. The present study accordingly, is an attempt to investigate the effect of montelukast against QA and MA induced behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in rat striatum. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial enzyme complex and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated on day 21st and 14th post intrastriatal QA and MA treatment, respectively. Findings of the present study demonstrate significant alteration in the locomotor activity and motor coordination as well as oxidative burden (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased endogenous antioxidants), mitochondrial enzyme complex (I, II and IV) activities and TNF-α level, in both intrastriatal QA and MA treated animals. Further, montelukast (0.4, 0.8 mg/kg p.o.) treatment for 21 and 14 days respectively, attenuated the behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and TNF-α level in these models of Huntington's disease in a significant manner. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the neuroprotective potential of montelukast in the therapeutic management of Huntington like symptoms.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo via reactive oxygen species formation and caspase 8 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study sought to further investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of a representative omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, with a focus on assessing the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as an important mechanism for its anticancer actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies showed that DHA strongly reduces the viability and DNA synthesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture, and also promotes cell death via apoptosis. Mechanistically, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase 8 contribute critically to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Co-presence of antioxidants or selective inhibition or knockdown of caspase 8 each effectively abrogates the cytotoxic effect of DHA. Using athymic nude mice as an in vivo model, we found that feeding animals the 5% fish oil-supplemented diet for 6 weeks significantly reduces the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vivo through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation as well as promotion of cell death. Using 3-nitrotyrosine as a parameter, we confirmed that the fish oil-supplemented diet significantly increases oxidative stress in tumor cells in vivo. Analysis of fatty acid content in plasma and tissues showed that feeding animals a 5% fish oil diet increases the levels of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid in both normal and tumorous mammary tissues by 329% and 300%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DHA can strongly induce apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of apoptosis in these cells is selectively mediated via caspase 8 activation. These observations call for further studies to assess the effectiveness of fish oil as a dietary supplement in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a downstream signal molecule in salicylic acid-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Xie, Lin-Run; Li, Xiao-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, is a small phenolic compound with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to have similar functions, but cross talk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. In this study, pretreatment of maize seedlings with SA improved the survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress, indicating that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. In addition, treatment with SA enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous H2S. Interestingly, SA-induced heat tolerance was enhanced by addition of NaHS, a H2S donor, but weakened by specific inhibitors of H2S biosynthesis DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and its scavenger hydroxylamine (HT). Furthermore, pretreatment with paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), inhibitors of SA biosynthesis, had no significant effect on NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings. Similarly, significant change in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H), the key enzymes in SA biosynthesis, and the content of endogenous SA, was not observed in maize seedlings by NaHS treatment. All of the above-mentioned results suggest that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings, and H2S might be a novel downstream signal molecule in SA-induced heat tolerance.

  10. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  11. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tips below to find healthy ways to reduce your stress. FIND HEALTHY STRESS BUSTERS There are many healthy ways to manage stress. Try a few and see which ones work best for you. Recognize the things you can' ...

  12. Stress and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jun 13,2014 When ... Health and Heart Health Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  14. Effect of sodium salicylate on oxidative stress andinsulinresistanceinducedbyfreefattyacids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing He; Sheng Zhao; Wei Zhang; Yan Li; Ping Han

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that high-dose salicy-lates improve free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced insulin resistance andβ-cell dysfunction in vitro, but the mechanism remains uncertain. In insulin-resistant rats, we found that the supplementation of sodium salicylate is associated with a reduction of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress. Few studies have investigated the effects of salicylates on oxidative stress levels in insulin-resistant animal models. This study aimed to assess the effect of sodium salicylate on insulin sensitivity and to explore the potential mechanism by which it improves hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. METHODS: Intralipid+heparin (IH), saline (SAL), or intralipid+heparin+sodium salicylate (IHS) were separately infused for 7 hours in normal Wistar rats. During the last 2 hours of the infusion, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping was performed with [6-3H] glucose tracer. Plasma glucose was measured using the glucose oxygenase method. Plasma insulin and C-peptide were determined by radioimmunoassay. MDA levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were measured with colorimetric kits. RESULTS: Compared with infusion of SAL, IH infusion increased hepatic glucose production (HGP), and decreased glucose utilization (GU) (P CONCLUSIONS: Short-term elevation of fatty acids induces insulin resistance by enhancing oxidative stress levels in the liver and muscle. The administration of the anti-inlfammatory drug sodium salicylate reduces the degree of oxidative stress, therefore improving hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. IKK-β and NF-κB provide potential pathogenic links to oxidative stress.

  15. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Saad, Evan I; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A; Ibrahim, Einas R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients.

  16. Protective Role of Curcumin and Flunixin Against Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease via Modulating Inflammatory Mediators and Cytokine Profile in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Boobalan; Dileep, Rasakatla; Rani, Matukumalli Usha; Kumar, C S V Satish; Kumar, Matham Vijay; Reddy, Alla Gopala

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. The present study is to evaluate the effect of flunixin and curcumin in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 animals: normal control group, acetic acid group, curcumin-treated group, and flunixin-treated group. Induction of colitis by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid produced severe macroscopic inflammation in the colon, 14 days after acetic acid administration as assessed by the colonic damage score. Microscopically, colonic tissues showed ulceration, edema, and inflammatory cells infiltration. Biochemical studies revealed increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Oxidative stress was indicated by elevated lipid peroxide formation and depleted reduced glutathione concentrations in colonic tissues. After induction of colitis, treatment with curcumin (50 mg/kg daily, p.o.) and flunixin (2.5 mg/kg daily, s.c.) decreased serum LDH, ALP, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as colonic MPO and lipid peroxide levels, whereas increased colonic prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 concentrations were observed. Moreover, effective doses of curcumin and flunixin were effective in restoring the histopathological changes induced by acetic acid administration. The findings of the present study provide evidence that flunixin may be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. SIZ1 deficiency causes reduced stomatal aperture and enhanced drought tolerance via controlling salicylic acid-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kenji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Okuma, Eiji; Shiba, Hayato; Kamada, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Transpiration and gas exchange occur through stomata. Thus, the control of stomatal aperture is important for the efficiency and regulation of water use, and for the response to drought. Here, we demonstrate that SIZ1-mediated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) accumulation plays an important role in stomatal closure and drought tolerance. siz1 reduced stomatal apertures. The reduced stomatal apertures of siz1 were inhibited by the application of peroxidase inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid and azide, which inhibits SA-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but not by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyl iodonium chloride, which inhibits ABA-dependent ROS production. Furthermore, the introduction of nahG into siz1, which reduces SA accumulation, restored stomatal opening. Stomatal closure is generally induced by water deficit. The siz1 mutation caused drought tolerance, whereas nahG siz1 suppressed the tolerant phenotype. Drought stresses also induced expression of SA-responsive genes, such as PR1 and PR2. Furthermore, other SA-accumulating mutants, cpr5 and acd6, exhibited stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and nahG suppressed the phenotype of cpr5 and acd6, as did siz1 and nahG siz1. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively affects stomatal closure and drought tolerance through the accumulation of SA.

  18. Endogenous BDNF protein is increased in adult rat hippocampus after a kainic acid induced excitotoxic insult but exogenous BDNF is not neuroprotective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J S; Mather, P E; Pasnikowski, E M; Cai, N; Corcoran, T; Acheson, A; Anderson, K; Lindsay, R M; Wiegand, S J

    1998-02-01

    Systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainic acid to adult rats results in a well defined pattern of loss of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Prior to this neuronal loss, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA is substantially increased. We show here that BDNF protein is increased after excitotoxic insult in specific areas of the hippocampus, reaching maximal levels 24 h after the insult. BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus increase in direct relation to the severity of seizure. Up to 7 days after injection of kainic acid, levels of full-length TrkB protein were unchanged, whereas levels of truncated TrkB protein were significantly increased by 12 h. To determine whether elevations in BDNF protein levels are potentially beneficial to hippocampal neurons exposed to an excitotoxic stress, we infused exogenous BDNF prior to and during the period of neuronal death caused by kainic acid. We find that administration of high levels of exogenous BDNF does not affect severity of seizure, but does in fact, exacerbate the injury caused by kainic acid, specifically to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Although there was a trend toward sparing of CA1 pyramidal neurons on the side infused with BDNF, this was not significant. In the same paradigm, infusion of exogenous NT-3 had no effect.

  19. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently.

  20. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  1. The C2H2-type Zinc Finger Protein ZFP182 is Involved in Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Lan Ni; Yanpei Liu; Yunfei Wang; Aying Zhang; Mingpu Tan; Mingyi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are thought to play important roles in modulating the responses of plants to drought,salinity and oxidative stress.However,direct evidence is lacking for the involvement of these ZFPs in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in plants.In this study,the role of the rice (Oryza sativa L.sub.japonica cv.Nipponbare) C2H2-type ZFP ZFP182 in ABA-induced antioxidant defense and the relationship between ZFP182 and two rice MAPKs,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 in ABA signaling were investigated.ABA treatment induced the increases in the expression of ZFP182,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5,and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in rice leaves.The transient gene expression analysis and the transient RNA interference (RNAi) analysis in protoplasts showed that ZFP182,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 are involved in ABA-induced up-regulation in the activities of SOD and APX.Besides,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 were shown to be required for the up-regulation in the expression of ZFP182 in ABA signaling,but ZFP182 did not mediate the ABA-induced up-regulation in the expression of OsMPK1 and OsMPK5.These results indicate that ZFP182 is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defense and the expression of ZFP182 is regulated by rice MAPKs in ABA signaling.

  2. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  3. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...

  4. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging....

  5. 静电喷射技术制备可酸致突释给药的壳聚糖微颗粒%Preparation of chitosan microparticles with acid-induced burst release property via electrospraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雪; 巨晓洁; 褚良银; 谢锐; 汪伟; 刘壮

    2015-01-01

    Drug-loaded chitosan microparticles with acid-induced burst release property are successfully prepared by electrospraying technology. Chitosan aqueous solution containing cimetidine is used as the spray liquid and a mixture of toluene andn-hexanol is used as the collection solution. The effects of cross-linking degree on the drug entrapment efficiency and drug loading are systematically investigated. The results show that,when the cross-linker concentration is up to 2%,the highest drug entrapment efficiency and drug loading are obtained. Due to the use of terephthalaldehyde as cross-linker via forming Schiff base bonds,the prepared chitosan microparticles display rapid acid-triggered decomposition. As a result,the drug-loaded chitosan microparticles show acid-induced burst drug release in simulated gastric acid solution with pH of 2 and 37℃ within 1min. The prepared chitosan microparticles with acid-induced burst release property are promising as gastric drug delivery systems.%利用静电喷射技术,以西咪替丁作为模型药物,混有药物的壳聚糖水溶液作为喷射液,甲苯/正己醇的混合溶液作为接收液,成功制备得到可在酸性条件下溶解并突释给药的壳聚糖载药微颗粒。系统考察了交联剂含量对壳聚糖微颗粒的药物包封率以及载药量的影响,并研究了壳聚糖微颗粒在酸性条件下的溶解特性以及在体外的突释给药效果。结果表明,当交联剂质量分数为2%时,壳聚糖微颗粒的包封率及载药量最大,分别为80%和3.8%。由于对苯二甲醛与壳聚糖交联形成的Schiff-base结构,使得壳聚糖微颗粒能够在中性条件下保持结构完整,而在酸性条件下由于 Schiff-base 结构的不稳定性致使微颗粒迅速溶解。因此,体外释药实验结果显示,在pH =2、37℃的模拟胃酸溶液中,1min内壳聚糖微颗粒即可达到最大释药效果,而在pH =6.4、37℃的水溶液中,壳聚糖微颗粒

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Is Raped Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to a Psychologist, Psychiatrist, or Therapist Being ...

  7. Coping with College Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  8. Stress in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of stress in your children and teens. www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-children.aspx . Accessed July 8, ... verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. ...

  9. Cultural Stress Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hastings; K; Shula; Aizhong; Liu

    2011-01-01

    Cultural stress is no longer a rare phenomenon because the world has been reduced to the size of a village due to modern technology and advancements. It is a concept that grows in magnitude each year. More and more people are affected. In this paper, we discuss the assessment of cultural stress by combining some instruments like the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale with the Cultural Stress Scale. They appear to be valid and can be used across different cultures. We discuss the need to come up with a standard instrument for measuring cultural stress as opposed to having so many. We also outline ways of coping with cultural stress as it occurs at different stages. There is need for more research to counter the negative effects of cultural stress.

  10. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  11. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  12. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  13. In Vitro Screening for Antihepatic Steatosis Active Components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract Using Liver Cell Extraction with HPLC Analysis and a Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis HepG2 Cell Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Bei, Wei-Jian; Wang, Lai-You; Chen, Bao-Tian; Guo, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput method was developed and applied to screen for the active antihepatic steatosis components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract (CAE). This method was a combination of two previously described assays: HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis and a free fatty acid-induced (FFA) hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. Two alkaloids within CAE, berberine and coptisine, were identified by HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis as high affinity components for HepG2. These alkaloids were also determined to be active and potent compounds capable of lowering triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the FFA-induced hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. This remarkable inhibition of TG accumulation (P components from HepG2 cells and a lower inhibition of TG accumulation. The finding of two potent and active compounds within CAE indicates that the screening method we developed is a feasible, rapid, and useful tool for studying traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) in treating hepatic steatosis.

  14. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Lykkesfeldt, J; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A

    1995-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with jasmonic acid. Formation of inhibitory glucosinolate degradation products upon tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. The biosynthetically active microsomal enzyme system converted L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and the production of oxime was strictly dependent on NADPH. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme system were 346 microM and 538 pmol per mg of protein per h, respectively. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been subject of much speculation. In the present paper, we demonstrate the involvement of cytochrome P450 by photoreversible inhibition by carbon monoxide. The inhibitory effect of numerous cytochrome P450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P450. This provides experimental documentation of similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8618930

  15. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...... and insomnia thus share complex interactions and the mechanisms involved are insufficiently understood but involve both psychological and physiological processes. First choice interventions involve behavioural and cognitive strategies and, to a lesser extent, pharmacological treatment....

  16. Chronic Stress and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  17. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  18. Ocean surface wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for improved surface wind and wind stress data is discussed. The collection of wind data using ship reports, research buoys, and cloud motion vectors is examined. The need for data on surface-wind stress fields is emphasized. Accurate stress data are required for studying: (1) the normal seasonal cycle and the intraannual events; (2) wind stress curls and the forcing of ocean circulation; (3) El Nino events; and (4) the low response of the midlatitude ocean circulation.

  19. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  20. The price of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen, van den H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an economic approach is taken to the analysis of work-related stress. This economic approach not only allows us to infer the monetary equivalent of stress, it also enables us to test some of the psychological theories on stress, such as the demand/control theory. Evidence is found that

  1. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  2. Neuropathology of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Paul J; Pruessner, Jens; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F X; Van Dam, Anne Marie; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Swaab, Dick F; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2014-01-01

    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerful corticosteroid hormones that target the nervous system, relatively little is known about when, and how, the effects of stress shift from being beneficial and protective to becoming deleterious. Decades of stress research have provided valuable insights into whether stress can directly induce dysfunction and/or pathological alterations, which elements of stress exposure are responsible, and which structural substrates are involved. Using a broad definition of pathology, we here review the "neuropathology of stress" and focus on structural consequences of stress exposure for different regions of the rodent, primate and human brain. We discuss cytoarchitectural, neuropathological and structural plasticity measures as well as more recent neuroimaging techniques that allow direct monitoring of the spatiotemporal effects of stress and the role of different CNS structures in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in human brain. We focus on the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, key brain regions that not only modulate emotions and cognition but also the response to stress itself, and discuss disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, Cushing syndrome and dementia.

  3. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    suicide. The relationship between chronic stress and mortality is probably due to a combination of etiological pathways affecting disease incidence and factors such as treatment seeking behavior and individual vulnerability, which are likely to affect disease progression. Several experimental studies......Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...

  4. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  5. Stress and Protists: No life without stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report a summary of the symposium “Stress and Protists: No life without stress”, which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation – induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. PMID:27365178

  6. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  7. Involvement of yeast HSP90 isoforms in response to stress and cell death induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alexandra; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Fernandes, Angela; Carreto, Laura; Rodrigues, Fernando; Holcik, Martin; Santos, Manuel A S; Ludovico, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic acid is caused by the phosphorylation and inactivation of eIF2α by Gcn2p kinase. A microarray analysis of polysome-associated mRNAs engaged in translation in acetic acid challenged cells further revealed that HSP90 mRNAs are over-represented in this polysome fraction suggesting preferential translation of HSP90 upon acetic acid treatment. The relevance of HSP90 isoform translation during programmed cell death (PCD) was unveiled using genetic and pharmacological abrogation of HSP90, which suggests opposing roles for HSP90 isoforms in cell survival and death. Hsc82p appears to promote survival and its deletion leads to necrotic cell death, while Hsp82p is a pro-death molecule involved in acetic acid-induced apoptosis. Therefore, HSP90 isoforms have distinct roles in the control of cell fate during PCD and their selective translation regulates cellular response to acetic acid stress.

  8. Estabilidade do modelo animal de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico Stability of the animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gaio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estabilidade das variáveis hemodinâmicas, da mecânica respiratória e de troca gasosa do modelo animal de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo experimental no qual foram utilizados 10 cães de raça indeterminada. As variáveis foram aferidas inicialmente e em 30, 60, 90 e 120 min após a administração do ácido oleico. Para analisar as medidas repetidas, foram testados efeitos lineares e quadráticos e foram utilizados ajustes de modelos lineares mistos com estruturas de variâncias e covariâncias diversificadas, dependendo da variável analisada. RESULTADOS: Observamos estabilidade da pressão arterial média aos 30 min, assim como da frequência cardíaca, da pressão arterial pulmonar e da pressão de capilar pulmonar aos 60 min. Frequência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto e trabalho respiratório estabilizaram aos 30 min. Quanto às variáveis de troca gasosa, PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e fração de shunt pulmonar estabilizaram-se aos 30 min. As demais variáveis mantiveram-se em ascensão ou queda contínuas. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico é estável para algumas das variáveis testadas; porém, a estabilização se dá em momentos diferentes. As variáveis da mecânica respiratória e de troca gasosa estabilizaram em 30 min, e as hemodinâmicas, em 60 min.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability of hemodynamic, respiratory and gas exchange variables in an animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury. METHODS: This was an experimental study involving 10 mongrel dogs. The variables were measured at baseline, as well as at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the administration of oleic acid. In order to analyze repeated measurements, linear and quadratic effects were tested. Mixed linear models with diversified variance and covariance structures were used, depending on the variable studied. RESULTS: We found that mean

  9. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  10. Interoception and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eSchulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain-body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain-body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain-body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g. by acute or chronic stress of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain-body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (HPA axis and autonomic nervous system, psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a feed-forward model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events, the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate stress.

  11. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity.

  12. Uric acid attenuates nitric oxide production by decreasing the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: a mechanism for uric acid-induced cardiovascular disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Soojin; Cho, Du-Hyong; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-08-01

    The elevated level of uric acid in the body is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood, although dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production is likely to be involved. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), we explored the molecular mechanism of uric acid on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. Although high dose of uric acid (12mg/dl for 24h treatment) significantly decreased eNOS activity and NO production, it did not alter eNOS expression and phosphorylations at eNOS-Ser(1177), eNOS-Thr(495) and eNOS-Ser(114). Under this condition, we also found no alterations in the dimerization and acetylation of eNOS, compared with the control. Furthermore, uric acid did not change the activity of arginase II, an enzyme degrading l-arginine, a substrate of eNOS, and intracellular level of calcium, a cofactor for eNOS activation. We also found that uric acid did not alter xanthine oxidase activity, suggesting no involvement of xanthine oxidase-derived O2(-) production in the observed inhibitory effects. In vitro and in cell coimmunoprecipitation studies, however, revealed that uric acid significantly decreased the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin (CaM), an eNOS activator, although it did not change the intracellular CaM level. Like in HUVEC, uric acid also decreased eNOS-CaM interaction in bovine aortic EC. Finally, uric acid attenuated ionomycin-induced increase in the interaction between eNOS and CaM. This study suggests firstly that uric acid decreased eNOS activity and NO production through reducing the binding between eNOS and CaM in EC. Our result may provide molecular mechanism by which uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction.

  13. 幽门螺杆菌抑制大鼠乙酸胃溃疡愈合的机制%Mechanism of Helicobacter Pylori Inhibiting the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成军; 夏立丁; 金丽; 王国忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究幽门螺杆菌抑制大鼠乙酸胃溃疡愈合的机制.方法 用幽门螺杆菌感染Wistar大鼠,4周后复制出乙酸胃溃疡模型,在溃疡模型复制后的3、8、16天测定胃窦部黏膜G细胞、D细胞的数目、胃液量和pH.结果 Hp+乙酸溃疡组G细胞数目、胃液量高于乙酸溃疡组(P<0.01);D细胞的数目和pH低于乙酸溃疡组(P<0.01).结论 幽门螺杆菌通过增加胃酸分泌抑制溃疡愈合.%Objective To study the mechanism of Helicobacter Pylori inhibiting the healing of acetic acid - induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods Rats were infected with Helicobacter Pylori and the model of acetic acid gastric ulcer was replicated at 4 weeks after in-fection. Amount of G cell and D cell in mucosa of gastric antrum, quantity of gastric juice and pH were measured at the 3rd,Sth, 16th day after the model was replicated. Results When the group of Hp + acetic acid ulcer compared with the group of acetic acid ulcer, the number of G cell, quantity of gastric juice increased (P < 0.01), and the number of D cell and pH decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusion Helicobacter Pylori inhibits ulcer healing through increasing gastric acid secretion.

  14. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  15. The World Stress Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of the stress field in the Earth's crust is a key issue for the understanding of geodynamic processes,seismic hazard assessment, and stability of underground openings such as waste disposals, tunnels, mines or wells, and reservoir management. The World Stress Map project is a collaborative project of academia,industry and governmental organizations that aims to understand the states and sources of tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. We present the Worm Stress Map at 1:46,000,000 scale as a result of more than two decades of international collaboration. The map reveals that the first-order pattern of stress is of plate-wide scale, indicating that plate boundary forces are the major control of the stress orientations and the tectonic regime.

  16. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  17. Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou; Howell, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses and wave generated stresses were studied as well as model and scale effects. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse is presented as well....

  18. Commonly prescribed β-lactam antibiotics induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress in culture at physiologically relevant concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eKintner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other β-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (called aberrant bodies or AB characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations.

  19. Neuropathology of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, P J; Pruessner, J; Sousa, N.; Almeida, O. F. X.; Van Dam, A.M.; Rajkowska, G.; Swaab, D.F.; Czéh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerful corticosteroid hormones that target the nervous system, relatively little is known about when, and how, the effects of stress shift from being beneficial and protective to becoming deleterious. ...

  20. Stress, Sleep, and Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jernelöv, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases have recently increased dramatically in the western world, now affecting about 30% of the Swedish population. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but some of the suspects are behavioral factors, such as stress and sleep. Problems with stress are also common today, and stress may change the set-points for the functioning of the body, for instance in the immune system. Sleep, on the other hand, is important for recuperation, and disturbed sleep acts a ...

  1. Stresses in nanocrystalline materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Residual, mechanical stresses in thin films are of great importance for the reliability and performance of film systems in technological applications. The residual stresses can be due to the deposition process, the mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the thin film(s) and the substrate upon cooling or heating (thermal stresses), interdiffusion (differences in the molar volumes and differences in the atomic fluxes of the diffusing species), (continued) grain growth, excess vaca...

  2. Management of Occupational Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafir Lenuţa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an important problem in the majority of countries. Apart from the fact that it is responsible for numerous diseases, it also causes much suffering. Stress appears as an adaptation reaction of our body to those external factors that we perceive as being agressive and which frequently lead us to an alarm state, felt both psychically (tension, fear, anxiety, and physically (increase of the adrenaline secretion, intensity of heartbeats, sweating. It isn’t actually a disease, but it can lead to sickness in time. This is why it is good to know what stresses us and how we can escape stress.

  3. Stress fractures in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T

    2012-04-01

    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  4. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  5. Exocrine pancreas ER stress is differentially induced by different fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Ben-Dror, Karin; Birk, Ruth

    2015-12-10

    Exocrine pancreas acinar cells have a highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER), accommodating their high protein production rate. Overload of dietary fat (typical to obesity) is a recognized risk factor in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Dietary fat, especially saturated fat, has been suggested by others and us to induce an acinar lipotoxic effect. The effect of different dietary fatty acids on the ER stress response is unknown. We studied the effect of acute (24h) challenge with different fatty acids (saturated, mono and poly-unsaturated) at different concentrations (between 200 and 500µM, typical to normal and obese states, respectively), testing fat accumulation, ER stress indicators, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) splicing and nuclear translocation, as well as unfolded protein response (UPR) transcripts and protein levels using exocrine pancreas acinar AR42J and primary cells. Acute exposure of AR42J cells to different fatty acids caused increased accumulation of triglycerides, dependent on the type of fat. Different FAs had different effects on ER stress: most notably, saturated palmitic acid significantly affected the UPR response, as demonstrated by altered Xbp1 splicing, elevation in transcript levels of UPR (Xbp, CHOP, Bip) and immune factors (Tnfα, Tgfβ), and enhanced Xbp1 protein levels and Xbp1 time-dependent nuclear translocation. Poly-unsaturated FAs caused milder elevation of ER stress markers, while mono-unsaturated oleic acid attenuated the ER stress response. Thus, various fatty acids differentially affect acinar cell fat accumulation and, apart from oleic acid, induce ER stress. The differential effect of the various fatty acids could have potential nutritional and therapeutic implications.

  6. Stress at Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Shahrour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of hardest forms of stresses to avoid is that work place or job stress Job stress refers to stress experienced by an individual at or because of issues at their work place The term work related stress has many meanings and it causes different levels of anxiety. Not all challenges at work can be called stress as some of these challenges drive employees upward, and empower them to learn new skills or push them to work harder to achieve a certain goal. So, this type of challenges cannot be considered as true stress True job stress is a condition that not only destroys employee desire to work, but also his or her energy, getting them to suffer both emotionally and physically. Warning signs of stress at work when people feel overwhelmed they feel lacking confidence, become irritated or withdrawn, less productive, less effective and their work less rewarding if these warning passed unnoticed then signs and symptoms of stress will appear. Signs and Symptoms of Excessive 4. Personal conflicts with supervisors Workplace Stress or other employees 5. Feeling insecure at work ( 1. Feeling anxious, agitated, constantly threatened with criticism depressed or apathetic or job loss 2. Loss of interest at work 6. Discrimination ( race, sex or age 3. Difficulty in attention and 7. Discouragement (to feel concentration incompetent and worthless 4. Insomnia and sleep problems 8. Sexual harassment 5. Feeling fatigue 9. Lack of flexibility in work hours 6. Muscle tension and headaches 10. Poor work environment 7. Stomach problems or different 11. Developments in technology body aches 8. Social withdrawal How to Deal with Work Place Stress 9. Loss of sex drive 10. Using alcohol or drugs to cope Fortunately, there is a lot that you can do to manage and reduce stress at work. Different Causes of Job Stress General Guidelines: 1. Poor work conditions and having no say over such conditions A. Taking responsibility for 2. Unreasonable demands from improving your

  7. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  8. Stress Management for Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…

  9. Stress of stoicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the combined effects of task persistence and negative emotionality (NE) on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. In line with John Henryism theory, we hypothesized that high persistence combined with low NE may be indicative...... persistence was associated with higher physiological stress. Our results have implications for both clinical and intervention contexts....

  10. Photobiomodulation on Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a nondamaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH. An FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in its FSH is called a normal function. A function far from its FSH is called a dysfunctional function. The process of a function from dysfunctional to normal is called a functional normalization. For a normal function in its FSH, there are FSH-essential subfunctions (FESs, FSH-nonessential subfunctions (FNSs, and an FES/FNS-specific homeostasis (FESH/FNSH. A FSH can resist internal/external disturbances under the threshold, but can be disrupted by an FSH-specific stress (FSS. A normal/dysfunctional FSS is called a successful/chronic stress. An FESH/FNSH-specific stress was called an extraordinary/ordinary stress. A low level LI (LLL cannot directly affect a normal function, but can modulate a chronic stress. A normal function may have a chronic ordinary stress, and an LLL may modulate the chronic ordinary stress so that it promotes the normalization of the dysfunctional FNS and then upgrades the normal function. A high level LI can modulate a normal function and may be a successful stress.

  11. Videnarbejde og stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    . Videnarbejde kan for den enkelte være vejen til selvrealisering og begejstring, men rummer også i sig kimen til stress og udbrændthed. Og det er netop i spændingsfeltet - i kampen - mellem begejstring og belastning, at bogen ser stress i det moderne arbejdsliv, som en uoverensstemmelse mellem ydre krav og...

  12. Stress Management: Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... ll reap a plethora of rewards. References Stress management: How to strengthen your social support network. American ...

  13. Stress Management: Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Massage can be a powerful tool to help you take charge of your health and well-being. See if ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/massage/art-20045743 . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  14. Reassess the stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen; Sayre-Adams, Jean

    The second article in our series on leadership examines stress and burnout. Nurses who are burnt out need to reassess work and relationships. Stress will pass when its cause is removed, but burnout is a 'spiritual crisis'. Self-aware, contemplative leaders are able to prevent burnout and recognise it in others.

  15. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  16. Helping Children Manage Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Maggie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  17. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  18. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  19. Neuropathology of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Paul J; Pruessner, Jens; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F X; Van Dam, Anne Marie; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Swaab, Dick F; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2014-01-01

    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerf

  20. Oxidative stress and myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuko; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced highly in myocarditis. ROS, which not only act as effectors for pathogen killing but also mediate signal transduction in the stress responsive pathways, are closely related with both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, oxidative stress overwhelming the capacity of anti-oxidative system generated in severe inflammation has been suggested to damage tissues and exacerbate inflammation. Oxidative stress worsens the autoimmunological process of myocarditis, and suppression of the anti-oxidative system and long-lasting oxidative stress could be one of the pathological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling leading to inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the promising treatment targets of myocarditis. Evidences of anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis have not been fully established. Basic strategies of anti-oxidative treatments include inhibition of ROS production, activation of anti-oxidative enzymes and elimination of generated free radicals. ROS are produced by mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions and enzymes including NADPH oxidases, cyclooxygenase, and xanthine oxidase. Other systems involved in inflammation and stress response, such as NF-κB, Nrf2/Keap1, and neurohumoral factors also influence oxidative stress in myocarditis. The efficacy of anti-oxidative treatments could also depend on the etiology and the phases of myocarditis. We review in this article the pathological significance of ROS and oxidative stress, and the potential anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis.

  1. Actively stressed marginal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field, effective medium theory, scaling analysis and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of non-affine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  2. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  3. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut...... of up to 34% is found, still with the standard International Organization for Standardization thread. The design changes suggested in this article also have the positive advantage of reducing the joint stiffness factor. The reduction in the bolt shank directly reduces the bolt stiffness but the design...

  4. Stress and Visceral Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Delvaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional bowel disorders are characterized by the presence of a visceral hyperalgesia in most patients. This visceral hyperalgesia is related to an enhanced perception of sensations originating from the gut. Stressful events can dramatically influence the course of functional bowel disorders, and patients suffering from these syndromes appear to be more susceptible to the stressful events of daily life. However, until now, few studies have evaluated the relationship between stress and visceral perception. Some studies of healthy volunteers indicated contradictory results, but the studies used different methodologies. During stress conditions, either physical or mental, thresholds of perception of rectal distension were increased, suggesting a ‘distraction effect’, or were decreased, supporting a sensitizing effect of stress. In most studies, rectal compliance was not affected, but stress has been shown to alter the rectal tone, as measured by a barostat. One study comparing irritable bowel syndrome patients with controls demonstrated the importance of cognitive processes in the modulation of visceral perception by stress. Animal studies have also demonstrated the sensitizing effect of stress on the perception of rectal distension. Mediators involved may be numerous, but corticotropin-releasing factor has been demonstrated to play a major role at the central level. Mast cells and histamine release may play a role at the peripheral level. Stress can thus be included in an integrative model explaining the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders. Advances in the understanding of the relationship between stress and visceral perception may constitute a basis for a therapeutic approach of functional bowel disorders targeted on the central nervous system.

  5. Linoleic acid-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase II via p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, I-Mo; Yang, Chang-Hao; Yang, Chung-May; Chen, Muh-Shy

    2007-11-01

    High linoleic acid (LA) intake is known to correlate with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of LA on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and their associated signaling pathways in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with different concentrations of LA. Expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were examined using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Activation of p42/44, p38, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factors (NF)-kappaB were evaluated by Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We found that LA induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RPE cells at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 resulted in increased production of NO and PGE(2). Moreover, LA caused degradation of IkappaB and increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Effects of LA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression were inhibited by a NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). LA activated p42/44, but not p38 or JNK MAPK. Inhibition of p42/44 activity by PD98059 significantly reduced LA-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Linoleic acid-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 as well as PGE(2) and NO release in RPE cells were sequentially mediated through activation of p42/p44, MAPK, then NF-kappaB. These results may provide new insights into both mechanisms of LA action on RPE cells and pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.

  6. Nonpeptide tachykinin receptor antagonists. III. SB 235375, a low central nervous system-penetrant, potent and selective neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist, inhibits citric acid-induced cough and airways hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Douglas W P; Giardina, Giuseppe A M; Griswold, Don E; Underwood, David C; Kotzer, Charles J; Bush, Brian; Potts, William; Sandhu, Punam; Lundberg, Dave; Foley, James J; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Martin, Lenox D; Kilian, David; Legos, Jeffrey J; Barone, Frank C; Luttmann, Mark A; Grugni, Mario; Raveglia, Luca F; Sarau, Henry M

    2002-01-01

    In this report the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile of (-)-(S)-N-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide (SB 235375), a low central nervous system (CNS)-penetrant, human neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptor (hNK-3R) antagonist, is described. SB 235375 inhibited (125)I-[MePhe(7)]-neurokinin B (NKB) binding to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the hNK-3R (CHO-hNK-3R) with a K(i) = 2.2 nM and antagonized competitively NKB-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing the hNK-3R (HEK 293-hNK-3R) with a K(b) = 12 nM. SB 235375 antagonized senktide (NK-3R)-induced contractions in rabbit isolated iris sphincter (pA(2) = 8.1) and guinea pig ileal circular smooth muscles (pA(2) = 8.3). SB 235375 was selective for the hNK-3R compared with hNK-1 (K(i) > 100,000 nM) and hNK-2 receptors (K(i) = 209 nM), and was without effect, at 1 microM, in 68 other receptor, enzyme, and ion channel assays. Intravenous SB 235375 produced a dose-related inhibition of miosis induced by i.v. senktide in the rabbit (ED(50) of 0.56 mg/kg). Intraperitoneal SB 235375 (10-30 mg/kg) inhibited citric acid-induced cough and airways hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs. In mice oral SB 235375 (3-30 mg/kg) was without significant effect on the behavioral responses induced by intracerebral ventricular administration of senktide. Pharmacokinetic evaluation in the mouse and rat revealed that oral SB 235375 was well absorbed systemically but did not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. The preclinical profile of SB 235375, encompassing high affinity, selectivity, oral activity, and low CNS penetration, suggests that it is an appropriate tool compound to define the pathophysiological roles of the NK-3Rs in the peripheral nervous system.

  7. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  8. [Stress and feeding behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, C

    1988-01-01

    It has been easy to demonstrate, both in humans and animals, that the stresses which disturbed either the physiological homeostasis, the behavioural homeostasis or both simultaneously, induced the modifications of the food intake; these disorders often found expression in the inappropriate eating or, less frequently, in temporary anorectic phases. The most relevant hypotheses localized, in the anterior and median hypothalamus (paraventricular nuclei, ventral median nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area), the neurobiological mechanisms which were involved in this stress/eating behaviour relationship. In the brain, both aminergic and peptidergic systems were concerned; the stress-induced hyperphagia required the functionality of the dopamine, dorsal noradrenergic bundle and endogenous opioids of the central nervous system. The dramatic stress-induced anorexia was based upon the reciprocal actions of serotonin, norepinephrine and CRF systems. Other peptides, which some of them belonged to the brain-gut peptide group, could interfere with these mechanisms. The neuropeptides being common in the stress and eating physiological systems, the regulatory mechanisms were most coherent; nevertheless, the precise nervous structures and neurochemical circuits that produced the stress-induced hyperphagia or stress-induced anorexia, remain unknown.

  9. Stress, atopy and allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard

    2011-01-01

    Since the early days of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. In the 70s and 80s numerous reports stated increased anxiety, depression or ill stresscoping in atopics in correlation with enhanced disease activity. Employed patient groups however were small and diverse and controls rare. Therefore, the question remained, whether psychopathological findings in atopics were of pathogenetic relevance or an epiphenomenon of chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, the discussion has been revived and refocused by psychoneuroimmunological findings. We now know that atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance of the classical stress-axis response along the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic axis (SA). This imbalance can be found shoulder-to-shoulder with enhanced expression of newly emerging neuroendocrine stress mediators such as substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor that form up to a third stress axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Together they can alter the inflammatory as well as the neuroendocrine stress-response on several levels. In skin, the immediate inflammatory response to stress involves neuropeptide release and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic inflammation. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are promoted under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may therefore be at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of therapeutic options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation techniques to balance the stress-response. PMID:21519408

  10. Assessment of Workplace Stress: Occupational Stress, Its Consequences, and Common Causes of Teacher Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    This chapter introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, and overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through…

  11. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  12. [Stress and allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  13. Children and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...

  14. Pacing stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrusta Marco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-rate pacing is a valid stress test to be used in conjunction with echocardiography; it is independent of physical exercise and does not require drug administration. There are two main applications of pacing stress in the echo lab: the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease through induction of a regional transient dysfunction; and the assessment of contractile reserve through peak systolic pressure/ end-systolic volume relationship at increasing heart rates to assess global left ventricular contractility. Methods The pathophysiologic rationale of pacing stress for noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease is obvious, with the stress determined by a controlled increase in heart rate, which is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand, and thereby tachycardia may exceed a fixed coronary flow reserve in the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The use of pacing stress echo to assess left ventricular contractile reserve is less established, but promising. Positive inotropic interventions are mirrored by smaller end-systolic volumes and higher end-systolic pressures. An increased heart rate progressively increases the force of ventricular contraction (Bowditch treppe or staircase phenomenon. To build the force-frequency relationship, the force is determined at different heart rate steps as the ratio of the systolic pressure (cuff sphygmomanometer/end-systolic volume index (biplane Simpson rule. The heart rate is determined from ECG. Conclusion Two-dimensional echocardiography during pacing is a useful tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Because of its safety and ease of repeatability noninvasive pacing stress echo can be the first-line stress test in patients with permanent pacemaker. The force-frequency can be defined as up- sloping (normal when the peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is higher than baseline and intermediate stress

  15. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  16. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  17. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  18. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from exercising long enough (for example, lung disease, anemia , or poor general fitness). Doctors also may use stress testing to assess other problems, ... INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  19. Stress and your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you feel unable to do anything about it. Loneliness. Stress can be more harmful if you do ... what works best for you, such as: Practicing yoga or meditation Spending time outdoors in nature Getting ...

  20. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  1. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lights on or take a favorite stuffed animal to bed, it might help them get through ... Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five ...

  3. Cancer and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition to a support network, there are potential benefits from programs that help you learn how to manage stress. Such programs include: Cognitive behavioral therapy “Mindfulness” Yoga Alternative therapies such as Healing Touch Medication Such ...

  4. [Stress and cognitivism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Coral

    2004-01-01

    In this article, a brief account of the psychological sense of stress is referred. Richard Lazarus' transaccional theory is described in detail; his first transaccional cognitive theory and his last cognitive-emotional transaccional theory. Stress is also described from other points of view, such as Grenberg's emotional theory. The new construct Psychofortology is defined and some references about the principal authors are made. Psychotherapeutic possibilities from the different psychological schools mentioned are described.

  5. Student under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and developmental aspects of stress, namely, with causes, consequences and the strategies for overcoming stressful events in the education of children and adolescents. Life events in which children most often participate and which are also potential sources of stress (stressors can be classified into familial, interpersonal, personal and academic. Out of numerous identified sources of stress, we have focused our attention on several less researched ones in the field of school life starting school, transition from primary school to secondary and from secondary school to university, peer rejection and problems concerning financing school education. Anxiety, depression and anger were analyzed as the most frequent consequences of unfavorable life events. The following strategies for overcoming stress are most often used by children and adolescents: seeking social support, problem-solving orientation, reduction and avoidance of tension as well as sport and recreation.

  6. Stress and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadiya Baqutayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. Results: The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Conclusion: Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms.

  7. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  8. alpha-Linolenic acid protects renal cells against palmitic acid lipotoxicity via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulieris, Elias; Mabley, Jon G; Samai, Mohamed; Green, Irene C; Chatterjee, Prabal K

    2009-11-25

    Unsaturated fatty acids may counteract the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the renal proximal tubular cell line, NRK-52E. We investigated whether alpha-linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, protected against ER stress and cell death induced by palmitic acid or by other non-nutrient ER stress generators. Incubation of NRK-52E cells for 24h with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Palmitic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress - the phosphorylated form of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78). alpha-Linolenic acid dramatically reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress by glycosylation of proteins, produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Salubrinal (a phosphatase inhibitor) causes increased levels of the phosphorylated form of eIF2alpha - this effect was partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Palmitoleate, a monosaturated fatty acid, had similar effects to those of alpha-linolenic acid. These results suggest that part of the mechanism of protection of the kidney by unsaturated fatty acids is through inhibition of ER stress, eIF2alpha phosphorylation and consequential reduction of CHOP protein expression and apoptotic renal cell death.

  9. Biaxial stress effects on magnetization perpendicular to the stress plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Burkhardt, G.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Langman, R.A. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    1995-11-01

    Effects of biaxial stress in steel on magnetization in a direction normal to the stress plane were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The two results, which agreed qualitatively, showed that the magnetization in the normal direction generally decreased with the absolute value of the sum of the two principal stresses. The implication to nondestructive measurements of biaxial stress is discussed.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Preliminary Functional Analysis of Domains of Duck Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene Ⅰ%鸭维甲酸诱导基因Ⅰ克隆及其结构域功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳; 黄正洋; 张扬; 李欣钰; 甄霆; 吴宁昭; 徐琪; 陈国宏

    2013-01-01

    [目的]克隆鸭维甲酸诱导基因Ⅰ (retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ,RIG-Ⅰ),分析其不同结构域的功能.[方法]根据GenBank上公布的鸭RIG-Ⅰ序列设计引物,利用RT-PCR克隆鸭RIG-Ⅰ基因CDS (coding sequence)区,根据保守结构域预测结果,构建携带6*his组氨酸标签的不同结构域缺失突变体的真核表载体(RIG-Ⅰ-Full、RIG-Ⅰ-N和RIG-Ⅰ-C),转染鸡胚成纤维细胞DF1,经RT-PCR、间接免疫荧光方法鉴定重组质粒在细胞中转录与表达;同时,利用RT-qPCR检测RLR抗病毒信号通路中的IFN-β、Mx1和PKR等下游基因的表达变化.[结果]鸭RIG-Ⅰ基因CDS区全长2802 bp,共编码933个氨基酸;不同结构域缺失突变体的真核表载体转染DF1细胞后,重组蛋白均在DF1细胞中表达;RT-qPCR结果显示,N端能显著激活RLR通路上IFN-β、Mx1及PKR基因的表达上调.[结论]duRIG-Ⅰ及不同区段均能在DF1细胞中表达,其中N端在调节RLR抗病毒信号通路下游基因的表达过程中发挥了重要作用.%[Objective] Duck RIG-Ⅰ (duRIG-Ⅰ) gene was cloned and the functions of its different domains were analyzed preliminarily.[Method] The CDS of duRIG-Ⅰ gene was cloned on the basis of the sequence submitted to GenBank with RT-PCR and was analyzed by bioinformatics.The eukaryotic expression vectors of N-terminal,C-terminal and whole-length of duRIG-Ⅰ gene with 6*his tags were constructed to transfect DF1,and then the transcription and expression of the three recombinant plasmids in cells were detected via RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescent assay,respectively.Meanwhile,the expressions of chicken IFN-β,Mxl and PKR mRNA were detected by real-time PCR.[Result] The whole-length of duRIG-Ⅰ CDS was 2802 bp encoding 933 amino acids.All the recombinant protein of duRIG-Ⅰ could express normally in DF1.The results of RT-qPCR indicated that CARDs significantly up-regulated the mRNA level of IFN-β,Mx1 and PKR genes.[Conclusion] The various domain

  11. Lifestyle, stress and cortisol response: Review I: Mental stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2001-01-01

    The incidences of diseases related to mental stress are increasing in Japan. Mental stress, unacknowledged for long periods, has been shown to lead to the development of a number of diseases. Thus, an index for mental stress is important to induce awareness of its presence. We focused on the relationship between cortisol and mental stress in this review. We will discuss both the usefulness and problems of cortisol as a mental stress index by summarizing the relationship between cortisol and m...

  12. 法国海岸松树皮提取物碧萝芷对长链游离脂肪酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2基因表达的影响%Pycnogenol, an Extract from French Martime Pine, Suppresses Oleic Acid-induced perilipin2 Expression in Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范斌; 杜强; 谷剑秋; 张锦

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of Pycnogenol on oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression in macrophages. Methods Realtime PCR and Western blot were performed to detect perilipin2 expression. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were employed to measure perilipin2 promoter activity. Results Oleic acid significantly induced perilipiti2 expression in a dose-and time-dependent manner in macrophages; oleic acid markedly enhanced perilipin2 promoter activity; Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perihpin2 expression and promoter activity. Conclusion For the first time,we demonstrated that Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression and promoter activity.%目的 研究碧萝芷(PYC)对油酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2表达的影响及其相关分子机制.方法 应用Real-time PCR 和Western blot测定油酸及PYC对perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达影响.应用荧光素酶活性分析方法检测油酸及PYC时perilipin2启动子活性的影响.结果油酸以剂量和浓度依赖方式上调perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达,并促进perilipin2启动子活性.PYC以剂量依赖方式抑制了油酸诱导的perilipin2表达及启动子活性.结论PYC抑制了巨噬细胞中油酸诱导的perilipin2的表达.PYC通过抑制perilipin2启动子活性,从而直接抑制perilipin2的表达.

  13. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment

  14. Ovariectomy-induced chronic abdominal hypernociception in rats: Relation with brain oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ovarian hormone deficiency observed in menopausal women increases the production of reactive oxygen species, which could be implicated in central sensitization subjacent in chronic functional pain syndromes. Aims: To examine the hyperalgesic state induced by ovariectomy in adult rats and its relation to some oxidative stress outcomes. Methods: The female Wistar rats were divided into normal, sham ovariectomized (OVX and OVX groups, which were tested for mechanical and thermal hypernociception during 6 weeks and a single acetic acid-induced test 6 weeks after surgery. Redox biomarkers determinations of superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activity, glutathione (GSH and nitrates/nitrites as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO concentrations were determined in the brain and cerebellum of 6 animals of each group. Results: Exclusivity OVX rats developed a robust state of mechanical hypernociception and allodynia in the abdomen, hindlimbs and proximal tail. Besides, thermal pain thresholds (hot plate decreased. That was established 3-4 weeks after OVX and lasted for the 6 weeks of the experiment. Increases in visceral sensitivity were also observed in OVX rats. SOD enzyme activity decreased in OVX rats, which showed major deficit for this enzymatic defense under visceral inflammatory injury. However GSH concentrations were increased in brain of OVX animals that allow the balance during acute inflammation. NO concentrations were raised only in OVX rats exposure to chemical inflammatory injury. Conclusions: OVX in rats provide a useful model, which mimics the functional pain in females that could be related with brain oxidative stress.

  15. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  16. Stress and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  17. Erythropoietin and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2008-05-01

    Unmitigated oxidative stress can lead to diminished cellular longevity, accelerated aging, and accumulated toxic effects for an organism. Current investigations further suggest the significant disadvantages that can occur with cellular oxidative stress that can lead to clinical disability in a number of disorders, such as myocardial infarction, dementia, stroke, and diabetes. New therapeutic strategies are therefore sought that can be directed toward ameliorating the toxic effects of oxidative stress. Here we discuss the exciting potential of the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin for the treatment of diseases such as cardiac ischemia, vascular injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes through the modulation of cellular oxidative stress. Erythropoietin controls a variety of signal transduction pathways during oxidative stress that can involve Janus-tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase B, signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, Wnt proteins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, caspases, and nuclear factor kappaB. Yet, the biological effects of erythropoietin may not always be beneficial and may be poor tolerated in a number of clinical scenarios, necessitating further basic and clinical investigations that emphasize the elucidation of the signal transduction pathways controlled by erythropoietin to direct both successful and safe clinical care.

  18. Urban stress in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N; Lai, G

    1995-10-01

    The stress-distress model is examined in the context of a Chinese urban center, Tianjin. Conceptually, the relationship between stress (as reflected in life events) and distress (as reflected in depressed symptoms) is hypothesized to hold across societies. At the same time, the measures of stress must reflect the social reality of a particular community of society. In the case of urban China, the politically-imposed stratification system arranges individuals and family lives around work units. These work units dictate all aspects of the life of the worker and his or her family, ranging from housing, major purchases, access to local and distance facilities, schooling and employment for children, to retirement pension and funeral expenses. As a result, relationships in the work context are expected to produce stress-inducing conflicts. Results from a community survey of Tianjin residents in 1986 support both the generality of the stress-distress model and the specificity of the effects of work-related stressors.

  19. Stress and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  20. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  1. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  2. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the Earth's stress field and its sources can provide better understanding and interpretation of geodynamic and tectonic processes and regimes in the Earth's lithosphere. Stresses can be measured with different in-situ techniques and analysed by the study of focal mechanisms and stress induced geological structures. Quantifying single stress sources however remains a difficult and not uncommonly vague procedure. Modelling stress contributions can provide principle insight into ...

  3. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  4. Stress, externality, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganellen, R J; Blaney, P H

    1984-12-01

    Previous research has found mixed support for the possibility that locus of control moderates the effects of life stress on depression. Two methodological choices may have influenced previous findings: the use of a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional locus of control scale, and reliance on linear statistical methods using median splits. We attempted to correct these choices by using the Levenson IPC scale (1974) and multiple regression analyses in a female undergraduate population (N = 158). The results supported use of a multidimensional scale, since Stress, Internality, and Powerful Others were found to have main effects on depression whereas Chance interacted with life stress. The question of whether locus of control refers to responsibility for causing an event, i.e., self-blame, or belief in control over future events, i.e., coping behavior, was discussed.

  5. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  6. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-01

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  7. Stress and reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy...... heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual...

  8. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  9. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  10. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  11. The Effect of Acid Stress Treatment on Viability and Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Oenococcus oeni SD-2a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-ying; LI Hua; WANG Hua; LI Zhong-chao; WANG Ai-lian

    2009-01-01

    To obtain ready-to-use wine malolactic starter cultures with high viability, the effects of acid stress treatments on the growth, inoculation viability, freeze-drying viability, and membrane fatty acid composition of the native Oenococcus oeni SD-2a strain were studied. The results showed that pH 3.5 and 3.2 adaptive treatments did not strongly decrease cell biomass but increased distinctly inoculation viability and freeze-drying viability. Concerning the membrane fatty acid composition, it was observed that acid stress conditions increased significantly the relative concentration of lactobacillic acid (C19cycl 1) and the unsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio in cell membrane lipids. We assumed that acid-induced cross protective responses could be used in preparing ready-to-use O. oeni SD-2a malolactic starter cultures, and the accumulation of lactobacillic acid in the membrane of O. oeni SD-2a cells appears as an acid stress response mechanism,which might be related with the enhanced viability.

  12. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Chen, S Y; Deng, L D; Feng, L P; Huang, L Z; Yu, R R

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (Ppalmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  13. Tectonic stress - Models and magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Bergman, E. A.; Richardson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that global data on directions of principal stresses in plate interiors can serve as a test of possible plate tectonic force models. Such tests performed to date favor force models in which ridge pushing forces play a significant role. For such models the general magnitude of regional deviatoric stresses is comparable to the 200-300 bar compressive stress exerted by spreading ridges. An alternative approach to estimating magnitudes of regional deviatoric stresses from stress orientations is to seek regions of local stress either demonstrably smaller than or larger than the regional stresses. The regional stresses in oceanic intraplate regions are larger than the 100-bar compression exerted by the Ninetyeast Ridge and less than the bending stresses (not less than 1 kbar) beneath Hawaii.

  14. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  15. Clinical Stress Echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Karagiannis

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTwo-dimensional echocardiography is a commonly used non-invasive method for the assessment of left ventricular function. It provides precise information on both global and segmental myocardial function by displaying endocardial motion and wall thickening. Dobutamine stress echocardiograp

  16. Mobbing and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Mobbing is an important construct which has impact on the numerous psychological variables. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between mobbing and stress. Participants were 436 teachers (206 (55%) were female, 230 (45%) were male) from Sakarya, Turkey. Their ages ranged from 26 to 55 years and the mean age of the…

  17. Mountaineering Away Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    AS a longtime Beijinger,I and other big city dwellers deal with a lot of stress.It comes from everywhere:noise,air pollution,crowded subways where people are packed together like sardines,traffic congestion,rising housing prices and consumer costs,not to mention an ever-growing rich-poor divide.

  18. The stress ulcer syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Essen

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous sys

  19. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała

    2016-05-01

    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  20. Stress og Socialitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2009-01-01

    Ifølge de etablerede arbejdsstressteorier skal miljømæssige krav balanceres op imod individuelle kontrolmuligheder, og der peges derfor på behovet for både sociologiske og psykologiske niveauer af arbejdsstress. Selvom en niveauinddelt tilgang til stress er vigtig, risikeres en opsplitning mellem...

  1. Thermal Stresses in Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the transient temperature fields and the hereby induced deformations and stressses in a butt-welded mild steel plate modelledrespectively in 2D plane stress state (as well as plane strain state) and in full 3D have been done. The model has been implemented in the generalpurpose FE...

  2. Meditation and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Imre Emeric; Buchanan, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers can be relaxed and peaceful as they create playful and harmonious classrooms, even if they work in stressful contexts. However, the stressors faced by teachers may lead to negative consequences that can undermine their ability to sustain personal health and positive interactions. In the absence of positive coping…

  3. Help for Stressed Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  4. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety,...

  5. Phychological Hardiness, Workplase Stress and Related Stress Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Vickie A.; Lambert Jr., Clinton E.; Yamase, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    Contending with stressful situations in the workplace is a common occurrence for all health care providers. Stress has numerous devastating effects on the workplace environment, as well as upon individuals who become victims of stress. However, enhancing psychological hardiness may facilitate an individual's ability to deal with work place stress. Psychological hardiness, a personality style consisting of commitment, control and challenge, encourages human survival and the enrichment of life...

  6. Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    The paper indicates a number of preventive measures targeted to the elimination of the causes of stress, rather than the treatment of its effects, and how these measures can become an integral part of the necessary organizational development and eventually pay for themselves. The paper has seven chapters. 1. Introduction - What is stress? - The sources of stress in air traffic control - The consequences on health and well-being 2. How to prevent stress at work 3. Intervention on the external ...

  7. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  8. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  9. Stress revisited : a critical evaluation of the stress concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Bartolomucci, A; Buwalda, B; Flügge, G; de Boer, Sietse; Korte, S M; Meerlo, P; Murison, R; Olivier, B; Palanza, P; Richter-Levin, G; Sgoifo, A; Steimer, T; Stiedl, O; van Dijk, G; Wöhr, M; Fuchs, E

    2011-01-01

    With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely aversi

  10. The Young and the Stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particula...... stress and numerous aspects of mental/physical health in young adults, which could be an important consideration for individuals working with college students....... among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis. Responders were......High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular...

  11. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from He at Stress Heat stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke ...

  12. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...... place, the map comprises a complete graphic representation of the stress at any point....

  13. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  14. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  15. Posttraumatisk stress efter arbejdsulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Lauritsen, Jens; Hansen, O N

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder in a follow up one to two years after the occupational accident. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of PTSD, changes in general health status and issues of compensation. The material was all serious accidents registered in the Danish National...... Register of Work Accidents during 1991. Seriousness was defined by type of injury, including all cases of amputations, bone fractures and extensive body lesions. Of 4745 possible, 3663 persons (77%) participated in a questionnaire study. The prevalence fulfilling the complete set of criteria...... of posttraumatic stress disorder as a chronic state was 2.8% (102 persons), of whom half had been given compensation. Among the most severe accidents the prevalence was 7.6%. In conclusion, in a large cohort of persons with moderate and severe occupational injuries this study demonstrated that post...

  16. Takotsubo or Stress Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bounhoure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many case reports have been published of reversible left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by sudden emotional stress. We have evaluated 10 women hospitalized for acute chest pain and dyspnea, mimicking an acute coronary syndrome, after a severe emotional trigger. Those patients, postmenopausal women, presented ST segment alterations on the EKG, minor elevations of cardiac enzymes, and biomarkers levels. At the coronarography there was not coronary thrombosis or severe stenosis, but the ventriculography showed wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and midventricle, in the absence of significant obstructive coronary disease. The course was benign without complication, with a full recovery of left ventricular function in some weeks. These observations, like other reports, demonstrate the impact of emotional stress on left ventricular function and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cause of this cardiomyopathy is still unknown, and several mechanisms have been proposed: catecholamine myocardial damage, microvascular spasm, or neural mediated myocardial stunning.

  17. Encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses is an important interdisciplinary reference work.  In addition to topics on thermal stresses, it contains entries on related topics, such as the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamics, appropriate topics on applied mathematics, and topics on numerical methods. The Encyclopedia is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers. It brings together well established knowledge and recently received results. All entries were prepared  by leading experts from all over the world, and are presented in an easily accessible format. The work is lavishly illustrated, examples and applications are given where appropriate, ideas for further development abound, and the work will challenge many students and researchers to pursue new results of their own. This work can also serve as a one-stop resource for all who need succinct, concise, reliable and up to date information in short encyclopedic entries, while the extensive references will be of inte...

  18. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  19. Stress: a naturalistic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Rodríguez Campuzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior, and its three dimensions. Emphasis is made on the singular and individual nature of stress reactions. Finally it is suggested to take into account these functional criteria to develop a generic situational taxonomy to study these reactions as parts of complex behavioral patterns.

  20. Stress relief of transition zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  1. Stress, the hippocampus, and epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is among the most frequently self-reported precipitants of seizures in patients with epilepsy. This review considers how important stress mediators like corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticosteroids, and neurosteroids could contribute to this phenomenon. Cellular effects of stress mediator

  2. Stress Conflation: Evidence from Sooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stuart

    A comparison of the application of two current theories of stress to a particular stress pattern found in the Salish language Sooke is presented. Hammond's (1986) grid-like tree structure representation of stress is compared with Halle and Vergnaud's (1986) tree-like grid structure. Examples in the Australian language Maranungku show that, in…

  3. Stress and yoga in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Many children experience stress-related physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headache or abdominal complaints. This paper deals with the physical consequences of psychological stress and the possibility of reducing stress by yoga in childhood. The literature on this topic is presented. It is conclude

  4. CRF and stress in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Burg, E.H. van den; Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.

    2006-01-01

    The endocrine stress response is pivotal in vertebrate physiology. The stress hormone cortisol-the end product of the endocrine stress axis-(re-)directs energy flows for optimal performance under conditions where homeostasis may be or become at risk. Key players in the continuous adaptation process

  5. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged ...

  6. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  7. UV, stress and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic—also called "photo-aging"—resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on ...

  8. Stress: a naturalistic proposal

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior,...

  9. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  10. Student under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan

    2006-01-01

    Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and develop...

  11. Effect of residual stress on peak cap stress in arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Vulnerable plaques are a subset of atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture when high stresses occur in the cap. The roles of residual stress, plaque morphology, and cap stiffness on the cap stress are not completely understood. Here, arteries are modeled within the framework of nonlinear elasticity as incompressible cylindrical structures that are residually stressed through differential growth. These structures are assumed to have a nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic response to stresses in the media and adventitia layers and an isotropic response in the intima and necrotic layers. The effect of differential growth on the peak stress is explored in a simple, concentric geometry and it is shown that axial differential growth decreases the peak stress in the inner layer. Furthermore, morphological risk factors are explored. The peak stress in residually stressed cylinders is not greatly affected by changing the thickness of the intima. The thickness of the necrotic layer is shown to be the most important morphological feature that affects the peak stress in a residually stressed vessel.

  12. Protein stress and stress proteins: implications in aging and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sőti; Péter Csermely

    2007-04-01

    Environmantal stress induces damage that activates an adaptive response in any organism. The cellular stress response is based on the induction of cytoprotective proteins, the so called stress or heat shock proteins. The stress response as well as stress proteins are ubiquitous, highly conserved mechanism, and genes, respectively, already present in prokaryotes. Chaperones protect the proteome against conformational damage, promoting the function of protein networks. Protein damage takes place during aging and in several degenerative diseases, and presents a threat to overload the cellular defense mechanisms. The preservation of a robust stress response and protein disposal is indispensable for health and longevity. This review summarizes the present knowledge of protein damage, turnover, and the stress response in aging and degenerative diseases.

  13. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Hui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  14. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  15. Interferometric Measurement Of Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Steven; Andonian, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Stress averaged through thickness of plate measured nondestructively. Theory of elasticity combined with laser interferometric technique into technique for measurement of residual stresses in solid objects - usually in thin, nominally-flat plates. Measurements particularly useful in inspection of wafers of single-crystal silicon for making solar cells or integrated circuits, because stresses remaining after crystal-growing process cause buckling or fracture. Used to predict deflections of plates caused by known applied loads under specified boundary condition, or to infer applied loads that cause known deflections. Also used to relate known deflections to residual stresses equivalent to stresses produced by fictitious applied loads.

  16. Experimental determination of residual stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Milton W.

    1991-01-01

    Residual stresses in finished parts have often been regarded as factors contributing to premature part failure and geometric distortions. Currently, residual stresses in welded structures and railroad components are being investigated. High residual stresses formed in welded structures due primarily to the differential contractions of the weld material as it cools and solidifies can have a profound effect on the surface performance of the structure. In railroad wheels, repeated use of the brakes causes high residual stresses in the rims which may lead to wheel failure and possible derailment. The goals of the study were: (1) to develop strategies for using x-ray diffraction to measure residual stress; (2) to subject samples of Inconel 718 to various mechanical and heat treatments and to measure the resulting stress using x-ray diffraction; and (3) to measure residual stresses in ferromagnetic alloys using magnetoacoustics.

  17. Stress, time use and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bonke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the gender aspect of stress within a Scandinavian welfare state regime with high employment rates for both women and men. By applying an economic model, an extended model and a stress-level model, we find that higher incomes lead to stress among women, somewhat confirming findings for Australia, Germany, Canada, Korea, and the US. The number of working hours on the labour market, however, has no impact on stress. In terms of employed women, household work acts as de-stressors, whereas rush hour pressure, which is introduced for the first time here, acts as stressors. Moreover, the wife’s contribution to household work almost increases the husband’s feeling of being “always” stressed, while the husband’s contribution implies that the wife is nearly less stressed. These results underline the importance of including financial as well as cross-partner information when analysing the presence of stress.

  18. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  19. Quantifying Residual Stresses by Means of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on the application of the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) technique as a tool for assessing the residual stress state of structures. TSA is based on the fact that materials experience small temperature changes when compressed or expanded. When a structure is cyclically loaded, a surface temperature profile results which correlates to the surface stresses. The cyclic surface temperature is measured with an infrared camera. Traditionally, the amplitude of a TSA signal was theoretically defined to be linearly dependent on the cyclic stress amplitude. Recent studies have established that the temperature response is also dependent on the cyclic mean stress (i.e., the static stress state of the structure). In a previous study by the authors, it was shown that mean stresses significantly influenced the TSA results for titanium- and nickel-based alloys. This study continued the effort of accurate direct measurements of the mean stress effect by implementing various experimental modifications. In addition, a more in-depth analysis was conducted which involved analyzing the second harmonic of the temperature response. By obtaining the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics, the stress amplitude and the mean stress at a given point on a structure subjected to a cyclic load can be simultaneously obtained. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for both the first and second harmonics of the temperature response. As a result, confidence was achieved concerning the ability to simultaneously obtain values for the static stress state as well as the cyclic stress amplitude of structures subjected to cyclic loads using the TSA technique. With continued research, it is now feasible to establish a protocol that would enable the monitoring of residual stresses in structures utilizing TSA.

  20. Stress and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selye, H

    1975-12-01

    I must ask the reader's indulgence for this article's concern with applications of the stress concept, which are distinct from, although related to clinical medicine. It has not been my object to deal with the way physicians have been aided by stress research in the practice of medicine--that information is already widely available. Rather, I have attempted to sketch briefly the history of the stress theory and to demonstrate how this information can help anyone, physician or layman, lead a more complete and satisfying life. The applications of the stress theory have been dealt with at length elsewhere. I believe that we can find within scientifically verified observations the basis of a code of behavior suited to our century. The great laws of nature that regulate the defenses of living beings against stress of any kind are essentially the same at all levels of life, from individual cells to entire complex human organisms and societies. It helps a great deal to understand the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of catatoxic and syntoxic attitudes by studying the biologic basis of self-preservation as reflected in syntoxic and catatoxic chemical mechanisms. When applied to everyday problems, this understanding should lead to choices most likely to provide us the pleasant eustress (from the Greek eu meaning good, as in euphoria) involved in achieving fulfillment and victory, thereby avoiding the self-destructive distress of frustration and failure. So the translation of the laws governing resistance of cells and organs to a code of behavior comes down to three basic precepts: 1. Find your own natural stress level. People differ with regard to the amount and kind of work they consider worth doing to meet the exigencies of daily life and to assure their future security and happiness. In this respect, all of us are influenced by hereditary predispositions and the expectations of our society. Only through planned self-analysis can we establish what we really want

  1. [Psychosomatic aspects of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuse, S; Anzai, T

    1992-03-01

    We established the Bromocriptine test for the dopaminergic function of the hypothalamopituitary gland. The secretion patterns of plasma GH and PRL to 2.5 mg Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, were classified into two types; a response type and a non-response type. The former showed an increase in plasma GH levels and suppression of PRL secretion; the latter showed no change in GH after Bromocriptine administration. The response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by neurotic and maladaptive behavior. The non-response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by alexithymic and over adaptive behaviors. Case Presentation 1. Essential Hypertension: a. 56-year old male, response type, blood pressure elevated by stress in daily life. Psychosomatic treatment: advice about blood pressure measurement at his home, brief psychotherapy and drug therapy. b. 53-year-old male, non-response type, type A behavior. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of his disorder, self-control training and drug therapy. 2. Gastric ulcers: a. 40-year-old male, response type, CMI IV region (Neurotic tendencies). Psychosomatic treatment: autogenic training and drug therapy. b. 28-year-old male, non-response type, high JAS scores(Over adaptative behavior). Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of occurrence of his ulcers, to induce change in his perceptions of way of life, to encourage taking rest. 3. Technostress syndrome: a. 23-year-old female, response type, technoanxiety. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to make her take rest, and change in arrangements at her working place. b. 27-year-old male, non-response type, technodependent. Psychosomatic treatment: Fasting therapy. This therapy changed the non-response pattern to normal.

  2. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we shall consider the properties of lanthanide metals, their alloys and compounds which can be studied using static and alternating mechanical stresses. The main attention will be paid to the effects related to magnetoelastic interactions. These interactions in magnetic materials...... to the appearance of anomalies in elastic constants, as well as to additional damping of sound oscillations in the lanthanide materials. The importance of understanding the nature of magnetoelastic interactions and related effects arises from the scientific desire to gather a better knowledge of magnetism, as well...

  3. UV, stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  4. Mountaineering Away Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For all the benefits of c ty life-diverse culture, food and people-it is a major source of stress. Crowds and noise can be oppressive,and commuting can kill you(it’s more taxing than What a fighter pilot experiences in battle,according to American researchers).Is there any way to find relief? Two Beijingers think so:a research associate at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,and a South African working in PR and events management,reveal how they cope with urban pressures.

  5. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    for other nitrogen cycle related functions. Potential bioindicators for nitrogen fixation status, soil nitrification capacity and heat tolerance were also indicated. The following two manuscripts are addressing the soil microbial capacity to cope with longterm stresses by studying the effects of a century...... as bioindicators of copper contamination status and copper resistance. Knowing that a century of copper exposure resulted in structurally different transcriptionally active communities, MANUSCRIPT 4 addresses the potential legacy burden that this restructuration had in the soil microbial response to seasonal...

  6. Heat Stress Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The heavy, cumbersome body protection suits worn by members of hazardous materials response teams cause marked elevation of body temperatures, which can reduce effectiveness and lead to heat stress and injury. The CorTemp System, marketed by Human Technologies, Inc., provides the basis for a body temperature monitoring alarm system. Encased in a three-quarter-inch ingestible capsule, the system includes a mini-thermometer, miniature telemetry system, a microbattery and temperature sensor. It makes its way through the digestive system, continuously monitoring temperature. Findings are sent to the recorder by telemetry, and then displayed and stored for transfer to a computer.

  7. A Stress Management Primer for College Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of stress and college administrators looks at two types of stress (eustress and distress), stress and the autonomic nervous system, the need for regular exercise as well as stress reduction activities, the influence of personality on stress, the sources and stages of burnout, and stress management for administrators. (MSE)

  8. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eKagias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. Physiological stress can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, which result from an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level.

  9. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  10. Vasopressin and oxytocin in stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, D; Skultetyova, I; Tokarev, D I; Bakos, P; Vigas, M

    1995-12-29

    Though oxytocin and vasopressin are similar in structure and are produced in the same brain regions, they show specific responses under stress conditions. In humans, increases in peripheral blood vasopressin appear to be a consistent finding during many acute stress situations, while in rats, vasopressin secretion is unresponsive to several stimuli known to induce ACTH and catecholamine release. Even decreases in vasopressin levels during stress were described. In accordance with others, we observed enhanced vasopressin release in response to stress stimuli with an osmotic component such as hypertonic saline injection but also during exposure of rats to a warm environment. Immobilization stress which fails to induce vasopressin release was reported to increase hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and plasma vasopressin levels in chronically adreno-demedullated rats. Unlike vasopressin, oxytocin may be considered a typical stress hormone responding to osmotic as well as other stress stimuli. We found that acute exposure of rats to immobilization stress resulted in an increase in oxytocin mRNA level. In addition, we have shown that magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, but not the supraoptic nucleus, are essential for oxytocin release during immobilization stress. The release of posterior pituitary hormones represents an important component of the stress response.

  11. Equivalence of Stress and Energy Calculations of Mean Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the mean stress in a plastically deformed matrix containing randomly distributed elastic inclusions are considered. The mean stress for an elastically homogeneous material is calculated on the basis of an energy consideration which completely accounts for elastic interactions....... The result is shown to be identical to that obtained from a stress calculation. The possibility of including elastic interactions in the case of elastic inhomogeneity is discussed....

  12. No myocardial vulnerability to mental stress in Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Collste

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV and salivary cortisol (SC in TSC patients. DESIGN: This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC study. SETTING: Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI -derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients.

  13. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    metabolomic profiling of women with and without post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to derive a signature of chronic stress and then apply that metabolomic...noted that phobic anxiety and social isolation were suggestively associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer (hazard ratios of 1.14 and 1.24...TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety , social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  14. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pcortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed

  15. Ursolic acid inhibits the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Shuang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Hao; Zheng, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, which is enriched with many herbs and plants, such as apple, cranberry and olive. UA performs multiple biological activities including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the exact mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective activity of UA remains unclear. In this study, the effects of UA on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. In vivo, UA treatment (0.14%, w/w) significantly decreased the liver weight, serum levels of ALT/AST and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice (a type 2 diabetic mouse model). In vitro, UA treatment (10-30 μg ml(-1)) significantly decreased palmitic acid induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L02 cells. Our results suggested that the beneficial effects of UA on NAFLD may be due to its ability to increase lipid β-oxidation and to inhibit the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, UA may be further considered as a natural compound for NAFLD treatment.

  16. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  17. EFFECTS OF ROCK BEHAVIOR AND STRESS CONDITIONON FIELD STRESS DETERMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H.(Steve)Zou

    1995-01-01

    Non-consistency of stress results is often observed during field measurements. In some cases, even the measurements are made at the same location in a massive rockmass, the results can vary widely. In order to solve the problem, extensive research has been carried out to study the major factors which may affect stress determination. They include the rock behaviour and the stress state. For rocks showing non-isotropic behaviour, the values of Young's modulus and Poisson ratio vary with the orientation of loading and measurement. Stress condition in the rock affects the rock behaviour. Furthermore, the loading condition on rock samples during laboratory tests is different from in the field and therefore the determined elastic constants may not represent the field condition. In general, the Young's modulus may depend on the orientation, the loading path, the stress magnitude and the stress ratio. This paper examines in detail the effects of those factors, especially for rocks showing transversely isotropic behaviour. It is found that the discrepancy of stress results from fieldts in this type of rock is mainly due to over simplification of the rock behavior and inadequate use of elastic constants of the rock during stress calculation. A case study is given, which indicates the significance of these factors and demonstrates the proper procedure for stress calculation from

  18. Oxidative stress in myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  19. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  1. Critical role of an antiviral stress granule containing RIG-I and PKR in viral detection and innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Onomoto

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs function as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA to initiate antiviral responses including type I interferon (IFN production. It has been unclear how RIG-I encounters and senses viral RNA. To address this issue, we examined intracellular localization of RIG-I in response to viral infection using newly generated anti-RIG-I antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that RLRs localized in virus-induced granules containing stress granule (SG markers together with viral RNA and antiviral proteins. Because of similarity in morphology and components, we termed these aggregates antiviral stress granules (avSGs. Influenza A virus (IAV deficient in non-structural protein 1 (NS1 efficiently generated avSGs as well as IFN, however IAV encoding NS1 produced little. Inhibition of avSGs formation by removal of either the SG component or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR resulted in diminished IFN production and concomitant enhancement of viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that transfection of dsRNA resulted in IFN production in an avSGs-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that the avSG is the locus for non-self RNA sensing and the orchestration of multiple proteins is critical in the triggering of antiviral responses.

  2. RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts.

  3. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stress responses allowing it to sense and adapt to its very different niches. The stress responses often involve dramatic cellular reprogramming, and the technological advances provided by the access to whole genome sequences have let to an unprecedented insight into the global reorganization of gene...... and protein expression following stress-exposure. Characterization of global gene responses has been very helpful both in identifying regulators sensing specific environmental stress signals and overlaps between different stress responses. In this chapter we review the recent progress in our understanding...... of the specific and general S. aureusstress responses, with a special emphasis on how stress responses contribute to virulence and antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen....

  4. A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-10-25

    Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress, and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution.

  5. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  6. Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizanova, O; Babula, P; Pacak, K

    2016-07-01

    Stress as a modern civilization factor significantly affects our lives. While acute stress might have a positive effect on the organism, chronic stress is usually detrimental and might lead to serious health complications. It is known that stress induced by the physical environment (temperature-induced cold stress) can significantly impair the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapies and the anti-tumor immune response. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has shown that patients taking drugs known as β-adrenergic antagonists ("β-blockers"), which are commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmia, hypertension, and anxiety, have significantly lower rates of several cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about catecholamines as important stress hormones in tumorigenesis and discuss the use of β-blockers as the potential therapeutic agents.

  7. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  8. STRESS INDUCED OBESITY: LESSONS FROM RODENT MODELS OF STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc., these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and loose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the elements that influence the metabolic outcome in order to further our understanding of stress

  9. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Human Trafficking Awareness Month Holiday Stress Homeless Youth Awareness Month Bullying Prevention Domestic Violence Awareness Month Suicide Prevention Month/World Suicide Day Sept. 11th National ...

  10. What Is Child Traumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Human Trafficking Awareness Month Holiday Stress Homeless Youth Awareness Month Bullying Prevention Domestic Violence Awareness Month Suicide Prevention Month/World Suicide Day Sept. 11th National ...

  11. Stress reduction in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The modern radiology department operates within an environment of competition, increased regulation, and decreasing budgets. Functioning in this setting may lead the radiology manager to experience job related stress. Stress in the workplace has been linked to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders. While there are a number of triggers for job related stress, it is important to identify the early warning signs and knee-jerk reactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) is one of several techniques that can be used to reduce job related stress. The key components of EI are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

  12. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  13. Stress control and human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Terao, Junji; Nakaya, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Chuman, Hiroshi; Kaji, Ryuji; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2004-08-01

    Stress is a pervasive factor in everyday life that critically affects development and functioning. Severe and prolonged stress exposure impairs homeostatic mechanisms, particularly associated with the onset of depressive illness. Brain food is aimed at preventing as well as treating a growing number of stress-related mental disorders. Some topics on the association of stress and nutrition is reviewed. (1) An increased activity of serotonergic neurons in the brain is an established consequence of stress. An increase in brain tryptophan levels on the order of that produced by eating a carbohydrate-rich/protein-poor meal causes parallel increases in the amounts of serotonin released into synapses. (2) Eating is thought to be suppressed during stress, due to anorectic effects of corticotrophin releasing hormone, and increased during recovery from stress, due to appetite stimulating effects of residual cortisol. (3) A strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. (4) Night eating syndrome has been found to occur during periods of stress and is associated with poor results at attempts to lose weight and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (5) Dietary antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may improve cognitive function. Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.

  14. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  15. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laishram R Singh; Tanveer Ali Dar; Faizan Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of macromolecules. Although urea is a perturbing solute which inhibits enzyme activity and stability, it is employed by some species as a major osmolyte. The answer to this paradox was believed to be the discovery of protective osmolytes (methylamines). We review the current state of knowledge on the various ways of counteracting the harmful effects of urea in nature and the mechanisms for this. This review ends with the mechanistic idea that cellular salt (KCl/NaCl) plays a crucial role in counteracting the effects of urea, either by inducing required chaperones or methylamines, or by thermodynamic interactions with urea-destabilised proteins. We also propose future opportunities and challenges in the field.

  16. MEDITATION: A STRESS RELIEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujjala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cardiovascular parameters and respiratory functions of those practicing meditation were compared with those of non-meditators. Stress is the greatest disorder of the modern society. Health is immensely influenced by one’s mental state. Yoga and meditation have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on human health. The present study is aimed at determining the effect of Raja-Yoga meditation on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular parameters. Here, Forced Vital capacity[FVC] and Forced Expiratory Volume in First second[FEV1]are the pulmonary function tests done. The cardiovascular parameters are the Heart Rate and Blood pressure. Meditators had significant decrease in resting heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. Forced Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV also significantly increased in Raja -Yoga meditation when compared to non-meditators. The study shows Raja-Yoga meditation confers significant benefits in respiratory functions and cardio vascular parameters.

  17. Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

  18. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  19. Stress, stress hormones, and the behavioral neurobiology of brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM; Beldhuis, HJA; vanderZee, EA; Roozendaal, B; Douma, B; Ishikawa, K; McGaugh, JL; Sakata, H

    1996-01-01

    Efforts have long been directed toward studying stress-induced alterations via stress hormones on brain excitability and synaptic plasticity as inferred from combined behavioral, electrophysiological, and immunohistochemical cellular/molecular observations. Kindling of the brain in the rat serves as

  20. Changing stress levels through gaining information on stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Madu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the Information Phase of a Stress Management Program (SMP on the perceptions of participants about their stress levels. Method: A total sample of 100 workers (nursing staff, private business men and women, laboratory assistants, the protective services [foreman and security staff], as well as people in human resources departments took part in this study. All the participants were from the Northern and Gauteng Provinces in South Africa. The Combined Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1989 was used as an instrument to measure the perceived stress level of participants in a SMP. Result: A significant reduction in stress levels was achieved among those who received the Information Phase of the SMP only, as well as those who received the whole stress management techniques. There was no significant difference between the amount of reduction in perceived stress-levels achieved among those that received the Information Phase of the SMP only, compared to that of those who received the whole techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that where the resources are limited, only the information phase of a SMP may be given to desiring clients. That should help to save time and money spent on participating in SMPs. This should however not discourage the use of the whole SPM, where affordable. Keywords: Stress Management Programs, Information Phase, Perception, Stress Level.

  1. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozas, E. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Planas, A.M. [Departament de Farmacologia i Toxicologia, IIBB, CSIC Barcelona (Spain); Ferrer, I. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)

    1997-07-14

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  2. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  3. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  4. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  5. Protect Yourself from Heat Stress

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-19

    Heat stress can be a major concern for indoor and outdoor workers, especially during the hot summer months. Learn how to identify the symptoms and protect yourself from heat stress.  Created: 7/19/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 7/19/2016.

  6. On stress-forecasting strategy of earthquakes from stress buildup, stress shadow and stress transfer (SSS) based on numerical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunan Tang; Tianhui Ma; Xiaoli Ding

    2009-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), used for monitoring crust deformation, are found to be very promising in earthquake prediction subject to stress-forecasting. However, it is rec-ognized that unless we can give reasonable explanations of these curious precursory phenomena that continue to be seren-dipitously observed fi'om time to time, such high technology of GPS or InSAR is difficult to be efficiently used. Therefore, a proper model revealing the relation between earthquake evolution and stress variation, such as the phenomena of stress buildup, stress shadow and stress transfer (SSS), is crucial to the GPS or lnSAR based earthquake prediction. Here we ad-dress this question through a numerical approach of earthquake development using an intuitive physical model with a map-like configuration of discontinuous fault system. The simulation provides a physical basis for the principle of stress-forecasting of earthquakes based on SSS and for the application of GPS or InSAR in earthquake prediction. The ob-served SSS associated phenomena with images of stress distribution during the failure process can be continuously simulated. It is shown that the SSS are better indicators of earthquake precursors than that of seismic foreshocks, suggesting a predict-ability of earthquakes based on stress-forecasting strategy.

  7. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  8. Telecommuting: stress and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L

    1994-06-01

    Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a ... sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the ...

  10. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  11. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  12. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  13. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  14. Stress and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Tandon, Rakesh K

    2005-03-01

    Stress, defined as an acute threat to homeostasis, evokes an adaptive or allostatic response and can have both a short- and long-term influence on the function of the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric nervous system is connected bidirectionally to the brain by parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways forming the brain-gut axis. The neural network of the brain, which generates the stress response, is called the central stress circuitry and includes the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. It receives input from the somatic and visceral afferent pathways and also from the visceral motor cortex including the medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate and insular cortex. The output of this central stress circuit is called the emotional motor system and includes automatic efferents, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and pain modulatory systems. Severe or long-term stress can induce long-term alteration in the stress response (plasticity). Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a key mediator of the central stress response. Two CRF receptor subtypes, R1 and R2, have been described. They mediate increased colonic motor activity and slowed gastric emptying, respectively, in response to stress. Specific CRF receptor antagonists injected into the 0 block these visceral manifestations of stress. Circulating glucocorticoids exert an inhibitory effect on the stress response by receptors located in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Many other neurotransmitters and neuroimmunomodulators are being evaluated. Stress increases the intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules. It can lead to mast cell activation, degranulation and colonic mucin depletion. A reversal of small bowel water and electrolyte absorption occurs in response to stress and is mediated cholinergically. Stress also leads to increased susceptibility to colonic inflammation, which can be adaptively transferred among rats by sensitized CD4

  15. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  16. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    the reason for change in effective stress coefficient under stress. Our model suggests that change in effective stress coefficient will be higher at uniaxial stress condition than at hydrostatic condition. We derived equations from the original definition of Biot to estimate effective stress coefficient from...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  17. Determinants of fatigue and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brähler Elmar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue can be triggered by previous perceived stress which may lead to impairment of performance and function. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and perceived stress. Method Health determinants including sociodemographic factors for associations between fatigue and perceived stress in the general population (N = 2,483 are outlined. Fatigue and stress were assessed with the Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ. Results Within the general population, 25.9% of male and 34.5% of female respondents reported moderate fatigue during the last six months; 9.7% of subjects reported substantial fatigue lasting six months or longer. An adjusted regression analysis (R2corr = .28, p Conclusion We conclude that the two conditions overlap most in terms of socio-economic status and self-perceived health status.

  18. Tectonic stress in the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Sleep, N. H.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, the basic set of global intraplate stress orientation data is plotted and tabulated. Although the global intraplate stress field is complicated, several large-scale patterns can be seen. Much of stable North America is characterized by an E-W to NE-SW trend for the maximum compressive stress. South American lithosphere beneath the Andes, and perhaps farther east in the stable interior, has horizontal compressive stresses trending E-W to NW-SE. Western Europe north of the Alps is characterized by a NW-SE trending maximum horizontal compression, while Asia has the maximum horizontal compressive stress trending more nearly N-S, especially near the Himalayan front.

  19. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  20. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weon Yi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1 has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.

  1. Influence of tectonic stress on coalification:Stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The function of pressure for coalification is a long-term controversial issue, and the main cause is that the strata pressure and the tectonic stress were confused, which are two different actions of "pres-sure" . The former benefits the physical coalification but retards the chemical coalification, whereas the latter may not only affect the physical structure of coal but also promote its chemical composition changes. In accordance with the organic molecule evolution of coal, there are two kinds of basic mechanisms of the influence of the tectonic stress on the chemical coalification: the tectonic stress degradation and the tectonic stress polycondensation. The stress degradation mechanism is a process of that, when the tectonic stress acted on the large molecule of coal in the form of mechanical force or kinetic energy, some chemical bonds of low decomposed energy, such as aliphatic side-chain and oxygenic functional groups, were broken up and then were degraded into free radicals of less mo-lecular weight, and finally escaped from coal in the form of liquid organic matter (hydrocarbon). The stress polycondensation is considered that, under the control of the anisotropic tectonic stress, the condensed aromatic nucleus trend to be parallel arranged and to be enhanced through rotating or displacing of aromatic rings, the basic structural unit of coal (BSU) increases by directional develop-ment and preferential stack. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), and rock pyrolysis analysis (Rock-eval) were employed to study the deformed coal series and the non-deformed coal series. The results showed that, compared with the non-deformed coal, the de-formed coal exhibits particular characteristics: weaker aliphatic absorbance peak and stronger aro-matic absorbance peak, lower pyrolysed hydrocarbon yield, and more increscent BSU. The concepts of stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism presented here would

  2. Influence of tectonic stress on coalification: Stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO DaiYong; LI XiaoMing; ZHANG ShouRen

    2007-01-01

    The function of pressure for coalification is a long-term controversial issue, and the main cause is that the strata pressure and the tectonic stress were confused, which are two different actions of "pressure". The former benefits the physical coalification but retards the chemical coalification, whereas the latter may not only affect the physical structure of coal but also promote its chemical composition changes. In accordance with the organic molecule evolution of coal, there are two kinds of basic mechanisms of the influence of the tectonic stress on the chemical coalification: the tectonic stress degradation and the tectonic stress polycondensation. The stress degradation mechanism is a process of that, when the tectonic stress acted on the large molecule of coal in the form of mechanical force or kinetic energy, some chemical bonds of low decomposed energy, such as aliphatic side-chain and oxygenic functional groups, were broken up and then were degraded into free radicals of less molecular weight, and finally escaped from coal in the form of liquid organic matter (hydrocarbon). The stress polycondensation is considered that, under the control of the anisotropic tectonic stress, the condensed aromatic nucleus trend to be parallel arranged and to be enhanced through rotating or displacing of aromatic rings, the basic structural unit of coal (BSU) increases by directional development and preferential stack. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), and rock pyrolysis analysis (Rock-eval) were employed to study the deformed coal series and the non-deformed coal series. The results showed that, compared with the non-deformed coal, the deformed coal exhibits particular characteristics: weaker aliphatic absorbance peak and stronger aromatic absorbance peak, lower pyrolysed hydrocarbon yield, and more increscent BSU. The concepts of stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism presented here would not

  3. Earthquake stress drops, ambient tectonic stresses and stresses that drive plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, T.C.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of geophysical observations suggests that the upper portion of the lithosphere, herein referred to as the elastic plate, has long-term material properties and frictional strength significantly greater than the lower lithosphere. If the average frictional stress along the non-ridge margin of the elastic plate is of the order of a kilobar, as suggested by the many observations of the frictional strength of rocks at mid-crustal conditions of pressure and temperature, the only viable mechanism for driving the motion of the elastic plate is a basal shear stress of several tens of bars. Kilobars of tectonic stress are then an ambient, steady condition of the earth's crust and uppermost mantle. The approximate equality of the basal shear stress and the average crustal earthquake stress drop, the localization of strain release for major plate margin earthquakes, and the rough equivalence of plate margin slip rates and gross plate motion rates suggest that the stress drops of major plate margin earthquakes are controlled by the elastic release of the basal shear stress in the vicinity of the plate margin, despite the existence of kilobars of tectonic stress existing across vertical planes parallel to the plate margin. If the stress differences available to be released at the time of faulting are distributed in a random, white fasbion with a mean-square value determined by the average earthquake stress drop, the frequency of occurrence of constant stress drop earthquakes will be proportional to reciprocal faulting area, in accordance with empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics. ?? 1977 Birkha??user Verlag.

  4. Residual stresses in welded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  5. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.

  7. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  8. FROM STRESS TO MOBBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The currently specific problem at work is chronic fatigue, a syndrome characterized by physiological and emotional exhaustion and often generated (through permanent frustration by the position with a too much or too low volume of work. First of all, the treatment of stress, of burnout or in countering resilience, is preventive and consists in gaining a better resistance. In simpler words, fighting against those phenomena is maintaining personal health. “Health is a fully favorable condition, physically, mentally and socially, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”[1]. Later it was added that health is the “capacity to lead a socially and economically productive life.” But, when the general concern is to destroy the balance, whatever that may mean – the balance of the active body or the body “ready to leave the system”, balance of knowledge, individual and collective mental equilibrium, functional balance of economy, balance of the bio-system… - we must not remain indifferent. It occurs frequently a phenomenon which is a relatively unknown concept for the Romanian economy – the mobbing or bullying.

  9. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  10. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Schaik, van Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  11. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  12. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress Talks about self-harm Mentions thoughts of suicide Also call if you notice signs of depression or anxiety . Alternative Names Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress References American Academy of ...

  13. 5 Things You Should Know about Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life changes, or traumatic events—can be stressful. Stress can affect your health. It is important to pay attention to how you deal with minor and major stress events so that you know when to seek ...

  14. Stress og profylakse samt behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of stress should address the stressors and factors which modify the effect of these. At the community level legislation and agreements on the labour market are important tools. At the enterprise level policies to reduce stress and monitoring the psychosocial work environment has...... the first priority in prevention. Treatment of stress is often a long-term process involving diagnostic assessment, psycho-education and counselling. The Danish National Board of Health has published recommendations to both general practitioners and the public in this area....

  15. Acoustic/Magnetic Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, J. S.; Namkung, M.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution sensor fast, portable, does not require permanent bonding to structure. Sensor measures nondestructively type (compressive or tensile) and magnitude of stresses and stress gradients present in class of materials. Includes precise high-resolution acoustic interferometer, sending acoustic transducer, receiving acoustic transducer, electromagnet coil and core, power supply, and magnetic-field-measuring device such as Hall probe. This measurement especially important for construction and applications where steel is widely used. Sensor useful especially for nondestructive evaluation of stress in steel members because of portability, rapid testing, and nonpermanent installation.

  16. [Peptic ulcer disease and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Mihály, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease revolutionised our views on the etiology and treatment of the disease. This discovery has tempted many experts to conclude that psychological factors and, specifically, stress are unimportant. However, Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not explain fully the incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. It has been demonstrated that stress can cause peptic ulcer disease even in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection, supporting a multicausal model of peptic ulcer etiology. Psychological stress among other risk factors can function as a cofactor with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  17. Maxwell stresses and dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kloos, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic stresses are a fascinating field where materials science, continuum mechanics and electrical engineering all come together. This is one of the reasons why the study of these so-called Maxwell stresses is so interesting.This treatment of electrostatic Maxwell stresses is restricted to the macroscopic description of the phenomenon, but  an attempt is made to provide readers with methods and results which will allow them to deal with cases of low material symmetry, as well as with the effect of viscoelasticity upon the material response. Non-standard orientation of the material samp

  18. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Knowledge about the Earth's stress field and its sources can provide better understanding and interpretation of geodynamic and tectonic processes and regimes in the Earth's lithosphere. Stresses can be measured with different in-situ techniques and analysed by the study of focal mechanisms...... of the oceanic lithosphere. An entire modelling of the shallow Geopotential Energy is hereby approached, not taking into account possible deeper signals but all lithospheric signals for the subsequent stress calculation. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is necessary to calculate the corresponding...

  19. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  20. Correlation between stress, stress-coping and current sleep bruxism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress is discussed as a potential factor in the development of sleep bruxism (SB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific stress-factors correlate with SB-activity. Methods Sixty-nine subjects, of which 48 were SB-patients, completed three German questionnaires assessing different stress-parameters and stress-coping-strategies: Short questionnaire for recognition of stress-factors (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastungen, KFB), Questionnaire for recuperation and strain (Erholungs-Belastungs-Fragebogen, EBF-24 A/3) and the stress-coping questionnaire (Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen-78, SVF-78). The diagnosis of SB was based on the clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). The degree of SB-activity was measured by the Bruxcore-Bruxism-Monitoring-Device (BBMD, Bruxcore, Boston, USA), worn for five consecutive nights and analyzed using a computer-based method. Non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficients, rho, were calculated between the psychometric data and the amount of SB-activity measured by a pixel score of the BBMD. Results Significant correlations were found for 'daily problems' (r = 0.461, p < 0.01), 'trouble at work' (r = 0.293), 'fatigue' (r = 0.288), 'physical problems' (r = 0.288) and the coping-strategy 'escape' (r = 0.295) (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study it could be shown that subjects with high SB-activity tend to feel more stressed at work and in their daily life, which in turn might influence their physical state. These subjects also seem to deal with stress in a negative way. However, due to the rather low to almost moderate correlation coefficients and the descriptive character of the study, further investigations are necessary to examine a possible causal relationship. PMID:20205705