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Sample records for beta-aminobutyric acid-induced stress

  1. Acid-induced autophagy protects human lung cancer cells from apoptosis by activating ER stress.

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    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Li, Qi; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2015-12-10

    An acidic tumor microenvironment exists widely in solid tumors. However, the detailed mechanism of cell survival under acidic stress remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify whether acid-induced autophagy exists and to determine the function and mechanism of autophagy in lung cancer cells. We have found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy by increasing LC3-positive punctate vesicles, increasing LC3 II expression levels and reducing p62 protein levels. Additionally, autophagy was inhibited by the addition of Baf or knockdown of Beclin 1, and cell apoptosis was increased markedly. In mouse tumors, the expression of cleaved caspase3 and p62 was enhanced by oral treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which can raise the intratumoral pH. Furthermore, the protein levels of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2α, CHOP, XBP-1s and GRP78, were also increased in response to acidic pH. The antioxidant NAC, which reduces ROS accumulation, alleviated acid-mediated ER stress and autophagy, and knocking down GRP78 reduced autophagy activation under acidic conditions, which suggests that autophagy was induced by acidic pH through ER stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the acidic microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer cells promotes autophagy by increasing ROS-ER stress, which serves as a survival adaption in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

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    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  3. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathy, S S; Indira, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 microL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies.

  4. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus......The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice......, and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...

  5. Tannic Acid Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer.

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    Nagesh, Prashanth K B; Hatami, Elham; Chowdhury, Pallabita; Kashyap, Vivek K; Khan, Sheema; Hafeez, Bilal B; Chauhan, Subhash C; Jaggi, Meena; Yallapu, Murali M

    2018-03-07

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an intriguing target with significant clinical importance in chemotherapy. Interference with ER functions can lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, as detected by transmembrane sensors that instigate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Therefore, controlling induced UPR via ER stress with natural compounds could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of prostate cancer. Tannic acid (a naturally occurring polyphenol) was used to examine the ER stress mediated UPR pathway in prostate cancer cells. Tannic acid treatment inhibited the growth, clonogenic, invasive, and migratory potential of prostate cancer cells. Tannic acid demonstrated activation of ER stress response (Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)) and altered its regulatory proteins (ATF4, Bip, and PDI) expression. Tannic acid treatment affirmed upregulation of apoptosis-associated markers (Bak, Bim, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP), while downregulation of pro-survival proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). Tannic acid exhibited elevated G₁ population, due to increase in p18 INK4C and p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression, while cyclin D1 expression was inhibited. Reduction of MMP2 and MMP9, and reinstated E-cadherin signifies the anti-metastatic potential of this compound. Altogether, these results demonstrate that tannic acid can promote apoptosis via the ER stress mediated UPR pathway, indicating a potential candidate for cancer treatment.

  6. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  7. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

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    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h{sup −1} and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y{sub X/S} of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m{sup 2}.

  8. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h −1 and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y X/S of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m 2

  9. Uric Acid Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Generation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states. PMID:23035112

  10. 2-Chlorohexadecanoic acid induces ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain microvascular endothelial cells

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    Eva Bernhart

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral leukocytes induce blood-brain barrier (BBB dysfunction through the release of cytotoxic mediators. These include hypochlorous acid (HOCl that is formed via the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system of activated phagocytes. HOCl targets the endogenous pool of ether phospholipids (plasmalogens generating chlorinated inflammatory mediators like e.g. 2-chlorohexadecanal and its conversion product 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA. In the cerebrovasculature these compounds inflict damage to brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC that form the morphological basis of the BBB. To follow subcellular trafficking of 2-ClHA we synthesized a ‘clickable’ alkyne derivative (2-ClHyA that phenocopied the biological activity of the parent compound. Confocal and superresolution structured illumination microscopy revealed accumulation of 2-ClHyA in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria of human BMVEC (hCMEC/D3 cell line. 2-ClHA and its alkyne analogue interfered with protein palmitoylation, induced ER-stress markers, reduced the ER ATP content, and activated transcription and secretion of interleukin (IL−6 as well as IL-8. 2-ClHA disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced procaspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 suppressed 2-ClHA-mediated activating transcription factor 4 synthesis and IL-6/8 secretion, but showed no effect on endothelial barrier dysfunction and cleavage of procaspase-3. Our data indicate that 2-ClHA induces potent lipotoxic responses in brain endothelial cells and could have implications in inflammation-induced BBB dysfunction.

  11. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

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    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide. Silenced catalase expression increased the susceptibility of the formerly resistant cancer cell line BT-20 to oxidative stress.

  12. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

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    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

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    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  14. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

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    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  15. Melatonin protects against uric acid-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and triglyceride accumulation in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarman, Gerald J; Andrew, Brittany M; Blackhurst, Dee M; Ojuka, Edward O

    2017-04-01

    Excess uric acid has been shown to induce oxidative stress, triglyceride accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and is an independent predictor of type-2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle plays a dominant role in type 2 diabetes and presents a large surface area to plasma uric acid. However, the effects of uric acid on skeletal muscle are underinvestigated. Our aim was therefore to characterize the effects of excessive uric acid on oxidative stress, triglyceride content, and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle C 2 C 12 myotubes and assess how these are modulated by the antioxidant molecule melatonin. Differentiated C 2 C 12 myotubes were exposed to 750 µM uric acid or uric acid + 10 nM melatonin for 72 h. Compared with control, uric acid increased triglyceride content by ~237%, oxidative stress by 32%, and antioxidant capacity by 135%. Uric acid also reduced endogenous ROUTINE respiration, complex II-linked oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transfer system capacities. Melatonin counteracted the effects of uric acid without further altering antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that excess uric acid has adverse effects on skeletal muscle similar to those previously reported in hepatocytes and suggest that melatonin at a low physiological concentration of 10 nM may be a possible therapy against some adverse effects of excess uric acid. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Few studies have investigated the effects of uric acid on skeletal muscle. This study shows that hyperuricemia induces mitochondrial dysfunction and triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle. The findings may explain why hyperuricemia is an independent predictor of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Free fatty acids induce ER stress and block antiviral activity of interferon alpha against hepatitis C virus in cell culture

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    Gunduz Feyza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic steatosis is recognized as a major risk factor for liver disease progression and impaired response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients. The mechanism of response to interferon-alpha (IFN-α therapy under the condition of hepatic steatosis is unexplored. We investigated the effect of hepatocellular steatosis on hepatitis C virus (HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response in a cell culture model. Methods Sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP and HCV infected Huh-7.5 cells were cultured with a mixture of saturated (palmitate and unsaturated (oleate long-chain free fatty acids (FFA. Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in these cells was visualized by Nile red staining and electron microscopy then quantified by microfluorometry. The effect of FFA treatment on HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response was measured by flow cytometric analysis, Renilla luciferase activity, and real-time RT-PCR. Results FFA treatment induced dose dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in the HCV replicon cells was confirmed by Nile red staining, microfluorometry, and by electron microscopy. Intracellular fat accumulation supports replication more in the persistently HCV infected culture than in the sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP cell line. FFA treatment also partially blocked IFN-α response and viral clearance by reducing the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat2 dependent IFN-β promoter activation. We show that FFA treatment induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response and down regulates the IFNAR1 chain of the type I IFN receptor leading to defective Jak-Stat signaling and impaired antiviral response. Conclusion These results suggest that intracellular fat accumulation in HCV cell culture induces ER stress, defective Jak-Stat signaling, and attenuates the antiviral response, thus providing an explanation to the clinical observation regarding how hepatocellular steatosis influences IFN

  17. Uric acid induces hepatic steatosis by generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress: potential role in fructose-dependent and -independent fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-11-23

    Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver Hyperuricemic people are more prone to develop fructose-induced fatty liver. Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states.

  18. Perfluorononanoic acid-induced apoptosis in rat spleen involves oxidative stress and the activation of caspase-independent death pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xuemei; Feng, Yixing; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2010-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA)-induced apoptosis has been reported in many cell types. However, minimal information on its mode of action is available. This study explored the possible involvement of apoptotic signaling pathways in a nine-carbon-chain length PFAA-perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)-induced splenocyte apoptosis. After a 14-day exposure to PFNA, rat spleens showed dose-dependent levels of apoptosis. The production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly increased and decreased, respectively. However, protein levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase 8 and caspase 3, which are involved in inflammation-related and caspase-dependent apoptosis, were discordant. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ genes expression was up-regulated in rats treated with 3 or 5 mg/kg/day of PFNA, and the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) increased concurrently in rats treated with the highest dose. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Bcl-2 protein levels were dramatically decreased in spleens after treatment with 3 and 5 mg/kg/day of PFNA. However, protein levels of Bax were unchanged. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), an initiator of caspase-independent apoptosis, was significantly increased in all PFNA-dosed rats. Thus, oxidative stress and the activation of a caspase-independent apoptotic signaling pathway contributed to PFNA-induced apoptosis in rat splenocytes.

  19. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per

    2014-01-01

    respond to gibberellic acid by secreting an array of proteins and provide a unique system for the analysis of plant protein secretion. Perturbation of protein secretion in gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers by two independent mechanisms, heat shock and tunicamycin treatment, demonstrated overlapping...... and secretion, such as calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase, proteasome subunits, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. Sixteen heat shock proteins in 29 spots showed diverse responses to the treatments, with only a minority increasing in response to heat shock. The majority, all of which were small heat...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  20. The humic acid-induced changes in the water status, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense systems of wheat leaves with cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan-Konakci, Ceyda; Yildiztugay, Evren; Bahtiyar, Mustafa; Kucukoduk, Mustafa

    2018-07-15

    The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L -1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d. The results showed that after Cd stress treatment, water content (RWC), osmotic potential (Ψ Π ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased and proline content (Pro) increased for 7 d. In spite of activated peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), stress induced the toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation. Cd stress triggered lipid peroxidation (TBARS content). HA application successfully eliminated the negative effects of stress on RWC, Ψ Π and photosynthetic parameters. In the presence of HA under stress, the increased activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and NADPH-oxidase (NOX) enzymes and ascorbate, glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio observed. Only 750 mg L -1 HA under stress conditions induced the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) content. After the combined application of HA and Cd stress, the low contents of H 2 O 2 and TBARS maintained in wheat leaves. Hence, HA successfully eliminated the toxicity of Cd stress by modulating the water status, photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant activity in wheat leaves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  2. Combined Use of Zoledronic Acid Augments Ursolic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells through Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

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    Chia-Chieh Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene acid found in many medicinal herbs and edible plants, triggers apoptosis in several tumor cell lines but not in human bone cancer cells. Most recently, we have demonstrated that UA exposure reduces the viability of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, zoledronic acid (ZOL, also a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is effective in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with various solid tumors. In this present study, we found that UA combined with ZOL to significantly suppress cell viability, colony formation, and induce apoptosis in two lines of human osteosarcoma cells. The pre-treatment of the antioxidant had reversed the oxidative stress and cell viability inhibition in the combined treatment, indicating that oxidative stress is important in the combined anti-tumor effects. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZOL combined with UA significantly induced autophagy and co-administration of autophagy inhibitor reduces the growth inhibitory effect of combined treatment. Collectively, these data shed light on the pathways involved in the combined effects of ZOL and UA that might serve as a potential therapy against osteosarcoma.

  3. Lack of TXNIP protects against mitochondria-mediated apoptosis but not against fatty acid-induced ER stress-mediated beta-cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junqin; Fontes, Ghislaine; Saxena, Geetu; Poitout, Vincent; Shalev, Anath

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown that lack of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) protects against diabetes and glucotoxicity-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Because the role of TXNIP in lipotoxicity is unknown, the goal of the present study was to determine whether TXNIP expression is regulated by fatty acids and whether TXNIP deficiency also protects beta-cells against lipoapoptosis. RESARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To determine the effects of fatty acids on beta-cell TXNIP expression, INS-1 cells and isolated islets were incubated with/without palmitate and rats underwent cyclic infusions of glucose and/or Intralipid prior to islet isolation and analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Using primary wild-type and TXNIP-deficient islets, we then assessed the effects of palmitate on apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]), mitochondrial death pathway (cytochrome c release), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (binding protein [BiP], C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]). Effects of TXNIP deficiency were also tested in the context of staurosporine (mitochondrial damage) or thapsigargin (ER stress). Glucose elicited a dramatic increase in islet TXNIP expression both in vitro and in vivo, whereas fatty acids had no such effect and, when combined with glucose, even abolished the glucose effect. We also found that TXNIP deficiency does not effectively protect against palmitate or thapsigargin-induced beta-cell apoptosis, but specifically prevents staurosporine- or glucose-induced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that unlike glucose, fatty acids do not induce beta-cell expression of proapoptotic TXNIP. They further reveal that TXNIP deficiency specifically inhibits the mitochondrial death pathway underlying beta-cell glucotoxicity, whereas it has very few protective effects against ER stress-mediated lipoapoptosis.

  4. Epoxy Stearic Acid, an Oxidative Product Derived from Oleic Acid, Induces Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Cheng, Yajun; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Liu, Yuanfa

    2018-05-23

    In the present study, effects of cis-9,10-epoxy stearic acid (ESA) generated by the thermal oxidation of oleic acid on HepG2 cells, including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, were investigated. Our results revealed that ESA decreased the cell viability and induced cell death. Cell cycle analysis with propidium iodide staining showed that ESA induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in HepG2 cells. Cell apoptosis analysis with annexin V and propidium iodide staining demonstrated that ESA induced HepG2 cell apoptotic events in a dose- and time-dependent manner; the apoptosis of cells after treated with 500 μM ESA for 12, 24, and 48 h was 32.16, 38.70, and 65.80%, respectively. Furthermore, ESA treatment to HepG2 cells resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (from 0.84 ± 0.02 to 8.90 ± 0.50 nmol/mg of protein) levels and a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity, including superoxide dismutase (from 1.34 ± 0.27 to 0.10 ± 0.007 units/mg of protein), catalase (from 100.04 ± 5.05 to 20.09 ± 3.00 units/mg of protein), and glutathione peroxidase (from 120.44 ± 7.62 to 35.84 ± 5.99 milliunits/mg of protein). These findings provide critical information on the effects of ESA on HepG2 cells, particularly cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, which is important for the evaluation of the biosafety of the oxidative product of oleic acid.

  5. Superoxide dismutase recombinant Lactobacillus fermentum ameliorates intestinal oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB activation in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C L; Zhang, J; Liu, X T; Liu, H; Zeng, X F; Qiao, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) can prevent and cure inflammatory bowel diseases by decreasing the amount of reactive oxygen species. Unfortunately, short half-life of SOD in the gastrointestinal tract limited its application in the intestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of recombinant SOD Lactobacillus fermentum in a colitis mouse model. In this study, we expressed the sodA gene in Lact. fermentum I5007 to obtain the SOD recombinant strain. Then, we determined the therapeutic effects of this SOD recombinant strain in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse model. We found that SOD activity in the recombinant Lact. fermentum was increased by almost eightfold compared with that in the wild type. Additionally, both the wild type and the recombinant Lact. fermentum increased the numbers of lactobacilli in the colon of mice (P < 0·05). Colitis mice treated with recombinant Lact. fermentum showed a higher survival rate and lower disease activity index (P < 0·05). Recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly decreased colonic mucosa histological scoring for infiltration of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (P < 0·05) and inhibited NF-κB activity in colitis mice (P < 0·05). SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibiting NF-κB activation in the TNBS-induced colitis model. This study provides insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of SOD recombinant Lact. fermentum, indicating the potential therapeutic effects in preventing and curing intestinal bowel diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  7. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

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    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  8. The microbe-secreted isopeptide poly-γ-glutamic acid induces stress tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings by activating crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Pang, Xiao; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Chi, Bo; Wang, Rui; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a microbe-secreted isopeptide that has been shown to promote growth and enhance stress tolerance in crops. However, its site of action and downstream signaling pathways are still unknown. In this study, we investigated γ-PGA-induced tolerance to salt and cold stresses in Brassica napus L. seedlings. Fluorescent labeling of γ-PGA was used to locate the site of its activity in root protoplasts. The relationship between γ-PGA-induced stress tolerance and two signal molecules, H2O2 and Ca2+, as well as the γ-PGA-elicited signaling pathway at the whole plant level, were explored. Fluorescent labeling showed that γ-PGA did not enter the cytoplasm but instead attached to the surface of root protoplasm. Here, it triggered a burst of H2O2 in roots by enhancing the transcription of RbohD and RbohF, and the elicited H2O2 further activated an influx of Ca2+ into root cells. Ca2+ signaling was transmitted via the stem from roots to leaves, where it elicited a fresh burst of H2O2, thus promoting plant growth and enhancing stress tolerance. On the basis of these observation, we propose that γ-PGA mediates stress tolerance in Brassica napus seedlings by activating an H2O2 burst and subsequent crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:28198821

  9. Salicylic-Acid-Induced Chilling- and Oxidative-Stress Tolerance in Relation to Gibberellin Homeostasis, C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Pathway, and Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Cold-Stored Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Zhao, Jinhong; Nie, Ying; Fan, Bei; Wu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yu; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin; Zhao, Ruirui; Tang, Xuanming

    2016-11-02

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit were investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4 °C for 28 days. In comparison to 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) surge and DELLA protein degradation. CBF1 participated in the SA-modulated tolerance and stimulated the expression of GA catabolic gene (GA2ox1). Furthermore, 1 mM SA enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and, thus, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation. Our findings suggest that SA might protect tomato fruit from CI and oxidative damage through regulating GA metabolism, CBF1 gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  10. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  11. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  12. Gallic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chiu, Ying-Ming; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chin-Tung; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tsay, Gregory J; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate worldwide. Current treatment of gastric cancer includes surgery and chemotherapy as the main modalities, but the potentially severe side-effects of chemotherapy present a considerable challenge. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found to exert an anticancer effect against a variety of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer activity of Galla chinensis and its main component gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assay and cell death ELISA were used to determine the apoptotic effect of Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. To determine the pathway and relevant components by which gallic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated through, cells were transfected with siRNA (Fas, FasL, DR5, p53) using Lipofectamine 2000. Reults: Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid induced apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gallic acid induced up-regulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in AGS cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced gallic acid-induced cell death. In addition, p53 was shown to be involved in gallic acid-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression as well as cell apoptosis in AGS cells. These results suggest that gallic acid has a potential role in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  14. The possible mechanisms of protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Arslan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to investigate the central antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid and the involvement of stimulation of opioidergic, serotonin 5-HT2A/2C, α2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia in mice. Time-dependent antinociceptive effects of protocatechuic acid at the oral doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were tested in hot-plate (integrated supraspinal response and tail-immersion (spinal reflex tests in mice. To investigate the mechanisms of action; the mice administered 300 mg/kg protocatechuic acid (p.o. were pre-treated with non-specific opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p., serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p. and non-specific muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p., respectively. The antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid was observed at the doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg in tail-immersion test, at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in hot-plate test at different time interval. The enhancement in the latency of protocatechuic acid-induced response to thermal stimuli was antagonized by yohimbine, naloxone and atropine in tail-immersion test, while it was antagonized only by yohimbine and naloxone pretreatments in hot-plate test. These results indicated that protocatechuic acid has the central antinociceptive action that is probably organized by spinal mediated cholinergic and opiodiergic, also spinal and supraspinal mediated noradrenergic modulation. However, further studies are required to understand how protocatechuic acid organizes the interactions of these modulatory systems. As a whole, these findings reinforce that protocatechuic acid is a potential agent that might be used for pain relief. Additionally, the clarification of the effect and mechanisms of action of protocatechuic acid will contribute to new therapeutic approaches and provide guidance for new drug

  15. Caffeic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells Through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chang

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Caffeic acid induces apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity, leading to release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-3, indicating that caffeic acid induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This also suggests that caffeic acid has a strong anti-tumor effect and may be a promising chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  16. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  17. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  18. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif1) mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2017-03-01

    Anacardic acid is a medicinal phytochemical that inhibits proliferation of fungal as well as several types of cancer cells. It induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types, but very little is known about the mechanism involved in the process. Here, we used budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study the involvement of some key elements of apoptosis in the anacardic acid-induced cell death. Plasma membrane constriction, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) indicated that anacardic acid induces apoptotic cell death in S. cerevisiae. However, the exogenous addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or deletion of the yeast caspase Yca1 showed that the anacardic acid-induced cell death is caspase independent. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF1) deletion mutant was resistant to the anacardic acid-induced cell death, suggesting a key role of Aif1. Overexpression of Aif1 made cells highly susceptible to anacardic acid, further confirming that Aif1 mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, instead of the increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally observed during apoptosis, anacardic acid caused a decrease in the intracellular ROS levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed downregulation of the BIR1 survivin mRNA expression during the anacardic acid-induced apoptosis.

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  1. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kanic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Shin, E.J., Suh, J.H., Floyd, R.A., Bing, G. (1999) Protection of methamphetamine nigrostriatal toxicity by dietary selenium. Brain Res. 851:76-86...HC, and Bing, GY. (2004) Interleukin-10 protects against lipopolysaccharide-mediated neurotoxicity in substantia nigra Neurosci. Abstr. 29:677.18. 71...2004) Roles of the cyclooxygenase-2 and oxidative stress in the methamphetamine - induced neurotoxicity Neurosci. Abstr. 29:235.4.

  2. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Bahri

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA and rosmarinic acid (RA was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  3. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Offermanns, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades. One of the major problems of the therapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong cutaneous vasodilation called flushing, which develops in almost every patient taking nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing has been

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  6. Effect of amiloride on experimental acid-induced heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsiewicz, William J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Hansen, Mark B; Pruitt, Amy; Orlando, Roy C

    2013-07-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are esophageal nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Amiloride, a diuretic, is known to inhibit ASICs. For this reason, we sought a role for ASICs in mediating heartburn by determining whether amiloride could block heartburn in NERD induced by esophageal acid perfusion. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, we perfused the esophagus with amiloride or (saline) placebo prior to eliciting acid-induced heartburn in patients with a history of proton pump inhibitor-responsive NERD. Those with NERD and positive modified Bernstein test were randomized to perfusion with amiloride, 1 mmol/l, or placebo for 5 min, followed by repeat acid-perfusion. Heartburn severity and time to onset was measured and the process repeated following crossover to the alternative agent. 14 subjects completed the study. Amiloride did not reduce the frequency (100 vs. 100 %) or severity of acid-induced heartburn (Mean 2.50 ± SEM 0.33 vs. 2.64 ± 0.45), respectively. There was a trend towards longer time to onset of heartburn for amiloride versus placebo (Mean 2.93 ± SEM 0.3 vs. 2.36 ± 0.29 min, respectively), though these differences did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Amiloride had no significant effect on acid-induced heartburn frequency or severity in NERD, although there was a trend towards prolonged time to onset of symptoms.

  7. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  8. Inhibition of acid-induced lung injury by hyperosmolar sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Zeenat; Yiming, Maimiti; Grunig, Gabriele; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2005-10-15

    Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might protect against acid-induced ALI when given either before or after acid instillation. Our studies were conducted in anesthetized rats and in isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs. We instilled HCl through the airway, and we quantified lung injury in terms of the extravascular lung water (EVLW) content, filtration coefficient (Kfc), and cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. We infused hyperosmolar sucrose via the femoral vein. In anesthetized rats, airway HCl instillation induced ALI as indicated by a 52% increase of EVLW and a threefold increase in Kfc. However, a 15-min intravenous infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose given up to 1 h before or 30 min after acid instillation markedly blunted the increases in EVLW, as well as the increases in cell count, and in protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Hyperosmolar pretreatment also blocked the acid-induced increase of Kfc. Studies in isolated perfused lungs indicated that the protective effect of hyperosmolar sucrose was leukocyte independent. We conclude that a brief period of vascular hyperosmolarity protects against acid-induced ALI when the infusion is administered shortly before, or shortly after, acid instillation in the airway. The potential applicability of hyperosmolar sucrose in therapy for ALI requires consideration.

  9. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  10. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  11. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  12. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  13. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-κB signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-κB inhibitor. Activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:22761883

  15. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  16. beta-aminobutyric acid protects Brassica napus plants from infection by Leptosphaeria maculans. Resistance induction or a direct antifungal effect?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Vladimír; Nováková, Miroslava; Dobrev, Petre; Valentová, O.; Burketová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 1 (2012), s. 279-289 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MZe QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * BTH * Gene expression Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2012

  17. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  19. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Microdroplet fusion mass spectrometry: accelerated kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was recorded in microdroplets by fusing a stream of microdroplets containing 40 µM chlorophyll a or b dissolved in methanol with a stream of aqueous microdroplets containing 35 mM hydrochloric acid (pH = 1·46). The kinetics of the demetallation of chlorophyll in the fused microdroplets (14 ± 6 µm diameter; 84 ± 18 m s-1 velocity) was recorded by controlling the traveling distance of the fused microdroplets between the fusion region and the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The rate of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was about 960 ± 120 times faster in the charged microdroplets compared with that reported in bulk solution. If no voltage was applied to the sprayed microdroplets, then the acceleration factor was about 580 ± 90, suggesting that the applied voltage is not a major factor determining the acceleration. Chlorophyll a was more rapidly demetallated than chlorophyll b by a factor of ~26 in bulk solution and ~5 in charged microdroplets. The demetallation kinetics was second order in the H+ concentration, but the acceleration factor of microdroplets compared with bulk solution appeared to be unchanged in going from pH = 1·3 to 7·0. The water:methanol ratio of the fused microdroplets was varied from 7:3 to 3:7 causing an increase in the reaction rate of chlorophyll a demetallation by 20%. This observation demonstrates that the solvent composition, which has different evaporation rates, does not significantly affect the acceleration. We believe that a major portion of the acceleration can be attributed to confinement effects involving surface reactions rather than either to evaporation of solvents or to the introduction of charges to the microdroplets.

  1. Evidence connecting old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Martin L; Brønden, Andreas; Sonne, David P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have...... current evidence connecting established glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion and discusses whether bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion may constitute a new basis for understanding how metformin, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile acids transporter, and bile acid...... sequestrants - old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs - improve glucose metabolism....

  2. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  4. Corosolic Acid Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death through Generation of Lipid Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Min Woo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corosolic acid is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of corosolic acid in cancer cell death. Corosolic acid induces a decrease of cell viability and an increase of cell cytotoxicity in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. Corosolic acid-induced cell death is not inhibited by apoptosis inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, necroptosis inhibitor (necrostatin-1, or ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and deferoxamine (DFO. Furthermore, corosolic acid significantly induces reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, but antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC and trolox do not inhibit corosolic acid-induced cell death. Interestingly, corosolic acid induces lipid oxidation, and α-tocopherol markedly prevents corosolic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. Anti-chemotherapeutic effects of α-tocopherol are dependent on inhibition of lipid oxidation rather than inhibition of ROS production. In addition, corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in other renal cancer (ACHN and A498, breast cancer (MDA-MB231, and hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-Hep1 and Huh7 cells, and α-tocopherol markedly inhibits corosolic acid-induced cell death. Therefore, our results suggest that corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in cancer cells through the increase of lipid peroxidation.

  5. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  6. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  7. Antinociceptive Effect of Ondansetron in Albino Mice Using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Purohit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Pain is a protective mechanism. Pain occurs whenever any tissues are being damaged, and it causes the individual to react and to remove the pain stimulus. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ondansetron in comparison with the standard diclofenac. Material and Methods: The antinociceptive effect was tested by using the acetic acid induced writhing model in Swiss Albino mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. Animals were received distilled water (control, diclofenac (standard, ondansetron 0.5mg/kg (test I and ondansetron 1mg/kg (test II. After 30 minutes of drug administration, 0.1 ml of 1% acetic acid was injected. Mice were placed individually into glass beakers and five minutes were allowed to elapse. They were then observed for a period of ten minutes and the numbers of writhes were recorded in each animal. The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA with post-test was used for statistical calculation. Results: The numbers of writhes were 1.33±0.494 for diclofenac; 6.33±1.872 and 9.33±1.706 for ondansetron 0.5 and 1mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: Ondansetron demonstrated statistical significant antinociceptive activity at both doses (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg and statistically similar effect as diclofenac

  8. Mapping and reconstruction of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, J R; Nowocin, K J; Switzer, R C; Trusk, T C; Ramsdell, J S

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin and glutamate analog produced by certain species of the marine diatom Pseudonitzschia, is responsible for several human and wildlife intoxication events. The toxin characteristically damages the hippocampus in exposed humans, rodents, and marine mammals. Histochemical studies have identified this, and other regions of neurodegeneration, though none have sought to map all brain regions affected by domoic acid. In this study, mice exposed (i.p.) to 4 mg/kg domoic acid for 72 h exhibited behavioral and pathological signs of neurotoxicity. Brains were fixed by intracardial perfusion and processed for histochemical analysis. Serial coronal sections (50 microm) were stained using the degeneration-sensitive cupric silver staining method of DeOlmos. Degenerated axons, terminals, and cell bodies, which stained black, were identified and the areas of degeneration were mapped onto Paxinos mouse atlas brain plates using Adobe Illustrator CS. The plates were then combined to reconstruct a 3-dimensional image of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration using Amira 3.1 software. Affected regions included the olfactory bulb, septal area, and limbic system. These findings are consistent with behavioral and pathological studies demonstrating the effects of domoic acid on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in rodents.

  9. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  10. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  12. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  13. Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jenny; Ocampo, Yanet; Franco, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Physalis peruviana [cape gooseberry] is highly appreciated for its commercial value. The Colombian ecotype is in great demand in the international market, particularly for the unique morphological characteristics of the calyx, which has extended use as a traditional herbal remedy in Colombia because of its anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethereal extract of Physalis peruviana calyces was evaluated in preventive and therapeutic protocols in a TNBS acid-induced colitis rat model. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS. An evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue was performed, along with the determination of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, cytokine levels and gene expression. Additionally, effects on nitric oxide release by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS free radicals were determined. The treatment with the Physalis peruviana extract produced a significant improvement in the colonic tissue at both macroscopic and histological levels. IL-1β and TNF-α production was reduced by the extract in both experimental approaches. The groups treated with Physalis peruviana showed a tendency to MUC2 up-regulation and down-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The Physalis peruviana extract showed intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS-induced colitis model, placing this species' calyx, a natural derivative, as a promising source of metabolites that could be used in treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A combined physiological and proteomic approach to reveal lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang and its mutant with enhanced lactic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei has traditionally been recognized as a probiotic and frequently used as an adjunct culture in fermented dairy products, where acid stress is an environmental condition commonly encountered. In the present study, we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic study to investigate lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang (WT) and its acid-resistant mutant. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the mutant exhibited 33.8% higher glucose phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system activity and lower glycolytic pH compared with the WT under acidic conditions. In addition, significant differences were detected in both cells during acid stress between intracellular physiological state, including intracellular pH, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. Comparison of the proteomic data based on 2D-DIGE and i-TRAQ indicated that acid stress invoked a global change in both strains. The mutant protected the cells against acid damage by regulating the expression of key proteins involved in cellular metabolism, DNA replication, RNA synthesis, translation, and some chaperones. Proteome results were validated by Lactobacillus casei displaying higher intracellular aspartate and arginine levels, and the survival at pH 3.3 was improved 1.36- and 2.10-fold by the addition of 50-mM aspartate and arginine, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that aspartate may be involved in acid tolerance in Lactobacillus casei. Results presented here may help us understand acid resistance mechanisms and help formulate new strategies to enhance the industrial applications of this species.

  15. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Y -L; Chiou, W -Y; Lu, F J; Chiang, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+phosphoramidon+citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU)+citric acid; and DMTU+phosphoramidon+citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl...

  17. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  18. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  19. Safety and efficacy of intravenous administration for tranexamic acid-induced emesis in dogs with accidental ingestion of foreign substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Kensuke; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Ogawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2017-12-22

    A prospective observational study was performed in canine clinical medicine to evaluate the emetic action and adverse effects of tranexamic acid. Veterinarians treated 137 dogs with a single dose of tranexamic acid (50 mg/kg, IV) after accidental ingestion of foreign substances. If needed, a second (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 20-50 mg/kg, IV) or third dose (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 25-50 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in 116 of 137 (84.7%) dogs. Median time to onset of emesis was 116.5 sec (range, 26-370 sec), median duration of emesis was 151.5 sec (range, 30-780 sec), and median number of emesis episodes was 2 (range, 1-8). Second and third administrations of tranexamic acid induced emesis in 64.7 and 66.7% of dogs, respectively. In total, IV administration of tranexamic acid successfully induced emesis in 129 of 137 (94.2%) dogs. Adverse effects included a tonic-clonic convulsion and hemostatic disorder in two different dogs, both of which recovered after receiving medical care. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in most dogs following a single-dose. When a single dose was not sufficient, an additional dosage effectively induced emesis. Overall, adverse effects were considered low and self-limiting.

  20. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dae-Hyuk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3 from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants measured using a laccase-specific substrate suggested that the lac3 gene was successfully expressed and the corresponding protein product secreted into the culture media. In addition, activity staining and Western blot analysis of a native gel revealed that the enzyme activity co-existed with the protein product specific to anti-laccase3 antibody, confirming that the cloned lac3 gene is responsible for the laccase activity. When transformants were grown on plates containing tannic acid-supplemented media, brown coloration was observed around transformed cells, indicating the oxidation of tannic acid. However, the enzymatic activity was measurable only in the selective ura- media and was negligible in nonselective nutrient-rich culture conditions. This was in part because of the increased plasmid instability in the nonselective media. Moreover, the protein product of lac3 appears to be sensitive to the cultured nonselective nutrient-rich broth, because a rapid decline in enzymatic activity was observed when the cultured broth of ura- media was mixed with that of nonselective nutrient-rich broth. In addition, constitutive expression of the lac3 gene resulted in a reduced cell number of the lac3 transformants compared to that of vector-only transformed control. However, the presence of recombinant vector without lac3 induction did not affect the growth of transformants. Conclusions The results suggest that expression of the lac3 gene has an inhibitory effect on the growth of

  1. The Cumulus Cell Layer Protects Bovine Maturing Oocyte Against Fatty Acid-Induced Lipotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolicato, Francesca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314639586; Brouwers, Jos F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173812694; van de Lest, Chris H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/146063570; Wubbolts, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181688255; Aardema, Hilde|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824100; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859; Helms, J. Bernd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080626742; Gadella, Bart M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115389873

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid

  2. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Bačkor, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Repčák, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2009), s. 135-143 ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chamomile * Oxidative stress * Phenolic metabolism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  3. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Bello, Rosario I.; Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Ana B.; Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Rodriguez, Blanca A.; Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora; Duran-Prado, Mario; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; De la Mata, Manuel; Muntane, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca 2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca 2+ pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca 2+ entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca 2+ mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca 2+ entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca 2+ entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca 2+ -dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  4. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I; Bello, Rosario I [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Hidalgo, Ana B [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa [Department of Biostatistics, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Rodriguez, Blanca A [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Duran-Prado, Mario [Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Granada (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion CB06/03, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Spain); Aguilar-Melero, Patricia [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); De la Mata, Manuel [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Muntane, Jordi [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca{sup 2+} pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Profiling Abscisic Acid-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Composition in Mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suhas; Devaiah, Shivakumar; Kilaru, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    In plants, change in lipid composition is a common response to various abiotic stresses. Lipid constituents of bryophytes are of particular interest as they differ from that of flowering plants. Unlike higher plants, mosses have high content of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such lipids are considered to be important for survival of nonvascular plants. Here, using abscisic acid (ABA )-induced changes in lipid composition in Physcomitrella patens as an example, a protocol for total lipid extraction and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) is described.

  7. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  8. Lipotoxic effect of p21 on free fatty acid-induced steatosis in L02 cells.

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    Jie-wei Wang

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Though with high prevalence, the mechanism is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of p21 on free fatty acid (FFA-induced steatosis in L02 cells. We therefore analyzed the L02 cells with MG132 and siRNA treatment for different expression of p21 related to lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity. Cellular total lipid was stained by Oil Red O, while triglyceride content, cytotoxicity assays, lipid peroxidation markers and anti-oxidation levels were measured by enzymatic kits. Treatment with 1 mM FFA for 48 hr induced magnificent intracellular lipid accumulation and increased oxidative stress in p21 overload L02 cells compared to that in p21 knockdown L02 cells. By increasing oxidative stress and peroxidation, p21 accelerates FFA-induced lipotoxic effect in L02 cells and might provide information about potentially new targets for drug development and treatments of NAFLD.

  9. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

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    Xinhua Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone (EDA is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA- induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities.

  10. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Su [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Department of Life Science and Ewha Research Center for Systems Biology (Korea, Republic of); The Research Center for Cell Homeostasis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 127-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Da Hyun [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Soo Han, E-mail: soohanbae@yuhs.ac [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  11. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-mei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Jun, E-mail: lu-jun75@163.com [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Yan-qiu [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Yuan-lin, E-mail: ylzheng@xznu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Bin [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Wei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-09-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders.

  12. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Da Hyun; Bae, Soo Han

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  13. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-mei; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yan-qiu; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders

  14. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  15. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO 2 /fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22 phox levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may enhance Cytokine

  16. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  17. Reduced Gut Acidity Induces an Obese-Like Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster and in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes involved in stress and metabolic regulation, we carried out a Drosophila P-element-mediated mutagenesis screen for starvation resistance. We isolated a mutant, m2, that showed a 23% increase in survival time under starvation conditions. The P-element insertion was mapped to the region upstream of the vha16-1 gene, which encodes the c subunit of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. We found that vha16-1 is highly expressed in the fly midgut, and that m2 mutant flies are hypomorphic for vha16-1 and also exhibit reduced midgut acidity. This deficit is likely to induce altered metabolism and contribute to accelerated aging, since vha16-1 mutant flies are short-lived and display increases in body weight and lipid accumulation. Similar phenotypes were also induced by pharmacological treatment, through feeding normal flies and mice with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide or proton pump inhibitor (PPI, lansoprazole to suppress gut acid production. Our study may thus provide a useful model for investigating chronic acid suppression in patients.

  18. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  19. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, protects liver against valproic acid induced toxicity

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    Cakmak Neziha Hacihasanoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, is a well established anticonvulsant drug that has been increasingly used in the treatment of many forms of generalized epilepsy. Edaravone (EDA; 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one is a potent free radical scavenger. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of EDA on VPA-induced hepatic damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group I was control animals. Group II was control rats given valproic acid (500 mg kg-1 day for seven days. Group III was given only EDA (30 mg kg-1day for seven days. Group IV was given VPA+EDA (in same dose and time. EDA and VPA were given intraperitoneally. On the 8th day of experiment, blood samples and liver tissue were taken. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, liver myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, adenosine deaminase, Na+/K+ATPase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, DT-diaphorase, arginase and thromboplastic activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl levels were increased whereas paraoxonase, biotinidase activities and glutathione levels were decreased in VPA group. Application of EDA with VPA protected against VPA-induced effects. These results demonstrated that administration of EDA is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce hepatic damage in VPA induced hepatotoxicity, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

  20. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cuevas, J; Navarro-Partida, J; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Bueno-Topete, M R; Beas-Zarate, C; Armendáriz-Borunda, J

    2011-01-01

    Experimental liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is associated with oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. This work was focused on elucidating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in this model of hepatotoxicity. Wistar male rats were treated with CCl(4) and EDTA (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg). Morphometric analyses were carried out in Masson's stained liver sections to determine fibrosis index. Coagulation tests prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were also determined. Gene expression for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1), alpha1(I) procollagen gene (alpha1 Col I), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was monitored by real-time PCR. Antioxidant effect of EDTA was measured by its effects on lipid peroxidation; biological activity of ceruloplasmin (Cp), SOD, and catalase (Cat) were analyzed by zymography assays. Animals with CCl(4)-hepatic injury that received EDTA showed a decrement in fibrosis (20%) and lipid peroxidation (22%). The mRNA expression for TNF-alpha (55%), TGF-beta1 (50%), IL-6 (52%), and alpha1 Col I (60%) was also decreased. This group of animals showed increased Cp (62%) and SOD (25%) biological activities. Coagulation blood tests, Cat activity, and gene expression for SOD were not modified by EDTA treatment. This study demonstrates that EDTA treatment induces the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreases lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in experimental liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4).

  1. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

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    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP, a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD. The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency.

  2. Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2018-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP. In this review, we will discuss the mechanistic role of increased 3-hydroxy fatty acid in causing lipotoxicity to the liver and in inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Further, we also review the role of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in causing placental damage, pancreatic islet β-cell glucolipotoxicity, brain damage, and retinal epithelial cells lipoapoptosis in patients with LCHAD deficiency. PMID:29361796

  3. Abscisic Acid Induces Rapid Reductions in Mesophyll Conductance to Carbon Dioxide.

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    Giuseppe Sorrentino

    Full Text Available The rate of photosynthesis (A of plants exposed to water deficit is a function of stomatal (gs and mesophyll (gm conductance determining the availability of CO2 at the site of carboxylation within the chloroplast. Mesophyll conductance often represents the greatest impediment to photosynthetic uptake of CO2, and a crucial determinant of the photosynthetic effects of drought. Abscisic acid (ABA plays a fundamental role in signalling and co-ordination of plant responses to drought; however, the effect of ABA on gm is not well-defined. Rose, cherry, olive and poplar were exposed to exogenous ABA and their leaf gas exchange parameters recorded over a four hour period. Application with ABA induced reductions in values of A, gs and gm in all four species. Reduced gm occurred within one hour of ABA treatment in three of the four analysed species; indicating that the effect of ABA on gm occurs on a shorter timescale than previously considered. These declines in gm values associated with ABA were not the result of physical changes in leaf properties due to altered turgor affecting movement of CO2, or caused by a reduction in the sub-stomatal concentration of CO2 (Ci. Increased [ABA] likely induces biochemical changes in the properties of the interface between the sub-stomatal air-space and mesophyll layer through the actions of cooporins to regulate the transport of CO2. The results of this study provide further evidence that gm is highly responsive to fluctuations in the external environment, and stress signals such as ABA induce co-ordinated modifications of both gs and gm in the regulation of photosynthesis.

  4. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  5. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR, have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.01. Formoterol and salmeterol showed a trend towards reducing cough. On the contrary, indacaterol demonstrated pro-tussive properties as it significantly increased the number of coughs, both in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized animals (p < 0.001. In conclusion, olodaterol, at doses eliciting bronchodilation, showed antitussive properties in a model of citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve

  6. Effect of Quercetin on Bone Mineral Status and Markers of Bone Turnover in Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteoporosis

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    Oršolić Nada

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis (RBM is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. This study tested the anti-osteoporetic effect of quercetin in RBM-induced bone loss model (RBM. After 14-day supplementation of 13cRA to induce RBM, rats were administered with quercetin (100 mg/kg or alendronate (40 mg/kg. We analysed changes in body and uterine weight of animals, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content, bone weight index, bone hystology, bone mineral density (BMD, markers of bone turnover, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels and SOD, CAT activity of liver, kidney spleen, and ovary as well as biochemical and haematological variables. In comparison to the control RBM rats, the treatment with quercetin increased bone weight index, BMD, osteocalcin level, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content in the 13cRA-induced bone loss model. Histological results showed its protective action through promotion of bone formation. According to the results, quercetin could be an effective substitution for alendronate in 13cRA-induced osteoporosis. Good therapeutic potential of quercetin on rat skeletal system is based partly on its antioxidant capacity and estrogenic activity.

  7. Citric acid induced promoted dispersion of Pt on the support and enhanced catalytic activities for a Pt-based catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianqiong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Suning; Cui, Yajuan; Zhang, Hailong; Yan, Shuang; Yuan, Shandong; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid (CA), as the chelating agent, was introduced to obtain the enhanced Pt dispersion and catalytic activities for the Pt-based catalysts supported on oxygen-storage material. The role and content of CA were investigated systematically. It was found that the citric acid-assisted catalysts showed better Pt dispersion and smaller nanoparticle size of Pt. Thus, the catalyst had lower reduction temperature, preferable thermostability and possessed more oxidation state of Pt species under the oxidation atmosphere. The citric acid-induced fresh catalysts were excellent to convert CO and the corresponding aged ones exhibited higher activities for the elimination of all the target pollutants. Among the aged catalysts, P2-a (the mole ratio of Pt/CA is 2:1) presented the best performance. Particularly, compared with the reference sample (Pc-a), the light-off temperatures (T50) of NO, HC and CO for P2-a decreased by 39 °C, 42 °C and 72 °C, respectively, and the full-conversion temperatures (T90) of NO, HC and CO for P2-a decreased by 44 °C, 44 °C and 48 °C, respectively. Therefore, this work provides a facile and valid method to manufacture advanced catalysts for purification of the vehicle exhaust in the future.

  8. The Effect of Gallic Acid on Histopathologic Evaluation of Cerebellum in Valproic Acid-Induced Autism Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Samimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is counted as a worldwide public health problem. The possible causes of ASD are reactive oxygen species and free radicals. So, this study is aimed to evaluate the effects of Gallic acid, as an effective antioxidant, on histopathologic disorder of the cerebellum in valproic acid-induced autism animal models. 30 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including: control, autism (or VAP and experimental 1, 2 and 3. Using a gavage needle, Gallic acid administered orally until about2 months of age. After the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized with ether and their cerebellar tissues were removed for histopathologic studies. A significant decrease in the number of Purkinje and granular cells was observed in this study in VAP group compared to the control group (P≤0.05. A trend toward improvement was observed in the groups received 100 and 200 mg/kg of Gallic acid (P≤0.05. The results of this research revealed that Gallic acid reduces the side effects caused by valproic acid on cerebellar tissue of autistic rats. So, it should be considered for therapeutic goals.

  9. Role of duodenal mucosal nerve endings in the acid-induced duodenogastric sensorimotor reflex: effect of benzocaine in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, T; Karamanolis, G; Vos, R; Van Oudenhove, L; Farré, R; Tack, J

    2013-05-01

    Duodenal acid exposure induces a duodenogastric reflex resulting in gastric relaxation, inhibition of antral motility, and sensitization of the proximal stomach to distension. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid has been identified as a potential pathogenic mechanism in functional dyspepsia. The nature and localization of the duodenal acid-sensitive receptors are still elusive. We hypothesize that acid directly activates superficial afferent nerve endings in the duodenal mucosa, triggering the duodenogastric reflex. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in 13 healthy volunteers, benzocaine, a local anesthetic, vs saline was perfused in the duodenum 15 min before duodenal acid perfusion. Gastric responses were monitored by a barostat. Stepwise isobaric gastric distensions were performed before and during acid perfusion. Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scales for six dyspeptic symptoms and an overall perception score. Benzocaine perfusion caused a relaxation of the stomach prior to duodenal acidification, indicating the existence of an excitatory duodenogastric tone. Pretreatment of the duodenum with benzocaine reduced the acid-induced gastric relaxation by 50% and abolished the inhibition of phasic motility of the proximal stomach. Finally, sensitization to distension was more pronounced in the benzocaine condition because of higher proximal gastric volumes. These findings support a model in which different neuronal subpopulations are responsible for the motor and sensory limb of the acid-sensitive duodenogastric reflex, making benzocaine an unsuitable drug to treat duodenal hypersensitivity to acid. These data provide more insight in the contribution of duodenal neuronal input to gastric physiology in the fasting state. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

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    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  12. The Healing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum on Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats

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    Nader Tanideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Anti-inflammatory effect of Hypericum have long been considered. Ulcerative Colitis (UC is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. In this study, the effects of Hypericum perforatum on histopathological changes and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA level of colonic tissue in rats with induced UC were evaluated. Materials & Methods: 70 rats were divided into seven equal groups. Colitis was induced by acetic acid.. Groups I and II received 1 mL of 600 and 300 mg/kg H. perforatum extract orally per day respectively; groups III and IV received 1 mL of 20% and 10% intra-colonic gel form of H. perforatum extract daily respectively; group V, as positive control, received 1 mL of intra-colonic Asacol; group VI received 1 mL of normal saline as negative control; group VII received just intra-colonic gel base. All the animals were evaluated for histological changes and tissue MDA level of colon seven days after the treatment. Results: H. perforatum extract in the two forms of trans-rectal and oral administration could result in a more healing effect on acetic acid-induced damaged colonic tissue with a reduction in the MDA activity. In trans-rectal administration, the 20% gel had a better healing response than the 10% gel. In oral administration, the 600 mg/kg dosage had a better healing response than the 300 mg/kg. Conclusions: Therefor, H. perforatum can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC especially in trans-rectal gel form.

  13. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

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    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  14. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, M.H.; Khalil, J.; Zahid, M.; Ansari, N.

    2011-01-01

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  15. In vivo evaluation of acid-induced changes in oesophageal mucosa integrity and sensitivity in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Philip; Al-Zinaty, Mohannad; Yazaki, Etsuro; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) have impaired oesophageal mucosal integrity (dilated intercellular spaces). Oesophageal mucosal integrity reflects the balance between repeated reflux damage and mucosal recovery. The relationship between mucosal integrity and acid sensitivity is unclear. Oesophageal impedance may be used for in vivo mucosal integrity measurement. We studied acid-induced changes in oesophageal mucosal integrity and acid perception in patients with heartburn. 50 patients with heartburn whithout oesophagitis underwent impedance monitoring before, during and after 10 min oesophageal perfusion with neutral (pH 6.5) and acid solutions (pH 1). Symptoms and impedance were recorded during perfusion. Impedance recovery was assessed for 2 h post-perfusion in ambulatory conditions followed by 24-h impedance-pH study. Reflux monitoring discriminated 20 NERD and 30 functional heartburn (FH) patients. Neutral perfusion caused impedance fall that recovered within 10 min. Acid perfusion caused impedance fall with slow recovery: 6.5 Ω/min (IQR 3.3-12.0 Ω/min). Patients with slow recovery (acid sensitivity (10/12 vs. 4/12, p = 0.04) than those with fast (> 75th percentile) recovery. Patients with NERD had lower baseline impedance (1669 ± 182 Ω vs. 2384 ± 211 Ω, p = 0.02) and slower impedance recovery (6.0 ± 0.9 Ω/min vs. 10.7 ± 1.6 Ω/min, p = 0.03) than patients with FH. Impaired mucosal integrity might be the consequence of repeated reflux episodes with slow recovery. Mucosal integrity, recovery capacity and symptom perception are linked. Low basal impedance and slow recovery after acid challenge are associated with increased acid sensitivity.

  16. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Engineering an efficient and tight D-amino acid-inducible gene expression system in Rhodosporidium/Rhodotorula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Koh, Chong Mei John; Ngoh, Si Te; Ji, Lianghui

    2015-10-26

    mutant makes an efficient and tight D-amino acid-inducible gene expression system in Rhodosporidium and Rhodotorula genera. The system will be a valuable tool for metabolic engineering and enzyme expression in these yeast hosts.

  18. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bertoglio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE. Wistar Han (Charles River, France and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase and 12 weeks (chronic phase post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein, and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001 in SD/H (median 8.3 days animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days. During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01. However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure

  19. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, Daniele; Amhaoul, Halima; Van Eetveldt, Annemie; Houbrechts, Ruben; Van De Vijver, Sebastiaan; Ali, Idrish; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE). Wistar Han (Charles River, France) and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands) rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA) and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG) in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase) and 12 weeks (chronic phase) post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei), microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein), and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C) were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) in SD/H (median 8.3 days) animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days). During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01). However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure burden

  20. Sequestration of fatty acids in triglycerides prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Dapito, D.H.; Drosatos-Tampakaki, Z.; Huiping-Son, N.; Huang, L.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Drosatos, K.; Goldberg, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    We used human cardiomyocyte-derived cells to create an in vitro model to study lipid metabolism and explored the effects of PPAR gamma, ACSL1 and ATGL on fatty acid-induced ER stress. Compared to oleate, palmitate treatment resulted in less intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and more ER

  1. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Goldman

    Full Text Available Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells. Typically, bile acids induce apoptosis. However during gastrointestinal (GI tumorigenesis the cancer cells develop resistance to bile acid-induced cell death. To understand how bile acids induce apoptosis resistance we first need to identify the molecular pathways that initiate apoptosis in response to bile acid exposure. In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE and Na(+ influx in esophageal cells. In vitro studies revealed that the exposure of esophageal cells (JH-EsoAd1, CP-A to DCA (0.2 mM-0.5 mM caused lysosomal membrane perturbation and transient cytoplasmic acidification. Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry demonstrated that this effect on lysosomes correlated with influx of Na(+, subsequent loss of intracellular K(+, an increase of Ca(2+ and apoptosis. However, ethylisopropyl-amiloride (EIPA, a selective inhibitor of NHE, prevented Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ changes and caspase 3/7 activation induced by DCA. Ouabain and amphotericin B, two drugs that increase intracellular Na(+ levels, induced similar changes as DCA (ion imbalance, caspase3/7 activation. On the contrary, DCA-induced cell death was inhibited by medium with low a Na(+ concentrations. In the same experiments, we exposed rat ileum ex-vivo to DCA with or without EIPA. Severe tissue damage and caspase-3 activation was observed after DCA treatment, but EIPA almost fully prevented this response. In summary, NHE-mediated Na(+ influx is a critical step leading to DCA-induced apoptosis. Cells tolerate acidification but evade DCA-induced apoptosis if NHE is inhibited. Our data suggests that suppression of NHE by endogenous or exogenous inhibitors may lead to apoptosis resistance during GI tumorigenesis.

  2. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  3. Zurampic Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from High Uric Acid Induced-Damage by Inhibiting URAT1 and Inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Zurampic is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of gout. However, the influence of Zurampic on pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zurampic on high uric acid-induced damage of pancreatic β-cells and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were stimulated with Zurampic and the mRNA expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1 was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic, and cell viability, apoptosis and ROS release were measured by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of active Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK. Finally, cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic at low/high level of glucose (2.8/16.7 mM glucose, and the insulin release was assessed by ELISA. Results: mRNA expression of URAT1 was decreased by Zurampic in a dose-dependent manner. Uric acid decreased cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis and induced ROS release. Uric acid-induced alterations could be reversed by Zurampic. Activation of Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK were enhanced by uric acid, and the enhancements were reversed by Zurampic. Decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK, induced by Zurampic, was further reduced by adding inhibitor of AMPK or ERK. Besides, uric acid inhibited high glucose-induced insulin secretion and the inhibition was rescued by Zurampic. Conclusions: Zurampic has a protective effect on pancreatic β-cells against uric acid induced-damage by inhibiting URAT1 and inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK pathway.

  4. Genetic variation in toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene I and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L N; Ladelund, S; Weis, N

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and their signalling pathways on spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) resolution. We screened 95 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 genes. SNPs significantly associated...... with resolution in the discovery cohort were genotyped in a validation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for sex, hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV infection and the interleukin-28B rs12979860 SNP was performed in the combined cohort. Haplotype reconstruction and linkage disequilibrium analysis...

  5. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon B; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is required for expression of type I...... interferons (IFNs) after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Our work also identified RNase L as a critical component in IFN induction. Moreover, we found that TLR9 and RLRs activate distinct, as well as overlapping, intracellular signalling pathways. Thus, RLRs are important for recognition of HSV...

  6. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induces the generation of free-radicals and associated oxidative stress responses in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Miguel C.; Telo, Joao P.; Duarte, Nuno F.; Sa-Correia, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    The pro-oxidant action of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated in this study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic experimental model. Evidence is presented for the generation of hydroxyl-radicals, in yeast cells suddenly exposed to 2,4-D, detected by in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide as spin-traps. The intensity of the EPR spectra was dependent on the concentration of herbicide tested and was consistently higher in a mutant (Δsod1) devoid of the cytosolic CuZn-superoxide dismutase. A time-course-dependent variation of the level of free-radical adducts was registered upon sudden exposure of an yeast cell population to concentrations of 2,4-D that lead to an initial period of viability loss, before resumption of inhibited growth by the viable adapted population. The variation pattern of the level of hydroxyl-radical adducts correlated with the one determined for the activity of Sod1p, cytosolic catalase Ctt1p, and the dithiol glutaredoxins Grx1p and Grx2p

  7. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H

    2000-01-01

    (NITT) levels and by the expression of MT-I + II, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). MT-I + II deficiency potentiated the oxidative stress caused by KA. Both KA and MT-I + II deficiency significantly affected the expression of MT-III, granulocyte...

  8. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  10. Bile acids induce glucagon-like peptide 2 secretion with limited effects on intestinal adaptation in early weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Tedó, Gemma; Menoyo, David

    2013-01-01

    Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve.......05) but did not affect plasma GLP-1 and feed intake. The intestinal expression of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor, sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, farnesoid X receptor, and guanosine protein-coupled bile acid receptor genes were not affected by CDC treatment. The intragastric administration of CDC...

  11. Probucol increases striatal glutathione peroxidase activity and protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced pro-oxidative damage in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirleise Colle

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by symptoms attributable to the death of striatal and cortical neurons. The molecular mechanisms mediating neuronal death in HD involve oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP, an irreversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, in rodents has been proposed as a useful experimental model of HD. This study evaluated the effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, on the biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress, as well as on the behavioral parameters related to motor function in an in vivo HD model based on 3-NP intoxication in rats. Animals were treated with 3.5 mg/kg of probucol in drinking water daily for 2 months and, subsequently, received 3-NP (25 mg/kg i.p. once a day for 6 days. At the end of the treatments, 3-NP-treated animals showed a significant decrease in body weight, which corresponded with impairment on motor ability, inhibition of mitochondrial complex II activity and oxidative stress in the striatum. Probucol, which did not rescue complex II inhibition, protected against behavioral and striatal biochemical changes induced by 3-NP, attenuating 3-NP-induced motor impairments and striatal oxidative stress. Importantly, probucol was able to increase activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, an enzyme important in mediating the detoxification of peroxides in the central nervous system. The major finding of this study was that probucol protected against 3-NP-induced behavioral and striatal biochemical changes without affecting 3-NP-induced mitochondrial complex II inhibition, indicating that long-term probucol treatment resulted in an increased resistance against neurotoxic events (i.e., increased oxidative damage secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data appeared to be of great

  12. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  13. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  14. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  15. Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Hadir M; Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration.

  16. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  17. Essential Role of Growth Hormone and IGF-1 in Therapeutic Effect of Ghrelin in the Course of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2017-05-24

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day. Seven days after colitis induction, rats were anesthetized and the severity of the colitis was assessed. Treatment with ghrelin reduced the area of colonic mucosa damage in pituitary-intact rat. This effect was associated with increase in serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Moreover, administration of ghrelin improved blood flow in colonic mucosa and mucosal cell proliferation, as well as reduced mucosal concentration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and activity of myeloperoxidase. Hypophysectomy reduced serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and increased the area of colonic damage in rats with colitis. These effects were associated with additional reduction in mucosal blood follow and DNA synthesis when compared to pituitary-intact rats. Mucosal concentration of IL-1β and mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase were maximally increased. Moreover, in hypophysectomized rats, administration of ghrelin failed to affect serum levels of GH or IGF-1, as well as the healing rate of colitis, mucosal cell proliferation, and mucosal concentration of IL-1β, or activity of myeloperoxidase. We conclude that administration of ghrelin accelerates the healing of the acetic acid-induced colitis. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in experimental colitis is mainly mediated by the release of endogenous growth hormone and IGF-1.

  18. Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Oleic Acid-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gülcü Bulmuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is believed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA on oleic acid (OA-induced ALI in rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: A total of thirty-five rats were divided into five groups in the study. Group 1 served as a control group. Rats in Group 2 (α-LA were administered α-LA intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW. Rats in Group 3 (OA were administered OA intravenously at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. In Group 4 (pre-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given 15 minutes prior to OA infusion, and in Group 5 (post-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given two hours after OA infusion. Four hours after the OA infusion, rats were decapitated. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH, and the levels of activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Lung tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. Results: Exposure to OA resulted in increases in serum MDA levels (p<0.001, as well as histopathological lesions in lung tissue, and decreases in CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.05 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels. On the other hand, MDA levels were decreased significantly (p<0.001, while CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.01 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels were increased significantly in the pre-OA-α-LA group compared with the OA group. Conclusion: α-LA was found to lessen oxidative stress and to have positive effects on antioxidants in cases of OA-induced ALI. In conclusion, α-LA appears to have protective effects against ALI and potential for the prevention of ALI.

  19. Abscisic acid induces biosynthesis of bisbibenzyls and tolerance to UV-C in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akito; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-09-01

    Environmental stresses are effective triggers for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites in plants, and phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and abscisic acid are known to mediate such responses in flowering plants. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of secondary metabolism in bryophytes remains unclear. In this study, the induction mechanism of secondary metabolites in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha was investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C) were found to induce the biosynthesis of isoriccardin C, marchantin C, and riccardin F, which are categorized as bisbibenzyls, characteristic metabolites of liverworts. UV-C led to the significant accumulation of ABA. Overexpression of MpABI1, which encodes protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, suppressed accumulation of bisbibenzyls in response to ABA and UV-C irradiation and conferred susceptibility to UV-C irradiation. These data show that ABA plays a significant role in the induction of bisbibenzyl biosynthesis, which might confer tolerance against UV-C irradiation in M. polymorpha. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventive Effects of Dexmedetomidine on the Liver in a Rat Model of Acid-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velat Şen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300–350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidant activity (TOA, oxidative stress index (OSI, and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P<0.05. The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI.

  2. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI.

  3. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA, a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA. We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA.

  4. Embryological exposure to valproic acid induces social interaction deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A developmental behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; De Paula Cognato, Giana; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-01-01

    Changes in social behavior are associated with brain disorders, including mood disorders, stress, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, anxiety, hyperactivity, and the presence of restricted interests. Zebrafish is one of the most social vertebrates used as a model in biomedical research, contributing to an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie social behavior. Valproic acid (VPA) is used as an anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer; however, prenatal VPA exposure in humans has been associated with an increased incidence of autism and it can also affect fetal brain development. Therefore, we conducted a behavioral screening at different periods of zebrafish development at 6, 30, 70, and 120dpf (days postfertilization) after VPA exposure in the early development stage to investigate social behavior, locomotion, aggression, and anxiety. VPA (48μM) exposure during the first 48hpf (hours postfertilization) did not promote changes on survival, morphology, and hatching rate at 24hpf, 48hpf, and 72hpf. The behavioral patterns suggest that VPA exposure induces changes in locomotor activity and anxiety at different developmental periods in zebrafish. Furthermore, a social interaction deficit is present at 70dpf and 120dpf. VPA exposure did not affect aggression in the adult stage at 70dpf and 120dpf. This is the first study that demonstrated zebrafish exposed to VPA during the first 48h of development exhibit deficits in social interaction, anxiety, and hyperactivity at different developmental periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  6. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  7. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  8. Gallic Acid Induces a Reactive Oxygen Species-Provoked c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Apoptosis in Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Liu, Hsiang-Chun; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disorder characterized by fibroblasts proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Induction of fibroblast apoptosis therefore plays a crucial role in the resolution of this disease. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a common botanic phenolic compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cell lines and renal fibroblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lung fibroblasts apoptosis induced by gallic acid. We found that treatment with gallic acid resulted in activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt), but not p38MAPK, in mouse lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of JNK using pharmacologic inhibitor (SP600125) and genetic knockdown (JNK specific siRNA) significantly inhibited p53 accumulation, reduced PUMA and Fas expression, and abolished apoptosis induced by gallic acid. Moreover, treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C, N-acetyl cysteine, and catalase) effectively diminished gallic acid-induced hydrogen peroxide production, JNK and p53 activation, and cell death. These observations imply that gallic acid-mediated hydrogen peroxide formation acts as an initiator of JNK signaling pathways, leading to p53 activation and apoptosis in mouse lung fibroblasts. PMID:23533505

  9. Comparative Analysis of EPA/DHA-PL Forage and Liposomes in Orotic Acid-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rats and Their Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mengru; Zhang, Tiantian; Han, Xiuqing; Tang, Qingjuan; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate the possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1% of total diets, respectively. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6% and 34.2%, respectively (p DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of the biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplements.

  10. Effects of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors activations and ionizing radiation cotreatment on cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Iwabuchi, Miyu; Kazama, Yuka; Furukawa, Maho; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-04-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce antiviral immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that RLR activation induces antitumor immunity and cytotoxicity against different types of cancer, including lung cancer. However a previous report has demonstrated that ionizing radiation exerts a limited effect on RLR in human monocytic cell-derived macrophages, suggesting that RLR agonists may be used as effective immunostimulants during radiation therapy. However, it is unclear whether ionizing radiation affects the cytotoxicity of RLR agonists against cancer cells. Therefore, in the present study the effects of cotreatment with ionizing radiation and RLR agonists on cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells A549 and H1299 was investigated. Treatment with RLR agonist poly(I:C)/LyoVec™ [poly(I:C)] exerted cytotoxic effects against human non-small cell lung cancer. The cytotoxic effects of poly(I:C) were enhanced by cotreatment with ionizing radiation, and poly(I:C) pretreatment resulted in the radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer. Furthermore, cotreatment of A549 and H1299 cells with poly(I:C) and ionizing radiation effectively induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner compared with treatment with poly(I:C) or ionizing radiation alone. These results indicate that RLR agonists and ionizing radiation cotreatment effectively exert cytotoxic effects against human non-small cell lung cancer through caspase-mediated apoptosis.

  11. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Prisenžňáková, Lubica; Košťálová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Motamed, Saeed Mohammadi; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Rashidian, Amir

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2 mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and F. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions was done. MPO activity was evaluated by biochemical method. Furthermore, TNF-α activity was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of p-NF-kB p65 protein was measured by western blot analysis. Dexamethasone and F. vulgare essential oil (200, 400 mg/kg) reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the acetic acid group (p kB p65 protein (p kB pathway.

  13. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  14. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  15. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  16. Citric acid induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Chen, Chia-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Hung, Sung-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) widely used in cosmetic dermatology and skincare products. However, there is concern regarding its safety for the skin. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of citric acid on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. HaCaT cells were treated with citric acid at 2.5-12.5 mM for different time periods. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Citric acid not only inhibited proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also induced apoptosis and cell cycle-arrest at the G2/M phase (before 24 h) and S phase (after 24 h). Citric acid increased the level of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and reduced the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Citric acid also activated death receptors and increased the levels of caspase-8, activated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) protein, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Endonuclease G (EndoG). Therefore, citric acid induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The study results suggest that citric acid is cytotoxic to HaCaT cells via induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in vitro.

  17. PtrWRKY73, a salicylic acid-inducible poplar WRKY transcription factor, is involved in disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanjiao; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Ye, Shenglong; Karim, Abdul; Ling, Zhengyi; He, Yunqiu; Yang, Siqi; Luo, Keming

    2015-05-01

    A salicylic acid-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa , was isolated and characterized. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but reduced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens. WRKY transcription factors are commonly involved in plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the roles of the WRKY genes in poplar defense. In this study, we isolated a salicylic acid (SA)-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa, belonging to group I family and containing two WRKY domains, a D domain and an SP cluster. PtrWRKY73 was expressed predominantly in roots, old leaves, sprouts and stems, especially in phloem and its expression was induced in response to treatment with exogenous SA. PtrWRKY73 was localized to the nucleus of plant cells and exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in increased resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000), but more sensitivity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The SA-mediated defense-associated genes, such as PR1, PR2 and PAD4, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtrWRKY73. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) was not affected, whereas a defense-related gene PAL4 had reduced in PtrWRKY73 overexpressor plants. Together, these results indicated that PtrWRKY73 plays a positive role in plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens but a negative effect on resistance against necrotrophic pathogens.

  18. Dose dependent activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I promotes both proliferation and apoptosis signals in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Hu

    Full Text Available The retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG-like receptor (RLR family proteins are major pathogen reorganization receptors (PRR responsible for detection of viral RNA, which initiates antiviral response. Here, we evaluated the functional role of one RLR family member, RIG-I, in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. RIG-I is abundantly expressed both in poorly-differentiated primary cancer and lymph node metastasis, but not in normal adjacent tissues. Activation of RIG-I by transfection with low dose of 5'-triphosphate RNA (3p-RNA induces low levels of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines and promotes NF-κB- and Akt-dependent cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by a high dose of 3p-RNA induces robust mitochondria-derived apoptosis accompanied by decreased activation of Akt, which is independent of the interferon and TNFα receptor, but can be rescued by over-expression of constitutively active Akt. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CARD domain of RIG-I is essential for inducing apoptosis by interacting with caspase-9. Together, our results reveal a dual role of RIG-I in HNSCC through regulating activation of Akt, in which RIG-I activation by low-dose viral dsRNA increases host cell survival, whereas higher level of RIG-I activation leads to apoptosis. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of dsRNA mediated RIG-I activation in the treatment of HNSCC.

  19. Comparisons of different mean airway pressure settings during high-frequency oscillation in inflammatory response to oleic acid-induced lung injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Ono1, Tomonobu Koizumi2, Rikimaru Nakagawa1, Sumiko Yoshikawa2, Tetsutarou Otagiri11Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanPurpose: The present study was designed to examine effects of different mean airway pressure (MAP settings during high-frequency oscillation (HFO on oxygenation and inflammatory responses to acute lung injury (ALI in rabbits.Methods: Anesthetized rabbits were mechanically ventilated with a conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV mode (tidal volume 6 ml/kg, inspired oxygen fraction [FIo2] of 1.0, respiratory rate [RR] of 30/min, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] of 5 cmH2O. ALI was induced by intravenous administration of oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg and the animals were randomly allocated to the following three experimental groups; animals (n = 6 ventilated using the same mode of CMV, or animals ventilated with standard MAP (MAP 10 cmH2O, n = 7, and high MAP (15 cmH2O, n = 6 settings of HFO (Hz 15. The MAP settings were calculated by the inflation limb of the pressure-volume curve during CMV.Results: HFO with a high MAP setting significantly improved the deteriorated oxygenation during oleic acid-induced ALI and reduced wet/dry ratios, neutrophil counts and interleukin-8 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, compared to those parameters in CMV and standard MAP-HFO.Conclusions: These findings suggest that only high MAP setting during HFO could contribute to decreased lung inflammation as well as improved oxygenation during the development of ALI.Keywords: lung protective ventilation, open lung ventilation, IL-8, neutrophil

  20. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  3. Sertraline and venlafaxine improves motor performance and neurobehavioral deficit in quinolinic acid induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats: Possible neurotransmitters modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jaskamal Singh; Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    Huntington Disease is autosomal, fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which clinically available drugs offer only symptomatic relief. Emerging strides have indicated that antidepressants improve motor performance, restore neurotransmitters level, ameliorates striatal atrophy, increases BDNF level and may enhance neurogenesis. Therefore, we investigated sertraline and venlafaxine, clinically available drugs for depression with numerous neuroprotective properties, for their beneficial effects, if any, in quinolinic acid induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered quinolinic acid (QA) (200 nmol/2μl saline) intrastriatal bilaterally on 0day. Sertraline and venlafaxine (10 and 20mg/kg, po) each were administered for 21days once a day. Motor performance was assessed using rotarod test, grip strength test, narrow beam walk test on weekly basis. On day 22, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH and Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, motor performance, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), neurochemical level (GABA, glutamate, nor-epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, HVA, DOPAC, 5-HIAA). Sertraline and venlafaxine at selected doses significantly attenuated QA induced alterations in striatum. The present study suggests that modulation of monoamines level, normalization of GABA and glutamatergic signaling, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could underlie the neuroprotective effect of sertraline and venlafaxine in QA induced Huntington's like symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  4. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  5. Occupational Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Löblová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...

  6. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Lizárraga, Daneida; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A

    2011-01-01

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  7. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  8. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  9. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  10. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  11. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  12. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that Okadaic acid (OA induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD.

  13. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  14. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  15. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  16. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  17. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...

  18. Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a Regulates Fate of Rat Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Acid Stimulus Through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhi-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a participates in human intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD and regulates the destiny of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs in acid stimulus. However, the mechanism of ASIC1a activation and its downstream pathway remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress also participates in the acid-induced apoptosis of NPCs. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any connection between ASIC1a and ER stress in an acid-induced nucleus pulposus degeneration model. The IVDs of Sprague-Dawley rats were stained by immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the expression of ASIC1a in normal and degenerated rat nucleus pulposus. ASIC1a expression was also quantified by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. NPCs were exposed to the culture media with acidity at pH 7.2 and 6.5 for 24 h, with or without 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a blocker of the ER stress pathway. Cell apoptosis was examined by Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI staining and was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. ASIC1a-mediated intracellular calcium was determined by Ca2+ imaging using Fura-2-AM. Acidity-induced changes in ER stress markers were studied using Western blotting analysis. In vivo, ASIC1a expression was upregulated in natural degeneration. In vitro, acid stimulus increased intracellular calcium levels, but this effect was blocked by knockdown of ASIC1a, and this reversal was partly inhibited by 4-PBA. In addition, blockade of ASIC1a reduced expression of ER stress markers, especially the proapoptotic markers. ASIC1a partly regulates ER stress and promotes apoptosis of NPCs under acid stimulus and may be a novel therapeutic target in IVDD.

  19. Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a Regulates Fate of Rat Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Acid Stimulus Through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi-Yang; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Cong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Cai, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Shi, Rui; Sinkemani, Arjun; Yu, Hao-Min; Hong, Xin; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) participates in human intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and regulates the destiny of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in acid stimulus. However, the mechanism of ASIC1a activation and its downstream pathway remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress also participates in the acid-induced apoptosis of NPCs. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any connection between ASIC1a and ER stress in an acid-induced nucleus pulposus degeneration model. The IVDs of Sprague-Dawley rats were stained by immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the expression of ASIC1a in normal and degenerated rat nucleus pulposus. ASIC1a expression was also quantified by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. NPCs were exposed to the culture media with acidity at pH 7.2 and 6.5 for 24 h, with or without 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a blocker of the ER stress pathway). Cell apoptosis was examined by Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. ASIC1a-mediated intracellular calcium was determined by Ca 2+ imaging using Fura-2-AM. Acidity-induced changes in ER stress markers were studied using Western blotting analysis. In vivo , ASIC1a expression was upregulated in natural degeneration. In vitro , acid stimulus increased intracellular calcium levels, but this effect was blocked by knockdown of ASIC1a, and this reversal was partly inhibited by 4-PBA. In addition, blockade of ASIC1a reduced expression of ER stress markers, especially the proapoptotic markers. ASIC1a partly regulates ER stress and promotes apoptosis of NPCs under acid stimulus and may be a novel therapeutic target in IVDD.

  20. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  1. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  2. Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol against palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell death through modulation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ritu; Gupta, Sumeet; Roy, Partha

    2017-06-15

    Lipotoxicity of pancreatic β-cells is the pathological manifestation of obesity-linked type II diabetes. We intended to determine the cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on pancreatic β-cells undergoing apoptosis in palmitic acid (PA)-stressed condition. The data showed that kaempferol treatment increased cell viability and anti-apoptotic activity in PA-stressed RIN-5F cells and murine pancreatic islets. Furthermore, kaempferol's ability to instigate autophagy was illustrated by MDC-LysoTracker red staining and TEM analysis which corroborated well with the observed increase in LC3 puncta and LC3-II protein expressions along with the concomitant decline in p62 expression. Apart from this, the data showed that kaempferol up/down-regulates AMPK/mTOR phosphorylation respectively. Subsequently, upon inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK inhibitors, kaempferol-mediated autophagy was abolished which further led to the decline in β-cell survival. Such observations collectively lead to the conclusion that, kaempferol exerts its cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity by activation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... problems Headaches Heart disease Sleep problems Weight gain Memory and concentration impairment That's why it's so important ...

  4. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... hand, the fit on “hard” dimensions as salary, financial rewards and career opportunities is found to be unrelated to the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The fit with regard to job security is an important exception, however....... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  5. Stress Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the post-modern management organizational leaders have the obligation of protecting their employees against factors that could cause damages to their potentially wealthy lives. Stress is such a factor. We shall attempt by means of the present article to draw attention on certain general aspects that should be taken into account in drafting plans for fighting against and diminishing the stress faced by the employees

  6. Stress fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Cooper, K.L.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur

  7. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPARα deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Kamijo, Yuji; Hora, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Higuchi, Makoto; Nakajima, Takero; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), suggesting the benefit of PPARα activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPARα agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPARα agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPARα deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NFκB activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPARα function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPARα-independent tubular toxicities in PPARα-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPARα-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPARα-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPARα activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of

  8. STING-IRF3 Triggers Endothelial Inflammation in Response to Free Fatty Acid-Induced Mitochondrial Damage in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Weiwei; Yuan, Liangshuai; Xu, Hao; Song, Juhee; Fujiwara, Keigi; Abe, Jun-ichi; LeMaire, Scott A.; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying. H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic stress in obesity induces endothelial inflammation and activation, which initiates adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammation induction are not completely understood. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of STING in palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial activation/inflammation. Approach and Results In cultured endothelial cells, PA treatment activated STING, as indicated by its perinuclear translocation and binding to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), leading to IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The activated IRF3 bound to the promoter of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion. When analyzing the upstream signaling, we found that PA activated STING by inducing mitochondrial damage. PA treatment caused mitochondrial damage and leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol. Through the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), the mitochondrial damage and leaked cytosolic mtDNA activated the STING-IRF3 pathway and increased ICAM-1 expression. In mice with diet-induced obesity, the STING-IRF3 pathway was activated in adipose tissue. However, STING deficiency (Stinggt/gt) partially prevented diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Conclusions The mitochondrial damage-cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway is critically involved in metabolic stress-induced endothelial inflammation. STING may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance in obese individuals. PMID:28302626

  9. Toyocamycin attenuates free fatty acid-induced hepatic steatosis and apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes and ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Ikuko; Akazawa, Yuko; Tabuchi, Maiko; Matsuda, Katsuya; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Kido, Youko; Kanda, Yasuko; Taura, Naota; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Sakai, Yusuke; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    A high serum level of saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) is associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is activated by FFA treatment upon splicing. XBP-1 is a transcription factor induced by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α). However, the role of XBP-1 in NAFLD remains relatively unexplored. Toyocamycin was recently reported to attenuate the activation of XBP-1, possibly by inducing a conformational change in IRE1α. In this study, we examined the effect of toyocamycin on hepatocyte lipoapoptosis and steatosis. We also explored the effects of toyocamycin in a mouse model of NAFLD. Huh-7 cells and isolated rat primary hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid (PA), which is a saturated FFA, in the presence or absence of toyocamycin. In addition, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet rich in saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC) for 4 months, after which the effect of toyocamycin was assessed. Toyocamycin attenuated FFA-induced steatosis. It also significantly reduced PA-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. In addition, toyocamycin reduced the expression of cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), which is a key player in ER stress-mediated apoptosis, as well as its downstream cell death modulator, death receptor 5. In the in vivo study, toyocamycin ameliorated the liver injury caused by FFC-induced NAFLD. It also reduced hepatic steatosis and the expression of lipogenic genes. The data we obtained suggest that toyocamycin attenuates hepatocyte lipogenesis and ameliorates NAFLD in vivo and may therefore be beneficial in the treatment of NAFLD in humans.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo via reactive oxygen species formation and caspase 8 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study sought to further investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of a representative omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, with a focus on assessing the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as an important mechanism for its anticancer actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies showed that DHA strongly reduces the viability and DNA synthesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture, and also promotes cell death via apoptosis. Mechanistically, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase 8 contribute critically to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Co-presence of antioxidants or selective inhibition or knockdown of caspase 8 each effectively abrogates the cytotoxic effect of DHA. Using athymic nude mice as an in vivo model, we found that feeding animals the 5% fish oil-supplemented diet for 6 weeks significantly reduces the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vivo through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation as well as promotion of cell death. Using 3-nitrotyrosine as a parameter, we confirmed that the fish oil-supplemented diet significantly increases oxidative stress in tumor cells in vivo. Analysis of fatty acid content in plasma and tissues showed that feeding animals a 5% fish oil diet increases the levels of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid in both normal and tumorous mammary tissues by 329% and 300%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DHA can strongly induce apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of apoptosis in these cells is selectively mediated via caspase 8 activation. These observations call for further studies to assess the effectiveness of fish oil as a dietary supplement in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  11. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  12. Bioavailable Concentrations of Delphinidin and Its Metabolite, Gallic Acid, Induce Antioxidant Protection Associated with Increased Intracellular Glutathione in Cultured Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszcz, Katarzyna; Deakin, Sherine J.; Duthie, Garry G.; Stewart, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited bioavailability and rapid degradation, dietary anthocyanins are antioxidants with cardiovascular benefits. This study tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant protection conferred by the anthocyanin, delphinidin, is mediated by modulation of endogenous antioxidant defences, driven by its degradation product, gallic acid. Delphinidin was found to degrade rapidly (t1/2 ~ 30 min), generating gallic acid as a major degradation product. Both delphinidin and gallic acid generated oxygen-centred radicals at high (100 μM) concentrations in vitro. In a cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell model of oxidative stress, the antioxidant protective effects of both delphinidin and gallic acid displayed a hormesic profile; 100 μM concentrations of both were cytotoxic, but relatively low concentrations (100 nM–1 μM) protected the cells and were associated with increased intracellular glutathione. We conclude that delphinidin is intrinsically unstable and unlikely to confer any direct antioxidant activity in vivo yet it offered antioxidant protection to cells at low concentrations. This paradox might be explained by the ability of the degradation product, gallic acid, to confer benefit. The findings are important in understanding the mode of protection conferred by anthocyanins and reinforce the necessity to conduct in vitro experiments at biologically relevant concentrations. PMID:29081896

  13. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  14. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  15. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  16. Linoleic Acid-Induced Ultra-Weak Photon Emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a Tool for Monitoring of Lipid Peroxidation in the Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ankush; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the

  17. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  18. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  19. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  20. ShenFu Preparation Protects AML12 Cells Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury Through Inhibition of Both JNK/Nox4 and JNK/NFκB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis includes steatosis along with liver inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role and the potential mechanisms of a traditional Chinese medicine ShenFu (SF preparation in an in vitro hepatic steatosis model. Methods: In palmitic acid (PA-induced murine hepatic AML12 cell injury, effects of SF preparation on cellular apoptosis and intracellular triglyceride (iTG level were assessed using TUNEL and TG Colorimetric Assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP levels were measured using DCF and JC-1 assay. Cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA assay. Immunoblot was used to compare the activation level of c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK, NADPH oxidase (Nox4, and NFκB pathways. Results: Addition of SF preparation prevented PA-mediated increase of apoptosis and iTG as well as IL-8 and IL-6. In PA-treated cell, SF preparation reduced the level of Nox4 and ROS, while increasing the level of MMP and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and catalase, indicating emendation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Nox4 inhibitor GKT137381 prevented PA-induced increase of ROS and apoptosis, while decreasing iTG slightly and not influencing the level of IL-8 and IL-6. SF preparation prevented PA-induced upregulation of phospho-JNK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented PA-mediated increase of Nox4, IL-8, IL-6 and iTG. Nuclear translocation of NFκB/p65 was detected in PA-treated cells, which was prevented by SF preparation. An IκB degradation inhibitor, BAY11-7082, prevented PA-induced increase of IL-8 and IL-6 as well as iTG, whereas it only decreased ROS levels slightly and showed no influence on cellular apoptosis. Conclusion: SF preparation shows a beneficial role in prevention of hepatocyte injury by attenuating oxidative stress and cytokines production at least partially through inhibition of JNK/Nox4 and JNK

  1. Palmitic acid induces neurotoxicity and gliatoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and T98G human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Wen Ng

    2018-04-01

    -induced leptin resistance. Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis revealed PA-induced increase in percentages of cells in annexin V-positive/PI-negative quadrant (early apoptosis and subG0-G1 fraction, accompanied by a decrease in G2-M phase cells. The PA-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation was at greater extent in T98G as compared to that in SH-SY5Y. Discussion In conclusion, PA induces apoptosis by increasing oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that HFD may cause neuronal and astrocytic damage, which indirectly proposes that CNS pathologies involving neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis could be prevented via the diet regimen.

  2. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M., E-mail: dr_Hanan_el_gowali@hotmail.com; Saad, Evan I.; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A.; Ibrahim, Einas R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. - Highlights: • Lipoic acid is more effective than

  3. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  4. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  5. Stress and your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  6. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  7. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  8. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  9. Overexpression of a Pathogenesis-Related Protein 10 Enhances Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingni Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named “jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10” (JIOsPR10 to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered. Further experiments exhibited that the transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to rice blast fungus, and enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance as compared to the wild type. A comparative proteomic profiling of wild type and transgenic plants showed that overexpression of JIOsPR10 led to the differential modulation of several proteins mainly related with oxidative stresses, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant defense. Taken together, our findings suggest that JIOsPR10 plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance probably by activation of stress related proteins.

  10. Stressed podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    and in response to injury induced by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress (Golubinskaya et al., 2015). Their report shed light on the complex regulation of Best3 in podocytes and will help pave the way for future studies on the pathogenesis of kidneys diseases with podocyte injury. This article is protected...... structure appears to be a common finding in acquired proteinuric conditions (Pavenstadt et al., 2003). Identification of genes that are involved in physiological and pathophysiological functions of the podocytes is a major task. Recent studies indicate that Bestrophin (Best) 3 has cell protective functions...... in a number of cell types (Lee et al., 2012, Jiang et al., 2013, Song et al., 2014). In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Golubinskaya et al. use cultured podocytes, kidneys and isolated glomeruli of the mouse kidney to provide a thorough characterisation of Best3 expression under normal conditions...

  11. Tranexamic acid-induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Matsumura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male showed multiple pigmented patches on his trunk and extremities after he took tranexamic acid for common cold. He stated that similar eruptions appeared when he was treated with tranexamic acid for influenza 10 months before. Patch test showed positive results at 48 h and 72 h by 1% and 10% tranexamic acid at the lesional skin only. To our knowledge, nine cases of fixed drug eruption induced by tranexamic acid have been reported in Japan. Tranexamic acid is a safe drug and frequently used because of its anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, but caution of inducing fixed drug eruption should be necessary.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid induced generalized fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Calka, Omer; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Bulut, Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare form of drug allergies that recur at the same cutaneous or mucosal site in every usage of drug. Single or multiple round, sharply demarcated and dusky red plaques appear soon after drug exposure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA: 3α,7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid) is used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Some side effects may be observed, such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, pruritus and headaches. We encountered only three cases of lichenoid reaction regarding the use of UDCA among previous studies. In this article, we reported a generalized FDE case related to UDCA intake in a 59-year-old male patient with cholestasis for the first time in the literature.

  13. Gastroprotective potential of Pentahydroxy flavone isolated from Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves against acetic acid-induced ulcer in rats: The role of oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, Smeeta M; Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-04-22

    Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Sapotaceae) has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective potential. It has been traditionally used as laxative, tonic, anti-burn, anti-earthworm, wound healing and headache. To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves methanolic extract (MI-ALC) and its isolated chloroform fraction (D3) against experimental induced gastric ulcers. D3 was isolated from MI-ALC, well characterized (HPTLC, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS) and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity by using acetic acid induced ulcer in male Wistar rats (150-200g). D3 (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for the period of 14 days. At the end of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect the stomach sample for evaluation of antioxidant (SOD, GSH, and MDA) enzyme, oxido-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1, iNOs) and prostaglandins (COX-II) markers by using RT-PCR. The structure and molecular weight (MW) of the isolated compound (D3) were confirmed by 1D and 2D spectral data and characterized as 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone with MW C15H10O7. Administration of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited (Pstomach also attenuated by 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone treatment. Finding of present investigation suggests that MI-ALC possessed potent antiulcer activity due to the presence of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone via its oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins modulatory potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  15. Grass Carp Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2 Serves As a Negative Regulator in Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I- and Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5-Mediated Antiviral Signaling in Resting State and Early Stage of Grass Carp Reovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Youliang; Wan, Quanyuan; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) is a key component of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). However, the lack of the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) results in its controversial functional performance as a negative or positive regulator in antiviral responses. Especially, no sufficient evidence uncovers the functional mechanisms of LGP2 in RLR signaling pathways in teleost. Here, negative regulation mechanism of LGP2 in certain situations in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) an...

  16. Stress Management: Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Is yoga right for you? It is if you want to fight stress, get fit and stay healthy. By ... particular, may be a good choice for stress management. Hatha is one of the most common styles ...

  17. Stress and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jan 8,2018 When ... therapist in your community. Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  18. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  20. Stress Management: Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Taking the path less traveled by exploring your spirituality can lead to a clearer life purpose, better personal relationships and enhanced stress management skills. By Mayo Clinic Staff Some stress relief ...

  1. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  2. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  3. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...... and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress...

  4. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid induced changes in gene expression in cultured L6 rat muscle cells : An in vitro model on high dietary fat-induced insulin resistance in red gastrocnemius rat muscle in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Breivik, Børge

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality and the disease is reaching epidemic proportions in the developed world. A core defect in type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Previous global gene expression experiments conducted at the Garvan Medical Research Institute has shown that 3 weeks high fat feeding induced increased expression of stress related genes in rat muscle. These stress-related genes could be involved in the devel...

  6. ESR imaging for estimation oxidative stress in the brain of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Itoh, Osam; Aoyama, Masaaki; Obara, Heitaro; Ohya, Hiroaki; Kamada, Hitoshi [Inst. for Life Support Technology, Matsuei, Yamagata (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    ESR imaging for estimating intracerebral oxidative stress of rats was performed. An acyl-protected hydroxylamine, 1-acetoxy-3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (ACP), is a very stable non-radical compound outside cells, however, within cells, it is easily deprotected with esterase to yield 1-hydroxy-3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine, which is oxidized by oxidative stress to yield an ESR-detectable stable nitroxide radical, 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl. Thus signal intensity in the ESR image reflects the strength of intracellular oxidative stress. From in vivo ESR image data of the brain of rats that received ACP, the average values of ESR signal intensity from the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebral cortex were computed. This imaging technique was applied to an epileptic seizure model. As a result, it was found that following a kainic acid-induced seizure, the oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum is enhanced, but not so in the cerebral cortex. (author)

  7. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...

  8. Involvement of yeast HSP90 isoforms in response to stress and cell death induced by acetic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Silva

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic acid is caused by the phosphorylation and inactivation of eIF2α by Gcn2p kinase. A microarray analysis of polysome-associated mRNAs engaged in translation in acetic acid challenged cells further revealed that HSP90 mRNAs are over-represented in this polysome fraction suggesting preferential translation of HSP90 upon acetic acid treatment. The relevance of HSP90 isoform translation during programmed cell death (PCD was unveiled using genetic and pharmacological abrogation of HSP90, which suggests opposing roles for HSP90 isoforms in cell survival and death. Hsc82p appears to promote survival and its deletion leads to necrotic cell death, while Hsp82p is a pro-death molecule involved in acetic acid-induced apoptosis. Therefore, HSP90 isoforms have distinct roles in the control of cell fate during PCD and their selective translation regulates cellular response to acetic acid stress.

  9. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging....

  10. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  11. Stress and Coping with Stress in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many developmental changes in adolescence, young people are exposed to greater likelihood of experiencing stress. On the other hand, this period is critical for developing effective and constructive coping strategies. In the contribution, we summarize part of what is known about stress, stress responses and coping. Throughout, we focus on common stressful events among adolescents and emphasize the importance of dealing successfully with stressors in their daily lives. Finally, we highlight the most frequently used instruments to measure coping behaviour in youth and present an overview of the research findings on differences in coping among adolescents according to age and gender.

  12. Induction of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Prophage by Abiotic Environmental Stress in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Mercer, Ryan G; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-01

    The prophage-encoded Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor in Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Toxin production and phage production are linked and occur after induction of the RecA-dependent SOS response. However, food-related stress and Stx-prophage induction have not been studied at the single-cell level. This study investigated the effects of abiotic environmental stress on stx expression by single-cell quantification of gene expression in STEC O104:H4 Δ stx2 :: gfp :: amp r In addition, the effect of stress on production of phage particles was determined. The lethality of stressors, including heat, HCl, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and high hydrostatic pressure, was selected to reduce cell counts by 1 to 2 log CFU/ml. The integrity of the bacterial membrane after exposure to stress was measured by propidium iodide (PI). The fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PI were quantified by flow cytometry. The mechanism of prophage induction by stress was evaluated by relative gene expression of recA and cell morphology. Acid (pH stress were additionally assessed. H 2 O 2 and mitomycin C induced expression of the prophage and activated a SOS response. In contrast, HCl and lactic acid induced the Stx-prophage but not the SOS response. The lifestyle of STEC exposes the organism to intestinal and extraintestinal environments that impose oxidative and acid stress. A more thorough understanding of the influence of food processing-related stressors on Stx-prophage expression thus facilitates control of STEC in food systems by minimizing prophage induction during food production and storage. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  14. Stress at Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Shahrour

    2010-01-01

    One of hardest forms of stresses to avoid is that work place or job stress Job stress refers to stress experienced by an individual at or because of issues at their work place The term work related stress has many meanings and it causes different levels of anxiety. Not all challenges at work can be called stress as some of these challenges drive employees upward, and empower them to learn new skills or push them to work harder to achieve a certain goal. So, this type of challenges cannot be c...

  15. Stress: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnite, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the concept of stress and provide an operational definition of stress. Literature review revealed that stress is a commonly used, but often ambiguous, term. Findings supported a definition of stress entailing an individual's perception of a stimulus as overwhelming, which in turn elicits a measurable response resulting in a transformed state. This analysis adopts a dynamic definition of stress that may serve to encourage communication, promote reflection, and enhance concept understanding. This definition may provide direction for future work, as well as enhance efforts to serve patients affected by stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The stress of life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selye, H

    1978-01-01

    .... This is also a dependable personal guide that tells you how to combat both physical and mental stress, how to handle yourself during the stress of everyday life, and how your bodily changes can help...

  17. Stress and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight On News Content Capsule Contact Understanding Migraine Stress and Migraine Doctor Q&A Managing Migraine Migraine ... of Headache Disorders Cluster Headache Post-Traumatic Headache Stress and Migraine March 16, 2017 How to cope ...

  18. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  19. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging.......Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders...

  20. Neuroepigenetics of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B B; Hunter, R G

    2014-09-05

    Stress, a common if unpredictable life event, can have pronounced effects on physiology and behavior. Individuals show wide variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, which are only partially explained by variations in coding genes. Developmental programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis provides part of the explanation for this variance. Epigenetic approaches have successfully helped fill the explanatory gaps between the influences of gene and environment on stress responsiveness, and differences in the sequelae of stress across individuals and generations. Stress and the stress axis interacts bi-directionally with epigenetic marks within the brain. It is now clear that exposure to stress, particularly in early life, has both acute and lasting effects on these marks. They in turn influence cognitive function and behavior, as well as the risk for suicide and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan and, in some cases, unto future generations. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress......’s disease patients. Results The combined evidence of this dissertation shows a moderately higher risk of some common chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and atopic disorders among individuals exposed to work-related stressors and perceived stress. Most empirical studies also report higher...... of pathways. The physiological stress response has the ability to directly affect vital body systems including the cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic systems. Further, stress can lead to unfavorable changes in health-related behavior, impaired sleep and poor mental health. An increasing number of well...

  2. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  3. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...... and insomnia thus share complex interactions and the mechanisms involved are insufficiently understood but involve both psychological and physiological processes. First choice interventions involve behavioural and cognitive strategies and, to a lesser extent, pharmacological treatment....

  4. Glomus etunicatum root inoculation and foliar application of acetyl salicylic acid induced nacl tolerance by regulation of nacl and lenhx1 gene expression and improved photosynthetic performance in tomato seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazanfar, B.; Chihui, C.; Liu, H.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress hampers plant growth and cause significant yield losses thus induction of salinity stress tolerance in crop plants is one of major goals of agriculture research. Arbuscular mycorhizae fungi Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid were tested for induction of NaCl stress tolerance in tomato seedlings, cultivar No. 4. The seedlings were inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and exogenously sprayed with acetyl salicylic acid (0.30 mM) followed by salinity stress (150 mM). It was observed that both Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid (singly or in combination) were significantly effective to minimize the injurious effects of salinity by improving root morphological parameters (length, diameter, surface area, volume and number of tips, nodes, bifurcations and connections), photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthesis Pn, stomatal conductance Gs) and chlorophyll contents compared to sole salinity treatment. The bio-inoculant Glomus etunicatum and chemical ameliorator acetyl salicylic acid also notably improved vegetative (fresh and dry weights) and reproductive growth (percent seedlings with flower buds and opened flowers, number of flower buds and opened flowers per seedling) of the plants as compared to the sole salinity treatment. The studied salt responsive genes (LeNHX1 and NaCl) were also regulated to different extents in seedling roots and leaves which was consistent with enhanced salinity stress tolerance. From these observations it is suggested that the individual or synergetic use of the AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and acetyl salicylic acid can be useful for tomato cultivation in the marginally salinity effected soils and warrants further investigations. (author)

  5. Stress and Protists: No life without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We report a summary of the symposium "Stress and Protists: No life without stress", which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation - induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  7. Stress i gymnasiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Lagermann, Laila Colding

    Denne undersøgelse af stress hos gymnasieelever i Aalborg viser, hvordan stress giver sig udslag i gymnasiet, hvad der stresser eleverne, hvad der adskiller de stressramte elever fra andre elever, hvordan et stressreduktionskurset Åben og Rolig for Unge virker for de unge i gymnasiet, og hvad der...... kan modvirke stress i gymnasiet....

  8. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  9. The price of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen, van den H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an economic approach is taken to the analysis of work-related stress. This economic approach not only allows us to infer the monetary equivalent of stress, it also enables us to test some of the psychological theories on stress, such as the demand/control theory. Evidence is found that

  10. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  11. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  12. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  13. Stress and headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy; Nash, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    In this special section, the concept of stress has been linked to the chronification of headache and is considered to be one of several likely mechanisms for the progression of an otherwise episodic disorder to a chronic daily phenomenon. The present review discusses the concept of stress and describes the mechanisms through which stress could influence headache progression. The hypothesized mechanisms include stress serving as a unique trigger for individual attacks, as a nociceptive activator, and as a moderator of other mechanisms. Finally, the techniques used in the screening and management of stress are mentioned in the context of employing strategies for the primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention of headache progression.

  14. Neuropeptide Y and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gulsun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological aspects of stress and coping skills has been the focus of interest for many researchers. Some of the studies has shown that there is a significant relationship among genetically variables, stress response and life events. Neuropeptide Y is one of the systems regulating the stress response. Under the prolonged or repeated trauma neuropeptide Y is released from the brain's key areas. This system shows different levels of functioning in individuals with different levels of resilience. There is particular interest in the variations of genes that encode stress-sensitive signaling molecules during gene-environment interaction. This condition may contribute to susceptibility of stress or stress resilience. Neuropeptide Y system plays a key role in the adaptation to behavioral stress. The reduced levels of neuropeptide Y have also been observed in treatment-resistant depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Lower level of neuropeptide Y expression and dysfunctional neuropeptide Y system in response to stress and resulting decreased stress resilience could increase susceptibility to stress-related disorders.

  15. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  16. Stress and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffer, Johansen,; Sørensen, Ivalu; Lim Høeg, Beverly

    2017-01-01

    The role of stress in relation to cancer remains controversial. Stress is assumed to be an emerging public health problem in modern society. Still, we argue that it is relevant to view the role of stress in cancer from a scientific point of view. A critical overview of existing evidence...... is presented through previous review studies, and the importance of methodological challenges is highlighted. We summarize the evidence on the role of stress as a cause of cancer, on the impact of stress on cancer prognosis, and on how coping mechanisms may influence stress levels in cancer patients. Finally......, we describe the evidence on interventions to relieve stress in cancer patients for the purpose of improving both well-being and cancer prognosis. Against public opinion, we critically dismiss the evidence on psychotherapy as a tool to prolong life after cancer as inconsistent and unresolved....

  17. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  18. Pain stress and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-05-01

    The association between pain and stress is an old one, but still it is not really clear who comes first. Pain induces stress, and stress induces pain. Pain is part of our homeostatic system and in this way is an emotion, i.e., it tells us that something is out-of-order (control), and emotion drives our behavior and one behavior is stress response. Stress comes from ourselves: the imagination we have or would like to have of us, from the image others give of us, from the goals we assume it is necessary to reach for our well-being or the goals others want us to fulfill. Stress comes from our social condition and the condition we would like, stress comes from dangerous situations we cannot control. Headache easily fits in the picture.

  19. [Stress in surgeries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daian, Márcia Rodrigues; Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Jeunon, Ester Eliane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide the literature regarding the psychological stress in the peri-operative period of adult patients undergoing operations under general anesthesia. The articles were obtained by surveying the papers published and catalogued in the Medline Pubmed interface database, Lilacs and the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS) since 1984, crossing the headings stress, surgery, general anesthesia, psychology. Over 800 articles related to stress and surgery were analyzed with regards to their relevance to the considered subject. Eighteen articles were related to psychological stress. Their results confirmed the presence of psychological and physical stress, during the peri-operative period as well as relation between stress and de clinical post-operative recovery. There is a gap regarding in the peri-operative period. More studies on psychological influence on stress may benefit patients and help professionals during the surgical treatment.

  20. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  1. Interoception and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eSchulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain-body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain-body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain-body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g. by acute or chronic stress of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain-body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (HPA axis and autonomic nervous system, psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a feed-forward model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events, the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate stress.

  2. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  3. Learning During Stressful Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned helplessness, as well as those on classical conditioning procedures are discussed in the context of performance and adaptation. Studies indicating sex differences in learning during stressful times are discussed, as are those attributing different responses to the existence of multiple memory systems and nonlinear relationships. The intent of this review is to highlight the apparent plasticity of the stress response, how it might have evolved to affect both performance and learning processes, and the potential problems with interpreting stress effects on learning as either good or bad. An appreciation for its plasticity may provide new avenues for investigating its underlying neuronal mechanisms. PMID:15054128

  4. Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou; Howell, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses and wave generated stresses were studied as well as model and scale effects. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse is presented as well....

  5. Stress Erythropoiesis Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura F; Liao, Chang; Paulson, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis maintains erythroid homeostasis throughout life. This process constantly generates new erythrocytes to replace the senescent erythrocytes that are removed by macrophages in the spleen. In contrast, anemic or hypoxic stress induces a physiological response designed to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues. Stress erythropoiesis is a key component of this response. It is best understood in mice where it is extramedullary occurring in the adult spleen and liver and in the fetal liver during development. Stress erythropoiesis utilizes progenitor cells and signals that are distinct from bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis. Because of that observation many genes may play a role in stress erythropoiesis despite having no effect on steady-state erythropoiesis. In this chapter, we will discuss in vivo and in vitro techniques to study stress erythropoiesis in mice and how the in vitro culture system can be extended to study human stress erythropoiesis.

  6. The teacher under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged pro...

  7. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  8. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  9. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  10. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A

    1997-01-01

    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  11. Forecasting Financial Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem Slingenberg; Jakob de Haan

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a Financial Stress Index (FSI) for 13 OECD countries to examine which variables can help predicting financial stress. A stress index measures the current state of stress in the financial system and summarizes it in a single statistic. We employ three criteria for indicators to be used in constructing a multi-country FSI (the index covers the entire financial system, indicators used are available at a high frequency for many countries for a long period, and are comparable) to c...

  12. Management of Occupational Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafir Lenuţa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an important problem in the majority of countries. Apart from the fact that it is responsible for numerous diseases, it also causes much suffering. Stress appears as an adaptation reaction of our body to those external factors that we perceive as being agressive and which frequently lead us to an alarm state, felt both psychically (tension, fear, anxiety, and physically (increase of the adrenaline secretion, intensity of heartbeats, sweating. It isn’t actually a disease, but it can lead to sickness in time. This is why it is good to know what stresses us and how we can escape stress.

  13. Stress: Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Martin, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The stress theorem determines the stress from the electronic ground state of any quantum system with arbitrary strains and atomic displacements. We derive this theorem in reciprocal space, within the local-density-functional approximation. The evaluation of stress, force and total energy permits, among other things, the determination of complete stress-strain relations including all microscopic internal strains. We describe results of ab-initio calculations for Si, Ge, and GaAs, giving the equilibrium lattice constant, all linear elastic constants c ij and the internal strain parameter ζ. (orig.)

  14. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  15. Stress Management: Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...

  16. Stress Management: Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Massage can be a powerful tool to help you take charge of your health and well-being. See if ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/massage/art-20045743 . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  17. Stress Management for Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…

  18. Stress of stoicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the combined effects of task persistence and negative emotionality (NE) on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. In line with John Henryism theory, we hypothesized that high persistence combined with low NE may be indicative...... persistence was associated with higher physiological stress. Our results have implications for both clinical and intervention contexts....

  19. Videnarbejde og stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    . Videnarbejde kan for den enkelte være vejen til selvrealisering og begejstring, men rummer også i sig kimen til stress og udbrændthed. Og det er netop i spændingsfeltet - i kampen - mellem begejstring og belastning, at bogen ser stress i det moderne arbejdsliv, som en uoverensstemmelse mellem ydre krav og...

  20. Stress and reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy...

  1. Stress and your health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way of protecting itself. When you have chronic stress, your body stays alert, even though there is no danger. Over time, this puts you at risk for health problems, including: ... condition, chronic stress can make it worse. SIGNS OF TOO MUCH ...

  2. Stress and Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Stress has a critical role in the development and expression of many psychiatric disorders, and is a defining feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress also limits the efficacy of behavioral therapies aimed at limiting pathological fear, such as exposure therapy. Here we examine emerging evidence that stress impairs recovery from trauma by impairing fear extinction, a form of learning thought to underlie the suppression of trauma-related fear memories. We describe the major structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions that are particularly vulnerable to stress, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, which may underlie stress-induced impairments in extinction. We also discuss some of the stress-induced neurochemical and molecular alterations in these brain regions that are associated with extinction deficits, and the potential for targeting these changes to prevent or reverse impaired extinction. A better understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress effects on extinction promises to yield novel approaches to improving therapeutic outcomes for PTSD and other anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:26105142

  3. Stress - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  4. Neuropathology of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Pruessner, J.; Sousa, N.; Almeida, O.F.X.; van Dam, A.M.; Rajkowska, G.; Swaab, D.F.; Czéh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by

  5. CD-ROM Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of stress in library reference departments focuses on stress caused by CD-ROM reference tools. Topics discussed include work overload; nonreference duties; patron attitudes and behavior; staff attitudes; the need for proper staff training; and the need for library administrators to be sensitive to reference staff needs. (LRW)

  6. Release from Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    An overview of the most recent ideas on managerial stress is presented along with worksheets and exercises for a program to help educational administrators, their staffs, and secretaries cope with and reduce organizational and personal stress. Research cited includes the author's survey of 1,200 Oregon school administrators and over 200…

  7. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  8. Photobiomodulation on Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a nondamaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH. An FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in its FSH is called a normal function. A function far from its FSH is called a dysfunctional function. The process of a function from dysfunctional to normal is called a functional normalization. For a normal function in its FSH, there are FSH-essential subfunctions (FESs, FSH-nonessential subfunctions (FNSs, and an FES/FNS-specific homeostasis (FESH/FNSH. A FSH can resist internal/external disturbances under the threshold, but can be disrupted by an FSH-specific stress (FSS. A normal/dysfunctional FSS is called a successful/chronic stress. An FESH/FNSH-specific stress was called an extraordinary/ordinary stress. A low level LI (LLL cannot directly affect a normal function, but can modulate a chronic stress. A normal function may have a chronic ordinary stress, and an LLL may modulate the chronic ordinary stress so that it promotes the normalization of the dysfunctional FNS and then upgrades the normal function. A high level LI can modulate a normal function and may be a successful stress.

  9. Allometric trajectories and "stress"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anfodillo, Tommaso; Petit, Giai; Sterck, Frank; Lechthaler, Silvia; Olson, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The term "stress" is an important but vague term in plant biology. We show situations in which thinking in terms of "stress" is profitably replaced by quantifying distance from functionally optimal scaling relationships between plant parts. These relationships include, for example, the

  10. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  11. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  12. Expressive stress relievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns Alonso, M.; Varkevisser, M.; Keyson, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe three tangible interfaces that recognize stress by how they are manipulated and provide tactile feedback to support stress reduction. They were developed following a research through design methodology, in an iterative process of observing behavior, building prototypes, and

  13. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  14. Stress in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body changes, in both boys and girls Seeing parents go through a divorce or separation Money problems in the family Living in an unsafe home or neighborhood SIGNS OF UNRESOLVED STRESS IN ... lead parents to suspect an increased stress level is present. ...

  15. Stress and disorders of the stress system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrousos, George P

    2009-07-01

    All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.

  16. Assessment of Workplace Stress: Occupational Stress, Its Consequences, and Common Causes of Teacher Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    This chapter introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, and overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through…

  17. Bolt Stress Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In photo, an engineer is using a new Ultrasonic Bolt Stress Monitor developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to determine whether a bolt is properly tightened. A highly accurate device, the monitor is an important tool in construction of such structures as pressure vessels, bridges and power plants, wherein precise measurement of the stress on a tightened bolt is critical. Overtightened or undertightened bolts can fail and cause serious industrial accidents or costly equipment break-downs. There are a number of methods for measuring bolt stress. Most widely used and least costly is the torque wrench, which is inherently inaccurate; it does not take into account the friction between nut and bolt, which has an influence on stress. At the other end of the spectrum, there are accurate stress-measuring systems, but they are expensive and not portable. The battery-powered Langley monitor fills a need; it is inexpensive, lightweight, portable and extremely accurate because it is not subject to friction error. Sound waves are transmitted to the bolt and a return signal is received. As the bolt is tightened, it undergoes changes in resonance due to stress, in the manner that a violin string changes tone when it is tightened. The monitor measures the changes in resonance and provides a reading of real stress on the bolt. The device, patented by NASA, has aroused wide interest and a number of firms have applied for licenses to produce it for the commercial market.

  18. [Osteoporosis and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Hiroaki

    2005-09-01

    There may be three ways of relationship between stress and osteoporosis. The first is that stress induces some physiological changes leading to osteoporosis. The second is that stress induces behavioral distortion of eating, drinking, exercise, and sleep habits, which leads to osteoporosis. The third is that osteoporosis, on the other hand, brings about anxiety, depression, loss of social roles, and social isolation, which leads to stress. The susceptible sex and age groups are postmenopausal women and young women. The abrupt decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women promotes reabsorption of bone, and it was also reported that the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is downstream of estrogen was related to the production of osteoclast and to the development of disability of the aged. Regarding the association with stress, while it was reported that depression or depressive states directly increased inflammation-induced cytokines including IL-6, it was also pointed out that stress-induced easy infectious may produce chronic infection, which indirectly increases inflammation-induced cytokines. Anorexia Nervosa that is assumed to be associated with adolescent developmental stress is noteworthy in young women. Amenorrhea is always present in this disease, and in addition to bone reabsorption associated with estrogen deficiency, the decrease of bone formation associated with malnutrition may be related to the development of osteoporosis.

  19. Stress, the hippocampus, and epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is among the most frequently self-reported precipitants of seizures in patients with epilepsy. This review considers how important stress mediators like corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticosteroids, and neurosteroids could contribute to this phenomenon. Cellular effects of stress

  20. Children and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Camilla

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...

  1. Pacing stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrusta Marco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-rate pacing is a valid stress test to be used in conjunction with echocardiography; it is independent of physical exercise and does not require drug administration. There are two main applications of pacing stress in the echo lab: the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease through induction of a regional transient dysfunction; and the assessment of contractile reserve through peak systolic pressure/ end-systolic volume relationship at increasing heart rates to assess global left ventricular contractility. Methods The pathophysiologic rationale of pacing stress for noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease is obvious, with the stress determined by a controlled increase in heart rate, which is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand, and thereby tachycardia may exceed a fixed coronary flow reserve in the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The use of pacing stress echo to assess left ventricular contractile reserve is less established, but promising. Positive inotropic interventions are mirrored by smaller end-systolic volumes and higher end-systolic pressures. An increased heart rate progressively increases the force of ventricular contraction (Bowditch treppe or staircase phenomenon. To build the force-frequency relationship, the force is determined at different heart rate steps as the ratio of the systolic pressure (cuff sphygmomanometer/end-systolic volume index (biplane Simpson rule. The heart rate is determined from ECG. Conclusion Two-dimensional echocardiography during pacing is a useful tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Because of its safety and ease of repeatability noninvasive pacing stress echo can be the first-line stress test in patients with permanent pacemaker. The force-frequency can be defined as up- sloping (normal when the peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is higher than baseline and intermediate stress

  2. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  3. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...... in the optimized designs leading to the proposal of a new standard. The reductions in the stress are achieved by rather simple changes made to the cutting tool....

  4. Clinical Stress Echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Karagiannis

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTwo-dimensional echocardiography is a commonly used non-invasive method for the assessment of left ventricular function. It provides precise information on both global and segmental myocardial function by displaying endocardial motion and wall thickening. Dobutamine stress

  5. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  6. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  7. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  8. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recognized as one of the most serious occupational health hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... Using a self- ... Kan D, Yu X. Occupational Stress, Work-Family. Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese.

  9. Thermal stress and seismogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huilan; Wei Dongping

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, the Fourier stress method was applied to deal with the problem of plane thermal stress, and a computing formula was given. As an example, we set up a variate temperature field to describe the uplifted upper mantle in Bozhong area of China, and the computing results shows that the maximum value of thermal plane shear stress is up to nearly 7x10 7 P α in two regions of this area. Since the Bohai earthquake (18 July, 1969, M s = 7.4) occurred at the edge of one of them and Tangshan earthquake (28 July, 1976, M s = 7.8) within another, their occurrences can be related reasonably to the thermal stress. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  10. MICRONUTRIENTS AND STRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that both mental stress and nutritional factors are associated with the .... tract infections in endurance athletes." Vitamin ... the risk of breast cancer in women with very low intakes and .... smokers, and would be achieved by dietary means alone.

  11. Stress and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A. (2013). Sex differences in stress-related receptors: “micro” differences with “macro” implications for mood and anxiety disorders . Biology of Sex Differences ; 4(2). Goyal, M., Singh, S., ...

  12. Stress in Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout a Nursing academic course, students are confronted by situations that generate stress. Students from professionalizing Nursing courses are especially demanded at practical skills, such asperforming invasive procedures with venous punctures, bandaging, hygiene, and comfort care in patients with different degrees of illness. For these students, stress levels may render learning difficulty with the possibility of leading to errors, lack of concentration and oscillation of attention levels.

  13. Stress studies in EFG

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Stress distributions were calculated for a creep law to predict a rate of plastic deformation. The expected reduction in stresses is obtained. Improved schemes for calculating growth system temperature distributions were evaluated. Temperature field modeling examined the possibility of using horizontal temperature gradients to influence stress distribution in ribbon. The defect structure of 10 cm wide ribbon grown in the cartridge system was examined. A new feature is identified from an examination of cross sectional micrographs. It consists of high density dislocation bands extending through the ribbon thickness. A four point bending apparatus was constructed for high temperature study of the creep response of silicon, to be used to generate defects for comparison with as grown defects in ribbon. The feasibility of laser interferometric techniques for sheet residual stress distribution measurement is examined. The mathematical formalism for calculating residual stress from changes in surface topology caused by an applied stress in a rectangular specimen was developed, and the system for laser interferometric measurement to obtain surface topology data was tested on CZ silicon.

  14. Student under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and developmental aspects of stress, namely, with causes, consequences and the strategies for overcoming stressful events in the education of children and adolescents. Life events in which children most often participate and which are also potential sources of stress (stressors can be classified into familial, interpersonal, personal and academic. Out of numerous identified sources of stress, we have focused our attention on several less researched ones in the field of school life starting school, transition from primary school to secondary and from secondary school to university, peer rejection and problems concerning financing school education. Anxiety, depression and anger were analyzed as the most frequent consequences of unfavorable life events. The following strategies for overcoming stress are most often used by children and adolescents: seeking social support, problem-solving orientation, reduction and avoidance of tension as well as sport and recreation.

  15. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  16. Stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to observe the difference between male and female Eritrean students on the basis of stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression. Stressful life Events Questionnaire, Vulnerable to Stress Instrument and Beck Depression Scale were administered to gather information. The data ...

  17. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  18. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  19. Job stress and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc, Le P.M.; Jonge, de J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Chmiel, N.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focuses on job stress in relation to workers’ physical and psycho logical health. We begin with an outline of job stress as a social problem, fol lowed by a discussion of the main perspectives on (job) stress, resulting in a process model of job stress that will be used as a frame of

  20. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  1. Stress echocardiography expert consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sicari (Rosa); P. Nihoyannopoulos (Petros); A. Evangelista (Arturo); J. Kasprzak (Jaroslav); P. Lancellotti (Patrizio); D. Poldermans (Don); J.U. Voigt; J.L. Zamorano (Jose)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStress echocardiography is the combination of 2D echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress. The diagnostic end point for the detection of myocardial ischemia is the induction of a transient worsening in regional function during stress. Stress echocardiography

  2. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozas, E. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Planas, A.M. [Departament de Farmacologia i Toxicologia, IIBB, CSIC Barcelona (Spain); Ferrer, I. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)

    1997-07-14

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  3. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  4. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  5. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  6. Pain in Times of Stress

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD, Asma Hayati; ZAKARIA, Rahimah

    2015-01-01

    Stress modulates pain perception, resulting in either stress-induced analgesia or stress-induced hyperalgesia, as reported in both animal and human studies. The responses to stress include neural, endocrine, and behavioural changes, and built-in coping strategies are in place to address stressors. Peculiar to humans are additional factors that modulate pain that are experienced in times of stress, notably psychological factors that potentially influence the directionality of pain perception.

  7. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  8. Posttraumatisk stress efter arbejdsulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Lauritsen, Jens; Hansen, O N

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder in a follow up one to two years after the occupational accident. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of PTSD, changes in general health status and issues of compensation. The material was all serious accidents registered in the Danish National...... of posttraumatic stress disorder as a chronic state was 2.8% (102 persons), of whom half had been given compensation. Among the most severe accidents the prevalence was 7.6%. In conclusion, in a large cohort of persons with moderate and severe occupational injuries this study demonstrated that post......-traumatic stress disorder and lasting psychological distress should be a matter for concern in addition to the physical injury....

  9. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  10. Stress fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschberger, R; Henning, A; Graff, K H

    1984-12-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis.

  11. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  12. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  13. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  14. Thyro-stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of “thyrostress” in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and demand of living with thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism. This communication describes the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of thyro-stress.

  15. Thyro-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of "thyrostress" in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and demand of living with thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism. This communication describes the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of thyro-stress.

  16. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  17. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  18. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  19. Thermal Stresses in Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the transient temperature fields and the hereby induced deformations and stressses in a butt-welded mild steel plate modelledrespectively in 2D plane stress state (as well as plane strain state) and in full 3D have been done. The model has been implemented in the generalpurpose FE...

  20. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  1. Stress og Socialitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2009-01-01

    Ifølge de etablerede arbejdsstressteorier skal miljømæssige krav balanceres op imod individuelle kontrolmuligheder, og der peges derfor på behovet for både sociologiske og psykologiske niveauer af arbejdsstress. Selvom en niveauinddelt tilgang til stress er vigtig, risikeres en opsplitning mellem...

  2. Warm pre-stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Literature survey and critical evaluation of the phenomenon of warm pre-stressing (WPS) is presented. It is found that the cause of it is not clear and a calculated control is missing. The effect of irradiation is unknown, and the influence of WPS on the behaviour of reactor vessels is discussed. (G.B.)

  3. Stress in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechita, Florina; Nechita, Dan; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been defined as the state of a body threatened by imbalance under the influence of agents or conditions endangering its homeostatic mechanisms but the concept have multiple meanings in correlation with the origin and biological support of its effects. Also, stressors are multiple, recording one of the highest levels during the academic studies. For the medical students, stress represents an important challenge, especially during the first year of medical school, caused by the absence of a learning strategy, the sleepless night before the exam and also an unhealthy food intake during the exams. The coping strategies are important, their background being represented by the social support, especially within the family, and emotional, the passions of the medicine students being the most important stress-combating factor. Gender represents also an important factor for the stress vulnerability, manifested through medical and psychiatric symptoms. In order to train good doctors, fair and above all healthy, it is important to consider not only the information we want to transmit, but also the context in which we educate.

  4. The stress of registrarship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    previous non-registrarship years happier and to believe that the following year would not be a happy one. Fewer registrars who engaged in 'moonlighting', compared to 'non- moonlighters', found it a happy year generally, but the difference was not significant (P =0,081). • .' Sources of stress. During registrarship, the trainee ...

  5. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  6. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  7. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metatarsal stress fracture. In: Safran MR, Zachazewski J, Stone DA, eds. Instructions for Sports Medicine Patients . 2nd ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2012:648-652. Smith MS. Metatarsal fractures. In: Eiff PM, Hatch R, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. ...

  8. Meditation and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Imre Emeric; Buchanan, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers can be relaxed and peaceful as they create playful and harmonious classrooms, even if they work in stressful contexts. However, the stressors faced by teachers may lead to negative consequences that can undermine their ability to sustain personal health and positive interactions. In the absence of positive coping…

  9. Stress in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    Through the extensive use of teachers' reports, the many and varied stresses endured by teaching staff and their reactions to them are identified. In focusing on the dual problem of reducing pressures on teaching staff and strengthening their coping resources, this book calls attention to a series of issues within education. Chapters are devoted…

  10. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  11. Stress Analysis of Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217, Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics, 1., 109-130, Tapir Publishers, Norway (1978). 9. A.J. Barnard and P.W. Sharman, ’Elastic-Plastic Analysis Using...Hybrid Stress Finite Elements,’ Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics, 1, 131-148, Tapir Publishers Norway, (1978). ’.........Pian, ’Variational

  12. Mobbing and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Mobbing is an important construct which has impact on the numerous psychological variables. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between mobbing and stress. Participants were 436 teachers (206 (55%) were female, 230 (45%) were male) from Sakarya, Turkey. Their ages ranged from 26 to 55 years and the mean age of the…

  13. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  14. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of ...

  15. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... would during exercise. You can then have the stress test. The medicine may make you flushed and anxious, but the effects go away as soon as the test is over. The medicine also may give you a headache. While you're exercising or getting medicine to ...

  16. The stress ulcer syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Essen

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous

  17. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  18. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T.

    1989-01-01

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references

  19. Role of abscisic acid in strigolactone-induced salt stress tolerance in arbuscular mycorrhizal Sesbania cannabina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Kong, Cun-Cui; Xie, Zhi-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Strigolactones (SLs) are considered to be a novel class of phytohormone involved in plant defense responses. Currently, their relationships with other plant hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA), during responses to salinity stress are largely unknown. In this study, the relationship between SL and ABA during the induction of H 2 O 2 - mediated tolerance to salt stress were studied in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Sesbania cannabina seedlings. The SL levels increased after ABA treatments and decreased when ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in AM plants. Additionally, the expression levels of SL-biosynthesis genes in AM plants increased following treatments with exogenous ABA and H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, ABA-induced SL production was blocked by a pre-treatment with dimethylthiourea, which scavenges H 2 O 2 . In contrast, ABA production was unaffected by dimethylthiourea. Abscisic acid induced only partial and transient increases in the salt tolerance of TIS108 (a SL synthesis inhibitor) treated AM plants, whereas SL induced considerable and prolonged increases in salt tolerance after a pre-treatment with tungstate. These results strongly suggest that ABA is regulating the induction of salt tolerance by SL in AM S. cannabina seedlings.

  20. Transcriptional Response to Lactic Acid Stress in the Hybrid Yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Merino, Raúl A; Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Byrne, Kevin P; Varela, Javier A; Morrissey, John P; Porro, Danilo; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Branduardi, Paola

    2018-03-01

    Lactic acid has a wide range of applications starting from its undissociated form, and its production using cell factories requires stress-tolerant microbial hosts. The interspecies hybrid yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii has great potential to be exploited as a novel host for lactic acid production, due to high organic acid tolerance at low pH and a fermentative metabolism with a high growth rate. Here we used mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze Z. parabailii 's transcriptional response to lactic acid added exogenously, and we explore the biological mechanisms involved in tolerance. Z. parabailii contains two homeologous copies of most genes. Under lactic acid stress, the two genes in each homeolog pair tend to diverge in expression to a significantly greater extent than under control conditions, indicating that stress tolerance is facilitated by interactions between the two gene sets in the hybrid. Lactic acid induces downregulation of genes related to cell wall and plasma membrane functions, possibly altering the rate of diffusion of lactic acid into cells. Genes related to iron transport and redox processes were upregulated, suggesting an important role for respiratory functions and oxidative stress defense. We found differences in the expression profiles of genes putatively regulated by Haa1 and Aft1/Aft2, previously described as lactic acid responsive in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Furthermore, formate dehydrogenase ( FDH ) genes form a lactic acid-responsive gene family that has been specifically amplified in Z. parabailii in comparison to other closely related species. Our study provides a useful starting point for the engineering of Z. parabailii as a host for lactic acid production. IMPORTANCE Hybrid yeasts are important in biotechnology because of their tolerance to harsh industrial conditions. The molecular mechanisms of tolerance can be studied by analyzing differential gene expression under conditions of interest and relating gene expression patterns

  1. Stress Managment and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.

  2. Stress and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.

  3. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foyer, C.H.; Lelandais, M.; Kunert, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that

  4. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  5. Competitive ability, stress tolerance and plant interactions along stress gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Sun, Tao; Xue, SuFeng; Yang, Wei; Shao, DongDong; Martínez-López, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients. Field survey and greenhouse tolerance tests revealed tradeoffs between stress tolerance and competitive ability. Modeling showed that along salinity gradients, (1) plant interactions shifted from competition to facilitation at high salinities within the physiological limits of salt-intolerant plants, (2) facilitation collapsed when salinity stress exceeded the physiological tolerance of salt-intolerant plants, and (3) neighbor removal experiments overestimate interspecific facilitation by including intraspecific effects. A community-level field experiment, suggested that (1) species interactions are competitive in benign and, facilitative in harsh condition, but fuzzy under medium environmental stress due to niche differences of species and weak stress amelioration, and (2) the SGH works on strong but not weak stress gradients, so SGH confusion arises when it is applied across questionable stress gradients. Our study clarifies how species interactions vary along stress gradients. Moving forward, focusing on SGH applications rather than exceptions on weak or nonexistent gradients would be most productive. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Stress-induced hyperthermia in translational stress research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, C.H.; Penning, R.; Ebbens, M.M.; Helhammer, J.; Verster, J.C.; Kalkman, C.J.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    The stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) response is the transient change in body temperature in response to acute stress. This body temperature response is part of the autonomic stress response which also results in tachycardia and an increased blood pressure. So far, a SIH response has been found in

  7. Stress revisited: A critical evaluation of the stress concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Bartolomucci, A.; Buwalda, B.; de Boer, S.F.; Flügge, G.; Korte, S.M.; Meerloo, P.; Murison, R.; Olivier, B.; Palanza, P.; Richter-Levin, G.; Sgoifo, A.; Steimer, T.; Stiedl, O.; van Dijk, G.; Wöhr, M.; Fuchs, E.

    2011-01-01

    With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely

  8. Stress revisited : a critical evaluation of the stress concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Bartolomucci, A; Buwalda, B; Flügge, G; de Boer, Sietse; Korte, S M; Meerlo, P; Murison, R; Olivier, B; Palanza, P; Richter-Levin, G; Sgoifo, A; Steimer, T; Stiedl, O; van Dijk, G; Wöhr, M; Fuchs, E

    2011-01-01

    With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely

  9. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  11. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  12. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? What causes SUI? What nonsurgical treatment options may help with SUI? What are the surgical treatment options for SUI? What factors are considered when deciding which SUI surgery is ...

  13. The Benefits of Leisure Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jr., Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Leisure bereft of all stress is action without purpose. Maximum motivation and gratification are achieved when a balance is achieved between abilities and responsibilities. Stress is an essential leisure ingredient that provides meaning and clarity to social experience. (CJ)

  14. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  15. Posttraumatisk stress efter arbejdsulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Lauritsen, Jens; Hansen, O N

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder in a follow up one to two years after the occupational accident. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of PTSD, changes in general health status and issues of compensation. The material was all serious accidents registered in the Danish National...... Register of Work Accidents during 1991. Seriousness was defined by type of injury, including all cases of amputations, bone fractures and extensive body lesions. Of 4745 possible, 3663 persons (77%) participated in a questionnaire study. The prevalence fulfilling the complete set of criteria...... of posttraumatic stress disorder as a chronic state was 2.8% (102 persons), of whom half had been given compensation. Among the most severe accidents the prevalence was 7.6%. In conclusion, in a large cohort of persons with moderate and severe occupational injuries this study demonstrated that post...

  16. Stress: a naturalistic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Rodríguez Campuzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior, and its three dimensions. Emphasis is made on the singular and individual nature of stress reactions. Finally it is suggested to take into account these functional criteria to develop a generic situational taxonomy to study these reactions as parts of complex behavioral patterns.

  17. Stress and yoga in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Many children experience stress-related physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headache or abdominal complaints. This paper deals with the physical consequences of psychological stress and the possibility of reducing stress by yoga in childhood. The literature on this topic is presented. It is

  18. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  19. Stress Management: A Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cecil

    This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

  20. Stress, Coping, and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Sybil A.

    1990-01-01

    Adult educators can help students cope with stress by (1) designing programs that are responsive to stress factors; (2) including information on stress effects in orientation sessions; (3) developing individualized programs of study; (4) integrating education into students' work and other life roles; (5) providing personal attention, advising, and…

  1. Stress corrosion in gaseous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, Dominique.

    1980-06-01

    The combined influences of a stress and a gaseous environment on materials can lead to brittleness and to unexpected delayed failure by stress corrosion cracking, fatigue cracking and creep. The most important parameters affering the material, the environment, the chemical reaction and the stress are emphasized and experimental works are described. Some trends for further research are given [fr

  2. Stress Measurement by Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. S.; Rossnagel, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Fast, simple technique measures stresses in thin films. Sample disk bowed by stress into approximately spherical shape. Reflected image of disk magnified by amount related to curvature and, therefore, stress. Method requires sample substrate, such as cheap microscope cover slide, two mirrors, laser light beam, and screen.

  3. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  4. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  5. The heritability of perceived stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  6. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  7. Stress among Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    García-Moran, María de Carmen; Universidad de Zaragoza (España); Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Universidad de Zaragoza (España)

    2016-01-01

    Stress among health professionals constitutes a significant problem, because of its strong impact both on them and their patients. This study finds that this syndrome varies according to gender, type of work and job role. We find that primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies are effective in minimizing this syndrome. These include better work management, an adjusted work schedule, a balance between work and family life, workforce personnel involvement, and improvement of employme...

  8. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  9. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  10. Thyro-stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of “thyrostress” in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and dem...

  11. Water Stress Projection Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    water consumption stress in coming decades is electricity generation in two surrounding counties, El Paso and Doña Ana, which are expected to...better able to predict and prepare for a changing climate. Army installations will be affected by climate change. It behooves the Army to understand...stationing analysis, the resources ex- amined were: a. Training land b. Energy ( electricity and natural gas) c. Water and wastewater treatment and solid

  12. Stress and recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M

    2001-09-01

    Our current understanding into the role of stress in unexplained recurrent miscarriages comes from two different research strategies. The majority of research has examined the role of psychological support within this patient population. This support has been provided in a number of ways ranging from weekly interviews with a psychiatrist or gynaecologist and or visual re-assurance in the form of ultrasound scans. A comparison of psychological support with an absence of such intervention has found differences in successful pregnancy outcome varying from as great as 84 versus 26%, respectively. It has been assumed that psychological support reduces the miscarriage rate by reducing “stress”within this patient population. In addition it provides indirect support for a role of stress in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Other studies have attempted to directly assess the effect of personality characteristics on miscarriage rate; these studies have yielded conflicting results.The mechanism by which stress may be causal in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage has not been examined in humans. Animal studies, however, have found that psychological distress can alter immune parameters that may be intricately involved with implantation. These parameters include an elevation of the “abortive” cytokine TNF-a and a reduction in the “anti-abortive” cytokine TGF-P2. Cells that are involved in the release of TNF-a at the feto-maternal interface include T cells, macrophages and mast cells.Mechanisms through which stress may act on these cells are explored and an integrated model is postulated.

  13. Countermeasures to stress corrosion cracking by stress improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1983-01-01

    One of the main factors of the grain boundary stress corrosion cracking occurred in the austenitic stainless steel pipes for reactor cooling system was the tensile residual stress due to welding, and a number of methods have been proposed to reduce the residual stress or to change it to compressive stress. In this paper, on the method of improving residual stress by high frequency heating, which has been applied most frequently, the principle, important parameters and the range of application are explained. Also the other methods of stress improvement are outlined, and the merit and demerit of respective methods are discussed. Austenitic stainless steel and high nickel alloys have good corrosion resistance, high toughness and good weldability, accordingly they have been used for reactor cooling system, but stress corrosion cracking was discovered in both BWRs and PWRs. It occurs when the sensitization of materials, tensile stress and the dissolved oxygen in high temperature water exceed certain levels simultaneously. The importance of the residual stress due to welding, induction heating stress improvement, and other methods such as heat sink welding, last pass heat sink welding, back lay welding and TIG torch heating stress improvement are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Subterranean stress engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.R.; Colgate, S.A.; Wheat, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The state of stress in a subterranean rock mass has classically been assumed to be constant at best. In soil with a high clay content, preconsolidation and drainage methods can lead to more stable foundation material, but methods for engineering the stresses in large masses of rock are not well known. This paper shows the results from an experiment designed to alter the in situ rock stress field in an oil shale mine. This was done by hydrofracturing the rock by use of a packed-well injection system and then propping the crack open with a thixotropic gel, which slowly hardened to the consistency of cement. Successive hydrofracture and high-pressure grouting resulted in an overstressed region. Well-head injection pressures, surface tilts, injection rates, and subterranean strains were measured and recorded on floppy disk by a Z-80 microprocessor. The results were then transmitted to the large computer system at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). To put the data in a more useful form, computer-generated movies of the tilts and strains were made by use of computer graphics developed at LASL. The purpose of this paper is to present results from the Single Large Instrumented Test conducted in the Colony Oil Shale Mine near Rifle, Colorado. 13 figures

  15. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingruber, I.E.; Wolf, C.; Gruber, H.; Czermak, B.V.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W.; Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress fractures may pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists since they are sometimes difficult to demonstrate on plain films and may simulate a tumour. They were first described in military personnel and professional athletes. Recently, there is an increasing incidence in the general population due to increasing sportive activities. Stress fractures occur most often in the lower extremities, especially in the tibia, the tarsal bone, the metatarsal bone, the femur and the fibula. In the upper extremities, they are commonly found in the humerus, the radius and the ulna. Some fractures of the lower extremities appear to be specific for particular sports, for example, fractures of the tibia affect mostly distance runners. Whereas stress fractures of the upper extremities are generally associated with upper limb-dominated sports. A correct diagnosis requires a careful clinical evaluation. The initial plain radiography may be normal. Further radiological evaluation could be performed by means of computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scanning. The latter two techniques are especially helpful for establishing a correct initial diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Probing Earth's State of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  17. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  18. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  19. The Young and the Stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis. Responders were...... stress and numerous aspects of mental/physical health in young adults, which could be an important consideration for individuals working with college students.......High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular...

  20. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Hui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  1. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  3. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  4. Stress, Gender and Time Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Gerstoft, Frederik

    for Australia, Germany, Canada, Korea and the U.S. The number of working hours in the labour market, however, has no impact on stress. For working women, household work decreases the likelihood of their being stressed, while rush-hours work as stressors for women and men. Moreover, the more satisfied women......This paper investigates the gender aspect of stress within a welfare state regime with high employment rates for both women and men. By applying an economic model, an extended model and a stress-level model, we find that higher incomes lead to stress among women and men, confirming findings...... are with their economic situation, the less likely is their reporting of stress. The same holds true for satisfaction with the number of hours--and even more for men. These results underline the importance of including satisfaction information when analysing the presence of stress in developing countries....

  5. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  6. The Shape of Change in Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Stress Sensitivity During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  7. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guièze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 μM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity.

  9. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn-Benz, M.; van 't Hof, W.; Bikker, F.J.; Nazmi, K.; Brand, H.S.; Sotres, J.; Lindh, L.; Arnebrant, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for

  10. Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Akimoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488. However, the molecular mechanism of this transdifferentiation process was unknown for a long time. Recent studies demonstrated that Gbx1, a divergent homeobox gene, is one of the target genes of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for this transdifferentiation. Furthermore, it was found that ATRA can induce the epidermal transdifferentiation into a mucosal epithelium in mammalian embryonic skin, as well as in chick embryonic skin. In the mammalian embryonic skin, the co-expression of Tgm2 and Gbx1 in the epidermis and an increase in TGF-β2 expression elicited by ATRA in the dermis are required for the mucosal transdifferentiation, which occurs through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Not only does retinoic acid (RA play an important role in mucosal transdifferentiation, periderm desquamation, and barrier formation in the developing mammalian skin, but it is also involved in hair follicle downgrowth and bending by its effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families.

  11. Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-11-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Ya; Han, Guo-Qing; Liang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Li-Li; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were randomized into four groups 24 h before subcutaneous injection of hepatocarcinoma BEL7402 cells suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the right flank. The control group (n = 10) was fed a standard diet while treatment groups (n = 10 each) were fed a standard daily diet supplemented with different concentrations of UDCA (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg per day) for 21 d. Tumor growth was measured once each week, and tumor volume (V) was calculated with the following equation: V = (L × W2) × 0.52, where L is the length and W is the width of the xenograft. After 21 d, mice were killed under ether anesthesia, and tumors were excised and weighed. Apoptosis was evaluated through detection of DNA fragmentation with gel electrophoresis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL2, APAF1, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: UDCA suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. The mean tumor volumes were the following: control, 1090 ± 89 mm3; 30 mg/kg per day, 612 ± 46 mm3; 50 mg/kg per day, 563 ± 38 mm3; and 70 mg/kg per day, 221 ± 26 mm3. Decreased tumor volumes reached statistical significance relative to control xenografts (30 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 50 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 70 mg/kg per day, P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of UDCA led to increased DNA fragmentation observed on gel electrophoresis and in the TUNEL assay (control, 1.6% ± 0.3%; 30 mg/kg per day, 2.9% ± 0.5%; 50 mg/kg per day, 3.15% ± 0.7%, and 70 mg/kg per day, 4.86% ± 0.9%). Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of BAX, APAF1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins, which induce apoptosis, but decreased expression of BCL2 protein, which is an inhibitor of apoptosis, following administration of UDCA. CONCLUSION: UDCA suppresses growth of BEL7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo, in part through apoptosis induction, and is thus a candidate for therapeutic treatment of HCC. PMID:26420963

  13. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...

  14. Epigenetic modifications in valproic acid-induced teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Emily W.Y.; Winn, Louise M.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid (VPA) in utero is associated with a 1-2% increase in neural tube defects (NTDs), however the molecular mechanisms by which VPA induces teratogenesis are unknown. Previous studies demonstrated that VPA, a direct inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can induce histone hyperacetylation and other epigenetic changes such as histone methylation and DNA demethylation. The objective of this study was to determine if maternal exposure to VPA in mice has the ability to cause these epigenetic alterations in the embryo and thus contribute to its mechanism of teratogenesis. Pregnant CD-1 mice (GD 9.0) were administered a teratogenic dose of VPA (400 mg/kg, s.c.) and embryos extracted 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after injection. To assess embryonic histone acetylation and histone methylation, Western blotting was performed on whole embryo homogenates, as well as immunohistochemical staining on embryonic sections. To measure DNA methylation changes, the cytosine extension assay was performed. Results demonstrated that a significant increase in histone acetylation that peaked 3 h after VPA exposure was accompanied by an increase in histone methylation at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and a decrease in histone methylation at histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9). Immunohistochemical staining revealed increased histone acetylation in the neuroepithelium, heart, and somites. A decrease in methylated histone H3K9 staining was observed in the neuroepithelium and somites, METHYLATED histone H3K4 staining was observed in the neuroepithelium. No significant differences in global or CpG island DNA methylation were observed in embryo homogenates. These results support the possibility that epigenetic modifications caused by VPA during early mouse organogenesis results in congenital malformations.

  15. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing, Guoying

    2001-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  16. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing, Guoying

    2000-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  17. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria do Socorro Coelho; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinsing with antacids, following erosive episodes, have been suggested as a preventative strategy to minimize tooth surface loss due to their neutralizing effect. The purpose of this in situ study was to evaluate the effect of an antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate in controlling simulated erosion of enamel of intrinsic origin. The experimental units were 48 slabs (3×3×2mm) of bovine enamel, randomly divided among 12 volunteers who wore palatal appliances with two enamel slabs. One of them was exposed extra-orally twice a day to 25mL of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (0.01M, pH 2) for 2min. There were two independent phases, lasting 5 days each. In the first phase, according to a random scheme, half of the participants rinsed with 10mL of antacid suspension (Gaviscon(®), Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Ltd.), while the remainder was rinsed with deionized water, for 1min. For the second phase, new slabs were inserted and participants switched to the treatment not received in the first stage. Therefore, the groups were as follows: (a) erosive challenge with HCl+antacid suspension; (b) erosive challenge with HCl+deionized water (DIW); (c) no erosive challenge+antacid suspension; (d) no erosive challenge+DIW. Specimens were assessed in terms of surface loss using optical profilometry and Knoop microhardness. The data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Compared to DIW rinses, surface loss of enamel was significantly lower when using an antacid rinse following erosive challenges (p=0.015). The Knoop microhardness of the enamel was significantly higher when the antacid rinse was used (p=0.026). The antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, rinsed after erosive challenges of intrinsic origin, reduced enamel surface loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. the effect of cucumber ( ) extract on acid induced corneal burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The groups were CB group treated with cucumber bark extract only,. CP group treated with .... maintenance of healthy bone, teeth and gums. It actsasanantioxidant . ... burn in the eyes of the guinea pigs included; slight hyperemia, lid edema ...

  19. Photolysis of caged phosphatidic acid induces flagellar excision in Chlamydomonas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.; Gadella, Th.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidic (PtdOH) acid formation is recognized as an important step in numerous signaling pathways in both plants and mammals. To study the role of this lipid in signaling pathways, it is of major interest to be able to increase the amount of this lipid directly. Therefore, "caged" PtdOH was

  20. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Perflurooctanoic acid induces developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qixiao; Lust, Robert M.; Strynar, Mark J.; Dagnino, Sonia; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will investigate mechanisms of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity.

  2. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  3. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in this model. After 4, 8 and 12 ... measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. ... endothelial and infiltrating inflammatory cells results in the ... Electrophoresis apparatus and electric switch slot were ... after tying off the right lung at the main stem bronchus.

  4. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Friedman's test using Genstat software version 14 (Genstat, 2010). RESULTS AND .... verse to a more longitudinal orientation which leads to lateral cell .... Breeding efforts to develop high-yielding, multiple pest-resistant sweet ...

  5. The valproic acid-induced rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Chiara; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction and by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. While autism has a strong genetic component, environmental factors including toxins, pesticides, infection and drugs are known to confer autism susceptibility, likely by inducing epigenetic changes. In particular, exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been demonstrated to increase the risk of autism in children. Furthermore, rodents prenatally exposed to this drug display behavioral phenotypes characteristics of the human condition. Indeed, in utero exposure of rodents to VPA represents a robust model of autism exhibiting face, construct and predictive validity. This model might better represent the many cases of idiopathic autism which are of environmental/epigenetic origins than do transgenic models carrying mutations in single autism-associated genes. The VPA model provides a valuable tool to investigate the neurobiology underlying autistic behavior and to screen for novel therapeutics. Here we review the VPA-induced rodent model of autism, highlighting its importance and reliability as an environmentally-induced animal model of autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Ya; Han, Guo-Qing; Liang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Li-Li; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Kun

    2015-09-28

    To evaluate the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). BALB/c nude mice were randomized into four groups 24 h before subcutaneous injection of hepatocarcinoma BEL7402 cells suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the right flank. The control group (n = 10) was fed a standard diet while treatment groups (n = 10 each) were fed a standard daily diet supplemented with different concentrations of UDCA (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg per day) for 21 d. Tumor growth was measured once each week, and tumor volume (V) was calculated with the following equation: V = (L × W(2)) × 0.52, where L is the length and W is the width of the xenograft. After 21 d, mice were killed under ether anesthesia, and tumors were excised and weighed. Apoptosis was evaluated through detection of DNA fragmentation with gel electrophoresis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL2, APAF1, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3. UDCA suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. The mean tumor volumes were the following: control, 1090 ± 89 mm(3); 30 mg/kg per day, 612 ± 46 mm(3); 50 mg/kg per day, 563 ± 38 mm(3); and 70 mg/kg per day, 221 ± 26 mm(3). Decreased tumor volumes reached statistical significance relative to control xenografts (30 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 50 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 70 mg/kg per day, P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of UDCA led to increased DNA fragmentation observed on gel electrophoresis and in the TUNEL assay (control, 1.6% ± 0.3%; 30 mg/kg per day, 2.9% ± 0.5%; 50 mg/kg per day, 3.15% ± 0.7%, and 70 mg/kg per day, 4.86% ± 0.9%). Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of BAX, APAF1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins, which induce apoptosis, but decreased expression of BCL2 protein, which is an inhibitor of apoptosis, following administration of UDCA. UDCA suppresses growth of BEL7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo, in part through apoptosis induction, and is thus a candidate for therapeutic treatment of HCC.

  7. [Psychosomatic aspects of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuse, S; Anzai, T

    1992-03-01

    We established the Bromocriptine test for the dopaminergic function of the hypothalamopituitary gland. The secretion patterns of plasma GH and PRL to 2.5 mg Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, were classified into two types; a response type and a non-response type. The former showed an increase in plasma GH levels and suppression of PRL secretion; the latter showed no change in GH after Bromocriptine administration. The response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by neurotic and maladaptive behavior. The non-response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by alexithymic and over adaptive behaviors. Case Presentation 1. Essential Hypertension: a. 56-year old male, response type, blood pressure elevated by stress in daily life. Psychosomatic treatment: advice about blood pressure measurement at his home, brief psychotherapy and drug therapy. b. 53-year-old male, non-response type, type A behavior. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of his disorder, self-control training and drug therapy. 2. Gastric ulcers: a. 40-year-old male, response type, CMI IV region (Neurotic tendencies). Psychosomatic treatment: autogenic training and drug therapy. b. 28-year-old male, non-response type, high JAS scores(Over adaptative behavior). Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of occurrence of his ulcers, to induce change in his perceptions of way of life, to encourage taking rest. 3. Technostress syndrome: a. 23-year-old female, response type, technoanxiety. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to make her take rest, and change in arrangements at her working place. b. 27-year-old male, non-response type, technodependent. Psychosomatic treatment: Fasting therapy. This therapy changed the non-response pattern to normal.

  8. Integrated quadruple stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, Eugenio; Morrone, Doralisa; Scali, Maria C; Huqi, Alda; Coviello, Katia; Ciampi, Quirino

    2018-04-11

    Stress Echocardiography (SE) is an established diagnostic technique. For 40 years, the cornerstone of the technique has been the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), due to the underlying physiologically-relevant epicardial coronary artery stenosis. In the last decade, three new parameters (more objective than RWMA) have shown the potential to integrate and comple- ment RWMA: 1- B-lines, also known as ultrasound lung comets, as a marker of extra-vascular lung water, measured using lung ultrasound with the 4-site simplified scan symmetrically of the antero- lateral thorax on the third intercostal space, from mid-axillary to anterior axillary and mid- clavicular line; 2-left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR), assessed as the peak stress/rest ratio of left ventricular force, also known as elastance (systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanome- ter/end-systolic volume from 2D echocardiography); 3- coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) on left anterior descending coronary artery, calculated as peak stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity assessed using pulsed-wave Doppler. The 4 parameters (RWMA, B-lines, LVCR and CFVR) now converge conceptually, logistically, and methodologically in the Integrated Quadruple (IQ)-SE. IQ-SE optimizes the versatility of SE to include in a one-stop shop the core "ABCD" (Asynergy+B-lines+Contractile reserve+Doppler flowmetry) protocol. It allows a synoptic assess- ment of parameters mirroring the epicardial artery stenosis (RWMA), interstitial lung water (B- lines), myocardial function (LVCR) and small coronary vessels (CFVR). Each variable has a clear clinical correlate, different and complementary to all others: RWMA identify an ischemic vs non- ischemic heart; B-lines a wet vs dry lung; LVCR a strong vs weak heart; CFVR a warm vs cold heart. IQ-SE is highly feasible, with minimal increase in the imaging and analysis time, and obvi- ous diagnostic and prognostic impact also beyond coronary artery

  9. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  10. Protective Effect of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-Diene-1, 4-Dione, Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L., Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Min6 Cells by Inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuqiao Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Studies have demonstrated that 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione (DMDD, isolated from the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes. However, the protective effect of DMDD against pancreatic beta cell dysfunction has never been reported. We investigated whether DMDD protected against palmitic acid-induced dysfunction in pancreatic β-cell line Min6 cells by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Methods: Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and inflammatory cytokines levels were examined by ELISA. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI Flow cytometry assay, Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay, and Transmission electron microscopy assay. Relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins. Results: Cell viability and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels were increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. DMDD inhibited inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 generations in palmitic acid (PA-induced Min6 cells. Moreover, DMDD protected against PA-induced Min6 cells apoptosis and the expression of Cleaved-Caspase-3, -8 and -9 were down-regulated and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. In addition, the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB were down-regulated in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells and TAK-242-pretreated group cells. Conclusions: DMDD protected Min6 cells against PA-induced dysfunction by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and its mechanism of this protection was associated with inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  11. Protective Effect of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-Diene-1, 4-Dione, Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L., Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Min6 Cells by Inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuqiao; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Juman; Wei, Xiaojie; Xu, Xiaohui; Xuan, Feifei; Chen, Ning; Pham, Thithaihoa; Qin, Ni; He, Junhui; Ye, Fangxing; Huang, Wansu; Huang, Renbin; Wen, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione (DMDD), isolated from the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes. However, the protective effect of DMDD against pancreatic beta cell dysfunction has never been reported. We investigated whether DMDD protected against palmitic acid-induced dysfunction in pancreatic β-cell line Min6 cells by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and inflammatory cytokines levels were examined by ELISA. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI Flow cytometry assay, Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay, and Transmission electron microscopy assay. Relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins. Cell viability and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels were increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. DMDD inhibited inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 generations in palmitic acid (PA)-induced Min6 cells. Moreover, DMDD protected against PA-induced Min6 cells apoptosis and the expression of Cleaved-Caspase-3, -8 and -9 were down-regulated and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. In addition, the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB were down-regulated in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells and TAK-242-pretreated group cells. DMDD protected Min6 cells against PA-induced dysfunction by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and its mechanism of this protection was associated with inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sustainability of compressive residual stress by stress improvement processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Satoru; Okita, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Atsunori

    2013-01-01

    Stress improvement processes are countermeasures against stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant components. It is necessary to confirm whether compressive residual stress induced by stress improvement processes can be sustained under operation environment. In order to evaluate stability of the compressive residual stress in 60-year operating conditions, the 0.07% cyclic strains of 200 times at 593 K were applied to the welded specimens, then a thermal aging treatment for 1.66x10 6 s at 673 K was carried out. As the result, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stresses were sustained on both surfaces of the dissimilar welds of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) and nickel base alloy (NCF600 and alloy 182) processed by laser peening (LP), water jet peening (WJP), ultrasonic shot peening (USP), shot peening (SP) and polishing under 60-year operating conditions. (author)

  13. Symposium on teacher stress. Occupational stress among vocational teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithers, R T; Fogarty, G J

    1995-03-01

    There is a widespread belief that work related stress among teachers is serious, with implications for teachers' health status and performance. The difficulty with interpreting data on teacher stress is that the measuring instruments used are often neither standardised nor sometimes focused on stressors pertinent to the occupational roles of teachers. This study, therefore, uses a recently developed test instrument called the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which concisely measures occupational stress, strain and coping resources. Data were obtained, using the OSI, from a group of vocational teachers and compared to a group of professional non-teachers. Overall the results showed a significantly higher level of teacher stress, although only one of 10 stress and strain measures contributed to this effect. The implications for teachers, in terms of occupational role, are discussed.

  14. Stress field models from Maxwell stress functions: southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The lithospheric stress field is formally divided into three components: a standard pressure which is a function of elevation (only), a topographic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field) and a tectonic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field). The boundary between topographic and tectonic stress anomalies is somewhat arbitrary, and here is based on the modeling tools available. The topographic stress anomaly is computed by numerical convolution of density anomalies with three tensor Green's functions provided by Boussinesq, Cerruti and Mindlin. By assuming either a seismically estimated or isostatic Moho depth, and by using Poisson ratio of either 0.25 or 0.5, I obtain four alternative topographic stress models. The tectonic stress field, which satisfies the homogeneous quasi-static momentum equation, is obtained from particular second derivatives of Maxwell vector potential fields which are weighted sums of basis functions representing constant tectonic stress components, linearly varying tectonic stress components and tectonic stress components that vary harmonically in one, two and three dimensions. Boundary conditions include zero traction due to tectonic stress anomaly at sea level, and zero traction due to the total stress anomaly on model boundaries at depths within the asthenosphere. The total stress anomaly is fit by least squares to both World Stress Map data and to a previous faulted-lithosphere, realistic-rheology dynamic model of the region computed with finite-element program Shells. No conflict is seen between the two target data sets, and the best-fitting model (using an isostatic Moho and Poisson ratio 0.5) gives minimum directional misfits relative to both targets. Constraints of computer memory, execution time and ill-conditioning of the linear system (which requires damping) limit harmonically varying tectonic stress to no more than six cycles along each axis of the model. The primary limitation on close fitting is that the Shells model predicts very sharp

  15. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  16. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Pull the plug on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Bruce; McCraty, Rollin; Childre, Doc

    2003-07-01

    Stress is rampant, stress is growing, and stress hurts the bottom line. A 1999 study of 46,000 workers revealed that health care costs are 147% higher for those who are stressed or depressed, independent of other health issues. But what exactly is stress? It usually refers to our internal reaction to negative, threatening, or worrisome situations--a looming performance report, say, or interactions with a dismissive colleague. Accumulated over time, negative stress can depress you, burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you--because it's both an emotional and a physiological habit. Of course, many companies understand the negative impact of cumulative stress and offer programs to help employees counteract it. The problem is that employees in the greatest need of help often don't seek it. Since 1991, the authors have studied the physiological impact of stress on performance, at both the individual and organizational levels. Their goal largely has been to decode the underlying mechanics of stress. They've sought not only to understand how stress works on a person's mind, heart, and other bodily systems but also to discover the precise emotional, mental, and physiological levers that can counteract it. After working with more than 50,000 workers and managers in more than 100 organizations, the authors have found that learning to manage stress is easier than most people think. They have devised a scientifically based system of tools, techniques, and technologies that organizations can use to reduce employee stress and boost overall health and performance. In this article, they use the story of someone they call Nigel, a senior executive with whom they've worked, to describe how these techniques reduce stress in the real world.

  18. Equivalence of Stress and Energy Calculations of Mean Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the mean stress in a plastically deformed matrix containing randomly distributed elastic inclusions are considered. The mean stress for an elastically homogeneous material is calculated on the basis of an energy consideration which completely accounts for elastic interactions....... The result is shown to be identical to that obtained from a stress calculation. The possibility of including elastic interactions in the case of elastic inhomogeneity is discussed....

  19. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  1. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  2. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  3. Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizanova, O; Babula, P; Pacak, K

    2016-07-01

    Stress as a modern civilization factor significantly affects our lives. While acute stress might have a positive effect on the organism, chronic stress is usually detrimental and might lead to serious health complications. It is known that stress induced by the physical environment (temperature-induced cold stress) can significantly impair the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapies and the anti-tumor immune response. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has shown that patients taking drugs known as β-adrenergic antagonists ("β-blockers"), which are commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmia, hypertension, and anxiety, have significantly lower rates of several cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about catecholamines as important stress hormones in tumorigenesis and discuss the use of β-blockers as the potential therapeutic agents.

  4. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  5. [Stress and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The stress and migraine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Becker, Werner J

    2009-10-01

    There are several ways in which stress may interact with migraine in those predisposed to migraine attacks. These interactions may result from biochemical changes related to the physiological stress response, as, for example, the release of corticotrophin releasing hormone, or from changes induced by the psychological response to stressors. Stress is the factor listed most often by migraine sufferers as a trigger for their attacks, but in addition there is evidence that stress can help initiate migraine in those predisposed to the disorder, and may also contribute to migraine chronification. Migraine attacks themselves can act as a stressor, thereby potentially leading to a vicious circle of increasing migraine frequency. Since the important factor in the stress-migraine interaction is likely the individual's responses to stressors, rather than the stressors themselves, the acquisition of effective stress management skills has the potential to reduce the impact of stressors on those with migraine.

  7. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stress responses allowing it to sense and adapt to its very different niches. The stress responses often involve dramatic cellular reprogramming, and the technological advances provided by the access to whole genome sequences have let to an unprecedented insight into the global reorganization of gene...... and protein expression following stress-exposure. Characterization of global gene responses has been very helpful both in identifying regulators sensing specific environmental stress signals and overlaps between different stress responses. In this chapter we review the recent progress in our understanding...... of the specific and general S. aureusstress responses, with a special emphasis on how stress responses contribute to virulence and antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen....

  8. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  9. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  10. Enantioselective changes in oxidative stress and toxin release in Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to chiral herbicide diclofop acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jing [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Natural Research and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Ying [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, Shengwen [School of Urban Development and Environment Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Liu, Chaonan; Zhu, Yongqiang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Liu, Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Natural Research and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •The first study on enantioselective oxidative stress and toxin release from Microcystis aeruginosa. •Provide information for the R-enantiomer poses more oxidative stress than the S-enantiomer. •Lifecycle analysis of chiral pollutants needs more attention in environmental assessment. -- Abstract: Enantioselective oxidative stress and toxin release from Microcystis aeruginosa after exposure to the chiral herbicide diclofop acid were investigated. Racemic diclofop acid, R-diclofop acid and S-diclofop acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa to varying degrees. The increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in M. aeruginosa occurred sooner after exposure to diclofop acid than when the cyanobacteria was exposed to either the R- and the S-enantiomer. In addition, enantioselective toxicity of the enantiomers was observed. The R-enantiomer trigged more ROS generation, more SOD activity and more toxin synthesis and release in M. aeruginosa cells than the S-enantiomer. Diclofop acid and its R-enantiomer may collapse the transmembrane proton gradient and destroy the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation and free radical oxidation, whereas the S-enantiomer did not demonstrate such action. R-diclofop acid inhibits the growth of M. aeruginosa in the early stage, but ultimately induced greater toxin release, which has a deleterious effect on the water column. These results indicate that more comprehensive study is needed to determine the environmental safety of the enantiomers, and application of chiral pesticides requires more direct supervision and training. Additionally, lifecycle analysis of chiral pollutants in aquatic system needs more attention to aide in the environmental assessment of chiral pesticides.

  11. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q.; Chen, S.Y.; Deng, L.D.; Feng, L.P.; Huang, L.Z.; Yu, R.R. [Department of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  12. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  13. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations

  14. STRESS INDUCED OBESITY: LESSONS FROM RODENT MODELS OF STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc., these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and loose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the elements that influence the metabolic outcome in order to further our understanding of stress

  15. Features of heat stress control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    Heat stress is caused by hot environments and physical demands of work. It is further complicated by protective clothing requirements commonly found in the nuclear power industry. The resulting physiological strain is reflected in increased sweating, heart rate and body temperature. Uncontrolled exposures to heat stress will lead to decreased personnel performance and increased risk of accidents and heat disorders. The article describes major heat disorders, a method of heat stress evaluation, and some basic interventions to reduce the stress and strain of working in the heat

  16. Stressing out in medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamble, Julia A.; Boldsen, Jesper L.; Hoppa, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired with the infor......The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired...

  17. A little stress is good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2017-05-30

    Acute psychological stress triggers signaling between sympathetic neurons and the spleen to protect against ischemic tissue damage. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Genes, stress, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls

  19. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  20. [Emotional stress psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, V E

    1989-01-01

    The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.

  1. STRESS Counting Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Riello, M.; Greggio, L.; Benetti, S.; Patat, F.; Turatto, M.; Altavilla, G.; Pastorello, A.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Harutyunyan, A.; Pignata, G.; Taubenberger, S.

    2008-12-01

    The rate of occurrence of supernovae (SNe) is linked to some of the basic ingredients of galaxy evolution, such as the star formation rate, the chemical enrichment and feedback processes. SN rates at intermediate redshift and their dependence on specific galaxy properties have been investigated in the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). The rate of core collapse SNe (CC SNe) at a redshift of around 0.25 is found to be a factor two higher than the local value, whereas the SNe Ia rate remains almost constant. SN rates in red and blue galaxies were also measured and it was found that the SNe Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe.

  2. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  3. To stress or not to stress: a question of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J Megan; Chaouloff, Francis; Hill, Matthew N

    2015-01-05

    Stress research is a rapidly evolving field that encompasses numerous disciplines ranging from neuroscience to metabolism. With many new researchers migrating into the field, navigating the hows and whys of specific research questions can sometimes be enigmatic given the availability of so many models in the stress field. Additionally, as with every field, there are many seemingly minor experimental details that can have dramatic influences on data interpretation, although many of these are unknown to those not familiar with the field. The aim of this overview is to provide some suggestions and points to guide researchers moving into the stress field and highlight relevant methodological points that they should consider when choosing a model for stress and deciding how to structure a study. We briefly provide a primer on the basics of endpoint measurements in the stress field, factors to consider when choosing a model for acute stress, the difference between repeated and chronic stress, and importantly, influencing variables that modulate endpoints of analysis in stress work. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Job Stress, Job Dissatisfaction and Stress Related Illnesses Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-reported job stress and job dissatisfaction and the prevalence of stress related illnesses and risk factors amongst educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 21,307 educators from public schools in South Africa.

  5. Personalized stress management : enabling stress monitoring with LifelogExplorer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocielnik, R.D.; Sidorova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is one of the major triggers for many diseases. Improving stress balance is therefore an important prevention step. With advances in wearable sensors, it becomes possible to continuously monitor and analyse user’s behavior and arousal in an unobtrusive way. In this paper, we report on a case

  6. Changing stress levels through gaining information on stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Madu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the Information Phase of a Stress Management Program (SMP on the perceptions of participants about their stress levels. Method: A total sample of 100 workers (nursing staff, private business men and women, laboratory assistants, the protective services [foreman and security staff], as well as people in human resources departments took part in this study. All the participants were from the Northern and Gauteng Provinces in South Africa. The Combined Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1989 was used as an instrument to measure the perceived stress level of participants in a SMP. Result: A significant reduction in stress levels was achieved among those who received the Information Phase of the SMP only, as well as those who received the whole stress management techniques. There was no significant difference between the amount of reduction in perceived stress-levels achieved among those that received the Information Phase of the SMP only, compared to that of those who received the whole techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that where the resources are limited, only the information phase of a SMP may be given to desiring clients. That should help to save time and money spent on participating in SMPs. This should however not discourage the use of the whole SPM, where affordable. Keywords: Stress Management Programs, Information Phase, Perception, Stress Level.

  7. [Grave's disease and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A Matos; Nobre, E Lacerda; Garcia e Costa, J; Nogueira, P J; Macedo, Ana; De Castro, J Jácome; Teles, A Galvão

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many reports about a possible association between Stressful Life Events (SLE) and the onset of Graves' Disease (GD). Nevertheless, most papers have been criticised and no such association has yet been proven. To assess the possible associations between SLE and the onset of GD. Retrospective study of 62 subjects, divided into 2 groups of 31 each, GD (Gp1) and controls (Gp2). The patients in Gp1 had thyroid disease diagnosed within the last 12 months, with clinical and biochemical confirmation. In Gp2, psychopathological and endocrine disturbances had been ruled out. Each 2 group consisted of 9 males (29%) and 22 females (71%). The mean age was 38.48 + 10.9 in Gp1 and 41.1 + 11.8 in Gp2. SLE evaluation (number and impact) was reported for the 12 months preceding the onset of symptoms of thyroid disease. To assess SLE, we used the Life Experiences Survey-LES from Saranson, Johnson and Siegel (1978; 1985). Statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patients with GD had a significantly greater number of SLEs compared to Controls (p < .001). The number and impact of negative SLEs was significantly higher in Gp1 compared to Gp2 (p < .001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the number and impact of both positive and neutral SLEs. The findings of this study support that SLEs may contribute to the precipitation of GD. We observed that patients with GD had significantly more negative events and experienced a greater negative impact from them prior to the onset of GD. The association of SLEs with GD is probably related to the association of stress with changes in the immune system, which can play an important role in the aetiology of thyrotoxicosis.

  8. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant ...

  9. Acid resistance and response to pH-induced stress in two Lactobacillus plantarum strains with probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeme, H; Gjuračić, K; Kos, B; Fujs, Š; Štempelj, M; Petković, H; Šušković, J; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Kosec, G

    2015-01-01

    Two new Lactobacillus plantarum strains, KR6-DSM 28780 and M5 isolated from sour turnip and traditional dried fresh cheese, respectively, were evaluated for species identity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and adaptive response to low pH. Resistance mechanisms involved in the adaptation to acid-induced stress in these two strains were investigated by quantitative PCR of the atpA, cfa1, mleS and hisD genes. In addition to absence of antibiotic resistance, the two L. plantarum strains showed excellent survival rates at pH values as low as 2.4. Adaptive response to low pH was clearly observed in both strains; strain KR6 was superior to M5, as demonstrated by its ability to survive during 3 h incubation at pH 2.0 upon adaptation to moderately acidic conditions. In contrast, acid adaptation did not significantly affect the survival rate during simulated passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In both strains, induction of histidine biosynthesis (hisD) was upregulated during the acid adaptation response. In addition, significant upregulation of the cfa1 gene, involved in modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, was observed during the adaptation phase in strain KR6 but not in strain M5. Cells adapted to moderately acidic conditions also showed a significantly increased viability after the lyophilisation procedure, a cross-protection phenomenon providing additional advantage in probiotic application.

  10. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  11. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  12. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  13. Stress analytics in education (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocielnik, R.D.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Sidorova, N.

    2012-01-01

    During the years of college and university education students are exposed to different kinds of stress, especially during the difficult studying periods like final exams weeks or project deadlines. Stress on a long run is dangerous and can contribute to illness through its physiological effects or

  14. Stress: The Special Educator's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Donna; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article describes approaches special education teachers can take to reduce stress including diet and exercise, relaxation techniques, use of social support systems, goal setting, time management, and networking. A survey of special education teachers found the use of humor the most common strategy for coping with stress. (DB)

  15. Protect Yourself from Heat Stress

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-19

    Heat stress can be a major concern for indoor and outdoor workers, especially during the hot summer months. Learn how to identify the symptoms and protect yourself from heat stress.  Created: 7/19/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 7/19/2016.

  16. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  17. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  18. A Model of Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Sutcliffe, John

    1978-01-01

    A definition and model of teacher stress is presented which conceptualizes teacher stress as a response syndrome (anger or depression) mediated by (1) an appraisal of threat to the teacher's self-esteem or well-being and (2) coping mechanisms activated to reduce the perceived threat. (Author)

  19. Coping with Stress in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  20. Stress, depression and hippocampal damage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and exacerbation of psychiatric disorders like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Sapolsky 1996). Amongst the prime targets of stress in the brain ... discrete stages of development, the DG retains the ability to exhibit neurogenesis throughout adulthood in several species, including rodents, primates and ...

  1. Telecommuting: stress and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L

    1994-06-01

    Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.

  2. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  3. Coping with Stress. Research Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1995-01-01

    Research related to the impact of exercise on stress indicates that a regular aerobic exercise program is important to control the negative effects of stress. It was also reported that those who are physically fit have higher levels of self-esteem. Implications for camp staff involve starting a regular exercise program to offset job-related…

  4. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  5. T-stresses for internally cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1997-12-01

    The failure of cracked components is governed by the stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip. The singular stress contribution is characterised by the stress intensity factor K, the first regular stress term is represented by the so-called T-stress. T-stress solutions for components containing an internal crack were computed by application of the Bundary Collocation Method (BCM). The results are compiled in form of tables or approximative relations. In addition a Green's function of T-stresses is proposed for internal cracks which enables to compute T-stress terms for any given stress distribution in the uncracked body. (orig.) [de

  6. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Bae, Insoo, E-mail: ib42@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2014-04-03

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.

  7. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  8. Coping with stress and by stress: Russian men and women talking about transition, stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have claimed stress to be a major reason for poor public health in Russia and referred to significant social changes as a reason for the high level of perceived stress among Russians. This article aims to examine how stress and its relation to health are interpreted in the context of everyday life in Russian men's and women's interview talk with a focus on descriptions of recent social changes. The research material consists of 29 thematic interviews of men and women from St. Petersburg aged 15-81. In the analysis of contextual constructions of stress, we found that stress was used not only within a context of an individual's own life as an expression of a strained psycho-physiological state but also denoted larger societal processes and changes. In addition to individual experiences, the whole of Russian society was described as suffering from stress. Throughout the material, most interviewees, whilst outspokenly blaming stress for deteriorating physical health, met difficulties in making concrete these negative influences. Based on analysis, we interpret our interviewees' accounts of stress as a part of the cultural discourse wherein 'stress' serves as a conceptual tool in making interpretations about both the people and their social environment. Stress, as a concept, has emerged in a wide range of different institutional sites, such as the media and public health policy and has become a discursive entity of contemporary social life in Russia. We claim that it has simultaneously become an intermediary concept articulating a shared, cultural experience of the changes in Russian society and their effects on individuals' everyday life and health. Thus, the concept of stress helps people to articulate, make sensible, and cope with the impacts of transition on their individual lives.

  9. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  10. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  11. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique

  12. Takotsubo (Stress Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J Hourmozdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department in shock from pneumonia. The patient was initially afebrile, pulse rate 120 beats per minute, blood pressure 117/69 mmHg, respiratory rate 42 breaths per minute, pulse oximetry 94% on a non-rebreather mask and a lactate of 14 mmol/L. He became progressively more hypotensive despite fluid resuscitation and was started on norepinephrine. Shortly after, the patient developed torsades de pointes that was terminated with intravenous push magnesium. His initial ECG had shown sinus tachycardia; however, repeat ECG showed ST-segment elevation in the inferolateral leads and the patient had troponin I elevation that peaked at 16 ng/mL. Significant findings: Bedside echocardiography showed the findings consistent with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Echocardiographic images are shown in subxiphoid (A and apical four chamber (B views. Note the apical ballooning appearance (asterisk of the left ventricle (LV. Discussion: Formal echocardiography confirmed features classic for Takotsubo (stress cardiomyopathy, including globally depressed left ventricle (LV ejection fraction, systolic apical ballooning appearance of the LV, mid and apical segments of LV depression, and hyper kinesis of the basal walls. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome known to cause ST-segment elevation on ECG, transient LV dysfunction, and dysrhythmia in the absence of acute obstructive coronary disease. There is no consensus on diagnostic criteria; however, these criteria are commonly used: 1 transient hypokinesis, akinesis, or dyskinesis in the LV mid-segments with or without apical involvement; regional wall motion abnormalities that extend beyond a single epicardial vascular distribution; and frequently, but not always, a stressful trigger 2 the absence of acute coronary disease or angiographic evidence of acute plaque rupture 3 new ECG abnormalities (ST-segment elevation and/or T-wave inversion or modest

  13. Background Stress Inventory: Developing a Measure of Understudied Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Gjerde, Jill M; Garofalo, John P

    2015-10-01

    Background stress is an understudied source of stress that involves both ambient stress and daily hassles upon which new stressors are superimposed. To date, an accurate measure of the background stress construct has not been available. We developed the Background Stress Inventory, a 25-item self-report measure that asks respondents to indicate how distressed they have felt over the past month and the majority of the past year across five domains: financial, occupation, environment, health and social. Seven hundred seventy-two participants completed the paper-and-pencil measure; the sample was randomly split into two separate subsamples for analyses. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors corresponding to these domains, and confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable global fit (X(2)(255) = 456.47, comparative fit index = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation = 0.045). Cronbach's alpha (0.89) indicated good internal reliability. Construct validity analyses showed significant positive relationships with measures of perceived stressfulness (r = 0.62) and daily hassles (0.41), p's < 0.01. Depressive symptoms (0.62) and basal blood pressure (0.21) were both significantly associated with background stress, p's < 0.01. The importance of the proposed measure is reflected in the limited research base on the impact of background stress. Systematic investigation of this measure will provide insight into this understudied form of chronic stress and its potential influence on both psychological and physical endpoints. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study. ... Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the ... life stress and sociodemographic predictors of 12-month and lifetime disorder.

  16. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. ... Purpose: To investigate the effects of pre-cold stress treatments on subsequent acid stress resistance ... from 32 Countries:.

  17. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  18. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  19. FROM STRESS TO MOBBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The currently specific problem at work is chronic fatigue, a syndrome characterized by physiological and emotional exhaustion and often generated (through permanent frustration by the position with a too much or too low volume of work. First of all, the treatment of stress, of burnout or in countering resilience, is preventive and consists in gaining a better resistance. In simpler words, fighting against those phenomena is maintaining personal health. “Health is a fully favorable condition, physically, mentally and socially, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”[1]. Later it was added that health is the “capacity to lead a socially and economically productive life.” But, when the general concern is to destroy the balance, whatever that may mean – the balance of the active body or the body “ready to leave the system”, balance of knowledge, individual and collective mental equilibrium, functional balance of economy, balance of the bio-system… - we must not remain indifferent. It occurs frequently a phenomenon which is a relatively unknown concept for the Romanian economy – the mobbing or bullying.

  20. Stress Management by Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980's, Dr. Patrick Doyle served on a project to train U.S. astronauts at Johnson Space Center in biofeedback techniques to control anxiety and hypertension. Traditional biofeedback concepts were found to be too mundane, repetitive and boring, so Doyle developed Bio-Games with more interesting and involved formats. The first product, Bio-Ball, is an interactive, multimedia baseball video game that is played by relaxing in order to hit the ball. Gradually the player is able to relax at will, and with practice is able to apply the skills to real-life situations. Doyle has since gone on to create a number of biofeedback games marketed by Creative MultiMedia Inc. including Bio-Golf, Clutch City, and Pachyderm. Stress-busting screen savers are also being marketed under the Buddies series. In addition to being used in the corporate world, Bio-Games have been recognized by the Starbright Foundation which focuses on improving the total hospital environments of critically injured and chronically-ill children.