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Sample records for beta-adrenergic receptor bar

  1. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  2. Reduced beta-adrenergic receptor activation decreases G-protein expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in porcine heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, P; Gelzer-Bell, R; Roth, D A; Kiel, D; Insel, P A; Hammond, H K

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether beta-adrenergic receptor agonist activation influences guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein (G-protein) expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in the heart, we examined the effects of chronic beta 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist treatment (bisoprolol, 0.2 mg/kg per d i.v., 35 d) on components of the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-G-protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway in porcine myocardium. Three novel alterations in cardiac adrenergic signaling as...

  3. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  4. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors through the replicative life span of IMR-90 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor number and receptor affinity for isoproterenol were assessed at various in vitro ages of the human diploid fibroblast cell line IMR-90. From population doubling level (PDL) 33 to 44, there was a positive correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Beta-adrenergic receptors, assessed by Scatchard analysis of [ 125 I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding, increased from 15 fmol/mg protein at PDL 33 to 36 fmol/mg protein at PDL 44. In contrast, from PDL 44 to 59, there was a negative correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Receptor density declined to 12 fmol/mg protein at PDL 59. When the density of beta-adrenergic receptors was expressed as receptor per cell, the findings were similar. Receptor agonist affinity for isoproterenol was determined from Hill plots of [ 125 I]-ICYP competition with isoproterenol. There was no change in the dissociation constant for isoproterenol with in vitro age. In humans, serum norepinephrine concentrations increase with age. This increase in serum norepinephrine may be partially responsible for the decreased beta-adrenergic receptor-agonist affinity observed with age in human lymphocytes and rat heart and lung. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the decreases in receptor agonist affinity in rat and man with age are secondary to increases in catecholamine concentrations

  5. Beta-adrenergic receptors of lymphocytes in children with allergic respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittera, I.; Gyurkovits, K.; Falkay, G.; Eck, E.; Koltai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites on peripheral lymphocytes in children with bronchial asthma (n = 16) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 8) were examined in comparison with normal controls (n = 18) by means of 124 I-cyanopindolol. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in the asthmatic group (858 +/- 460/lymphocyte) than in the controls (1564 +/- 983/lymphocyte). The value (1891 +/- 1502/lymphocyte in children with allergic rhinitis was slightly higher than that in healthy controls. Of the 24 patients suffering from allergic diseases of the lower or upper airways, the bronchial histamine provocation test was performed in 21; 16 gave positive results, while 5 were negative. No difference in beta-adrenergic receptor count was found between the histamine-positive and negative patients. Neither was there any correlation between the number of beta-adrenergic receptors and the high (16/24) and low (8/24) serum IgE concentrations found in allergic patients. The significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor count in asthmatic children lends support to Szentivanyi's concept. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors may provide an individual approach to the treatment of bronchial asthma with beta-sympathomimetic drugs

  6. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers in Hypertension: Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H

    Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are an appropriate treatment for patients having systemic hypertension (HTN) who have concomitant ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure, obstructive cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection or certain cardiac arrhythmias. β-Blockers can be used in combination with other antiHTN drugs to achieve maximal blood pressure control. Labetalol can be used in HTN emergencies and urgencies. β-Blockers may be useful in HTN patients having a hyperkinetic circulation (palpitations, tachycardia, HTN, and anxiety), migraine headache, and essential tremor. β-Blockers are highly heterogeneous with respect to various pharmacologic properties: degree of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, membrane stabilizing activity, β 1 selectivity, α 1 -adrenergic blocking effects, tissue solubility, routes of systemic elimination, potencies and duration of action, and specific properties may be important in the selection of a drug for clinical use. β-Blocker usage to reduce perioperative myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular (CV) complications may not benefit as many patients as was once hoped, and may actually cause harm in some individuals. Currently the best evidence supports perioperative β-blocker use in two patient groups: patients undergoing vascular surgery with known IHD or multiple risk factors for it, and for those patients already receiving β-blockers for known CV conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of phosphorylated beta-adrenergic receptors from desensitized turkey erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.; Stadel, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamine-induced desensitization of turkey erythrocyte (TE) adenylate cyclase results in a 40-50 percent decrease in agonist stimulated cyclase activity. Desensitization is accompanied by decreased mobility on SDS-PAGE of beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) proteins photoaffinity labeled with [ 125 I]-p-azidobenzylcarazolol compared to control. Using a low crosslinked gel, the M/sub r/ = 42,000 band of BAR from desensitized TE was further resolved into a doublet compared to a single M/sub r/ = 38,000 band for control. The formation of the doublet appears to correlate with the amount of adenylate cyclase desensitization. Preincubating TE for 20 hr at 37 0 C with 32 P-/sub i/ labels BAR. 32 P-BAR was partially purified by affinity chromatography over alprenolol-Sepharose. Limited digest peptide maps of 32 P-BAR using papain identified a unique peptide (M/sub r/ = 2800) from BAR of desensitized TE which was absent in control. This unique 32 P-peptide was found only in the upper band of the doublet of BAR from desensitized TE. These data indicate that BAR is not uniformly phosphorylated following agonist-induced desensitization of TE and identify a peptide of BAR which is a site of phosphorylation correlating with desensitization of TE adenylate cyclase

  8. Developmental changes of beta-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase of rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.S.; Boland, S.R.; Schmidt, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and binding of the beta-adrenergic antagonist(-)-[ 125 I]iodopindolol were studied in rat liver during development of male Fischer 344 rats ages 6-60 days. In liver homogenates maximum adenylate cyclase response to beta-adrenergic agonist (10(-5) M isoproterenol or epinephrine) decreased by 73% (P less than 0.01) between 6 and 60 days, with most of the decrease (56%; P less than 0.01) occurring by 20 days. beta-adrenergic receptor density (Bmax) showed a corresponding decrease of 66% (P less than 0.01) by 20 days without subsequent change. Binding characteristics of stereospecificity, pharmacological specificity, saturability with time, and reversibility were unchanged with age. GTP-, fluoride-, forskolin-, and Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities also decreased during development, suggesting a decrease of activity of the catalytic component and/or guanine nucleotide regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that the developmental decrease of beta-adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity may result from decreased numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors. Developmental alterations of nonreceptor components of the enzyme may also contribute to changes of catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase

  9. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in synaptic membranes from rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautens, L.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor ligand binding sites have been characterized in synaptic membranes from rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum using radioligand binding techniques. The equilibrium and kinetic properties of binding were assessed. The binding sites were non-interacting and exhibited two states of agonist binding which were sensitive to guanyl nucleotide. Synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex contained an equal number of beta 1 - and beta 2 -receptors; membranes from cerebellum possessed more beta 2 -than beta 1 -receptors. Photoaffinity labeling experiments revealed two different beta-adrenergic receptor polypeptides, R 1 and R 2 (and possibly a third, R 3 ) in synaptic membranes. The ratios of incorporation of photoaffinity label into R 1 : 2 were approximately 1:1 (cerebral cortex) and 5:1 (cerebellum). Photoaffinity labeling of R 1 and R 2 was inhibited equally well by both agonist and antagonist in synaptic membranes from cerebellum; whereas agonist was a less potent inhibitor in membranes from cerebral cortex. Both subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors exhibited the same apparent molecular weight in synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex. The beta-adrenergic receptors in synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex and cerebellum were glycoproteins which exhibited the same apparent molecular weight after exposure to endoglycosidase F. The partial proteolytic digest maps of photoaffinity labeled beta-adrenergic receptors from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, lung and heart were compared

  10. Anxiety and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2005-06-01

    Many studies have shown a close relationship between anxiety and beta-adrenergic receptor function in patients with anxiety disorders. This study examined the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor function and anxiety levels in a normal population. Subjects for this study included 36 men and 44 women between the ages of 20 and 40 years whose Body Mass Index (BMI) was between 18 and 26. All of them were healthy subjects who had no previous history of medical or psychiatric illnesses. The authors measured the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Chronotropic 25 Dose (CD25) of isoproterenol, previously developed to assess in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. We also examined correlations between log normalized CD25 and mood states. The mean of CD25 was 2.64+/-1.37 mug and the mean of CD25 in men was significantly higher (i.e., lower beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity) than that of women (3.26+/-1.35 vs. 2.14+/-1.17 microg; t = 3.99, p anxiety (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), trait anxiety (r = -0.331, p = 0.003), and BDI (r = -0.283, p = 0.011). CD25 was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.423, p anxiety, and BMI. The sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors increased as anxiety levels became higher in a normal population. Thus, the relationship between anxiety and beta-adrenergic receptor function in healthy subjects may be different from that of patients with anxiety disorders.

  11. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of [125I]cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species

  12. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in hypertension-induced hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatner, D.E.; Kirby, D.A.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Perinephritic hypertension was produced in dogs by wrapping one kidney with silk and removing the contralateral kidney 1 week later. Mean arterial pressure rose from 104 +/- 3 to 156 +/- 11 mm Hg, while left ventricular free wall weight, normalized for body weight, was increased by 49%. Muscarinic, cholinergic receptor density measured with [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, fell in hypertensive left ventricles (181 +/- 19 fmol/mg, n = 6; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (272 +/- 16 fmol/mg, n = 8), while receptor affinity was not changed. The beta-adrenergic receptor density, measured by binding studies with [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol, rose in the hypertensive left ventricles (108 +/- 10 fmol/mg, n = 7; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (68.6 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg, n = 15), while beta-adrenergic receptor affinity decreased in the hypertensive left ventricles (10.4 +/- 1.2 nM) compared with that found in the normal left ventricles (5.0 +/- 0.7 nM). Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in the two groups, but myocardial norepinephrine levels were depressed (p less than 0.05) in dogs with hypertension. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy induced by long-term aortic banding in dogs resulted in elevations in beta-adrenergic receptor density (115 +/- 14 fmol/mg) and decreases in affinity (10.4 +/- 2.2 nM) similar to those observed in the dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by hypertension. Thus, these results suggest that perinephritic hypertension in the dog induces divergent effects on cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor density. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and decreased affinity may be a characteristic of left ventricular hypertrophy rather than hypertension

  13. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of [ 125 ]Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10 -5 M) suggesting predominate beta 2 -type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta- 2 -type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat

  14. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors: identification of the beta-adrenergic receptor by [3H]dihydroalprenolol binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, D.N.; Leung, R.; Goldfien, A.; Roberts, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The radioactive beta-adrenergic antagonist [ 3 H] dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binds to particulate preparations of human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor. The binding of DHA is rapid (attaining equilibrium in 12 minutes), readily reversible (half time = 16 minutes), high affinity (K/sub D/ = 0.50 nM), low capacity (Bmax = 70 fmoles/mg of protein), and stereoselective ([-]-propranolol is 100 times as potent as [+] -propranolol in inhibiting DHA binding). Adrenergic agonists competed for DHA binding sites in a manner compatible with beta-adrenergic interactions and mirrored β 2 pharmacologic potencies: isoproterenol > epinephrine >> norepinephrine. Studies in which zinterol, a β 2 -adrenergic agonist, competed for DHA binding sites in human myometrial particulate indicated that at least 87% of the beta-adrenergic receptors present are β 2 -adrenergic receptors. Binding of DHA to human myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors provides a tool which may be used in the examination of gonadal hormonal modification of adrenergic response in human uterus as well as in the analysis of beta-adrenergic agents as potentially useful tocolytic agents

  15. Concanavalin a increases beta-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors in porcine splenocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, K.N.; Westly, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    We identified specific glucocorticoid and beta-adrenergic receptors on porcine splenocytes. There are 2000 to 4000 glucocorticoid receptors per cell with a K /SUB D/ of 2 to 4 nM and 1000 beta-adrenergic receptors with a K /SUB D/ of 0.3 to 0.6 nM. When splenocytes were incubated with concanavalin A (Con A), there was an approximate 2-fold increase in both gluococorticoid and beta-adrenergic receptors with no change in binding affinity. Incubation of splenocytes with cortisol as low as 40 nM (13 ng/ml) inhibited proliferation in response to Con A. This inhibitory effect of cortisol was not due to cytotoxic effects of glucocorticoids. At maximal physiologic concentrations (400 nM; 135 ng/ml), cortisol caused reductions in Con A activation of thymocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. When eight wk old pigs were restrained, there was an increase in plasma cortisol, atrophy of thymus and reduction in skin test responses to phytohemagglutinin. On the basis of the data, we suggest that physiologic concentrations of stress asociated hormones affect functional activities of porcine lymphoid cells. Since activated splenocytes display increased numbers of receptors for these hormones, perhaps glucocorticoids or catecholamines normally function in vivo to suppress clonal expansion of antigen activated and autoreactive T lymphocytes

  16. {beta}-adrenergic receptor density and adenylate cyclase activity in lead-exposed rat brain after cessation of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Huoy-Rou [I-Shou University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dashu Shiang, Kaohsiung County (Taiwan); Tsao, Der-An [Fooyin University of Technology, Department of Medical Technology (Taiwan); Yu, Hsin-Su [Taiwan University, Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine (Taiwan); Ho, Chi-Kung [Kaohsiung Medical University, Occupational Medicine (Taiwan); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Research Center for Occupational Disease (Taiwan)

    2005-01-01

    To understanding the reversible or irreversible harm to the {beta}-adrenergic system in the brain of lead-exposed rats, this study sets up an animal model to estimate the change in the sympathetic nervous system of brain after lead exposure was withdrawn. We address the following topics in this study: (a) the relationship between withdrawal time of lead exposure and brain {beta}-adrenergic receptor, blood lead level, and brain lead level in lead-exposed rats after lead exposure was stopped; and (b) the relationship between lead level and {beta}-adrenergic receptor and cyclic AMP (c-AMP) in brain. Wistar rats were chronically fed with 2% lead acetate and water for 2 months. Radioligand binding was assayed by a method that fulfilled strict criteria of {beta}-adrenergic receptor using the ligand [{sup 125}I]iodocyanopindolol. The levels of lead were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The c-AMP level was determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed a close relationship between decreasing lead levels and increasing numbers of brain {beta}-adrenergic receptors and brain adenylate cyclase activity after lead exposure was withdrawn. The effect of lead exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic system of the brain is a partly reversible condition. (orig.)

  17. [Density of beta-adrenergic receptors and left ventricular mass in patients with primary essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zyśko, D; Spring, A

    2000-08-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the more important risk factors for sudden death. There are multiple factors for development of LVH in patients with hypertension. Sympathetic nervous system may play a key role causing afterload increase and neurohumoral mechanisms activation. The aim of the study was to determine beta-adrenergic receptors density and its relations to left ventricular mass in hypertensive subjects. The study was carried out in 63 patients (23 women and 40 men), mean age 43.3 +/- 11.6 yrs with primary hypertension: stage I--42 pts and stage II--21 pts. The control group consisted of 26 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We evaluated the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using 125I-cyanopindolol radioligand labeling method. Left ventricular dimensions were assessed by echocardiography (Hewlett-Packard 77010 CF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and LVMI was significantly higher in hypertension group 156.7 +/- 12.5 vs. 119.8 +/- 8.8 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 95.9/5.5 vs. 78.8 +/- 6.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 126.5 +/- 41.9 vs. 93.1 +/- 19.9 g/m2, p < 0.001 respectively. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was 40.7 +/- 29.9 fmol/ml in the hypertensive vs. 37.2 +/- 17.8 fmol/ml in control group (p = NS). There was no correlation between beta-adrenergic receptors density and LVMI. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between LVMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.44, p < 0.05; r = 0.60, p < 0.01 respectively). 1. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was unchanged in patients with hypertension and did not correlate with LVMI. 2. A high positive correlation between blood pressure values and LVMI, but only in stage II hypertension was revealed.

  18. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D

    2003-02-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists ({beta}-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations {<=}1.9 {mu}g/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in {>=}71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol {<=}1.2 {mu}g/l and nadolol {<=}0.36 {mu}g/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that {beta}-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to {mu}g/l range.

  19. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/-) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. The Dbh -/- mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/- mice following administration of disulfiram, a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/- and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the alpha(1) antagonist prazosin and the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine had no effect. These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via beta-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice.

  20. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in united states wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, D.B.; Khan, I.A.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. - Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists (β-Blockers) are frequently prescribed medications in the United States and have been identified in European municipal wastewater effluent, however no studies to date have investigated these compounds in United States wastewater effluent. Municipal wastewater effluent was collected from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol. Propranolol was identified in all wastewater samples analyzed (n=34) at concentrations ≤1.9 μg/l. Metoprolol and nadolol were identified in ≥71% of the samples with concentrations of metoprolol ≤1.2 μg/l and nadolol ≤0.36 μg/l. Time course studies at both Mississippi plants and the Texas plant indicate that concentrations of propranolol, metoprolol, and nadolol remain relatively constant at each sampling period. This study indicates that β-Blockers are present in United States wastewater effluent in the ng/l to μg/l range

  1. Synthesis of the sup 11 C-labelled. beta. -adrenergic receptor ligands atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, G.; Ulin, J.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    The {sup 11}C-labelled {beta}-adrenergic receptor ligands atenolol 1, metoprolol 2 and propranolol 3 have been synthesized by an N-alkylation reaction using (2-{sup 11}C)isopropyl iodide. The labelled isopropyl iodide was prepared in a one-pot reactor system from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide and obtained in 40% radiochemical yield within 14 min reaction time. The total reaction times for compounds 1-3, counted from the start of the isopropyl iodide synthesis and including purification were 45-55 min. The products were obtained in 5-15% radiochemical yields and with radiochemical purities higher than 98%. The specific activity ranged from 0.4 to 4 GBq/{mu}mol. In a typical experiment starting with 4 GBq around 75 MBq of product was obtained. (author).

  2. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  3. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  4. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [ 125 I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  5. Structural derivatives of pindolol: relationship between in vivo and in vitro potencies for their interaction with central beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejani-Butt, S.M.; Brunswick, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although (-)- 125 I-iodopindolol (IPIN) can be used to label beta-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo, use of this ligand for receptor imaging studies in humans may be limited due to its relatively poor penetration into the CNS. A series of derivatives related to pindolol was therefore studied in an effort to determine the factors that might influence the penetration and interaction of these compounds with central beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo. Evaluation of the ability of these derivatives to displace the binding of IPIN in the brain upon systemic administration provides an assessment of whether the derivatives penetrate and interact with central beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo. Multiple regression analyses showed that the most important factor which influences the ability of the pindolol derivatives to penetrate into the brain and interact with beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo is the affinity of the derivatives for binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in vitro. Both lipophilicity and the molecular weights of the derivatives are important secondary factors which influence their in vivo potency. 15 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  6. Structural derivatives of pindolol: relationship between in vivo and in vitro potencies for their interaction with central beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejani-Butt, S.M.; Brunswick, D.J.

    1987-08-24

    Although (-)-/sup 125/I-iodopindolol (IPIN) can be used to label beta-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo, use of this ligand for receptor imaging studies in humans may be limited due to its relatively poor penetration into the CNS. A series of derivatives related to pindolol was therefore studied in an effort to determine the factors that might influence the penetration and interaction of these compounds with central beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo. Evaluation of the ability of these derivatives to displace the binding of IPIN in the brain upon systemic administration provides an assessment of whether the derivatives penetrate and interact with central beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo. Multiple regression analyses showed that the most important factor which influences the ability of the pindolol derivatives to penetrate into the brain and interact with beta-adrenergic receptors in vivo is the affinity of the derivatives for binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in vitro. Both lipophilicity and the molecular weights of the derivatives are important secondary factors which influence their in vivo potency. 15 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  8. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in the medial prefrontal cortex during aversive and incidental taste memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, J; Nuñez-Jaramillo, L; Morán-Guel, E; Miranda, M I

    2010-08-11

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. Specifically, the noradrenergic system in this cortex is involved in aversive learning, as well as in the retrieval of these memories. Some evidence suggests that this area has an important role during taste memory, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a model of aversive memory. Despite some previous evidence, there is scarce information about the role of adrenergic receptors in the mPFC during formation of aversive taste memory and appetitive/incidental taste memory. The goal of this research was to evaluate the role of mPFC beta-adrenergic receptors during CTA acquisition/consolidation or CTA retrieval, as well as during incidental taste memory formation using the model of latent inhibition of CTA. The results showed that infusions in the mPFC of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol before CTA acquisition impaired both short- and long-term aversive taste memory formation, and also that propranolol infusions before the memory test impaired CTA retrieval. However, propranolol infusions before pre-exposure to the taste during the latent inhibition procedure had no effect on incidental taste memory acquisition or consolidation. These data indicate that beta-adrenergic receptors in the mPFC have different functions during taste memory formation: they have an important role during aversive taste association as well as during aversive retrieval but not during incidental taste memory formation. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors potentiate the beta-adrenergic stimulation of pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, D C; Sugden, D; Weller, J L

    1983-01-01

    The role played by postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stimulation of pineal N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5) and [3H]melatonin production was investigated in the rat. In vivo studies indicated that phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, potentiated and prolonged the effects of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist. Similar observations were made in organ culture with glands devoid of functional nerve endings. In addition, a combination of 1 microM prazosin, an alpha 1-adre...

  10. Evidence that shock-induced immune suppression is mediated by adrenal hormones and peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnick, J E; Lysle, D T; Kucinski, B J; Rabin, B S

    1990-07-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that presentations of mild foot-shock to Lewis rats induces a suppression of splenic and peripheral blood lymphocyte responses to nonspecific T-cell mitogens. The present study demonstrated that adrenalectomy prevented the shock-induced suppression of the mitogenic response of peripheral blood T-cells but did not attenuate the suppression of splenic T-cells. Conversely, the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, propranolol and nadolol, attenuated the shock-induced suppression of splenic T-cells in a dose-dependent manner but did not attenuate suppression of the blood mitogen response. These data indicate that distinct mechanisms mediate the shock-induced suppression of T-cell responsiveness to mitogens in the spleen and the peripheral blood. The results indicate that the peripheral release of catecholamines is responsible for splenic immune suppression and that adrenal hormones, which do not interact with beta-adrenergic receptors, are responsible for shock-induced suppression of blood mitogenic responses.

  11. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation during Distinct Patterns of Stimulation Critically Modulates the PKA-Dependence of LTP in the Mouse Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Tenorio, Gustavo; Lemon, Neal; Abel, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of Beta-adrenergic receptors (Beta-ARs) enhances hippocampal memory consolidation and long-term potentiation (LTP), a likely mechanism for memory storage. One signaling pathway linked to Beta-AR activation is the cAMP-PKA pathway. PKA is critical for the consolidation of hippocampal long-term memory and for the expression of some forms…

  12. (-)[125I]-iodopindolol, a new highly selective radioiodinated beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist: measurement of beta-receptors on intact rat astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barovsky, K.; Brooker, G.

    1980-01-01

    (-)-Pindolol, one of the most potent beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, was radioiodinated using chloramine-T oxidation of carrier-free Na 125I and separated from unreacted pindolol to yield 2200 Ci/mmole (-)-[125I]-iodopindolol ((-)-[125I]-IPin). Mass and ultraviolet spectra confirmed that the iodination occurred on the indole ring, presumably at the 3 position. The binding of radiolabeled (-)-[125I]-IPin to beta-adrenergic receptors has been studied using intact C6 rat astrocytoma cells (2B subclone) grown in monolayer cultures. Binding of (-)[125IPin was saturable with time and concentration. Using 13 pM (-)-[125I]IPin, binding equilibrium was reached in 90 min at 21-22 degrees C. The reverse rate constant was 0.026 min-1 at 21 0 C. Specific binding (expressed as 1 microM(-)-propranolol displaceable counts) of (-)-[125I]-IPin was 95% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of (-)-[125I]-I]Pin binding revealed approximately 4300 receptors/cell and a dissociation constant of 30 pM. This was in excellent agreement with the kinetically determined dissociation constant of 35 pM. Displacement by propranolol and isoproterenol showed that (-)-[125I]-IPin binding sites were pharmacologically and stereospecifically selective. These results indicate that (-)-[125I]-IPin, a pure (-)-stereoisomer, high specific activity radioligand, selectively binds to beta-adrenergic receptors in whole cells with a high percentage of specific binding and should therefore be useful in the study and measurement of cellular beta-adrenergic receptors

  13. Dissociation between cardiomyocyte function and remodeling with beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in isolated canine mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2008-12-01

    The low-pressure volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with increased adrenergic drive, left ventricular (LV) dilatation, and loss of interstitial collagen. We tested the hypothesis that beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade (beta1-RB) would attenuate LV remodeling after 4 mo of MR in the dog. beta1-RB did not attenuate collagen loss or the increase in LV mass in MR dogs. Using MRI and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis, there was a 70% increase in the LV end-diastolic (LVED) volume-to-LV mass ratio, a 23% decrease in LVED midwall circumferential curvature, and a >50% increase in LVED 3-D radius/wall thickness in MR dogs that was not attenuated by beta1-RB. However, beta1-RB caused a significant increase in LVED length from the base to apex compared with untreated MR dogs. This was associated with an increase in isolated cardiomyocyte length (171+/-5 microm, P<0.05) compared with normal (156+/-3 microm) and MR (165+/-4 microm) dogs. Isolated cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was significantly depressed in MR dogs compared with normal dogs (3.73+/-0.31 vs. 5.02+/-0.26%, P<0.05) and normalized with beta1-RB (4.73+/-0.48%). In addition, stimulation with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (25 nM) increased cardiomyocyte fractional shortening by 215% (P<0.05) in beta1-RB dogs compared with normal (56%) and MR (50%) dogs. In summary, beta1-RB improved LV cardiomyocyte function and beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness despite further cell elongation. The failure to attenuate LV remodeling associated with MR could be due to a failure to improve ultrastructural changes in extracellular matrix organization.

  14. Uncoupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor as a mechanism of in vitro neutrophil desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galant, S.P.; Britt, S.

    1984-01-01

    Human leukocytes have been useful in studying desensitization phenomena to beta-adrenergic agonists in a number of clinical conditions. In the present in vitro study the authors have explored the mechanism for beta-adrenergic desensitization and have compared conditions for homologous and heterologous desensitization, using the intact PMN model. PMN preincubated with isoproterenol (10 -4 M), washed thoroughly, then restimulated, desensitized rapidly so that within 10 min 80% of control isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP stimulation is lost. Cells washed free of isoproterenol recover full responsiveness in 1 to 2 hr. The estimated isoproterenol desensitization EC 50 in cells washed and then restimulated is 1 x 10 -5 M, and EC 50 in unwashed cells that are restimulated is 9 x 10 -8 M. Rank-order potency studies of catecholamine desensitization show isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine, a beta-2 pattern. Isoproterenol-induced desensitization results in a small reduction in [ 3 H]DHA binding sites, which becomes statistically significant (p 50 of 6.6 +/- 2.6 x 10 - (M, which is significantly different (p 50 of 38.1 +/- 9.1 x 10 -1 M found when cells are previously desensitized with isoproterenol for 10 min. GTP does not affect the EC 50 of desensitized cells. Finally, prolonged (3 hr) isoproterenol preincubation results in a small but significant (p 1 (59.3% +/- 7.4), suggesting heterologous desensitization. These studies suggest that the human PMN is a suitable model to study both homologous and heterologous desensitization in vitro. 22 references. 6 figures. 3 tables

  15. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptors in the Insular Cortex are Differentially Involved in Aversive vs. Incidental Context Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Sabath, Elizabeth; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Puron-Sierra, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effects of [beta]-adrenergic antagonism in the IC before or after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training or context pre-exposure in a latent inhibition protocol. Pretraining intra-IC infusion of the [beta]-adrenergic antagonist propranolol disrupted subsequent IA retention and impaired latent inhibition…

  16. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B 1 subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B 1 to B 2 and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist [ 125 I]-cyanopindolol and the B 2 selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using 32 P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells

  17. Differential modulation of Beta-adrenergic receptor signaling by trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kleinau

    Full Text Available Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR, phenylethylamine (PEA, octopamine (OA, but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous β-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1 and 2 (ADRB2 have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR octopamine (OAR, ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular β-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  18. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  19. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of [125Iodo]cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels

  20. Beta adrenergic receptors in dog heart characterised in vivo by sup 11 C-CGP 12117 and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Mikito [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1989-06-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors in the dog heart were demonstrated in vivo using a potent antagonist, {sup 11}C-CGP 12117 (Kd=0.2 nmol/kg, in vitro), and positron emission tomography (PET). {sup 11}C-CGP at a high specific radioactivity (approximately 500 Ci/mmol) was intravenously injectd in dogs. Axial transverse slices of the heart were obtained. The concentration of {sup 11}C-CGP 12177 in the myocardium rapidly increased and then remained nearly constant for about 30 minutes, before decreasing slowly. Designing a new method to distinguish specific receptor binding from the total ligand concentration in the heart measured by PET, beta adrenoceptor density in the dog myocardium (Bmax) was found to be 113 pmol/cm{sup 3}. Displacement and pre-saturation studies were performed to demonstrate the specifity of {sup 11}C-CGP 12177 binding for noradrenaline binding sites. The bolus injection of unlabeled CGP 12177 25 min following {sup 11}C-CGP 12177 injection led to a rapid decrease in the myocardial ligand concentration and a rapid fall in the heart rate. Both the pharmacological effect of CGP 12177 and the binding inhibition of radioligand were synchronous with the increasing amount of antagonist injected for displacement. In experiments of presaturation with an excessive dose of unlabeled antagonist injection 10 min before {sup 11}C-CGP 12177 injection, the heart/blood radioligand concentration ratio as a function of time was significantly lower than that in the control study. Thus, specific receptor binding of {sup 11}C-CGP 12177 for noradrenaline binding sites in the living heart was proved by PET, which might be the ideal method to study the physiologically active form of receptors in vivo. (author).

  1. Ultrastructural characterization of noradrenergic- and beta-adrenergic receptor-containing profiles in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Farb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine (NE is thought to play a key role in fear and anxiety, but its role in amygdala-dependent Pavlovian fear conditioning, a major model for understanding the neural basis of fear, is poorly understood. The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA is a critical brain region for fear learning and regulating the effects of stress on memory. To understand better the cellular mechanisms of NE and its adrenergic receptors in the LA, we used antibodies directed against dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH, the synthetic enzyme for NE, or against two different isoforms of the beta-adrenergic receptors (βARs, one that predominately recognizes neurons (βAR 248 and the other astrocytes (βAR 404, to characterize the microenvironments of DβH and βAR. By electron microscopy, most DβH terminals did not make synapses, but when they did, they formed both asymmetric and symmetric synapses. By light microscopy, βARs were present in both neurons and astrocytes. Confocal microscopy revealed that both excitatory and inhibitory neurons express βAR248. By electron microscopy, βAR 248 was present in neuronal cell bodies, dendritic shafts and spines, and some axon terminals and astrocytes. When in dendrites and spines, βAR 248 was frequently concentrated along plasma membranes and at post-synaptic densities of asymmetric (excitatory synapses. βAR 404 was expressed predominately in astrocytic cell bodies and processes. These astrocytic processes were frequently interposed between unlabeled terminals or ensheathed asymmetric synapses. Our findings provide a morphological basis for understanding ways in which NE may modulate transmission by acting via synaptic or non-synaptic mechanisms in the LA.

  2. Beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for weight loss but not for other metabolic adaptations to the consumption of a ketogenic diet in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Douris

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The response of β-less mice distinguishes at least two distinct categories of physiologic effects in mice consuming KD. In the liver, KD regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα-dependent pathways through an action of FGF21 independent of the SNS and beta-adrenergic receptors. In sharp contrast, induction of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and increased energy expenditure absolutely require SNS signals involving action on one or more β-adrenergic receptors. In this way, the key metabolic actions of FGF21 in response to KD have diverse effector mechanisms.

  3. Pet measurements of postsynaptic muscarinic and beta adrenergic receptors in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1991-01-01

    There is ample evidence from both experimental and clinical studies that changes in β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor density can be associated with such cardiac diseases as congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, or thyroid-induced muscle disease. Changes in B-adrenergic density also have been shown in the denervated transplanted heart. These alterations of cardiac receptors have been demonstrated in vitro on homogenates from samples collected mainly during surgery or post mortem. Recent developments of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) techniques and of radioligands suitable for cardiac receptor binding studies in vivo have made possible both the imaging and the measurement of receptor density. From these studies, important information is now available concerning physiologic and pathologic conditions, as well as alterations induced by treatment. For the investigation of myocardial B-adrenergic receptors we have used [ 11 C] CGP 12177, a potent hydrophilic antagonist of the 3-adrenergic receptor. The quantification of myocardial muscarinic receptors in vivo has been obtained with [ 11 C] MQNB, a nonmetabolized hydrophilic antagonist of the muscarinic receptor. Receptor density and affinity have been measured by a kinetic, nonequilibrium approach in an experimental protocol that provides sufficient data to determine values for all parameters from a single experiment

  4. [H-3]dihydroalprenolol binding to beta adrenergic receptors in multiple sclerosis brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, E; Wilczak, N; De Keyser, J

    2000-01-01

    By using immunocytochemistry we previously reported the absence of beta(2) adrenergic receptors on astrocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) white matter. Here, we measured beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptor concentrations in postmortem brain sections of six MS patients and six controls by using

  5. Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Mechanisms in Asthma: The New Long-Acting Beta-Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Townley

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to review β-adrenergic receptors and mechanisms in the immediate and late bronchial reaction in asthma and the new long-acting β-agonist. This will be discussed in light of the controversy of the potential adverse effect of regular use of long-acting β-agonists. We studied the effect of formoterol on the late asthmatic response (LAR and airway inflammation in guinea-pigs. Formoterol suppressed the LAR, antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, although isoproterenol failed to inhibit these parameters. β-Adrenergic hyporesponsiveness, and cholinergic and a- adrenergic hyperresponsiveness have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. A decrease in β-adrenoreceptor function can result either from exogenously administered β-agonist or from exposure to allergens resulting in a late bronchial reaction. There is increasing evidence that eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes which are of primary importance in the late bronchial reaction are also modulated by β2- adrenoreceptors. In functional studies of guinea-pig or human isolated trachea and lung parenchyma, PAF and certain cytokines significantly reduced the potency of isoproterenol to reverse methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction. The effect of glucocorticoids on pulmonary β-adrenergic receptors and responses suggests an important role for glucocorticoids to increase β-adrenergic receptors and responsiveness.

  6. Myocardial slice: a physiological approach to beta-adrenergic ([3H] CGP-12177) receptor binding in hamster and guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, W M; Armour, J A; Johnstone, D E; Wilkinson, M

    1989-08-01

    A new technique is described for the characterization and quantification of beta-adrenergic receptors in biologically viable slices of myocardium from the hamster right ventricle using the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]CGP-12177 (CGP). Binding was stereospecific, saturable, of high affinity, reversible, displaceable by appropriate drugs, and highly positively correlated with increasing tissue concentrations. Bmax for CGP binding to myocardial slices from 50-day-old male Golden Syrian hamsters was 3.28 +/- 0.15 fmol/mg wet weight, while Kd was 0.21 +/- 0.02 nM. Freezing resulted in a close to 50% loss of receptor number with no apparent change in affinity. The slice preparation may be utilized to detect in vivo changes in myocardial cell surface receptors, as evidenced by the fact that the number of receptors in slices from ischemic guinea pigs was increased (Bmax = 15.5 +/- 1.25 fmol/mg wet wt) compared with sham-operated controls (Bmax = 10.4 +/- 0.38 fmol/mg wet wt). The minimal tissue disruption associated with this procedure, as well as its speed, simplicity, and relatively low cost, suggest that the myocardial slice preparation provides an important methodology for the study of beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the semiintact myocardium.

  7. The use of (125I) iodocyanopindolol as a specific probe for beta-adrenergic receptors in differentiating cultured rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberg, Michael; Morris, S.A.; Krichevsky, Alexander; Bilezikian, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to examine more precisely the role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the process of differentiation the new radioligand iodocyanopindolol was used, and found to be a very useful probe to identify beta receptors. Binding charcteristics conformed to those expected for a physiologically relevant beta receptor. L 6 E 9 cells grown in horse serum, which allows differentiation exhibit increased beta receptor density in intact cells as a function of age. In contrast, cells grown in fetal calf serum, which does not allow differentiation, exhibit constant beta receptor density. In broken cells, however, both differentiating and non-differentiating cells show an increase in beta receptors. These results suggest that the process of differentiation is associated with an unmasking of beta receptors which are increasing but cryptic in undifferentiated cells. (author)

  8. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms and Cardiac Graft Function in Potential Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, K.K.; Pawlikowska, L.; Menza, R.L.; Goldstein, B.A.; Hayden, V.; Nguyen, J.; Kim, H.; Poon, A.; Sapru, A.; Matthay, M.A.; Kwok, P.Y.; Young, W.L.; Baxter-Lowe, L.A.; Zaroff, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated associations between β-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and left ventricular dysfunction—an important cause of allograft non-utilization for transplantation. We hypothesized that βAR polymorphisms predispose donor hearts to LV dysfunction after brain death. 1,043 organ donors managed from 2001-2006 were initially studied. The following βAR single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped: β1AR 1165C/G (Arg389Gly), β1AR 145A/G (Ser49Gly), β2AR 46G/A (Gly16Arg), and β2AR 79C/G (Gln27Glu). In multivariable regression analyses, the β2AR46 SNP was significantly associated with LV systolic dysfunction, with each minor allele additively decreasing the odds for LV ejection fractiondonor management period: donors with the GG and AA genotypes had ORs of 2.64 (95% CI 1.52-4.57) and 2.70 (1.07-2.74) respectively for requiring >10 mcg/kg/min of dopamine compared to those with the CC and GG genotypes. However, no significant associations were found between βAR SNPs and cardiac dysfunction in 364 donors managed from 2007-2008, perhaps due to changes in donor management, lack of power in this validation cohort, or the absence of a true association. βAR polymorphisms may be associated with cardiac dysfunction after brain death, but these relationships require further study in independent donor cohorts. PMID:22994654

  9. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta 2 -adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via [I 125 ]iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay

  10. Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed by CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kristin L; Doze, Van A; Porter, James E

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) using the selective beta-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) facilitates pyramidal cell long-term potentiation in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the rat hippocampus. We have previously analyzed beta-AR genomic expression patterns of 17 CA1 pyramidal cells using single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating that all samples expressed the beta2-AR transcript, with four of the 17 cells additionally expressing mRNA for the beta1-AR subtype. However, it has not been determined which beta-AR subtypes are functionally expressed in CA1 for these same pyramidal neurons. Using cell-attached recordings, we tested the ability of ISO to increase pyramidal cell action potential (AP) frequency in the presence of subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists. ICI-118,551 [(+/-)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol] and butoxamine [alpha-[1-(t-butylamino)ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) hydrochloride], agents that selectively block the beta2-AR, produced significant parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves for ISO. From these curves, apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K(b)) values of 0.3 nM for ICI-118,551 and 355 nM for butoxamine were calculated using Schild regression analysis. Conversely, effective concentrations of the selective beta1-AR antagonists CGP 20712A [(+/-)-2-hydroxy-5-[2-([2-hydroxy-3-(4-[1-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]phenoxy)propyl]amino)ethoxy]-benzamide methanesulfonate] and atenolol [4-[2'-hydroxy-3'-(isopropyl-amino)propoxy]phenylacetamide] did not significantly affect the pyramidal cell response to ISO. However, at higher concentrations, atenolol significantly decreased the potency for ISO-mediated AP frequencies. From these curves, an apparent atenolol K(b) value of 3162 nM was calculated. This pharmacological profile for subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists

  11. An investigation into the receptor-regulating effects of the acute administration of opioid agonists and an antagonist on beta adrenergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, I.

    1987-01-01

    Past and current research indicated that biochemical deviations which might be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of depression, included abnormalities or imbalances in the noradrenergic, serotonergic, hormonal and possibly in the endogenous opioid, dopaminergic, histaminergic, cholinergic and trace amine systems. In order to investigate a possible link between the noradrenergic system and opioids, it was decided to test the acute effects of opioid administration on cortical beta adrenoceptor numbers and affinity. As these receptors have been most consistently downregulated by antidepressant treatment, they may be involved in the mechanism of antidepressant action of these agents. It was decided to investigate beta adrenoceptor-regulatory effects of opioid treatment. Naloxone was tested alone, with a view to suppressing any possible endogenous opioid influences upon beta receptor status and revealing an effect which would possibly be the opposite of that brought about by the administration of opioid agonists. Naloxone was administered together with morphine to demonstrate that any beta receptor up- or downregulation which might be measured, had indeed been opioid-receptor mediated. It was found that the acute administration of four different mu opioid agonists, naloxone and naloxone plus morphine, did not cause any statistically significant alterations in cortical beta adrenergic receptor numbers or affinity in the rat. A radioactive ligand, the beta adrenoceptor-labelling compound referred to as DHA (L-dihydroalprenolol HCI) was used in this study

  12. Repeated stressor exposure enhances contextual fear memory in a beta-adrenergic receptor-dependent process and increases impulsivity in a non-beta receptor-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Robert M; Johnson, John D

    2015-10-15

    Memory formation is promoted by stress via the release of norepinephrine and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Previous data demonstrate that repeated stressor exposure increases norepinephrine turnover and β-AR signaling within the amygdala, which led to the hypothesis that some stress-induced behavioral changes are likely due to facilitated associative learning. To test this, Fischer rats were exposed to chronic mild stress for four days. On day 5, subjects (including non-stressed controls) were injected with the beta-blocker propranolol or vehicle prior to conditioning in an operant box (animals receive two mild foot shocks) or passive avoidance apparatus (animals received a foot shock upon entry into the dark chamber). Twenty-four hours later, subjects were returned to the operant box for measurement of freezing or returned to the passive avoidance apparatus for measurement of latency to enter the dark chamber. Subjects were also tested in an open field to assess context-independent anxiety-like behavior. Animals exposed to chronic stress showed significantly more freezing behavior in the operant box than did controls, and this exaggerated freezing was blocked by propranolol during the conditioning trial. There was no effect of stress on behavior in the open field. Unexpectedly, retention latency was significantly reduced in subjects exposed to chronic stress. These results indicate that chronic exposure to stress results in complex behavioral changes. While repeated stress appears to enhance the formation of fearful memories, it also results in behavioral responses that resemble impulsive behaviors that result in poor decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Increased Cyclic AMP Concentration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.; Bridge, K. Y.; Smith, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Analogies of epinephrine are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle when fed to animals. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through interaction with the P-adrenergic receptor. Since the intracellular signal generated by the Beta-adrenergic receptor is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in cell culture to determine if artificial elevation of cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter muscle protein metabolism and P-adrenergic receptor expression. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were treated with 0.2-30 micrometers forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the treatment period, both the concentration of cAMP and the quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were measured. Concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, the quantity of MHC was increased approximately 50% above control cells at 0.2 micrometers forskolin, but exhibited a gradual decline at higher levels of forskolin so that the quantity of MHC in cells treated with 30 micrometers forskolin was not significantly different from controls. Curiously, the intracellular concentration of cAMP which elicited the maximum increase in the quantity of MHC was only 40% higher than cAMP concentration in control cells.

  14. Beta-adrenergic receptors in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala contribute to the acquisition but not the consolidation of auditory fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David E A; Caparosa, Ellen M; Gekker, Anna; Ledoux, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptors (βARs) have long been associated with fear disorders and with learning and memory. However, the contribution of these receptors to Pavlovian fear conditioning, a leading behavioral model for studying fear learning and memory, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of βAR activation in the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear conditioning. We focused on manipulations of βARs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) because of the well-established contribution of this area to fear conditioning. Specifically, we tested the effects of intra-LA microinfusions of the βAR antagonist, propranolol, on learning and memory for auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. Pre-training propranolol infusions disrupted the initial acquisition, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM) for fear conditioning, but infusions immediately after training had no effect. Further, infusion of propranolol prior to testing fear responses did not affect fear memory expression. These findings indicate that amygdala βARs are important for the acquisition but not the consolidation of fear conditioning.

  15. Covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic ligand-binding site with para-(bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol. A highly potent beta-adrenergic affinity label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.E.; Heald, S.L.; Jeffs, P.W.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Para-(Bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol (pBABC) was synthesized and found to be an extremely potent affinity label for beta-adrenergic receptors. Its interaction with mammalian (rabbit and hamster lung) and nonmammalian (turkey and frog erythrocyte) beta-adrenergic receptors was similar, displaying EC 50 values of 400-900 pM for inhibiting 125 I-cyanopindolol binding to these receptors. pBABC reduced the number of beta-adrenergic receptors in frog erythrocyte membranes, without any change in the affinity of the remaining sites for [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. pBABC has been radioiodinated. As assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this affinity probe specifically labeled the beta-adrenergic peptide of a purified preparation of hamster lung, with high efficiency (approximately 40%) and with a pharmacological specificity characteristic of an interaction at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ligand-binding site. Comparison of the proteolyzed products derived from purified receptor labeled with [ 125 I]pBABC and with the photoaffinity agent [ 125 I]p-azidobenzylcarazolol suggested that covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic receptor by these probes occurs at similar domains of the beta-adrenergic receptor

  16. The Role of Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in the Regulation of Circadian Intraocular Pressure Rhythm in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Shunsuke; Higashide, Tomomi; Toida, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether the elimination of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors alters the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm in mice. β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized intraperitoneally, with their IOPs measured via microneedle method. After entrainment to a 12-h light-dark (LD) cycle (light phase 6:00-18:00), IOPs were measured every 3 h from 9:00 to 24:00 (group 1, β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice, n = 11; C57BL/6J, n = 15). The IOP measurements at 15:00 and 24:00 under a 12-h LD cycle and in the constant darkness (1 day and 8 days after exposure to darkness, respectively) were performed in another group of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice (group 2, n = 12). IOP variance throughout the day and mean IOP differences among time points were evaluated using a linear mixed model. β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J mice showed biphasic IOP curves, low during the light phase and high during the dark phase; the fluctuation was significant (P adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice group. IOP curves of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J were nearly parallel, and the IOPs of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice were significantly higher than those of C57BL/6J mice (P adrenergic receptors did not disturb the biphasic diurnal IOP rhythm in mice.

  17. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on beta adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system on surfaces of peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Tian, Y; Jin, S

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the level of CAMP, the ratio of cAPM to cGMP, IL-2R expression and IL-2 production in vitro in lymphocytes immediate and 2 weeks after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were significantly lower than those before anesthetics in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. These findings suggested that CPB could cause serious damage to adrenergic beta receptor-adenylate cyclase system on circulating lymphocytes surfaces, which might be one of the mechanisms resulting in immunosuppression after open heart surgery with CPB.

  18. Role of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Zeng, Di; Chen, Yan; Ding, Lu; Li, Wen-Ju; Wei, Ting; Ou, Dong-Bo; Yan, Song; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Qiang-Sun

    2017-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes are a promising source of cells for regenerative heart disease therapies, but progress towards their use has been limited by their low differentiation efficiency and high cellular heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated expression of adrenergic receptors (ARs) in stem cells after differentiation; however, roles of ARs in fate specification of stem cells, particularly in cardiomyocyte differentiation and development, have not been characterized. Murine-induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) were cultured in hanging drops to form embryoid bodies, cells of which were then differentiated into cardiomyocytes. To determine whether ARs regulated miPSC differentiation into cardiac lineages, effects of the AR agonist, epinephrine (EPI), on miPSC differentiation and underlying signalling mechanisms, were evaluated. Treatment with EPI, robustly enhanced miPSC cardiac differentiation, as indicated by increased expression levels of cardiac-specific markers, GATA4, Nkx2.5 and Tnnt2. Although β-AR signalling is the foremost signalling pathway in cardiomyocytes, EPI-enhanced cardiac differentiation depended more on α-AR signalling than β-AR signalling. In addition, selective activation of α 1 -AR signalling with specific agonists induced vigorous cardiomyocyte differentiation, whereas selective activation of α 2 - or β-AR signalling induced no or less differentiation, respectively. EPI- and α 1 -AR-dependent cardiomyocyte differentiation from miPSCs occurred through specific promotion of CPC proliferation via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and regulation of miPS cell-cycle progression. These results demonstrate that activation of ARs, particularly of α 1 -ARs, promoted miPSC differentiation into cardiac lineages via MEK-ERK1/2 signalling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Deletion of Nhlh2 results in a defective torpor response and reduced Beta adrenergic receptor expression in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh D Wankhade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice with a targeted deletion of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Nescient Helix-Loop-Helix 2 (Nhlh2, display adult-onset obesity with significant increases in their fat depots, abnormal responses to cold exposure, and reduced spontaneous physical activity levels. These phenotypes, accompanied by the hypothalamic expression of Nhlh2, make the Nhlh2 knockout (N2KO mouse a useful model to study the role of central nervous system (CNS control on peripheral tissue such as adipose tissue.Differences in body temperature and serum analysis of leptin were performed in fasted and ad lib fed wild-type (WT and N2KO mice. Histological analysis of white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT was performed. Gene and protein level expression of inflammatory and metabolic markers were compared between the two genotypes.We report significant differences in serum leptin levels and body temperature in N2KO mice compared with WT mice exposed to a 24-hour fast, suggestive of a defect in both white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT function. As compared to WT mice, N2KO mice showed increased serum IL-6 protein and WAT IL-6 mRNA levels. This was accompanied by slight elevations of mRNA for several macrophage markers, including expression of macrophage specific protein F4/80 in adipose, suggestive of macrophage infiltration of WAT in the mutant animals. The mRNAs for beta3-adrenergic receptors (beta3-AR, beta2-AR and uncoupling proteins were significantly reduced in WAT and BAT from N2KO mice compared with WT mice.These studies implicate Nhlh2 in the central control of WAT and BAT function, with lack of Nhlh2 leading to adipose inflammation and altered gene expression, impaired leptin response to fasting, all suggestive of a deficient torpor response in mutant animals.

  20. Beta-adrenergic receptors support attention to extinction learning that occurs in the absence, but not the presence, of a context change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Emma André

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The noradrenergic (NA-system is an important regulator of cognitive function. It contributes to extinction learning(EL, and in disorders where EL is impaired NA-dysfunction has been postulated. We explored whether NA acting on beta-adrenergic-receptors (β-AR, regulates EL that depends on context, but is not fear-associated. We assessed behaviour in an ‘AAA’ or ‘ABA’ paradigm: rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze(context-A to learn that a reward is consistently found in the goal arm, despite low reward probability. This was followed on day 4 by EL(unrewarded, whereby in the ABA-paradigm, EL was reinforced by a context change (B, and in the AAA-paradigm, no context change occurred. On day 5, re-exposure to the A-context (unrewarded occurred. Typically, in control ‘AAA’ animals EL occurred on day 4 that progressed further on day 5. In control ‘ABA’ animals, EL also occurred on day 4, followed by renewal of the previously learned (A behavior on day 5, that was followed (in day 5 by extinction of this behavior, as the animals realised that no food reward would be given.Treatment with the β-AR-antagonist, propranolol, prior to EL on day 4, impaired EL in the AAA-paradigm. In the ‘ABA’ paradigm, antagonist treatment on day 4, had no effect on extinction that was reinforced by a context change (B. Furthermore, β-AR-antagonism prior to renewal testing (on day 5 in the ABA-paradigm, resulted in normal renewal behavior, although subsequent extinction of responses during day 5 was prevented by the antagonist. Thus, under both treatment conditions, β-AR-antagonism prevented extinction of the behavior learned in the ‘A’ context.β-AR-blockade during an overt context change did not prevent EL, whereas β-AR were required for EL in an unchanging context. These data suggest that β-AR may support EL by reinforcing attention towards relevant changes in the previously learned experience, and that this process supports extinction

  1. Beta-adrenergic receptors support attention to extinction learning that occurs in the absence, but not the presence, of a context change

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Wolf, Oliver T.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The noradrenergic (NA)-system is an important regulator of cognitive function. It contributes to extinction learning (EL), and in disorders where EL is impaired NA-dysfunction has been postulated. We explored whether NA acting on beta-adrenergic-receptors (β-AR), regulates EL that depends on context, but is not fear-associated. We assessed behavior in an “AAA” or “ABA” paradigm: rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze (context-A) to learn that a reward is consistently found in the goal arm, despite low reward probability. This was followed on day 4 by EL (unrewarded), whereby in the ABA-paradigm, EL was reinforced by a context change (B), and in the AAA-paradigm, no context change occurred. On day 5, re-exposure to the A-context (unrewarded) occurred. Typically, in control “AAA” animals EL occurred on day 4 that progressed further on day 5. In control “ABA” animals, EL also occurred on day 4, followed by renewal of the previously learned (A) behavior on day 5, that was succeeded (on day 5) by extinction of this behavior, as the animals realised that no food reward would be given. Treatment with the β-AR-antagonist, propranolol, prior to EL on day 4, impaired EL in the AAA-paradigm. In the “ABA” paradigm, antagonist treatment on day 4, had no effect on extinction that was reinforced by a context change (B). Furthermore, β-AR-antagonism prior to renewal testing (on day 5) in the ABA-paradigm, resulted in normal renewal behavior, although subsequent extinction of responses during day 5 was prevented by the antagonist. Thus, under both treatment conditions, β-AR-antagonism prevented extinction of the behavior learned in the “A” context. β-AR-blockade during an overt context change did not prevent EL, whereas β-AR were required for EL in an unchanging context. These data suggest that β-AR may support EL by reinforcing attention towards relevant changes in the previously learned experience, and that this process supports extinction

  2. Alpha and beta adrenergic effects on metabolism in contracting, perfused muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Galbo, H

    1982-01-01

    The role of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation for the effect of epinephrine on muscle glycogenolysis, glucose- and oxygen uptake and muscle performance was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter at rest and during electrical stimulation (60 contractions/min). Adrenergic stimulation...... was obtained by epinephrine in a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) and alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade by 10(-5) M phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Epinephrine enhanced net glycogenolysis during contractions most markedly in slow-twitch red fibers. In these fibers the effect...... was mediated by alpha- as well as by beta-adrenergic stimulation, the latter involving production of cAMP, phosphorylase activation and synthase inactivation. In contrast, in fast-twitch fibers only beta-adrenergic mechanisms were involved in the glycogenolytic effect of epinephrine. Moreover, inactivation...

  3. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Rescues Theta Frequency Stimulation-Induced LTP Deficits in Mice Expressing C-Terminally Truncated NMDA Receptor GluN2A Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Teena D.; Watabe, Ayako M.; Indersmitten, Tim; Komiyama, Noboru H.; Grant, Seth G. N.; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Through protein interactions mediated by their cytoplasmic C termini the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a key role in the formation of NMDAR signaling complexes at excitatory synapses. Although these signaling complexes are thought to have a crucial role in NMDAR-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term…

  4. Beta-Adrenergic signaling in rat heart is similarly affected by continuous and intermittent normobaric hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hahnová, K.; Kašparová, D.; Žurmanová, J.; Neckář, Jan; Kolář, František; Novotný, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2016), s. 165-173 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rat myocardium * chronic hypoxia * beta-adrenergic receptors * adenylyl cyclase Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  5. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  6. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  7. Synthesis and biodistribution of R- and S-isomers of [{sup 18}F]-fluoropropranolol, a lipophilic ligand for the {beta}-adrenergic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, Timothy J. E-mail: ttewson@u.washington.edu; Stekhova, Svetlana; Kinsey, Berma; Chen, Lay; Wiens, Linda; Barber, Roger

    1999-11-01

    The S and R isomers of [{sup 18}F]-fluoropropranolol (1-[1-fluoro-2-isopropylamino]-3-naphthalen-1-yloxy-propan-2-ol) have been prepared by reductive alkylation of the appropriate aminoalcohols. The radiosynthesis provides a reasonable yield ({approx}25%) to give products of 99% enantiomeric excess and specific activities of 1-3 Ci/{mu}mol. The dissociation constants for the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor are 0.5 and 2.5 nM for the S and the R isomers, respectively. The biodistribution data in rats show that uptake and egress of the tracer is rapid but that the result of blocking studies and the difference between the R and the S isomers suggest receptor-mediated uptake in receptor-rich tissue.

  8. Absence of age-related changes in the binding of the beta adrenergic antagonist 125I-iodohydroxybenzylpindolol in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumer, N.; Bender, J.; Roberts, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of age on the density and the affinity of beta adrenergic receptors was determined in the hearts of Fischer 344 rats at three ages, 6, 12, and 24 months old. The binding of the beta adrenergic antagonist 125 I-iodohydroxybenzylpindolol (IHYP), was used to quantitate and characterize cardiac beta adrenergic receptors. The maximal number of binding sites (B/sub max/ = F moles/mg of protein) were 26.3 +/- 2.5, 25.4 +/- 0.99, and 24.5 +/- 2.4 and the dissociation constants (K/sub d/ = nM) were 0.166 +/- 0.014, 0.126 +/- 0.006, and 0.135 +/- 0.015 for 6, 12, and 24 months old animals, respectively. There were no significant differences among the three ages. These results support the contention that neither beta adrenergic receptor density of affinity changes with age in the ventricles of the rat heart

  9. Beta-adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, D L; Hershman, J M

    1992-07-01

    To review the clinical and biochemical effects of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs on hyperthyroidism. Studies published since 1972 were identified through a computerized search of MEDLINE and extensive searching of the bibliographies of the articles identified. Based on an understanding of the differences in beta-blocker metabolism in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, we reviewed the differences in pharmacokinetics and metabolic and clinical outcomes during their use in hyperthyroidism, as reported in the articles reviewed. beta Blockers have been used to modify the severity of the hyperadrenergic symptoms of hyperthyroidism for the past 20 years. The clinical efficacy of these agents is affected by hyperthyroid-induced alterations in their gastrointestinal absorption, hepatic metabolism, and renal excretion. The mechanisms whereby these clinical changes are effected is unknown. The agents differ in their beta 1 cardioselectivity, membrane-stabilizing activity, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and lipid solubility. They do not appear to alter synthesis or secretion of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Their effects on thyroxine metabolism are contradictory. Decreased thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion is caused by some, but not all, beta blockers, and this appears to correlate with membrane-stabilizing activity. There does not appear to be any alteration in catecholamine sensitivity during beta-adrenergic blockade. The principal mechanism of action of beta blockers in hyperthyroidism is to antagonize beta-receptor-mediated effects of catecholamines. beta Blockers are effective in treating hypermetabolic symptoms in a variety of hyperthyroid states. Used alone, they offer significant symptomatic relief. They are also useful adjuvants to antithyroid medications, surgery, and radioactive iodide treatment in patients with Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiters.

  10. Cooperative regulation of non-small cell lung carcinoma by nicotinic and beta-adrenergic receptors: a novel target for intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A N Al-Wadei

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death; 80-85% of lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Smoking is a documented risk factor for the development of this cancer. Although nicotine does not have the ability to initiate carcinogenic events, recent studies have implicated nicotine in growth stimulation of NSCLC. Using three NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H322, NCI-H441 and NCI-H1299, we identified the cooperation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs as principal regulators of these effects. Proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, and Western blots were used to monitor the upregulation of the nAChRs and activation of signaling molecules. Noradrenaline and GABA were measured by immunoassays. Nicotine-treated NSCLC cells showed significant induction of the α7nAChR and α4nAChR, along with significant inductions of p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 accompanied by increases in the stress neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which in turn led to the observed increase in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Effects on cell proliferation and signaling proteins were reversed by the α7nAChR antagonist α-BTX or the β-blocker propranolol. Nicotine treatment also down-regulated expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD 65 and the level of endogenous GABA, while treatment of NSCLC cells with GABA inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, GABA acts by reducing β-adrenergic activated cAMP signaling. Our findings suggest that nicotine-induced activation of this autocrine noradrenaline-initiated signaling cascade and concomitant deficiency in inhibitory GABA, similar to modulation of these neurotransmitters in the nicotine-addicted brain, may contribute to the development of NSCLC in smokers. Our data suggest that exposure to nicotine either by tobacco smoke or nicotine supplements facilitates growth and progression of NSCLC and that pharmacological intervention by β blocker may

  11. The Relationship between Birthweight and Longitudinal Changes of Blood Pressure Is Modulated by Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Genes: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the genetic influence of β-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms (β2-AR Arg16Gly and β3-AR Trp64Arg on the relationship of birthweight to longitudinal changes of blood pressure (BP from childhood to adulthood in 224 black and 515 white adults, aged 21–47 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Blacks showed significantly lower birthweight and frequencies of β2-AR Gly16 and β3-AR Trp64 alleles and higher BP levels and age-related trends than whites. In multivariable regression analyses using race-adjusted BP and birthweight, low birthweight was associated with greater increase in age-related trend of systolic BP (standardized regression coefficient β=−0.09, P=.002 and diastolic BP (β=−0.07, P=.037 in the combined sample of blacks and whites, adjusting for the first BP measurement in childhood, sex, age, and gestational age. Adjustment for the current body mass index strengthened the birthweight-BP association. Importantly, the strength of the association, measured as regression coefficients, was modulated by the combination of β2-AR and β3-AR genotypes for systolic (P=.042 for interaction and diastolic BP age-related trend (P=.039 for interaction, with blacks and whites showing a similar trend in the interaction. These findings indicate that the intrauterine programming of BP regulation later in life depends on β-AR genotypes.

  12. Beta Adrenergic Regulation of Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Intact Rat and Isolated Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA allow large diameter particles of venous origin to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed and embolize the systemic arterial circulation. IPAVA have been routinely observed in healthy humans with exercise, hypoxia, and catecholamine infusion, but the mechanism by which they are recruited is not well-defined. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation recruits IPAVA and that receptor blockade would limit hypoxia-induced IPAVA recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the transpulmonary passage of microspheres in intact rats and isolated rats lung infused with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. We also evaluated IPAVA recruitment in intact rats with hypoxia and the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol. We found that IPAVA are recruited in the intact rat by isoproterenol and their recruitment by hypoxia can be minimized by propranolol, suggesting a role for the adrenergic system in the recruitment of IPAVA by hypoxia. IPAVA recruitment is completely abolished by ventilation with 100% oxygen. Isoproterenol also recruits IPAVA in isolated rat lungs. The fact that isoproterenol can recruit IPAVA in isolated lungs, without increased pulmonary flow, suggests that elevated cardiac output is not required for IPAVA recruitment.

  13. Central beta-adrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beversdorf, David Q; White, Dawn M; Chever, Daquesha C; Hughes, John D; Bornstein, Robert A

    2002-12-20

    Situational stressors and anxiety impede performance on creativity tests requiring cognitive flexibility. Preliminary research revealed better performance on a task requiring cognitive flexibility, the anagram task, after propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) than after ephedrine (beta-adrenergic agonist). However, propranolol and ephedrine have both peripheral and central beta-adrenergic effects. In order to determine whether noradrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility is a centrally or peripherally mediated phenomenon, we compared the effects of propranolol (peripheral and central beta-blocker), nadolol (peripheral beta-blocker), and placebo on anagram task performance. Solution latency scores for each subject were compared across the drug conditions. Anagram solution latency scores after propranolol were significantly lower than after nadolol. This suggests a centrally mediated modulatory influence of the noradrenergic system on cognitive flexibility.

  14. Ghrelin potentiates cardiac reactivity to stress by modulating sympathetic control and beta-adrenergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Turones, Larissa Córdova; da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Nunes, Allancer; de Jesus, Itamar Guedes; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Pansani, Aline Priscila; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Santos, Robson; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Guatimosim, Silvia; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar; Xavier, Carlos Henrique

    2018-03-01

    Prior evidence indicates that ghrelin is involved in the integration of cardiovascular functions and behavioral responses. Ghrelin actions are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a), which is expressed in peripheral tissues and central areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, we assessed the role of ghrelin - GHS-R1a axis in the cardiovascular reactivity to acute emotional stress in rats. Ghrelin potentiated the tachycardia evoked by restraint and air jet stresses, which was reverted by GHS-R1a blockade. Evaluation of the autonomic balance revealed that the sympathetic branch modulates the ghrelin-evoked positive chronotropy. In isolated hearts, the perfusion with ghrelin potentiated the contractile responses caused by stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor, without altering the amplitude of the responses evoked by acetylcholine. Experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes revealed that ghrelin amplified the increases in calcium transient changes evoked by isoproterenol. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ghrelin-GHS-R1a axis potentiates the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia by modulating the autonomic nervous system and peripheral mechanisms, strongly relying on the activation of cardiac calcium transient and beta-adrenergic receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) and beta-adrenergic regulation of breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Howard K III; Yu, Qiang; Cakir, Yavuz; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that at various organ sites there is a subset of adenocarcinomas that is regulated by beta-adrenergic and arachidonic acid-mediated signal transduction pathways. We wished to determine if this regulation exists in breast adenocarcinomas. Expression of mRNA that encodes a G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) has been shown in tissue samples from approximately 40% of primary human breast cancers. Previously, GIRK channels have been associated with beta-adrenergic signaling. Breast cancer cell lines were screened for GIRK channels by RT-PCR. Cell cultures of breast cancer cells were treated with beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists, and changes in gene expression were determined by both relative competitive and real time PCR. Potassium flux was determined by flow cytometry and cell signaling was determined by western blotting. Breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-361 MDA-MB 453, and ZR-75-1 expressed mRNA for the GIRK1 channel, while MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-435S did not. GIRK4 was expressed in all six breast cancer cell lines, and GIRK2 was expressed in all but ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-435. Exposure of MDA-MB-453 cells for 6 days to the beta-blocker propranolol (1 μM) increased the GIRK1 mRNA levels and decreased beta 2 -adrenergic mRNA levels, while treatment for 30 minutes daily for 7 days had no effect. Exposure to a beta-adrenergic agonist and antagonist for 24 hours had no effect on gene expression. The beta adrenergic agonist, formoterol hemifumarate, led to increases in K + flux into MDA-MB-453 cells, and this increase was inhibited by the GIRK channel inhibitor clozapine. The tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a high affinity agonist for beta-adrenergic receptors stimulated activation of Erk 1/2 in MDA-MB-453 cells. Our data suggests β-adrenergic receptors and GIRK channels may play a role in breast cancer

  16. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  17. Association between Selective Beta-adrenergic Drugs and Blood Pressure Elevation: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.

  18. PET measures of pre- and post-synaptic cardiac beta adrenergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Jeanne M.; Stratton, John R.; Levy, Wayne; Poole, Jeanne E.; Shoner, Steven C.; Stuetzle, Werner; Caldwell, James H. E-mail: jcald@u.washington.edu

    2003-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography was used to measure global and regional cardiac {beta}-adrenergic function in 19 normal subjects and 9 congestive heart failure patients. [{sup 11}C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine was used to image norepinephrine transporter function as an indicator of pre-synaptic function and [{sup 11}C]-CGP12177 was used to measure cell surface {beta}-receptor density as an indicator of post-synaptic function. Pre-synaptic, but not post-synaptic, function was significantly different between normals and CHF patients. Pre-synaptic function was well matched to post-synaptic function in the normal hearts but significantly different and poorly matched in the CHF patients studied. This imaging technique can help us understand regional sympathetic function in cardiac disease.

  19. Peripheral beta-adrenergic blockade treatment of parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Larsen, T A; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting, postural, and intention tremor was examined in 8 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease whose motor symptoms, other than tremor, were well controlled with conventional medications. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for six weeks while continuing their previous therapeutic regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a 34% reduction (p less than 0.025) in tremor distance, but no change in tremor frequency, during nadolol therapy. Maximum benefit was achieved with a dose of 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 54%, postural tremor 32%, and intention tremor 54%. Physician ratings and patient reports supported the accelerometer results. Nadolol appears to be a safe, effective adjunct to current dopaminergic and anticholinergic therapy for severe tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockade prevents reduction of the cerebral metabolic ratio during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Intense exercise decreases the cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen to carbohydrates [O(2)/(glucose + (1/2)lactate)], but whether this ratio is influenced by adrenergic stimulation is not known. In eight males, incremental cycle ergometry increased arterial lactate to 15.3 +/- 4.2 mm (mean +/- s.......d.) and the arterial-jugular venous (a-v) difference from -0.02 +/- 0.03 mm at rest to 1.0 +/- 0.5 mm (P cerebral metabolic ratio decreased from 5.5 +/- 1.4 to 3.0 +/- 0.3 (P ... of a non-selective beta-adrenergic (beta(1) + beta(2)) receptor antagonist (propranolol) reduced heart rate (69 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 6 beats min(-1)) and exercise capacity (239 +/- 42 to 209 +/- 31 W; P

  1. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Saris, W.H.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  2. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E E; Saris, W H; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  3. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Jari J; Juntti-Patinen, Laura; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-03-01

    Grapefruit juice was recently found to decrease plasma concentrations of the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent celiprolol. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study with 2 phases and a washout of 2 weeks, 10 healthy volunteers ingested either 200 mL normal-strength orange juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On the morning of day 3, 1 hour after ingestion of 200 mL orange juice or water, each subject ingested 100 mg celiprolol with either 200 mL orange juice or water. In addition, 200 mL orange juice or water was ingested at 4, 10, 22, and 27 hours after celiprolol intake. The concentrations of celiprolol in plasma and its excretion into urine were measured up to 33 hours after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded up to 10 hours. Orange juice reduced the mean peak plasma concentration of celiprolol by 89% (P orange juice. Orange juice reduced the urinary excretion of celiprolol by 77% (P Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of celiprolol, but the mechanism of this interaction remains to be resolved. For example, modulation of intestinal pH and of function of transporters implicated in the absorption of celiprolol may be involved. Because of the great extent of the orange juice-celiprolol interaction and a wide use of orange juice, this interaction is likely to have clinical importance in some patients, although hemodynamic consequences were not seen in young healthy subjects.

  4. Selectivity of beta-adrenergic stimulating and blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Studies have been performed to answer two questions: whether there are subgroups of beta 2-receptors separating effects in bronchial and skeletal muscle and whether beta 1-receptors in asthmatic airways mediate bronchoconstriction. Asthmatic patients have been studied in randomised cross-over trials. Effects on FEV1, heart rate and skeletal muscle tremor have been monitored. In some experimental studies, two new compounds, D2343 and QH-25, have shown a selectivity for beta 2-receptors in bronchial muscle compared to skeletal muscle. Studies in asthmatics did not confirm this. Thus, the beta 2-receptors in the two organs appear to be identical. The clinical effect of beta 1-receptors in the the airways was studied by giving selective beta 1-receptor blocking agents. It was shown that pafenolol , a beta-blocker more beta 1-selective than metoprolol, had less effect on FEV1 than metoprolol given in equipotent beta 1-blocking doses. Beta 1-receptor stimulation with a new selective beta 1-stimulating agent, prenalterol, did not give bronchodilation in doses which gave a significant increase of heart rate. Thus, beta 1-receptors do not contribute to bronchodilation in asthmatic patients.

  5. Effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on sympathetic neuronal function and {beta}-adrenergic desensitization in heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, Akihiko; Nozawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naohiro [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    One of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure may derive from sympathoinhibition and the prevention of {beta}-adrenergic desensitization. However, the roles of these properties in the overall effects of ACE inhibitor are not clear. We studied the effects of chronic enalapril treatment (20 mg/L in drinking water for 12 weeks) on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac norepinephrine (NE), sympathetic neuronal function assessed by {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {beta}-receptors, and isometric contraction of papillary muscle in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) induced by coronary artery ligation. Decreased LV function in the MI rats was associated with reduced cardiac NE content and MIBG uptake, and severely blunted responses of non-infarcted papillary muscle to isoproterenol, forskolin, and calcium. Enalapril attenuated LV remodeling in association with a reduction of the ventricular loading condition and restored baseline developed tension of non-infarcted papillary muscle to the level of sham-operated rats. However, enalapril did not improve cardiac NE content, MIBG uptake, or inotropic responsiveness to {beta}-agonists. These results suggest that the major effect of the ACE inhibitor enalapril in the treatment of heart failure is not due to sympathoinhibition or restoration of {beta}-adrenergic pathway in this model of heart failure. (author)

  6. Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Walter J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct, acting as a Gβγ-β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced cardiac performance in both normal and failing rabbit hearts. In addition, βARKct adenovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle is capable of significantly diminishing neointimal proliferation after angioplasty. Therefore, further investigation is warranted to determine whether inhibition of βARK1 activity and sequestration of Gβγ via an adenovirus that encodes the βARKct transgene might be a useful clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies.

  7. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Does not Prevent Polycythemia or Decrease in Plasma Volume in Men at 4300 m Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, R. F.; Selland, M. A.; McCullough, R. G.; Dahms, T. E.; Wolfel, E. E.; Butterfield, G. E.; Reeves, J. T.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    When humans ascend to high altitude (ALT) their plasma volume (PV) and total blood volume (BV) decrease during the first few days. With continued residence over several weeks, the hypoxia-induced stimulation of erythropoietin increases red cell production which tends to restore BV. Because hypoxia also activates the beta-adrenergic system, which stimulates red blood cell production, we investigated the effect of adrenergic beta-receptor inhibition with propranolol on fluid volumes and the polycythemic response in 11 healthy unacclimatized men (21-33 years old exposed to an ALT of 4300 m (barometric pressure 460 Torr) for 3 weeks on Pikes Peak, Colorado. PV was determined by the Evans blue dye method (PV(sub EB)), BV by the carbon monoxide method (BV(sub CO)), red cell volume (RCV)was calculated from hematocrit (Hct) and BV(sub CO), and serum erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) and reticulocyte count, were also determined. All determinations were made at sea level and after 9-11 (ALT-10) and 9-20 (ALT-20) days at ALT. At sea level and ALT, six men received propranolol (pro, 240 mg/day), and five received a placebo (pla). Effective beta-blockade did not modify the mean (SE) maximal values of [EPO] [pla: 24.9 (3.5) vs pro: 24.5 (1.5) mU/ml] or reticulocyte count [pla: 2.7 (0.7) vs pro: 2.2 (0.5)%]; nor changes in PV(sub EB)[pla: -15.8 (3.8) vs pro: -19.9 (2.8)%], RCV(sub CO) [pla: +7.0 (6.7) vs pro: +10.1 (6.1)%], or BV(sub CO) [pla: -7.3 (2.3) vs pro: -7.1 (3.9)%]. In the absence of weight loss, a redistribution of body water with no net loss is implied. Hence, activation of the beta-adrenergic system did not appear to affect the hypovolemic or polycythemic responses that occurred during 3 weeks at 4300 m ALT in these subjects.

  8. Effect of nipradilol, a beta-adrenergic blocker with vasodilating activity, on oxotremorine-induced tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, S; Nomoto, M; Fukuda, T

    1996-10-01

    The effect of nipradilol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker with nitroglycerin-like vasodilating activity, on oxotremorine-induced tremor was studied in mice. General tremor in mice was elicited by 0.5 mg/kg oxotremorine. The tremor was quantified using a capacitance transducer, then analyzed by a signal processor. The strength of the tremor was expressed in "points". The point values of the tremor (mean +/- SE) in control mice for 5 mg/kg (+/-)-propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg arotinolol, 0.5 mg/kg nipradilol, 1.0 mg/kg nipradilol and 2.5 mg/kg nipradilol were 87 +/- 16, 42 +/- 6, 38 +/- 6, 99 +/- 28, 28 +/- 6 and 31 +/- 7, respectively. The strength of the tremor was reduced by all beta-blockers. Although 1.0 mg/kg nipradilol significantly reduced the tremor, further inhibition of the tremor was not obtained with dosages up to 2.5 mg/kg of the drug. In conclusion, nipradilol was effective for suppressing oxotremorine-induced tremor, as were other beta-blockers.

  9. beta-adrenergic effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the unweighted rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of unweighting on the response of the soleus-muscle carbohydrate metabolism to a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) was investigated in rats that were subjected to three days of tail-cast suspension. It was found that isoproterenol promoted glycogen degradation in soleus from suspended rats to a higher degree than in weighted soleus from control rats, and had no effect in unweighted digitorum longus. However, isoproterenol did not have a greater inhibitory effect on the net uptake of tritium-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose by the unweighted soleus and that isoproterenol inhibited hexose phosphorylation less in the unweighted than in the control muscle.

  10. Potential of beta-adrenergic agonists for increasing protein deposition in ruminants in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berschauer, F.

    1989-01-01

    Various substituted phenylethanolamines, acting on the sympathetic nervous system, have been shown to increase protein retention (via decreased proteolysis) and reduce fat deposition (via increased lipolysis and reduced lipogenesis) in ruminants and monogastrics. Research with finishing lambs in developed countries show various beta-adrenergic agonists to improve growth rate (by 18%), feed conversion (by 12%) and carcass quality (28% increase in area of longissimus dorsi and 33% reduction in subcutaneous fat). Similar effects of beta-agonists on carcass composition of well fed cattle have been reported. The effects of beta-agonists on livestock in developing countries of the tropics have not yet been investigated, but their effects in increasing metabolic rate suggest that treated ruminants would be more vulnerable to hot environments. Beta-agonists appear to improve nitrogen retention to a greater extent in breeds with a lower potential for muscle growth. In view of this, they might be particularly effective in improving nitrogen retention in tropical breeds which have a low growth potential. This aspect, together with the response of undernourished animals in the developing countries, needs investigation. Beta-adrenergic agonists are not yet registered for use in animal production, but product licenses for some of them are expected to be granted soon. (author). 31 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs

  11. Beta adrenergic overstimulation impaired vascular contractility via actin-cytoskeleton disorganization in rabbit cerebral artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Beta adrenergic overstimulation may increase the vascular damage and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of beta adrenergic overstimulation in cerebrovascular dysfunctions are not well known. We investigated the possible cerebrovascular dysfunction response to isoproterenol induced beta-adrenergic overstimulation (ISO in rabbit cerebral arteries (CAs. METHODS: ISO was induced in six weeks aged male New Zealand white rabbit (0.8-1.0 kg by 7-days isoproterenol injection (300 μg/kg/day. We investigated the alteration of protein expression in ISO treated CAs using 2DE proteomics and western blot analysis. Systemic properties of 2DE proteomics result were analyzed using bioinformatics software. ROS generation and following DNA damage were assessed to evaluate deteriorative effect of ISO on CAs. Intracellular Ca(2+ level change and vascular contractile response to vasoactive drug, angiotensin II (Ang II, were assessed to evaluate functional alteration of ISO treated CAs. Ang II-induced ROS generation was assessed to evaluated involvement of ROS generation in CA contractility. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis revealed remarkably decreased expression of cytoskeleton organizing proteins (e.g. actin related protein 1A and 2, α-actin, capping protein Z beta, and vimentin and anti-oxidative stress proteins (e.g. heat shock protein 9A and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 in ISO-CAs. As a cause of dysregulation of actin-cytoskeleton organization, we found decreased level of RhoA and ROCK1, which are major regulators of actin-cytoskeleton organization. As functional consequences of proteomic alteration, we found the decreased transient Ca(2+ efflux and constriction response to angiotensin II and high K(+ in ISO-CAs. ISO also increased basal ROS generation and induced oxidative damage in CA; however, it decreased the Ang II-induced ROS generation rate. These results indicate that ISO disrupted actin cytoskeleton proteome network

  12. The role of stress and beta-adrenergic system in melanoma: current knowledge and possible therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Roberta; Moretti, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present review was to discuss recent findings on the role of beta-adrenergic system in melanoma, in order to provide information on the biological responses elicited by its activation and its potential application for melanoma treatment. A literature search was performed, and evidences regarding the involvement of stress and beta-adrenergic system in cancer and melanoma were found and discussed. Our search pointed out that beta-adrenergic system is a key regulator of important biological processes involved in the onset and progression of some solid tumors. In the last decade, functional beta-adrenoceptors have been also identified on melanoma cells, as well as on their microenvironment cells. Similarly to other common cancers too, the activation of such adrenoceptors by catecholamines, usually released under stress conditions, has been found to trigger pro-tumorigenic pathways contributing to cell proliferation and motility, immune system regulation, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and neoangiogenesis. The biological evidences we found clarify and sustain the clinical evidences reporting the involvement of chronic stress in melanoma onset and progression. In such scenario, it is conceivable that a therapeutic approach targeting beta-adrenergic system could constitute a novel and promising strategy for melanoma treatment.

  13. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. The effect of acute beta-adrenergic inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Tuxen, C

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with histologically verified small cell lung carcinoma were given an oral glucose load of 75 g on two occasions to examine the effect of glucose on whole body and forearm thermogenesis with and without acute beta-adrenergic inhibition with propranolol. Whole body energy expenditure...

  14. Effect of interleukin 13 on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the bronchoprotective effect of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators and corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert G; Gendapodi, Pradeep R; Qutna, Nidal; Evans, Joseph; Romero, Francisco A; Abel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone affects airway bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and enhances bronchodilation and bronchoprotection induced by beta-adrenergic agonists. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), however, induces BHR. To test the hypotheses that fluticasone inhibits BHR after either allergen sensitization or IL-13 administration and that fluticasone restores the bronchodilation and bronchoprotective effects of beta-agonists. The BHR to methacholine induced by IL-13 or ovalbumin was determined in BALB/c mice, and the provocation concentration of methacholine that caused an increase in enhanced pause in expiration of 200% (PC200) was calculated. We compared this response to methacholine in control mice with the response after treatment with IL-13 receptor alpha 2-IgGFc fusion protein (IL-13R alpha 2) (an IL-13 blocker), fluticasone, albuterol, salmeterol, fluticasone-albuterol, and fluticasone-salmeterol. IL-13R alpha 2 (PC200, 17.59) completely blocks the BHR-induced effects of IL-13 (PC200, 7.28; P < .005). After IL-13 therapy (PC200, 5.90; P < .005), 1 mg/mL of albuterol (PC200, 3.38; P = .33), fluticasone (PC200, 4.59; P = .40), or fluticasone plus 50 microg/mL of salmeterol (PC200, 5.59; P = .11) showed no significant bronchoprotection. In nonsensitized mice, fluticasone plus 0.25 microg/mL of salmeterol (PC200, 25.90; P < .005) showed significantly greater bronchoprotection than did salmeterol alone (PC200, 11.08; P = .26). Fluticasone plus 0.3 mg/mL of albuterol and fluticasone plus 1 mg/mL of albuterol were significantly more protective than was fluticasone or albuterol alone in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. The protective effects of fluticasone, beta-agonists, and fluticasone plus beta-agonists are significantly less in IL-13-treated mice than in nonsensitized or ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

  15. Hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation responses to exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachini, Maristela C; Lage, Silvia G; Ran, Miguel A N; Cardoso, Rita H A; Medeiros, Caio; Caramelli, Bruno; Sposito, Andrei C; Ramires, José A F

    2004-07-01

    Exercise-induced dyspnea is a frequent feature in patients with hyperthyroidism. Data from clinical studies to elucidate the origin of this symptom are lacking. In the current study, we examined the hemodynamic and oxygenation responses to exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism and their relationship with dyspnea. Hemodynamic studies were performed under resting conditions and after isotonic exercise in 15 patients with hyperthyroidism and 11 control subjects. Exercise was applied using a bicycle ergometer, with progressive loads. In the hyperthyroid group, measurements were repeated at rest and during supine exercise after administering 15 mg of intravenous metoprolol. End-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac index were higher in the hyperthyroid group than in controls (18.6 +/- 5.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 4.9 mmHg; p = 0.02, and 6.0 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2; p = 0.0001, respectively). After exercise, there was an increase in end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure in the hyperthyroid group (18.6 +/- 5.3 to 25.5 +/- 9.9 mmHg; p = 0.02), revealing impaired cardiocirculatory reserve. Pulmonary arteriolar resistance increased significantly in parallel with end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure after drug administration, suggesting an inadequate cardiovascular response after beta blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism. We observed that functional left ventricular reserve is impaired in patients with hyperthyroidism, suggesting an explanation for the frequent symptom of dyspnea and impaired exercise tolerance. Moreover, we also suggest that beta-adrenergic blockade may adversely affect cardiovascular function in patients with hyperthyroidism.

  16. Antihypertensive effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade in obese and lean hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, M R; Anderson, D C; Brown, C A; Jones, D W; Miller, M E; Hall, J E

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the adrenergic system in mediating hypertension in obese and lean patients. Thirteen obese, hypertensive patients with a body mass index (BMI) > or =28 kg/m2 (obese) and nine lean patients with a BMI lean) were recruited. After a 1-week washout period, participants underwent daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Participants were then treated with the alpha-adrenergic antagonist doxazosin, titrating to 4 mg QHS in 1 week. In the next week, the beta-adrenergic antagonist atenolol was added at an initial dose of 25 mg/day and titrated to 50 mg/day within 1 week. One month after the addition of atenolol, all patients underwent a second ABPM session. There were no differences between the obese and lean subjects in baseline systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), or mean arterial pressures (MAP) measured by office recording or ABPM. However, obese subjects had higher heart rates than lean subjects (87.5+/-2.4 v 76.8+/-4.9 beats/min). After 1 month of treatment with the adrenergic blockers, obese patients had a significantly lower SBP (130.0+/-2.5 v 138.9+/-2.1 mm Hg, P = .02) and MAP (99.6+/-2.3 v 107.0+/-1.5 mm Hg, P = .02) than lean patients. Obese patients also tended to have a lower DBP than lean patients (84.3+/-2.5 v 90.9+/-1.6 mm Hg, P = .057), but there was no significant difference in heart rate after 1 month of adrenergic blockade. These results indicate that blood pressure is more sensitive to adrenergic blockade in obese than in lean hypertensive patients and suggest that increased sympathetic activity may be an important factor in the maintenance of hypertension in obesity.

  17. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells secrete endocannabinoids that stimulate in vitro hematopoietic stem cell migration effectively comparable to beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Sevil; Aerts-Kaya, Fatima; Köprü, Çağla Zübeyde; Nemutlu, Emirhan; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Karaosmanoğlu, Beren; Taşkıran, Ekim Zihni; Altun, Belgin; Uçkan Çetinkaya, Duygu; Korkusuz, Petek

    2018-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a well-known hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-mobilizing agent used in both allogeneic and autologous transplantation. However, a proportion of patients or healthy donors fail to mobilize a sufficient number of cells. New mobilization agents are therefore needed. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid mediators generated in the brain and peripheral tissues and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. We suggest that eCBs may act as mobilizers of HSCs from the bone marrow (BM) under stress conditions as beta-adrenergic receptors (Adrβ). This study demonstrates that BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and the peripheral blood (PB) and BM microenvironment contain AEA and 2-AG. 2-AG levels are significantly higher in PB of the G-CSF-treated group compared with BM plasma. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34 + HSCs express CB1, CB2, and Adrβ subtypes. CD34 + HSCs had higher CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in G-CSF-untreated and G-CSF-treated groups compared with MSCs. MNCs but not MSCs expressed CB1 and CB2 receptors based on qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. AEA- and 2-AG-stimulated HSC migration was blocked by eCB receptor antagonists in an in vitro migration assay. In conclusion, components of the eCB system and their interaction with Adrβ subtypes were demonstrated on HSCs and MSCs of G-CSF-treated and G-CSF-untreated healthy donors in vitro, revealing that eCBs might be potential candidates to enhance or facilitate G-CSF-mediated HSC migration under stress conditions in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  19. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of 201 Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and 201 Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of 201 Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of 201 Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties. (orig.) [de

  20. The role of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in cortisol - induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUGBEMI OLANIYAN

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... 1979; Renaud and Moon, 1980; Khani and Tayek, 2001). The hyperglycaemic response to cortisol involves metabolic actions such as glucose release from the liver as a product of glycogenolysis, increase in gluconeo- genesis and decrease in peripheral glucose utilisation. The relative contribution of each ...

  1. EMMPRIN mediates beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase activity in cardiac myocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Siwik Deborah A; Kuster Gabriela M; Brahmbhatt Jamin V; Zaidi Zaheer; Malik Julia; Ooi Henry; Ghorayeb Ghassan

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression is increased in myocardium from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and animal models of heart failure. However little is known about the regulated expression or functional role of EMMPRIN in the myocardium. In rat cardiac cells EMMPRIN is expressed on myocytes but not endothelial cells or fibroblasts. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that EMMPRIN expression regulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in rat ventricu...

  2. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  3. Endogenous PKI gamma limits the duration of the anti-apoptotic effects of PTH and beta-adrenergic agonists in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Song, In-Hwan; Dennis, James E; Greenfield, Edward M

    2007-05-01

    PKI gamma knockdown substantially extended the anti-apoptotic effects of PTH and beta-adrenergic agonists, whereas PKI gamma overexpression decreased these effects. Therefore, inhibition of PKI gamma activity may provide a useful co-therapy in combination with intermittent PTH or beta-adrenergic agonists for bone loss in conditions such as osteoporosis. PTH has both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone, which are primarily caused by cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and regulation of gene expression. We previously showed that protein kinase inhibitor-gamma (PKI gamma) is required for efficient termination of cAMP/PKA signaling and gene expression after stimulation with PTH or beta-adrenergic agonists. Inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis is thought to be an important, but transient, mechanism partly responsible for the anabolic effects of intermittent PTH. Therefore, we hypothesized that endogenous PKI gamma also terminates the anti-apoptotic effect of PTH. PKI gamma knockdown by antisense transfection or siRNA was used to examine the ability of endogenous PKI gamma to modulate the anti-apoptotic effects of PTH and beta-adrenergic agonists in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Knockdown of PKI gamma substantially extended the anti-apoptotic effects of PTH, whether apoptosis was induced by etoposide or dexamethasone. In contrast, overexpression of PKI gamma decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of PTH pretreatment. This study is also the first demonstration that beta-adrenergic agonists mimic the anti-apoptotic effects of PTH in osteoblasts. Moreover, PKI gamma knockdown also substantially extended this anti-apoptotic effect of beta-adrenergic agonists. Taken together, these results show that endogenous PKI gamma limits the duration of the anti-apoptotic effects of cAMP/PKA signaling in osteoblasts. Because significant individual variability exists in the anabolic responses to PTH therapy in current clinical treatment of osteoporosis, inhibition of PKI gamma activity may provide a

  4. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    with beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  5. Ferulic acid with ascorbic acid synergistically extenuates the mitochondrial dysfunction during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-10-27

    Disruption of mitochondria and free radical mediated tissue injury have been reported during cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic catecholamine. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of ferulic acid (FA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the mitochondrial damage in ISO induced cardiotoxicity. Induction of rats with ISO (150 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) for 2 days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of respiratory chain enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c-oxidase), tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), mitochondrial antioxidants (GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, GSH), cytochromes (b, c, c1, aa3) and in the level of mitochondrial phospholipids. A marked elevation in mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were also observed in ISO intoxicated rats. Pre-co-treatment with the combination of FA (20 mg/kg b.wt.) and AA (80 mg/kg b.wt.) orally for 6 days significantly enhanced the attenuation of these functional abnormalities and restored normal mitochondrial function when compared to individual drug treated groups. Mitigation of ISO induced biochemical and morphological changes in mitochondria were more pronounced with a combination of FA and AA rather than the individual drug treated groups. Transmission electron microscopic observations also correlated with these biochemical parameters. Hence, these findings demonstrate the synergistic ameliorative potential of FA and AA on mitochondrial function during beta-adrenergic catecholamine induced cardiotoxicity and associated oxidative stress in rats.

  6. Enhanced basal contractility but reduced excitation-contraction coupling efficiency and beta-adrenergic reserve of hearts with increased Cav1.2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingxin; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Yingxin; Guan, Yinzheng; Ai, Xiaojie; Szeto, Christopher; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Hongyu; Ge, Shuping; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Houser, Steven R; Chen, Xiongwen

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac remodeling during heart failure development induces a significant increase in the activity of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav1.2). However, the effects of enhanced Cav1.2 activity on myocyte excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, cardiac contractility, and its regulation by the beta-adrenergic system are not clear. To recapitulate the increased Cav1.2 activity, a double transgenic (DTG) mouse model overexpressing the Cavbeta2a subunit in a cardiac-specific and inducible manner was established. We studied cardiac (in vivo) and myocyte (in vitro) contractility at baseline and upon beta-adrenergic stimulation. E-C coupling efficiency was evaluated in isolated myocytes as well. The following results were found: 1) in DTG myocytes, L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) density, myocyte fractional shortening (FS), peak Ca(2+) transients, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content (caffeine-induced Ca(2+) transient peak) were significantly increased (by 100.8%, 48.8%, 49.8%, and 46.8%, respectively); and 2) cardiac contractility evaluated with echocardiography [ejection fraction (EF) and (FS)] and invasive intra-left ventricular pressure (maximum dP/dt and -dP/dt) measurements were significantly greater in DTG mice than in control mice. However, 1) the cardiac contractility (EF, FS, dP/dt, and -dP/dt)-enhancing effect of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (2 microg/g body wt ip) was significantly reduced in DTG mice, which could be attributed to the loss of beta-adrenergic stimulation on contraction, Ca(2+) transients, I(Ca,L), and SR Ca(2+) content in DTG myocytes; and 2) E-C couplng efficiency was significantly lower in DTG myocytes. In conclusion, increasing Cav1.2 activity by promoting its high-activity mode enhances cardiac contractility but decreases E-C coupling efficiency and the adrenergic reserve of the heart.

  7. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Human adipose tissue blood flow during prolonged exercise, III. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade, nicotinic acid and glucose infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J

    1981-01-01

    acid, during acute i.v. beta-adrenergic blockade by propranolol, and during continuous i.v. infusion of glucose. The most pronounced lipid mobilization and utilization during work was seen in the control experiments where ATBF rose 3-fold on average from the initial rest period to the third hour...... of work. No increase in lipolysis and no increase in ATBF were found when lipolysis was blocked by nicotinic acid (0.3 g/h). Propranolol treatment (0.15 mg/kg) reduced lipolysis and nearly abolished the increase in ATBF during exercise. Intravenous administration of glucose (about 0.25 g/min) did......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in six male subjects by the 133Xe-washout technique during 3-4 h of exercise at a work load corresponding to an oxygen uptake of about 1.71/min. The measurements were done during control conditions, during blockade of lipolysis by nicotinic...

  9. [Alpha but not beta-adrenergic stimulation has a positive inotropic effect associated with alkalinization of intracellular pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambassi, G; Lakatta, E G; Capogrossi, M C

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that alpha-adrenoceptors also exist in the myocardium and that an increase in force of contraction may be produced by stimulation of these sites. This positive inotropism seems to be dependent either on an increased amount of Ca++ released into the cytosol with each action potential or on increased myofilament responsiveness. In contrast, beta-adrenergic stimulation reduces the sensitivity of the contractile proteins and the positive inotropic effect is due to the activation of L-type calcium channels on the sarcolemma. We used single, isolated, enzymatically dissociated, adult rat ventricular myocytes. Cells were loaded either with the ester derivative of the Ca++ probe Indo-1 or with the intracellular pH probe Snarf-1 and at the same time we measured the contractile parameters and monitored the fluorescence as an index of intracellular calcium concentration or pH value. The single cells (bicarbonate buffer continuously gassed with O2 95%, CO2 5%, Ca++ 1.5 mM, field stimulation 0.5 Hz) were exposed to phenylephrine (50 microM) and nadolol (1 microM). Alpha-adrenergic stimulation increased twitch amplitude (delta ES = 1.93 +/- 0.77, n = 8; p less than 0.05) and showed only a slight increase in Ca++ transient. On the other end, the positive inotropic effect (delta ES = 2.84 +/- 0.86, n = 4; p less than 0.02) obtained with beta-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol 50 nM, bicarbonate buffer, Ca++ 0.5 mM, field stimulation 0.2 Hz) was always associated with a large increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration. Isoproterenol did not change intracellular pH (delta pH = 0.006 +/- 0.006, n = 4; NS) while phenylephrine increased it significantly (delta pH = 0.055 +/- 0.011, n = 8; p less than 0.002). Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation between delta ES and delta pH (R2 = 0.532; p less than 0.05) when phenylephrine was present. This alkalinization as well as the increased contractility was antagonized by treatment with

  10. Effect of age on upregulation of the cardiac adrenergic beta receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumer, N.; Houck, W.T.; Roberts, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioligand binding studies were performed to determine whether upregulation of postjunctional beta receptors occurs in sympathectomized hearts of aged animals. Fischer 344 rats 6, 12, and 24 months of age (n = 10) were used in these experiments. To produce sympathectomy, rats were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA; 2 x 50 mg/kg iv) on days 1 and 8; the animals were decapitated on day 15. The depletion of norepinephrine in the heart was about 86% in each age group. 125I-Iodopindolol (IPIN), a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist, was employed to determine the affinity and total number of beta adrenergic receptors in the ventricles of the rat heart. The maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) was significantly elevated by 37%, 48%, and 50% in hearts from sympathectomized 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old rats, respectively. These results indicate that beta receptor mechanisms in older hearts can respond to procedures that cause upregulation of the beta adrenergic receptors

  11. Rapid stress-induced transcriptomic changes in the brain depend on beta-adrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Manuella, Francesca; von Ziegler, Lukas; Durán-Pacheco, Gonzalo; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Acute exposure to stressful experiences can rapidly increase anxiety and cause neuropsychiatric disorders. The effects of stress result in part from the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, which regulate gene expression in different brain regions. The fast neuroendocrine response to stress is largely mediated by norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), followed by a slower and more sustained release of corticosterone. While corticosterone is an important regulator of gene expression, it is not clear which stress-signals contribute to the rapid regulation of gene expression observed immediately after stress exposure. Here, we demonstrate in mice that 45 min after an acute swim stress challenge, large changes in gene expression occur across the transcriptome in the hippocampus, a region sensitive to the effects of stress. We identify multiple candidate genes that are rapidly and transiently altered in both males and females. Using a pharmacological approach, we show that most of these rapidly induced genes are regulated by NE through β-adrenergic receptor signaling. We find that CRH and corticosterone can also contribute to rapid changes in gene expression, although these effects appear to be restricted to fewer genes. These results newly reveal a widespread impact of NE on the transcriptome and identify novel genes associated with stress and adrenergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of beta 3-adrenoceptor in altered beta-adrenergic response in senescent heart: role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Aurélie; Tesse, Angela; Loyer, Xavier; Michelet, Pierre; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2008-12-01

    In senescent heart, beta-adrenergic response is altered in parallel with beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor down-regulation. A negative inotropic effect of beta3-adrenoceptor could be involved. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that beta3-adrenoceptor plays a role in beta-adrenergic dysfunction in senescent heart. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (echocardiography-dobutamine, electron paramagnetic resonance) and in vitro (isolated left ventricular papillary muscle, electron paramagnetic resonance) in young adult (3-month-old) and senescent (24-month-old) rats. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunolabeling (confocal microscopy), nitric oxide production (electron paramagnetic resonance) and beta-adrenoceptor Western blots were performed in vitro. Data are mean percentages of baseline +/- SD. An impaired positive inotropic effect (isoproterenol) was confirmed in senescent hearts in vivo (117 +/- 23 vs. 162 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (127 +/- 10 vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In the young adult group, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified by the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 183 +/- 19%), the selective NOS1 inhibitor vinyl-L-N-5(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (L-VNIO; 172 +/- 13%), or the selective NOS2 inhibitor 1400W (183 +/- 19%). In the senescent group, in parallel with beta3-adrenoceptor up-regulation and increased nitric oxide production, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by L-NAME (151 +/- 8%; P < 0.05) and L-VNIO (149 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) but not by 1400W (132 +/- 11%; not significant). The positive inotropic effect induced by dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate was decreased in the senescent group with the specific beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 (167 +/- 10 vs. 142 +/- 10%; P < 0.05). NOS1 and NOS2 were significantly up-regulated in the senescent rat. In senescent cardiomyopathy, beta3-adrenoceptor overexpression plays an important role in the

  13. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M L; Powell, N D; Stiner, L M; Bailey, M T; Sheridan, J F

    2012-10-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b(+) splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b(+) cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  14. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M.L.; Powell, N.D.; Stiner, L.M.; Bailey, M.T.; Sheridan, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b+ splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18 h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b+ cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  15. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  16. Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity Potentiates Fear Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation by Differentially Recruiting alpha1- and beta-Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. Jark; Carobrez, Antonio P.; Bertoglio, Leandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Consolidation and reconsolidation are phases of memory stabilization that diverge slightly. Noradrenaline is known to influence both processes, but the relative contribution of alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptors is unclear. The present study sought to investigate this matter by comparing their recruitment to consolidate and/or reconsolidate a…

  17. Association of beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and mortality in carvedilol-treated chronic heart-failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Hjelvang, Brian R

    2011-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • Chronic heart failure (HF) is a syndrome with increasing prevalence. Though mortality is still high, the introduction of ß-adrenoceptor blockers for its treatment has improved survival considerably. • As is the case for all medical treatment, not all...... patients benefit from ß-adrenoceptor blocker treatment, and stratifying patients to different ß-adrenoceptor blockers by the use of pharmacogenomics might be of great value in improving HF therapy. • Previous studies have shown that the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ADRB1 Arg389Gly and ADRB2...... Gln27Glu interact with the ß-adrenoceptor blockers metoprolol and carvedilol, respectively. These interactions have led to stratified responses with regard to surrogate parameters, e.g. left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pulse and blood pressure. • Several studies have failed to show...

  18. Enhancement of striatum-dependent memory by conditioned fear is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis D. Goode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal can have a profound impact on various learning and memory processes. For example, unconditioned emotional stimuli (e.g., predator odor or anxiogenic drugs enhance dorsolateral striatum (DLS-dependent habit memory. These effects critically depend on a modulatory role of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA. Recent work indicates that, like unconditioned emotional stimuli, exposure to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS (i.e., a tone previously paired with shock can also enhance consolidation of DLS-dependent habit memory. The present experiments examined whether noradrenergic activity, particularly within the BLA, is required for a fear CS to enhance habit memory consolidation. First, rats underwent a fear conditioning procedure in which a tone CS was paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. Over the course of the next five days, rats received training in a DLS-dependent water plus-maze task, in which rats were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately after training on days 1–3, rats received post-training systemic (Experiment 1 or intra-BLA (Experiment 2 administration of the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, propranolol. Immediately after drug administration, half of the rats were re-exposed to the tone CS in the conditioning context (without shock. Post-training CS exposure enhanced consolidation of habit memory in vehicle-treated rats, and this effect was blocked by peripheral (Experiment 1 or intra-BLA (Experiment 2 propranolol administration. The present findings reveal that noradrenergic activity within the BLA is critical for the enhancement of DLS-dependent habit memory as a result of exposure to conditioned emotional stimuli.

  19. Post-Retrieval [beta]-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade: Effects on Extinction and Reconsolidation of Cocaine-Cue Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N.; Marshall, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Contexts and discrete cues associated with drug-taking are often responsible for relapse among addicts. Animal models have shown that interference with the reconsolidation of drug-cue memories can reduce seeking of drugs or drug-paired stimuli. One such model is conditioned place preference (CPP) in which an animal is trained to associate a…

  20. Role of adrenergic receptors in the caffeine-induced increase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers on caffeine-induced increase in canine hindlimb glucose uptake. The study was carried out on fasted male anaesthetized dogs divided into five groups (5dogs per group). Each dog was given a bolus injection of normal ...

  1. Effects of acute beta-adrenergic antagonism on verbal problem solving in autism spectrum disorder and exploration of treatment response markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Ferguson, Bradley J; Ragsdale, Alexandra S; Lewis, Morgan L; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors. Evidence suggests that some individuals with ASD have cognitive impairments related to weak central coherence and hyperrestricted processing. Reducing noradrenergic activity may improve aspects of network processing and thus improve cognitive abilities, such as verbal problem solving, in individuals with ASD. The present pilot study explores the effects of acute administration of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on verbal problem solving in adults and adolescents with ASD. In a within-subject crossover-design, 20 participants with ASD received a single dose of propranolol or placebo on one of two sessions in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Verbal problem solving was assessed via an anagram task. Baseline measurements of autonomic nervous system functioning were obtained, and anxiety was assessed at baseline and following drug administration. Participants solved the anagrams more quickly in the propranolol condition, as compared to the placebo condition, suggesting a potential cognitive benefit of this agent. Additionally, we observed a negative linear relationship between response to propranolol on the anagram task and two measures of baseline autonomic activity, as well as a positive linear relationship between drug response and baseline anxiety. These relationships propose potential markers for treatment response, as propranolol influences both autonomic functioning and anxiety. Further investigation is needed to expand on the present single-dose psychopharmacological challenge and explore the observed effects of propranolol in a serial-dose setting.

  2. Time dependent changes in myocardial norepinephrine concentration and adrenergic receptor density following X-irradiation of the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van der Laarse, A.; Bosker, F. J.; Reynart, I. W.; van Ravels, F. J.; Strootman, E.; Wondergem, J.

    1992-01-01

    The hearts of 9 to 12-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy. The effects on myocardial norepinephrine concentrations and on alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptor densities was examined up to 16 months post-treatment. Myocardial norepinephrine

  3. Beta-adrenergic control of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation in hepatocytes from juvenile, adult and adrenalectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Cao, D; Alvarez Chiva, V; Mato, J M

    1983-01-01

    Changes in isoprenaline-sensitive phospholipid methyltransferase were studied in hepatocytes isolated from juvenile, mature and adrenalectomized rats. Isoprenaline produced greater stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats than in mature animals. Similarly, isoprenaline stimulated phospholipid methyltransferase in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats but had no effect in mature animals. Isoprenaline-mediated activation of phospholipid methyltransferase in adrenalectomized rats was time- and dose-dependent. In hepatocytes isolated from adrenalectomized rats incubated with [Me-3H]methionine or [3H]-ethanolamine the addition of isoprenaline increased the amount of radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. The activation by isoprenaline of phospholipid methyltransferase was abolished by the beta-blocker propranolol and by insulin. These results indicate that rat liver the occupation of functional beta-receptors causes a stimulation of phospholipid methylation. It is suggested that, as reported previously, cyclic AMP activates phospholipid methyltransferase. PMID:6320796

  4. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array

  5. Overexpression Myocardial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Exacerbates Cardiac Dysfunction and Beta-Adrenergic Desensitization in Experimental Hypothyroidism☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qun; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Callahan, Michael F.; Kitzman, Dalane W; Li, Wei-Min; Cheng, Che Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence links hypothyroidism to the pathology of HF. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely understood. The alterations and functional effects of cardiac NOS in hypothyroidism are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypothyroidism increases cadiomyocyte inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, which plays an important role in hypothyroidism-induced depression of cardiomyocyte contractile properties, [Ca2+]i transient ([Ca2+]iT), and β-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness. Methods and Results We simultaneously evaluated LV functional performance and compared myocyte three NOS, β-adrenergic receptors (AR) and SERCA2a expressions and assessed cardiomyocyte contractile and [Ca2+]iT responses to β-AR stimulation with and without pretreatment of iNOS inhibitor (1400W, 10−5 mol/L) in 26 controls and 26 rats with hypothyroidism induced by methimazole (~30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks in the drinking water). Compared with controls, in hypothyroidism, total serum T3 and T4 were significantly reduced followed by significantly decreased LV contractility (EES) with increased LV time constant of relaxation. These LV abnormalities were accompanied by concomitant significant decreases in myocyte contraction (dL/dtmax), relaxation (dR/dtmax), and [Ca2+]iT. In hypothyroidism, isoproterenol (10−8 M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax, dR/dtmax and [Ca2+]iT. These changes were associated with decreased β1-AR and SERCA2a, but significantly increased iNOS. Moreover, only in hypothyroidism, pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor significantly improved basal and isoproterenol-stimulated myocyte contraction, relaxation and [Ca2+]iT. Conclusions Hypothyroidism produces intrinsic defects of LV myocyte force-generating capacity and relaxation with β-AR desensitization. Up-regulation of cadiomyocyte iNOS may promote progressive cardiac dysfunction in

  6. Conversion of Short-Term Potentiation to Long-Term Potentiation in Mouse CA1 by Coactivation of [beta]-Adrenergic and Muscarinic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Steven A.; Maity, Sabyasachi; Roy, Birbickram; Ali, Declan W.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2012-01-01

    Encoding new information requires dynamic changes in synaptic strength. The brain can boost synaptic plasticity through the secretion of neuromodulatory substances, including acetylcholine and noradrenaline. Considerable effort has focused on elucidating how neuromodulatory substances alter synaptic properties. However, determination of the…

  7. Functional response of white rats isolated heart to the stimulation of adrenergic receptors after gamma-irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenko, A.N.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    It was investigated the effects of acute gamma-irradiation on bio mechanical activity of rats heart isolated by Langendorf's method in early and delayed terms after exposure to gamma-rays. Intra ventricle pressure and the rate of its growth, volumetric rate of coronal flow, frequency of heart contraction were registered. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors was conducted by means of specific agonist mesatone and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors was made by means of isoprenaline. The study has shown that acute irradiation of rats caused the decrease of both contractile ability and relaxation of myocardium in a 10 days after exposure. In delayed period bio mechanical activity of isolated heart was restored. Functional response of heart to the stimulation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors was decreased in all terms of investigation

  8. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  9. Development of serotonergic and adrenergic receptors in the rat spinal cord: effects of neonatal chemical lesions and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Pylypiw, A; Ross, L L

    1985-03-01

    The sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord receive dense serotonergic (5-HT) and catecholaminergic (CA) afferent inputs from the descending supraspinal pathways. In the rat spinal cord, the levels of these biogenic amines and their receptors are low at birth, but undergo rapid ontogenetic increases in the ensuing 2-3 postnatal weeks until the adult levels are reached. In many systems it has been shown that denervation of presynaptic neurons leads to an up-regulation of the number of postsynaptic receptors. To determine whether the 5-HT and CA receptors in the developing spinal cord are also subject to such transsynaptic regulation, we examined the ontogeny of serotonergic receptors and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in thoracolumbar spinal cord of rats given neurotoxins which destroy serotonergic (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT)) or noradrenergic (6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)) nerve terminals. Intracisternal administration of 5,7-DHT or 6-OHDA at 1 and 6 days of age prevented, respectively, the development of 5-HT and CA levels in the spinal cord. Rats lesioned with 5,7-DHT displayed a marked elevation of 5-HT receptors with a binding of 50% greater than controls at 1 week and a continuing increase to twice normal by 4 weeks. A similar pattern of up-regulation was also detected with the alpha-adrenergic receptor, as rats lesioned with 6-OHDA exhibited persistent increases in receptor concentration. However, in these same animals ontogeny of the beta-adrenergic receptor in the spinal cord remained virtually unaffected by the chemical lesion. In several other parts of the nervous system, it has been demonstrated that the beta-adrenergic sensitivity can be modulated by hormonal signals, particularly that of the thyroid hormones. This phenomenon was examined in the spinal cord and in confirmation with previous studies neonatal treatment of triiodothyronine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. daily) was capable of evoking persistent increases in beta-adrenergic

  10. Beta-adrenergic control of plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels in the air-breathing African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, JCF; Vianen, GJ; van den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    In several water-breathing fish species, P-adrenergic receptor stimulation by noradrenaline leads to a decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, as opposed to an increase in air-breathing mammals. We hypothesised that this change in adrenergic control is related to the mode of breathing.

  11. Skeletal muscle beta-receptors and isoproterenol-stimulated vasodilation in canine heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.J.; Lanoce, V.; Molinoff, P.B.; Wilson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate whether heart failure alters beta-adrenergic receptors on skeletal muscle and its associated vasculature, the density of beta-adrenergic receptors, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, and coupling of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein were compared in 18 control dogs and 16 dogs with heart failure induced by 5-8 wk of ventricular pacing at 260 beats/min. Hindlimb vascular responses to isoproterenol were compared in eight controls and eight of the dogs with heart failure. In dogs with heart failure, the density of beta-receptors on skeletal muscle was reduced in both gastrocnemius (control: 50 +/- 5; heart failure: 33 +/- 8 fmol/mg of protein) and semitendinosus muscle (control: 43 +/- 9; heart failure: 27 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein, both P less than 0.05). Receptor coupling to the ternary complex, as determined by isoproterenol competition curves with and without guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), was unchanged. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was significantly decreased in semitendinosus muscle (control: 52.4 +/- 4.6; heart failure: 36.5 +/- 9.5 pmol.mg-1.min-1; P less than 0.05) and tended to be decreased in gastrocnemius muscle (control: 40.1 +/- 8.5; heart failure: 33.5 +/- 4.5 pmol.mg-1.min-1; P = NS). Isoproterenol-induced hindlimb vasodilation was not significantly different in controls and in dogs with heart failure. These findings suggest that heart failure causes downregulation of skeletal muscle beta-adrenergic receptors, probably due to receptor exposure to elevated catecholamine levels, but does not reduce beta-receptor-mediated vasodilation in muscle

  12. Neurohumoral activation in heart failure: the role of adrenergic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Brum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common endpoint for many forms of cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The development of end-stage HF often involves an initial insult to the myocardium that reduces cardiac output and leads to a compensatory increase in sympathetic nervous system activity. Acutely, the sympathetic hyperactivity through the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors increases heart rate and cardiac contractility, which compensate for decreased cardiac output. However, chronic exposure of the heart to elevated levels of catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland may lead to further pathologic changes in the heart, resulting in continued elevation of sympathetic tone and a progressive deterioration in cardiac function. On a molecular level, altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling plays a pivotal role in the genesis and progression of HF. beta-adrenergic receptor number and function are decreased, and downstream mechanisms are altered. In this review we will present an overview of the normal beta-adrenergic receptor pathway in the heart and the consequences of sustained adrenergic activation in HF. The myopathic potential of individual components of the adrenergic signaling will be discussed through the results of research performed in genetic modified animals. Finally, we will discuss the potential clinical impact of beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms for better understanding the progression of HF.A insuficiência cardíaca (IC é a via final comum da maioria das doenças cardiovasculares e uma das maiores causas de morbi-mortalidade. O desenvolvimento do estágio final da IC freqüentemente envolve um insulto inicial do miocárdio, reduzindo o débito cardíaco e levando ao aumento compensatório da atividade do sistema nervoso simpático (SNS. Existem evidências de que apesar da exposição aguda ser benéfica, exposições crônicas a elevadas concentra

  13. Beta adrenergic blockade reduces utilitarian judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Terbeck; Guy, Kahane; Sarah, McTavish; Julian, Savulescu; Neil, Levy; Miles, Hewstone; Cowen, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Noradrenergic pathways are involved in mediating the central and peripheral effects of physiological arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of noradrenergic transmission in moral decision-making. We studied the effects in healthy volunteers of propranolol (a noradrenergic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) on moral judgement in a set of moral dilemmas pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Propranolol (40 mg orally) significantly reduced heart rate, but had no effect on self-reported mood. Importantly, propranolol made participants more likely to judge harmful actions as morally unacceptable, but only in dilemmas where harms were ‘up close and personal’. In addition, longer response times for such personal dilemmas were only found for the placebo group. Finally, judgments in personal dilemmas by the propranolol group were more decisive. These findings indicate that noradrenergic pathways play a role in responses to moral dilemmas, in line with recent work implicating emotion in moral decision-making. However, contrary to current theorising, these findings also suggest that aversion to harming is not driven by emotional arousal. Our findings are also of significant practical interest given that propranolol is a widely used drug in different settings, and is currently being considered as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in military and rescue service personnel. PMID:23085134

  14. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schliebs, R.; Walch, C.

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author)

  15. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliebs, R; Walch, C [Leipzig Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin; Stewart, M G [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author).

  16. Modification on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) scaffold. discovery of bile acid derivatives as selective agonists of cell-surface G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GP-BAR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Valentina; Renga, Barbara; Festa, Carmen; D'Amore, Claudio; Masullo, Dario; Cipriani, Sabrina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Monti, Maria Chiara; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-09-25

    Bile acids are signaling molecules interacting with the nuclear receptor FXR and the G-protein coupled receptor 1 (GP-BAR1/TGR5). GP-BAR1 is a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Endogenous bile acids and currently available semisynthetic bile acids are poorly selective toward GP-BAR1 and FXR. Thus, in the present study we have investigated around the structure of UDCA, a clinically used bile acid devoid of FXR agonist activity, to develop a large family of side chain modified 3α,7β-dihydroxyl cholanoids that selectively activate GP-BAR1. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that administration of compound 16 selectively increases the expression of pro-glucagon 1, a GP-BAR1 target, in the small intestine, while it had no effect on FXR target genes in the liver. Further, compound 16 results in a significant reshaping of bile acid pool in a rodent model of cholestasis. These data demonstrate that UDCA is a useful scaffold to generate novel and selective steroidal ligands for GP-BAR1.

  17. A dose–response study of the effects of pre-test administration of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol on the learning of active place avoidance, a spatial cognition task, in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 1 (2009), s. 144-149 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : propranolol * learning * spatial memory Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2009

  18. The role of the anterodorsal thalami nuclei in the regulation of adrenal medullary function, beta-adrenergic cardiac receptors and anxiety responses in maternally deprived rats under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M M; Rivarola, M A; Molina, S M; Levin, G M; Enders, J; Paglini, P

    2004-09-01

    Maternal separation can interfere with growth and development of the brain and represents a significant risk factor for adult psychopathology. In rodents, prolonged separation from the mother affects the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress for the lifetime of the animal. Limbic structures such as the anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) play an important role in the control of neuroendocrine and sympathetic-adrenal function. In view of these findings we hypothesized that the function of the ADTN may be affected in an animal model of maternal deprivation. To test this hypothesis female rats were isolated 4.5 h daily, during the first 3 weeks of life and tested as adults. We evaluated plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE), cardiac adrenoreceptors and anxiety responses after maternal deprivation and variable chronic stress (VCS) in ADTN-lesioned rats. Thirty days after ADTN lesion, in non-maternally deprived rats basal plasma NE concentration was greater and cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was lower than that in the sham-lesioned group. Maternal deprivation induced a significant increase in basal plasma NE concentration, which was greater in lesioned rats, and cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was decreased in lesioned rats. After VCS plasma catecholamine concentration was much greater in non-maternally deprived rats than in maternally-deprived rats; cardiac beta-adrenoreceptor density was decreased by VCS in both maternally-deprived and non-deprived rats, but more so in non-deprived rats, and further decreased by the ADTN lesion. In the plus maze test, the number of open arm entries was greater in the maternally deprived and in the stressed rats. Thus, sympathetic-adrenal medullary activation produced by VCS was much greater in non-deprived rats, and was linked to a down regulation of myocardial beta-adrenoceptors. The ADTN are not responsible for the reduced catecholamine responses to stress in maternally-deprived rats. Maternal deprivation or chronic stress also induced a long term anxiolytic effect, which was also not affected by ADTN lesion.

  19. Different serotonin receptor types participate in 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced gonadotropins and prolactin release in the female infantile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1996-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can be classified into at least three, possibly up to seven, classes of receptors. They comprise the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 classes, the "uncloned' 5-HT4 receptor and the recombinant receptors 5-ht5, 5-ht6 and 5-ht7. We investigated the role of different serotonin receptor types in a neuroendocrine response to the activation of the serotonergic system. Female immature rats were chosen as an experimental model as it has been shown that during the 3rd week of life, and not at later developmental stages, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) induces gonadotropin release in females and not in males. Besides, at this age, serotonin releases prolactin in both sexes. 5-HTP (50 mg/kg) released prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as expected. Ketanserin (5-HT2A antagonist) and methysergide (5-HT2C antagonist) blocked 5-HTP-induced prolactin release, but did not block the LH or FSH responses. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) did not modify prolactin response to 5-HTP, whereas it blocked 5-HTP-induced LH and FSH release. Propranolol (5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic antagonist) blocked prolactin, LH and FSH release induced by 5-HTP. The 5-HT2C agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine dihydrochloride released prolactin, without modifying LH or FSH release. Methyl-quipazine and phenylbiguanide (5-HT3 agonists) increased both LH and FSH levels, without altering prolactin secretion. The present experiments indicate that serotonin acting at the 5-HT3 receptor mediates LH and FSH release in infantile female rats, whereas 5-HT2C or 2A receptor types participate in the release of prolactin at this age. 5-HT1 receptor type may be involved in the release of the three hormones, though a beta-adrenergic component of the response cannot be discarded.

  20. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  1. A common haplotype in the G-protein-coupled receptor gene GPR74 is associated with leanness and increased lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Dicker, Andrea; Jiao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    0.36; P=.036) among those selected for obese or lean phenotypes. The ATAG haplotype was associated with increased adipocyte lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in vivo and in vitro. In human fat cells, GPR74 receptor stimulation and inhibition caused a significant and marked decrease and increase......, respectively, of lipolysis, which could be linked to catecholamine stimulation of adipocytes through beta -adrenergic receptors. These findings suggest that a common haplotype in the GPR74 gene protects against obesity, which, at least in part, is caused by a relief of inhibition of lipid mobilization from......The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR74 is a novel candidate gene for body weight regulation. In humans, it is predominantly expressed in brain, heart, and adipose tissue. We report a haplotype in the GPR74 gene, ATAG, with allele frequency ~4% in Scandinavian cohorts, which was associated...

  2. Nature and regulation of the insulin receptor: structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Native, cell-surface insulin receptor consists of two glycoprotein subunit types with apparent masses of about 125,000 daltons (alpha subunit) and 90,000 daltons (beta subunit). The alpha and beta insulin-receptor subunits seem to have distinct functions such that alpha appears to bind hormone whereas beta appears to possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. In detergent extracts, insulin activates receptor autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues on its beta subunit, whereas in the presence of reductant, the alpha subunit is also phosphorylated. In intact cells, insulin activates serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta subunit as well as tyrosine phosphorylation. The biological role of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinase is not known. The insulin receptor kinase is regulated by beta-adrenergic agonists and other agents that elevate cAMP in adipocytes, presumably via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Such agents decrease receptor affinity for insulin and partially uncouple receptor tyrosine kinase activity from activation by insulin. These effects appear to contribute to the biological antagonism between insulin and beta-agonists. These data suggest the hypothesis that a complex network of tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylations on the insulin receptor modulate its binding and kinase activities in an antagonistic manner

  3. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  4. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  5. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  6. Intractable diarrhea in hyperthyroidism: management with beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, L A; Such, F; Loehrke, M E; Kavanaugh, K

    2001-01-01

    To describe a patient with intractable diarrhea and thyrotoxic Graves' disease, for whom b-adrenergic blockade ultimately proved to be effective therapy for the diarrhea, and to review the types of hyperthyroidism-associated diarrhea. We present the clinical course of a young man with a prolonged siege of diarrhea that proved elusive to diagnostic inquiries and resistant to all means of management until its endocrine basis was discovered. Control of such cases with b-adrenergic blockade is discussed, as are the pathophysiologic bases of intestinal hypermotility in hyperthyroidism. A 26-year-old man with Down syndrome, and no prior gastrointestinal disorder, had insidious, chronic, constant diarrhea, which was associated with loss of 14 kg during a 5-month period. Numerous laboratory and imaging studies and endoscopic examinations failed to disclose the cause of the diarrhea. Furthermore, a broad range of antibiotics and other empiric remedies failed to control the problem. No other symptoms of hyperthyroidism were reported, but when the endocrinopathy was suspected and identified, the diarrhea was promptly controlled by treatment with propranolol. In patients with hyperthyroidism, two types of diarrheal disorders have been described-secretory diarrhea and steatorrhea; bile acid malabsorption may have a role in either of these settings. In addition to its capacity for blocking the peripheral effects of thyroid hormone on the heart and central nervous system, b-adrenergic blockade is effective in slowing intestinal transit time and ameliorating the uncommon diarrhea associated with hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone in excess, among its other possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract, may exert a stimulatory effect by means of intermediary sympathetic activation, as it does with the heart. Thus, sympathetic blockade can mimic the salutary effects on the gastrointestinal tract conventionally brought about by direct antithyroid therapy, and well before the hyperthyroid state per se is eliminated. The current patient illustrates the value of considering hyperthyroidism in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea of unknown cause.

  7. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  8. Hanging off a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, F.; Walmink, W.; Toprak, C.; Bongers, Bert; Graether, E.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with

  9. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  10. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  11. Four bars inn; Four bars inn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The name Four Bars Inn puns on four drinking bars and four bars on a musical score. It is a public house sited on the busy St. Mary Street, Cardiff, England. During my stay in that town, I often attended the regular jam session that opened at the bar at nine o`clock every Monday evening. A jam session is an event in which any amateur player, and a professional artist occasionally, is allowed to come on the stage freely and to play jazz, the participation fee as low as 300-yen. It is an occasion that provides a friendly meeting of man and woman, young and old, everyone carrying a pint of ale. Senior people happily talking to young ones aged like their grandchildren certainly presents a heart-warming scene, which we scarcely encounter in Japan. The affection that the British entertain toward their domestic furnishings relayed down through many a generation may lead to their respect for senior citizens. I heartily look forward detecting like scenes some day at drinking spots in Japan where the consumption-happy days are over. (NEDO)

  12. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  13. Gene transfer of heterologous G protein-coupled receptors to cardiomyocytes: differential effects on contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugwitz, K L; Weig, H J; Moretti, A; Hoffmann, E; Ueblacker, P; Pragst, I; Rosport, K; Schömig, A; Ungerer, M

    2001-04-13

    In heart failure, reduced cardiac contractility is accompanied by blunted cAMP responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide and arginine vasopressin are released from the myocardium in response to increased wall stress but do not stimulate contractility or adenylyl cyclase at physiological concentrations. To bypass the defective beta-adrenergic signaling cascade, recombinant P1 PTH/PTH-related peptide receptors (rPTH1-Rs) and V(2) vasopressin receptors (rV(2)-Rs), which are normally not expressed in the myocardium and which are both strongly coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and recombinant beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (rbeta(2)-ARs) were overexpressed in cardiomyocytes by viral gene transfer. The capacity of endogenous hormones to increase contractility via the heterologous, recombinant receptors was compared. Whereas V(2)-Rs are uniquely coupled to Gs, PTH1-Rs and beta(2)-ARs are also coupled to other G proteins. Gene transfer of rPTH1-Rs or rbeta(2)-ARs to adult cardiomyocytes resulted in maximally increased basal contractility, which could not be further stimulated by adding receptor agonists. Agonists at rPTH1-Rs induced increased cAMP formation and phospholipase C activity. In contrast, healthy or failing rV(2)-R-expressing cardiomyocytes showed unaltered basal contractility. Their contractility and cAMP formation increased only at agonist exposure, which did not activate phospholipase C. In summary, we found that gene transfer of PTH1-Rs to cardiomyocytes results in constitutive activity of the transgene, as does that of beta(2)-ARS: In the absence of receptor agonists, rPTH1-Rs and rbeta(2)-ARs increase basal contractility, coupling to 2 G proteins simultaneously. In contrast, rV(2)-Rs are uniquely coupled to Gs and are not constitutively active, retaining their property to be activated exclusively on agonist stimulation. Therefore, gene transfer of V(2)-Rs might be more suited to test the effects of c

  14. [Effect of (+/-)-pindolol on the central 5-HT1A receptor by the use of in vivo microdialysis and hippocampal slice preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keiichiro

    2002-06-01

    Although it is suggested that (+/-)-pindolol, a beta-adrenergic/5-HT1A receptor antagonist, may enhance the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), the results of double-blind studies are contradictory and recent animal studies suggest that (+/-)-pindolol may act as a partial agonist to the 5-HT1A receptor. In this study we have investigated the effect of (+/-)-pindolol on both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors using in vivo microdialysis and hippocampal slice preparations. (+/-)-pindolol and flesinoxan, a 5-HT1A receptor full agonist, significantly decreased the extracellular levels of 5-HT in the raphe and prefrontal cortex. The 5-HT and other 5-HT1A receptor agonists, flesinoxan and 8-hydroxy-2- (di-n-propylamino)tetralon (8-OH-DPAT), significantly decreased the population excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the CA3-CA1 excitatory synapse in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of 5-HT and other 5-HT1A receptor agonists accompanied the increase in paired-pulse facilitation (ppf) induced by short-interval two stimuli and were reversed by the coadministration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, NAN-190, but not by (+/-)-pindolol. (+/-)-pindolol also suppressed the EPSP, but this effect was not reversed by NAN-190. These results suggest that (+/-)-pindolol acts as a partial agonist to the somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptor in the raphe, whereas it may have no action on the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor in the hippocampus.

  15. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data.

  16. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with [ 3 H]yohimbine, whereas [ 3 H]clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, [ 3 H] clonidine and [ 3 H]yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of [ 3 H]clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations

  17. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  18. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  19. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  20. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  1. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  2. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.

  3. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  4. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  5. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  6. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  7. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark ...

  8. Dynamics of a stellar bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a prolate bar have been studied by means of a three-dimensional computer model. The bar pattern rotates in the sense of the total angular momentum. The mean particle motion is a rapid streaming in the direction of pattern rotation as seen from a frame that rotates with the bar. Rotation rates that would be inferred from observation are significantly (2--3 times) faster than the pattern rotation speed. Velocity dispersions are anisotropic with the largest component along the bar. Particles oscillate in the bar potential significantly faster than pattern rotation: typical oscillation frequencies are around ω/sub z/=ω/sub y/=6Ω and ω/sub x/=3Ω where z is the direction of angular momentum, x lies along the bar, and Ω is the pattern angular velocity. About 25% of the star orbits are near 2:2:1 resonance with the slow motion along the bar. Particle motion is highly ordered in the bar:the ratio t=T/sub mean//vertical-barWvertical-bar is 0.21--0.24. Observable properties are described; where comparisons can be made, observable properties are in agreement with observations of brightness contours, velocity fields, and velocity dispersions. The bar has nearly exponential density profiles

  9. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  10. The octopamine receptor Octβ2R regulates ovulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwa Lim

    Full Text Available Oviposition is induced upon mating in most insects. Ovulation is a primary step in oviposition, representing an important target to control insect pests and vectors, but limited information is available on the underlying mechanism. Here we report that the beta adrenergic-like octopamine receptor Octβ2R serves as a key signaling molecule for ovulation and recruits protein kinase A and Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive kinase II as downstream effectors for this activity. We found that the octβ2r homozygous mutant females are sterile. They displayed normal courtship, copulation, sperm storage and post-mating rejection behavior but were unable to lay eggs. We have previously shown that octopamine neurons in the abdominal ganglion innervate the oviduct epithelium. Consistently, restored expression of Octβ2R in oviduct epithelial cells was sufficient to reinstate ovulation and full fecundity in the octβ2r mutant females, demonstrating that the oviduct epithelium is a major site of Octβ2R's function in oviposition. We also found that overexpression of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit or Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II led to partial rescue of octβ2r's sterility. This suggests that Octβ2R activates cAMP as well as additional effectors including Ca(2+/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II for oviposition. All three known beta adrenergic-like octopamine receptors stimulate cAMP production in vitro. Octβ1R, when ectopically expressed in the octβ2r's oviduct epithelium, fully reinstated ovulation and fecundity. Ectopically expressed Octβ3R, on the other hand, partly restored ovulation and fecundity while OAMB-K3 and OAMB-AS that increase Ca(2+ levels yielded partial rescue of ovulation but not fecundity deficit. These observations suggest that Octβ2R have distinct signaling capacities in vivo and activate multiple signaling pathways to induce egg laying. The findings reported here narrow the knowledge gap and offer insight into novel

  11. Ukola Club. Bar americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu, J. R.

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available En la calle de Serrano, aprovechando un semisótano dedicado a otro negocio anteriormente, se ha instalado un bar americano, de cuyo interior ofrecemos algunos pormenores. Se han cuidado, especialmente, las condiciones acústicas, resueltas por medio de un techo de escayola perforada, con vitrofib en su parte superior, y paredes de madera, que contribuyen a darle un ambiente cálido y acogedor. El soporte de hierro laminado existente en el centro del local, cuya supresión hubiera sido costosa, se ha revestido con lajas de mármol que le convierten en un elemento decorativo.

  12. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  13. Effect of chronic metoprolol and coronary occlusion (CO) on cardiac beta receptor density in cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathers, C.M.; Spivey, W.H.; Levin, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of metoprolol (M) on beta receptor density (BRD) was examined. M (5 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) was given for 2 and 8 wks prior to CO of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) at its origin. BRD, determined by binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenol, was examined in the myocardium (LA = left atrium, RA = right atrium, LV1 = proximal LAD distribution, LV = 2 distal LAD distribution, LV3 = posterior left ventricle, RV = right ventricle, and S = septum. A 2 factor ANOVA followed by simple effect and Newman-Keuls post hoc tests revealed that M produced no effect in BRD in LA, RA, LV2, or S. M increased BRD in LV1, LV3, and RV after 2 wk when compared to no M. In addition, BRD in LV3 and RV were also greater at 2 wk than after 8 wk M. The data indicate that there are regional differences in the beta adrenergic receptor densities among the areas of the heart and within the left ventricle. Chronic dosing with M produced increased BRD in only some of the areas of the heart. These differences may be related to functional differences in the various areas of the heart after CO.

  14. K-bar-mesic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    New nuclei 'K-bar-Mesic Nuclei' having the strangeness are described. At first it is shown that the strongly attractive nature of K-bar N interaction is reasoned inductively from consideration of the relation between Kaonic hydrogen atom and Λ (1405) which is an excited state of hyperon Λ. The K-bar N interactions are reviewed and summarized into three categories: 1. Phenomenological approach with density dependent K-bar N interaction (DD), relativistic mean field (RMF) approach, and hybrid of them (RMF+DD). 2. Boson exchange model. 3. Chiral SU(3) theory. The investigation of some light K-bar-nuclei by Akaishi and Yamazaki using phenomenological K-bar N interaction is explained in detail. Studies by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) approach are also presented. From these theoretical researches, the following feature of K-bar-mesic nuclei are revealed: 1) Ground state is discrete and bound by 100 MeV or more. 2) Density is very high in side the K-bar-mesic nuclei. 3) Strange structures develop which are not seen in ordinary nuclei. Finally some recent experiments to explore K-bar-mesic nuclei are reviewed. (S. Funahashi)

  15. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  16. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  17. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  18. In vivo [3H]spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugani, D.C.; Ackermann, R.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of receptor internalization and recycling have been well-documented for receptors for hormones, growth factors, lysosomal enzymes, and cellular substrates. Evidence also exists that these processes also occur for beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and delta-opiate receptors in frog erythrocytes or cultured nervous tissue. In this study, evidence is presented that agonist-mediated receptor internalization and recycling occurs at the dopamine receptor in rat corpus striatum. First, the in vivo binding of the dopamine antagonist [3H]spiperone was increased by both electrical stimulation and pharmacologically induced increases of dopamine release. Conversely, depletion of dopamine with reserpine decreased in vivo [3H]spiperone binding, but the same reserpine treatment did not alter its in vitro binding. Second, the rate of dissociation of [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes prepared from rat striatum following in vivo binding was fivefold slower than its dissociation following in vitro equilibrium binding. Mild detergent treatment, employed to disrupt endocytic vesicle membranes, increased the rate of dissociation of in vivo bound [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes to values not significantly different from its in vitro bound dissociation rate. Third, treatment of rats with chloroquine, a drug that prevents receptor recycling but not internalization, prior to [3H]spiperone injection resulted in a selective increase of in vivo [3H]spiperone binding in the light microsome membranes. The existence of mechanisms that rapidly alter the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses provides dynamic regulation of receptors in response to varied acute stimulation states

  19. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...

  20. Low energy bar pp physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, C.; Crowe, K.

    1989-02-01

    A detailed investigation of proton-antiproton interactions at low energy has become feasible with the commissioning of the LEAR facility in 1983. We shall shortly review the status of bar pp annihilation at rest and the physics motivations for second generation experiments with the Crystal Barrel detector. This type of detector would be adequate for the study of both Kp and bar pp interactions on an extracted beam of the KAON Factory. We shall conclude with a few remarks on the physics opportunities with bar p's at the KAON Factory which, in our opinion, will not be covered by the present LEAR facility. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Subjective social status predicts in vivo responsiveness of β-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank; Mills, Paul J; Rief, Winfried; Ziegler, Michael G; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2012-07-01

    Several poor health outcomes, including cardiovascular risk, have been associated with both subjective social status (SSS) and sympathetic overactivity. Because prolonged sympathetic overactivation down regulates beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR) function, reduced β-AR responsiveness is considered an indicator of sympathetic overactivity and a cardiovascular risk factor. Though prior research has focused on objective social status and β-AR function, no studies have examined the association between SSS and β-AR function. We aimed to learn whether SSS predicts the in vivo responsiveness of β-ARs. We assessed the chronotropic 25 dose (CD25), an in vivo marker of β-AR responsiveness, in 94 healthy participants. The MacArthur scales of subjective social status were used to assess SSS in the U.S.A. (SSS-USA) and in the local community (SSS-C). Objective social status was analyzed by calculating the Hollingshead two-factor index. β-AR responsiveness was reduced (as indicated by higher CD25 values) in participants with lower SSS-USA (p = .007) and lower SSS-C (p social status. Our results indicate that β-AR function may be an important component of the link between SSS and health.

  2. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis in brain slices: responses to meurotransmitters and modulation of noradrenaline receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quach, T.T.; Rose, C.; Schwartz, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Different agents have been investigated for their effects on [ 3 H] glycogen synthesized in mouse cortical slices. Of these noradrenaline, serotonin and histamine induced clear concentration-dependent glycogenesis. [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis induced by noradrenaline appears to be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors because it is completely prevented by timolol, while phentolamine is ineffective. It seems to involve cyclic AMP because it is potentiated in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine; in addition dibutyryl cyclic AMP (but not dibutyryl cyclic GMP) promotes glycogenolysis. Lower concentrations of noradrenaline were necessary for [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis (ECsub(50) 0.5μM) than for stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation (ECsub(50) = 8μM). After subchronic reserpine treatment the concentration-response curve to noradrenaline was significantly shifted to the left (ECsub(50) = 0.09 +- 0.02 μM as compared with 0.49 +- 0.08μM in saline-pretreated mice) without modifications of either the basal [ 3 H] glycogen level, maximal glycogenolytic effect, or the dibutyryl cAMP-induced glycogenolytic response. In addition to noradrenaline, clear concentration-dependent [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis was observed in the presence of histamine or serotonin. In contrast to the partial [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis elicited by these biogenic amines, depolarization of the slices by 50 mM K + provoked a nearly total [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis. (author)

  3. Possible heavy tetraquarks qQq-barQ-bar, qqQ-barQ-bar and qQQ-barQ-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Chen Xiaolin; Deng Weizhen; Zhu Shilin

    2007-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a qcq-barc-bar tetraquark and using its mass as input, the authors perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections. (authors)

  4. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  5. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  6. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  7. RELATING BOTTOM QUARK MASS IN DR-BAR AND MS-BAR REGULARIZATION SCHEMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The value of the bottom quark mass at Q = M Z in the (bar D)(bar R) scheme is an important input for the analysis of supersymmetric models with a large value of tan β. Conventionally, however, the running bottom quark mass extracted from experimental data is quoted in the (bar M)(bar S) scheme at the scale Q = m b . We describe a two loop procedure for the conversion of the bottom quark mass from (bar M)(bar S) to (bar D)(bar R) scheme. The Particle Data Group value m b # bar M# # bar S#(m b # bar M# # bar S#) = 4.2 ± 0.2 GeV corresponds to a range of 2.65-3.03 GeV for m b # bar D# # bar R#(M Z )

  8. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  9. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) administration selectively downregulates serotonin2 receptors in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, N S; Zhou, D F; Freedman, D X; Potter, W Z

    1990-04-01

    A dosage regimen of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) that reliably produces behavioral tolerance in rats was evaluated for effects on neurotransmitter receptor binding in rat brain using a variety of radioligands selective for amine receptor subtypes. Daily administration of LSD [130 micrograms/kg (0.27 mumol/kg) intraperitoneally (IP)] for 5 days produced a decrease in serotonin2 (5-hydroxytryptamine2, 5-HT2) binding in cortex (measured 24 hours after the last drug administration) but did not affect binding to other receptor systems (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, beta-adrenergic, alpha 1- or alpha 2-adrenergic, D2-dopaminergic) or to a recognition site for 5-HT uptake. The decrease was evident within 3 days of LSD administration but was not demonstrable after the first LSD dose. Following 5 days of LSD administration the decrease was still present 48 hours, but not 96 hours, after the last administration. The indole hallucinogen psilocybin [1.0 mg/kg (3.5 mumol/kg) for 8 days] also produced a significant decrease in 5HT2 binding, but neither the nonhallucinogenic analog bromo-LSD [1.3 mg/kg (2.4 mumol/kg) for 5 days] nor mescaline [10 mg/kg (40.3 mumol/kg) for 5 or 10 days] affected 5-HT2 binding. These observations suggest that LSD and other indole hallucinogens may act as 5-HT2 agonists at postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors. Decreased 5-HT2 binding strikingly parallels the development and loss of behavioral tolerance seen with repeated LSD administration, but the decreased binding per se cannot explain the gamut of behavioral tolerance and cross-tolerance phenomena among the indole and phenylethylamine hallucinogens.

  10. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay $\\bar\\Lambda \\to \\bar p\\pi^+$

    OpenAIRE

    BES collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample of $58\\times10^6J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the $\\bar\\Lambda$ decay parameter $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}$ for $\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p \\pi^+$ is measured using about 9000 $J/\\psi\\to\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p \\bar p \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}(\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p\\pi^+)=-0.755\\pm0.083\\pm0.063$, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  11. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  12. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  13. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  14. Reversal of propranolol blockade of adrenergic receptors and related toxicity with drugs that increase cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, V E; Vick, J A; Alleva, F R; Zhang, J; Joseph, X; Balazs, T

    1999-09-01

    An overdose of propranolol, a widely used nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, can result in hypotension and bradycardia leading to irreversible shock and death. In addition, the blockade of adrenergic receptors can lead to alterations in neurotransmitter receptors resulting in the interruption of the activity of other second messengers and the ultimate cellular responses. In the present experiment, three agents, aminophylline, amrinone, and forskolin were tested in an attempt to reverse the potential lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs. Twenty-two anesthetized beagle dogs were given a 10-min infusion of propranolol at a dose of 1 mg/kg/min. Six of the dogs, treated only with intravenous saline, served as controls. Within 15-30 min all six control dogs exhibited profound hypotension and severe bradycardia that led to cardiogenic shock and death. Seven dogs were treated with intravenous aminophylline 20 mg/kg 5 min after the end of the propranolol infusion. Within 10-15 min heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure returned to near control levels, and all seven dogs survived. Intravenous amrinone (2-3 mg/kg) given to five dogs, and forskolin (1-2 mg/kg) given to four dogs, also increased heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure but the recovery of these parameters was appreciably slower than that seen with aminophylline. All of these animals also survived with no apparent adverse effects. Histopathologic evaluation of the hearts of the dogs treated with aminophylline showed less damage (vacuolization, inflammation, hemorrhage) than the hearts from animals given propranolol alone. Results of this study showed that these three drugs, all of which increase cyclic AMP, are capable of reversing the otherwise lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs.

  15. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    A steam generator tube support structure comprises expandable antivibration bars positioned between rows of tubes in the steam generator and attached to retaining rings surrounding the bundle of tubes. The antivibration bars have adjacent bar sections with mating surfaces formed as inclined planes which upon relative longitudinal motion between the upper and lower bars provides a means to increase the overall thickness across the structure to the required value. The bar section is retained against longitudinal movement in take-up assembly whereas the bar section is movable longitudinally by rotation of a nut. (author)

  16. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...

  17. Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states in chiral SU(3) quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Zhang Min; Zhang Zongye

    2007-01-01

    We study the masses of Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states with J PC =0 ++ , 1 ++ , 1 +- and 2 ++ in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q(q') is the light quark (u,d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 1 ++ and [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 2 ++ (n=u,d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the bq(b-bar)(q-bar)' system. (authors)

  18. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  19. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  20. Bidirectional modulation of hippocampal gamma (20-80 Hz) frequency activity in vitro via alpha(α)- and beta(β)-adrenergic receptors (AR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, D C; Glykos, V; Adams, N E; Lebeau, F E N

    2013-12-03

    Noradrenaline (NA) in the hippocampus plays an important role in memory function and has been shown to modulate different forms of synaptic plasticity. Oscillations in the gamma frequency (20-80 Hz) band in the hippocampus have also been proposed to play an important role in memory functions and, evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies, has suggested this activity can be modulated by NA. However, the role of different NA receptor subtypes in the modulation of gamma frequency activity has not been fully elucidated. We have found that NA (30 μM) exerts a bidirectional control on the magnitude of kainate-evoked (50-200 nM) gamma frequency oscillations in the cornu Ammonis (CA3) region of the rat hippocampus in vitro via activation of different receptor subtypes. Activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors (α-AR) reduced the power of the gamma frequency oscillation. In contrast, activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) caused an increase in the power of the gamma frequency oscillations. Using specific agonists and antagonists of AR receptor subtypes we demonstrated that these effects are mediated specifically via α1A-AR and β1-AR subtypes. NA activated both receptor subtypes, but the α1A-AR-mediated effect predominated, resulting in a reversible suppression of gamma frequency activity. These results suggest that NA is able to differentially modulate on-going gamma frequency oscillatory activity that could result in either increased or decreased information flow through the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CP asymmetries in B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l and untagged B-bar s, Bs → φ( → K+K-) l-bar l decays at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeth, Christoph; Hiller, Gudrun; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b → s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ∼ d , B d → K*( → K 0 π 0 ) l-bar l and B-bar s , B s → φ( → K + K - ) l-bar l decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experimental studies are promising for (super) flavor factories and at hadron colliders.

  2. β2-Adrenergic receptor activation mobilizes intracellular calcium via a non-canonical cAMP-independent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz-Montoya, Monica; Wright, Sara J; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Lichtarge, Olivier; Wensel, Theodore G

    2017-06-16

    Beta adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors essential for physiological responses to the hormones/neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine which are found in the nervous system and throughout the body. They are the targets of numerous widely used drugs, especially in the case of the most extensively studied βAR, β 2 AR, whose ligands are used for asthma and cardiovascular disease. βARs signal through Gα s G-proteins and via activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but some alternative downstream pathways have also been proposed that could be important for understanding normal physiological functioning of βAR signaling and its disruption in disease. Using fluorescence-based Ca 2+ flux assays combined with pharmacology and gene knock-out methods, we discovered a previously unrecognized endogenous pathway in HEK-293 cells whereby β 2 AR activation leads to robust Ca 2+ mobilization from intracellular stores via activation of phospholipase C and opening of inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptors. This pathway did not involve cAMP, Gα s , or Gα i or the participation of the other members of the canonical β 2 AR signaling cascade and, therefore, constitutes a novel signaling mechanism for this receptor. This newly uncovered mechanism for Ca 2+ mobilization by β 2 AR has broad implications for adrenergic signaling, cross-talk with other signaling pathways, and the effects of βAR-directed drugs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  4. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  5. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  7. Derivation of asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, K.; Oneda, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the origin of the observed approximate Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule is the presence of an asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule which exists among certain two-body hadronic weak matrix elements, involving especially the ground-state hadrons

  8. Production of n-bar's and Sigma-bar+-'s in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.; Buchanan, C.; Nodulman, L.; Poster, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Morehouse, C.C.; Vannucci, F.

    1979-01-01

    The production of antineutrons and charged Sigma-bar's in e + e - annihilations has been measured at √s +- production between 4 and 7 GeV is consistent with simple expectations for charmed-baryon production. A search for the decays Lambda-bar - /sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - and Sigma-baratsup asteriskat/sub c//Sigma-bar/sub c/ → Lambda-bar - /sub c/π +- yields no significant peaks. An upper limit, at the 90% confidence level, of sigmaatsub Lambda-baratc-italicB (Lambda-bar/sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - ) < 56 pb is set

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  10. Quantitation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in porcine uterine and mesenteric arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, D.B.; Ford, S.P.; Reynolds, L.P.; Bhatnagar, R.K.; Van Orden, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The activation of vascular alpha-adrenergic receptors may be involved in the control of uterine blood flow. A radioligand binding assay with the use of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist 3 H-WB-4101 was established to characterize the alpha-adrenergic receptors in uterine and mesenteric arterial membranes obtained from nonpregnant pigs. Specific binding of 3 H-WB-4101 was rapid, saturable, and exhibited the alpha-adrenergic agonist potency order of (-)-epinephrine inhibition constant [Ki] . 0.6 mumol/L greater than (-)-norepinephrine (Ki . 1.5 mumol/L) much greater than (-)-isoproterenol (Ki . 120 mumol/L). The alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (Ki . 6.0 nmol/L) was 200 times more potent than the beta-adrenergic antagonist (+/-)-propranolol (Ki . 1,200 nmol/L); the alpha 1-selective antagonist prazosin (Ki . 1.2 nmol/L) was 130 times more potent than the alpha 2-selective antagonist yohimbine (Ki . 160 nmol/L). Scatchard analysis, as well as iterative curve-fitting analysis, demonstrated that 3 H-WB-4101 binding by arterial membranes was to a single class of binding sites. Uterine arteries exhibited greater maximal binding capacity (BMax) than that of mesenteric arteries (47.5 +/- 3.2 versus 30.9 +/- 3.6 fmol per milligram of protein, p less than 0.01), but the uterine artery dissociation constant (Kd) was higher, thus indicating a lower affinity, when compared with mesenteric artery (0.43 +/- 0.04 versus 0.33 +/- 0.04 nmol/L, p less than 0.05)

  11. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. pectorIs of labetalol in with angina Beneficial effect hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-15

    Jan 15, 1983 ... The treatment of angina pectoris in patients with arterial hyper- ..... An alternative mechanism whereby labetalol may reduce angina pectoris is .... alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockade on myocardial cell necrosis after.

  13. Cardiac Function in Patients with Early Cirrhosis during Maximal Beta-Adrenergic Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Dahl, Emilie Kristine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiac dysfunction in patients with early cirrhosis is debated. We investigated potential cardiac dysfunction by assessing left ventricular systolic performance during a dobutamine stress test in patients with early cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with Chil...

  14. Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Hersch

    Full Text Available β-blockers and β-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective β(1-blocker, Atenolol (ate, and a β-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso. The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA, a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP to perturbations of the β-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8. An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6. Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to β-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

  15. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation

  16. Cerebral oxygenation decreases during exercise in humans with beta-adrenergic blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Beta-blockers reduce exercise capacity by attenuated increase in cardiac output, but it remains unknown whether performance also relates to attenuated cerebral oxygenation. METHODS: Acting as their own controls, eight healthy subjects performed a continuous incremental cycle test to exhaustion...... attenuated the increase in cardiac output of consequence for cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. We suggest that a decrease in cerebral oxygenation limits exercise capacity Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...... with or without administration of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity were measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and those in cerebral oxygenation were evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and the calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  17. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange...

  18. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...

  19. Maintained cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise in patients with beta-adrenergic blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane M B; Rasmussen, Peter; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    patients in oral treatment with propranolol are able to mobilize brain non-oxidative carbohydrate metabolism. METHODS: Incremental cycle ergometry to exhaustion (86 +/- 4.2 W; mean +/- SD) was performed in eight cirrhotic patients instrumented with a catheter in the brachial artery and one retrograde...... in the right internal jugular vein. Healthy subjects form the control group. RESULTS: In beta-blocked cirrhotic patients arterial lactate increased from 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 5.1 +/- 0.8 mM (Pdifference (a-v diff) from -0.01 +/- 0.03 to 0.30 +/- 0.05 mM (P

  20. Study of the reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ at 3.6 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Atherton, Henry W; Moebes, J P; Quercigh, Emanuele

    1974-01-01

    The reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ are studied at an incident momentum of 3.6 GeV/c in a 35.4 event/$\\mu$ b experiment performed in the CERN 2m HBC. Total and differential cross sections are presented. The polarization of the hyperons is measured as a function of $t$ and for the reaction $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$ the complete spin correlation matrix is given. (23 refs).

  1. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  2. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    comparison of the one-dimensional bridge hydraulic routines from: HEC - RAS , HEC -2, and WSPRO. Davis, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 4 Jackson Bar Training Structure Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp and...Leroy Gage), a previously constructed HEC -2 model, and a previously constructed WES physical model from 1987. Three alternatives were modeled in an

  3. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  5. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  6. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (I), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high I) or as a barlens structure (at low I). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  7. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  8. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  9. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  10. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  11. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  12. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  13. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  14. Angiotensin type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ mediate the drinking and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to systemic isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Eric G; Melhorn, Susan J; Davis, Jon F; Scott, Karen A; Ma, Li Y; de Kloet, Annette D; Benoit, Stephen C; Woods, Stephen C; Sakai, Randall R

    2008-12-01

    Circulating angiotensin II (ANGII) elicits water intake and activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by stimulating angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs) within circumventricular organs. The subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) are circumventricular organs that express AT1Rs that bind blood-borne ANGII and stimulate integrative and effector regions of the brain. The goal of these studies was to determine the contribution of AT1Rs within the SFO and OVLT to the water intake and HPA response to increased circulating ANGII. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against the AT1R [AT1R antisense (AT1R AS)] were administered into the OVLT or SFO. Quantitative receptor autoradiography confirmed that AT1R AS decreased ANGII binding in the SFO and OVLT compared with the scrambled sequence control but did not affect AT1R binding in other nuclei. Subsequently, water intake, ACTH, and corticosterone (CORT) were assessed after administration of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist that decreases blood pressure and elevates circulating ANGII. Delivery of AT1R AS into the SFO attenuated water intake, ACTH, and CORT after isoproterenol, whereas similar treatment in the OVLT had no effect. To determine the specificity of this blunted drinking and HPA response, the same parameters were measured after treatment with hypertonic saline, a stimulus that induces drinking independently of ANGII. Delivery of AT1R AS into the SFO or OVLT had no effect on water intake, ACTH, or CORT after hypertonic saline. The results imply that AT1R within the SFO mediate drinking and HPA responses to stimuli that increase circulating ANGII.

  15. Cardiac beta-receptors in experimental Chagas' disease Receptores beta cardíacos na doença de Chagas experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Enders

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Chagas' disease (45 to 90 days post-infection showed serious cardiac alterations in the contractility and in the pharmacological response to beta adrenergic receptors in normal and T. cruzi infected mice (post-acute phase. Chagasic infection did not change the beta receptors density (78.591 ± 3.125 fmol/mg protein and 73.647 ± 2.194 fmol/mg protein for controls but their affinity was significantly diminished (Kd = 7.299 ± 0.426 nM and Kd = 3.759 ± 0.212 nM for the control p Estudaram-se os receptores beta cardíacos de camundongos infectados pelo Trypanosoma cruzi na fase pós-aguda da doença de Chagas para estabelecer em que medida os mesmos contribuem a gerar respostas anômalas às catecolaminas observadas nestes miocardios. Utilizara-se 3-H/DHA para a marcação dos receptores beta cardíacos dos camundongos normais e dos infectados na fase pós-aguda (45 a 90 dias pós-infecção. O número dos sítios de fixação foi similar nos dois grupos, 78.591 ± 3.125 fmol/mg. Proteína nos chagásicos e 73.647 ± 2.194 fmol/mg. Proteína no grupo controle. Em vez disso, a afinidade verificou-se significativamente diminuida no grupo chagásico (Kd = 7.299 ± 0.426 nM respeito do controle (Kd = 3.759 ± 0.212 nM p < 0.001. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que as modificações observadas na estimulação adrenérgica do miocárdio chagásico se correlacionam com a menor afinidade dos receptores beta cardíacos e que estas alterações exerceriam uma parte determinante para as consequências funcionais que são detectadas na fase crônica.

  16. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  17. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  18. Test of bar window with internal bars free from the glass surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    A sealed glazing unit with 3 horisontal and 3 vertical bars and a reference glazing without bars have been tested in a guarded hotbox. The difference in measured heat loss coefficient between the two test objects is a measure of the thermal influence of the bars. The difference in heat loss...

  19. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  20. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  1. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  2. Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi, [Unknown

    We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of Ωb=1.98+0.04 -0.08 Ωo, where Ω0 is the local circular

  3. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  4. Why Are Some Galaxies Not Barred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kanak; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Although more than two-thirds of star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, some galaxies remain unbarred, occupying the upper half of the Hubble tuning fork diagram. Numerical simulations almost always produce bars spontaneously, so it remains a challenge to understand how galaxies sometimes prevent bars from forming. Using a set of collisionless simulations, we first reproduce the common result that cold stellar disks surrounding a classical bulge become strongly unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations, leading to the rapid formation of spiral structure and bars. However, our analyses show that galaxy models with compact classical bulges (whose average density is greater than or comparable to the disk density calculated within bulge half-mass radii) are able to prevent bar formation for at least 4 Gyr even when the stellar disk is maximal and having low Toomre Q. Such bar prevention is the result of several factors such as (a) a small inner Lindblad resonance with a high angular rate, which contaminates an incipient bar with x 2 orbits, and (b) rapid loss of angular momentum accompanied by a rapid heating in the center from initially strong bar and spiral instabilities in a low-Q disk; in other words, a rapid initial rise to a value larger than ∼5 of the ratio of the random energy to the rotational energy in the central region of the galaxy.

  5. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  6. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  7. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  8. Characterization of Bars Induced by Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Martinez-Valpuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.

  9. Charmonium and bottomonium in bar pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.

    1993-12-01

    In this talk, I presented some examples of data from the CDF collaboration on J/ψ, χ, ψ' and Γ production. Such data are used to test models of production dynamics and for the understanding of rates for b quark production. I am not a member of the CDF experiment and showed their data with permission as an interested and impressed spectator. Data from D0 may be found in the talk of D. Denisov. As a complement to this data from the highest energy accelerator experiment, operating at √ bar s= 1.8 TeV, I also showed data from Fermilab experiment E760 on masses, widths, states and branching ratios in the Charmonium system, obtained by studying resonant formation of c bar c states in p bar p annihilation at √ bar s = m(c bar c)

  10. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a steam generator for a nuclear power plant comprising a shell, a plurality of tubes having a U-shaped configuration arranged in successive columns within the shell. The tubes are adapted to heat feedwater flowing around the outside of the tubes by the flow of hot reactor coolant within the tubes, and antivibration bars any vibrations of the tubes as a result of steam between the columns of tubes. The improvement described here comprises means for varying the thickness of the antivibration bars to fit substantially the actual space between the columns of tubes comprising first and second bars, with at least one bar being movable, and with at least one mating inclined surface between the first and second bars

  11. Stress hormones receptors in the amygdala mediate the effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a non aversive spatial task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Segev

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level. Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA, prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas, and (iii the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive.

  12. Stress hormones receptors in the amygdala mediate the effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a non aversive spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Amir; Ramot, Assaf; Akirav, Irit

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level) or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level). Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress) impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side), a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side) microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i) GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii) the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas), and (iii) the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive).

  13. m-Acetylanilido-GTP, a novel photoaffinity label for GTP-binding proteins: synthesis and application.

    OpenAIRE

    Zor, T; Halifa, I; Kleinhaus, S; Chorev, M; Selinger, Z

    1995-01-01

    A novel photoaffinity label, m-acetylanilido-GTP (m-AcAGTP), was synthesized and used to identify GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). This GTP analogue is easily prepared and can be used for photoaffinity labelling of G-proteins without chromatographic purification. In the presence of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline, it activates turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase. This activation persists even when the beta-adrenergic receptor is subsequently blocked by antagonist, indicating that ...

  14. Treatment of essential tremor with arotinolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H

    1988-04-01

    We investigated the effect of arotinolol, a new peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, in 15 patients with essential tremor. The patients received 30 mg per day of arotinolol for 8 weeks. Accelerometer readings showed a significant reduction in amplitude of postural tremor after treatment. Action tremor also improved to essentially the same degree as postural tremor. The present findings support the view that the therapeutic effect of beta-blockers in essential tremor is mediated by peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.

  15. A Study of (bar B)0 --> D(*)0 (bar K)(*)0 Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented evidence for the decay (bar B) 0 --> D* 0 (bar K) 0 as well as new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays (bar B) 0 --> D 0 (bar K) 0 and D 0 (bar K)* 0 . Their measurements are in agreement with the expectation derived from a cited reference and with previous measurements. They use the central value of their measurement for B((bar B) 0 --> (bar D) 0 K* 0 ) and obtain τ < 0.8 at the 90% C.L. from a central value of τ = 0.4 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.2 (syst.). The main contribution to the systematic uncertainty is from the estimated peaking background since most systematic uncertainties on the branching fractions cancel in the ratio

  16. Formation of q bar q resonances in the bar NN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of q bar q resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the bar NN system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q bar q states into bar NN pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author's analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f 4 (2050) (I G J PC = 0 + 4 ++ ), ρ 5 (2240) (I G J PC = 1 + 5 -- ), and f 6 (2510) (I G J PC = 0 + 6 ++ ) to the processes of two-meson bar NN annihilation (bar pp → ππ, bar KK, hor-ellipsis) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  18. The bar in NGC 4596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The SBa galaxy NGC 4596 is characterized on the basis of CCD photometry obtained with a broad red filter on the 61-cm telescope at Whipple Observatory during January 1986 and long-slit CCD spectra obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO in May 1988 and with the MMT in March 1989. The results are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. Three components are identified: (1) an oblate spheroidal bulge with true ellipticity 0.26 and luminosity 4.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, (2) a 10.0 x 2.6-kpc rectangular bar with luminosity 6.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, and (3) a lens of constant intensity with luminosity 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities out to a distance of 8.7 kpc. The characteristic slowdown time is calculated as 6-20 Gyr, and the velocity field is shown to deviate less from circular rotation than predicted by a simple dynamical model in which the disk kinematics are derived from an n-body simulation (Sparkle and Sellwood, 1987) and the bulge is assumed to be an oblate isotropic rotator. 31 refs

  19. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  20. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  1. Bar Formation in Milky Way type Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyachenko E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many barred galaxies, possibly including the Milky Way, have cusps in their centers. There is a widespread belief, however, that the usual bar instability, which occurs in bulgeless galaxy models, is impossible for cuspy models because of the presence of the inner Lindblad resonance for any pattern speed. At the same time, there is numerical evidence that the bar instability can form a bar. We analyze this discrepancy by performing accurate and diverse N-body simulations and calculating the normal modes. We show that bar formation in cuspy galaxies can be explained by taking into account the disk thickness. The exponential growth time is moderate (about 250 Myr for typical current disk masses, but it increases considerably (by a factor of two or more if the live halo and bulge are substituted by a rigid halo/bulge potential; the pattern speeds remain almost the same. Normal mode analysis with different disk mass favors a young bar hypothesis, according to which the bar instability has saturated only recently.

  2. Membrane Localization is Critical for Activation of the PICK1 BAR Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Han, Daniel S.; Niv, Masha Y.; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Henriksen, Ulla; Bhatia, Vikram K.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Sitte, Harald H.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood. In agreement with negative regulation of the BAR domain by the N-terminal PDZ domain, PICK1 distributed evenly in the cytoplasm, whereas truncation of the PDZ domain caused BAR domain-dependent redistribution to clusters colocalizing with markers of recycling endosomal compartments. A similar clustering was observed both upon truncation of a short putative α-helical segment in the linker between the PDZ and the BAR domains and upon coexpression of PICK1 with a transmembrane PDZ ligand, including the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit, the GluR2 C-terminus transferred to the single transmembrane protein Tac or the dopamine transporter C-terminus transferred to Tac. In contrast, transfer of the GluR2 C-terminus to cyan fluorescent protein, a cytosolic protein, did not elicit BAR domain-dependent clustering. Instead, localizing PICK1 to the membrane by introducing an N-terminal myristoylation site produced BAR domain-dependent, but ligand-independent, PICK1 clustering. The data support that in the absence of PDZ ligand, the PICK1 BAR domain is inhibited through a PDZ domain-dependent and linker-dependent mechanism. Moreover, they suggest that unmasking of the BAR domain’s membrane-binding capacity is not a consequence of ligand binding to the PDZ domain per se but results from, and coincides with, recruitment of PICK1 to a membrane compartment. PMID:18466293

  3. Enhanced cerebral uptake of receptor ligands by modulation of P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, P; Van Waarde, A; Elsinga, P H; Hendrikse, N H; Vaalburg, W

    Low cerebral uptake of some therapeutic drugs can be enhanced by modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-driven drug efflux pump at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We investigated the possibility of increasing cerebral uptake of the beta-adrenergic ligands S-1'-[(18)F]-fluorocarazolol (FCAR) and

  4. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  5. Determining vertical bar Vub vertical bar from the B-bar→Xulν-bar dilepton invariant mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of the lepton pair in inclusive semileptonic B-bar→X u lν-bar decay yields a model independent determination of vertical bar V ub vertical bar. Unlike the lepton energy and hadronic invariant mass spectra, nonperturbative effects are only important in the resonance region, and play a parametrically suppressed role when dΓ/dq 2 is integrated over q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 , which is required to eliminate the B-bar→X c lν-bar background. We discuss these backgrounds for q 2 slightly below (m B -m D ) 2 , and point out that instead of q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 =11.6 GeV 2 , the cut can be lowered to q 2 > or approx. 10.5 GeV 2 . This is important experimentally, particularly when effects of a finite neutrino reconstruction resolution are included

  6. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  7. Adrenergic effects on renal secretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1985-01-01

    Urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been demonstrated recently to originate from the kidneys. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adrenergic and cholinergic influence on secretion of renal EGF. beta-Adrenergic agonists increased the level of urinary EGF, while propranolol......, a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, decreased basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated total output of urinary EGF. Acetylcholine and the anticholinergic agent atropine had no effect on the output of EGF in urine. Also chemical sympathectomy induced by 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the urinary output of EGF. None...... of the experimental groups had a median serum concentration above the detection limit of the assay. The present study shows that secretion of renal EGF is under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system and release of EGF is stimulated by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the kidneys....

  8. What makes the family of barred disc galaxies so rich: damping stellar bars in spinning haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    We model and analyse the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0-0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes - spherical, oblate, and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution that is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) the vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J - this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) bars in λ > 0.03 haloes have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  9. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  11. New results from Fermilab E866 (NuSea) for d-bar/u-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenhower, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermilab dimuon experiment 866/NuSea measured Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Over 370,000 Drell-Yan muon pairs were recorded. From these data, the ratio of anti-down (d-bar) to anti-up (u-bar) quark distributions in the proton sea is determined over a wide range in Bjorken-x. A strong x dependence is observed in the ratio d-bar/u-bar, showing substantial enhancement of d-bar with respect to u-bar for x < 0.2. The results presented here for the full data sets confirm previously published results from E866 and are compared with parametrizations of parton distribution functions calculated both before and after the publication of the high-mass E866 data

  12. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR. By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  13. Practical, Reliable Error Bars in Quantum Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Precise characterization of quantum devices is usually achieved with quantum tomography. However, most methods which are currently widely used in experiments, such as maximum likelihood estimation, lack a well-justified error analysis. Promising recent methods based on confidence regions are difficult to apply in practice or yield error bars which are unnecessarily large. Here, we propose a practical yet robust method for obtaining error bars. We do so by introducing a novel representation of...

  14. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  15. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  16. Configurating computer-controlled bar system

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštaršič, Nejc

    2010-01-01

    The principal goal of my diploma thesis is creating an application for configurating computer-controlled beverages dispensing systems. In the preamble of my thesis I present the theoretical platform for point of sale systems and beverages dispensing systems, which are required for the understanding of the target problematics. As with many other fields, computer tehnologies entered the field of managing bars and restaurants quite some time ago. Basic components of every bar or restaurant a...

  17. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  18. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Abbott, B.K.; Breon, A.B.; Clark, A.R.; Dow, S.; Fan, Q.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L.T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Lynch, G.; Levi, M.; Luft, P.; Luo, L.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Barni, D.; Brenna, E.; Defendi, I.; Forti, A.; Giugni, D.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Vaniev, V.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P.F.; Perazzo, A.; Re, V.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Dutra, F.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rampino, G.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Tritto, S.; Vitale, R.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Daudo, F.; Girolamo, B. Di; Gamba, D.; Giraudo, G.; Grosso, P.; Romero, A.; Smol, A.; Trapani, P.; Zanin, D.; Bosisio, L.; Ricca, G. Della; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Rastelli, C.; Vallazza, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Hast, C.; Potter, E.P.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Eppich, A.; Hale, D.; Hall, K.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Turri, M.; Wilder, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Walsh, J.; Zobernig, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is designed to provide the high-precision vertexing necessary for making measurements of CP violation at the SLAC B-Factory PEP-II. The instrument consists of five layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and has been installed in the BaBar experiment and taking colliding beam data since May 1999. An overview of the design as well as performance and experience from the initial running will be presented

  19. Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Morgan, Donald A; Varela, Luis; Haynes, William G; Patterson, James T; Disse, Emmanuel; Pfluger, Paul T; López, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; DiMarchi, Richard; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2009-05-06

    We investigated a possible role of the central glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor system as an essential brain circuit regulating adiposity through effects on nutrient partitioning and lipid metabolism independent from feeding behavior. Both lean and diet-induced obesity mice were used for our experiments. GLP-1 (7-36) amide was infused in the brain for 2 or 7 d. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR or Western blot. To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity combined with experiments in genetically manipulated mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GLP-1 in mice directly and potently decreases lipid storage in white adipose tissue. These effects are independent from nutrient intake. Such CNS control of adipocyte metabolism was found to depend partially on a functional sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the effects of CNS GLP-1 on adipocyte metabolism were blunted in diet-induced obese mice. The CNS GLP-1 system decreases fat storage via direct modulation of adipocyte metabolism. This CNS GLP-1 control of adipocyte lipid metabolism appears to be mediated at least in part by the sympathetic nervous system and is independent of parallel changes in food intake and body weight. Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1.

  20. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  1. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  2. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  3. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  4. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  6. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  7. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  8. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  9. Studying W‧ boson contributions in \\bar{B} \\rightarrow {D}^{(* )}{{\\ell }}^{-}{\\bar{\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Wei, Bin; Sheng, Jin-Huan; Wang, Ru-Min; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Belle collaboration reported the first measurement of the τ lepton polarization P τ (D*) in \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {τ }-{\\bar{ν }}τ decay and a new measurement of the rate of the branching ratios R(D*), which are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. These could be used to constrain the New Physics (NP) beyond the SM. In this paper, we probe \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } (ℓ = e, μ, τ) decays in the model-independent way and in the specific G(221) models with lepton flavour universality. Considering the theoretical uncertainties and the experimental errors at the 95% C.L., we obtain the quite strong bounds on the model-independent parameters {C}{{LL}}{\\prime },{C}{{LR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RL}}{\\prime },{g}V,{g}A,{g}V{\\prime },{g}A{\\prime } and the specific G(221) model parameter rates. We find that the constrained NP couplings have no obvious effects on all (differential) branching ratios and their rates, nevertheless, many NP couplings have very large effects on the lepton spin asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } decays and the forward–backward asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell }. So we expect precision measurements of these observables would be researched by LHCb and Belle-II.

  10. H-bar and H-bar + production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comini, P; Hervieux, P-A

    2013-01-01

    The production and cooling of the H-bar + ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure g-bar , the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. H-bar + ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of H-bar + ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave – Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the H-bar excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the H-bar production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest H-bar + production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of H-bar + could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  11. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  12. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  13. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  14. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  15. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  16. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  17. Re-study of the contribution of scalar potential and spectra of cc-bar, bb-bar and bc-bar(b-bar c) families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Li Xueqian

    2012-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the role of the scalar potential which appears at the loop level is much smaller than that of the vector potential and is in fact negligible. But the situation is different for QCD, one reason is that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and second the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce a sizable scalar potential. In this work, we study phenomenologically the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonia, bottomonia and bc-bar (b-bar c) families. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonia and bottomonia spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of not only the charmonia and bottomonia families, but also the bc-bar family. We also consider the Lamb shift of the spectra. (authors)

  18. Betaxolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoy, C A; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2007-06-30

    Anxiety has been indicated as one of the main symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts and severe anxiety during withdrawal may potentially contribute to relapse. As alterations in noradrenergic transmission in limbic areas underlie withdrawal symptomatology for many drugs of abuse, the present study sought to determine the effect of cocaine withdrawal on beta-adrenergic receptor (beta(1) and beta(2)) expression in the amygdala. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days. Two days following the last cocaine injection, amygdala brain regions were micro-dissected and processed for Western blot analysis. Results showed that beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, but not beta(2)-adrenergic receptor expression was significantly increased in amygdala extracts of cocaine-withdrawn animals as compared to controls. This finding motivated further studies aimed at determining whether treatment with betaxolol, a highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, could ameliorate cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety. In these studies, betaxolol (5 mg/kg via i.p. injection) was administered at 24 and then 44 h following the final chronic cocaine administration. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test approximately 2 h following the last betaxolol injection. Following behavioral testing, betaxolol effects on beta(1)-adrenergic receptor protein expression were examined by Western blotting in amygdala extracts from rats undergoing cocaine withdrawal. Animals treated with betaxolol during cocaine withdrawal exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased time spent in the open arms and increased entries into the open arms compared to animals treated with only saline during cocaine withdrawal. In contrast, betaxolol did not produce anxiolytic-like effects in control animals treated chronically with saline. Furthermore

  19. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  20. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  1. Precracking of round notched bars. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-02-01

    Precracking round notched bars is the first step before fracture mechanics testing. This report gives an overview of the different techniques described in the literature. Difficulties generally encountered are linked to the crack length determination and the creation of eccentric cracks. As the compliance technique is often used, a detailed study of the stress intensity factor and the compliance of the precracked bar under bending and tension is presented. Comparison with finite element calculations is made to validate the proposed analytical formulation. Finally a practical way for precracking is described

  2. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  3. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, David C.; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W.; Shah, Amisha J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  4. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  5. A bar coding system for environmental projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.B.; Hunt, B.J.; Burgess, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents BeCode systems, a bar coding system which provides both nuclear and commercial clients with a data capture and custody management program that is accurate, timely, and beneficial to all levels of project operations. Using bar code identifiers is an essentially paperless and error-free method which provides more efficient delivery of data through its menu card-driven structure, which speeds collection of essential data for uploading to a compatible device. The effects of this sequence include real-time information for operator analysis, management review, audits, planning, scheduling, and cost control

  6. Glycyrrhetic acid synergistically enhances β₂-adrenergic receptor-Gs signaling by changing the location of Gαs in lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shi

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhetic acid (GA exerts synergistic anti-asthmatic effects via a β₂-adrenergic receptor (β₂AR-mediated pathway. Cholesterol is an important component of the structure and function of lipid rafts, which play critical roles in the β₂AR-Gs-adenylate cyclase (AC-mediated signaling pathway. Owing to the structural similarities between GA and cholesterol, we investigated the possibility that GA enhances β₂AR signaling by altering cholesterol distribution. Azide-terminal GA (ATGA was synthesized and applied to human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells expressing fusion β₂AR, and the electron spin resonance (ESR technique was utilized. GA was determined to be localized predominantly on membrane and decreased their cholesterol contents. Thus, the fluidity of the hydrophobic region increased but not the polar surface of the cell membrane. The conformations of membrane proteins were also changed. GA further changed the localization of Gαs from lipid rafts to non-raft regions, resulting the binding of β₂AR and Gαs, as well as in reduced β₂AR internalization. Co-localization of β₂AR, Gαs, and AC increased isoproterenol-induced cAMP production and cholesterol reloading attenuated this effect. A speculation wherein GA enhances beta-adrenergic activity by increasing the functional linkage between the subcomponents of the membrane β₂AR-protein kinase A (PKA signaling pathway was proposed. The enhanced efficacy of β₂AR agonists by this novel mechanism could prevent tachyphylaxis.

  7. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  8. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  9. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  10. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  11. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  12. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  13. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  14. QCD corrections to leptonic and hadronic observables from p bar p→W+X→ bar τντX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Reno, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    We set up a formalism for calculating the O(α s ) corrections to the process p bar p→W + X→ bar τν τ X with spin-correlated τ decays to leptons and mesons. Our results are applicable to Monte Carlo integration, which allows easy construction of any desired observable at next-to-leading-log level, and the possibility to include experimental cuts. Our results are applied explicitly to the decay modes τ→ bar ν τ bar eν e , bar τ→ bar ν τ π + , and bar τ→ bar ν τ π + π 0 ; other decay modes may be included in a straightforward fashion. We show results for transverse momentum and rapidity variables in leading-log and next-to-leading-log approximations; the leptonic observables are compared to similar observables from direct W→ bar eν e

  15. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  16. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  17. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  18. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  19. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  20. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  1. Glucagon and plasma catecholamines during beta-receptor blockade in exercising man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Holst, Janett; Christensen, N J

    1976-01-01

    Seven men ran at 60% of individual maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion during beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (P), during lipolytic blockade with nicotinic acid (N), or without drugs (C). The total work times (83 +/- 9 (P), 122 +/- 8 (N), 166 +/- 10 (C) min, mean and SE) differed signif...... determinants for the exercise-induced glucagon secretion in man. It is suggested that decreased glucose availability enhances the secretion of glucagon and epinephrine during prolonged exercise....

  2. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  3. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  4. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  5. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  6. Mirrlees MB430 has 23 bar bmep potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Nominally rates at 1000 bhp per cylinder, the new Mirrlees Blackstone MB430 diesel engine with 430 mm bore and 480 mm stroke runs at 600 rev/min under bmep of 21 bar. Initially the engine has been released at 19 bar with the prospect of uprating to 23 bar bmep in due course. The performance testing of the engine is discussed.

  7. Investigation into brittle failure of some starter bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the cause and consequences of an observed brittle behaviour of some starter bars on a construction site in the Netherlands. A few bars suddenly failed when they were bent in order to align them. For the investigation firstly a batch of starter bars that

  8. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  9. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  10. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  11. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  13. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  14. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  15. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  16. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunuan

    2002-01-01

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) L max at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  17. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  18. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  19. Human adipose tissue blood flow during prolonged exercise, III. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade, nicotinic acid and glucose infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J

    1981-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in six male subjects by the 133Xe-washout technique during 3-4 h of exercise at a work load corresponding to an oxygen uptake of about 1.71/min. The measurements were done during control conditions, during blockade of lipolysis by nicotinic...... of work. No increase in lipolysis and no increase in ATBF were found when lipolysis was blocked by nicotinic acid (0.3 g/h). Propranolol treatment (0.15 mg/kg) reduced lipolysis and nearly abolished the increase in ATBF during exercise. Intravenous administration of glucose (about 0.25 g/min) did...

  20. Effect of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats. Methods Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days. Results Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 ± 0.40, ISO: 4.43 ± 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 ± 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 ± 0.16, p vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4. Conclusions Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats. PMID:24521405

  1. Does calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade affect platelet function and fibrinolysis to a varying degree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1995-01-01

    as the fast-acting inhibitor against tissue plasminogen activator usually termed PAI-1. During atenolol and isradipine therapy, blood pressure (BP) was equally reduced (p ... tended to improve fibrinolysis, as shown by a decrease in PAI, 1 h after exercise. Reducing BP with isradipine or atenolol results in a similar decrease in platelet activity and PAI-level, tested at rest and 1 h after rest, respectively. During exercise, platelet activity increased during atenolol...

  2. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol on cachexia in severe chronic heart failure: results from the COPERNICUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew L; Coats, Andrew J S; Krum, Henry; Katus, Hugo A; Mohacsi, Paul; Salekin, Damien; Schultz, Melissa K; Packer, Milton; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac cachexia frequently accompanies the progression of heart failure despite the use of effective therapies for left ventricular dysfunction. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of weight loss, but the effects of sympathetic antagonism on cachexia are not well defined. We prospectively evaluated changes in body weight in 2289 patients with heart failure who had dyspnoea at rest or on minimal exertion and a left ventricular ejection fraction 6%) (95% confidence interval: 14-48%, P = 0.002) and were 37% more likely to experience a significant gain in weight (≥5%) (95% confidence interval: 12-66%, P = 0.002). Carvedilol's ability to prevent weight loss was most marked in patients with increased body mass index at baseline, whereas its ability to promote weight gain was most marked in patients with decreased body mass index at baseline. Increases in weight were not accompanied by evidence of fluid retention. Baseline values for body mass index and change in body weight were significant predictors of survival regardless of treatment. Carvedilol attenuated the development and promoted a partial reversal of cachexia in patients with severe chronic heart failure, supporting a role for prolonged sympathetic activation in the genesis of weight loss. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  3. Beta-adrenergic activation of solute coupled water uptake by toad skin epithelium results in near-isosmotic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2007-01-01

    (V) with a [Na+] of the transported fluid of 130+/-24 mM ([Na+]Ringer's solution = 117.4 mM). Addition of bumetanide to the inside solution reduced J(V). Water was transported uphill and J(V) reversed at an excess outside osmotic concentration, deltaC(S,rev) = 28.9+/-3.9 mOsm, amiloride decreased delta......C(S,rev) to 7.5+/-1.5 mOsm. It is concluded that water uptake is accomplished by osmotic coupling in the lateral intercellular space (lis), and hypothesized that a small fraction of the Na+ flux pumped into lis is recirculated via basolateral NKCC transporters.......Transepithelial potential (V(T)), conductance (G(T)), and water flow (J(V)) were measured simultaneously with good time resolution (min) in isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin epithelium with Ringer on both sides. Inside application of 5 microM isoproterenol resulted in the fast increase in G(T) from 1...

  4. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  5. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  6. Ceramic bar impact experiments for improved material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Proud, W.G.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related to uncertainties in understanding the dominant failure mechanisms as a function of different stress states imposed in bar impacts. Free surface velocity of the far end of the target AD998 bar were measured using a VISAR in a series of bar-on-bar impact experiments at nominal impact speeds of 100 m/s, 220 m/s, and 300 m/s. Velocity history data at an impact of 100 m/s show the material response as elastic. At higher impact velocities of 200 m/s and 300 m/s the velocity history data suggest an inelastic material response. A high-speed (Imacon) camera was employed to examine the fracture and failure of impactor and target bars. High speed photographs provide comprehensive data on geometry of damage and failure patterns as a function of time to check the validity of a particular constitutive material model for AD998 alumina used in numerical simulations of fracture and failure of the bars on impact

  7. Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr

  8. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Kolarov, A.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (L n bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), g ij;k = 0 and f j i = e φ · g j i (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((V n bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V 4 -spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V 4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V 4 -spaces

  9. Search for narrow structures in pp-barπ+ and Λp-bar+- systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Foley, K.J.; Goldman, J.H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D.P.; Wheeler, C.D.; Willen, E.H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (GAMMA - p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp-barπ + or Λp-barπ +- . This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from approx.10 nb at 2.3 GeV to approx.40 nb at 2.8 GeV

  10. Adenosine A2B receptor: from cell biology to human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. Recently, significant advances have been made in our understanding of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR). In this review, we first summarize some of the general characteristics of A2BAR, and then we describe the multiple binding partners of the receptor, such as newly identified α-actinin-1 and p105, and discuss how these associated proteins could modulate A2BAR’s functions, including certain seemingly paradoxical functions of the receptor. Growing evidence indicates a critical role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes, in addition to its importance in the regulation of vascular diseases and lung disease. Here, we also discuss the role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes and the potential of the receptor as a target for treating these three diseases.

  11. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  12. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D 7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches

  13. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  14. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  15. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  16. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  17. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  18. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, R.

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s -1 and β-bar 795.10 -5 , have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons γ β-bar/β 1.23 and the generation time Λ 59.10 -6 s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [fr

  19. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Brózda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  20. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  1. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  2. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  3. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  4. Mechanisms of immune regulation by norepinephrine and cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Norepinephrine has previously been demonstrated by this laboratory to potentiate the in vitro T-dependent antibody response through the stimulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors. The role of {beta}-adrenergic receptor subtypes in norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody responses was examined with selective {beta}-adrenergic antagonists. The antagonists were metoprolol ({beta}{sub 1}-selective), ICI 118-551 ({beta}{sub 2}-selective), and propranolol ({beta}-non-selective). Both propranolol and ICI 118-551 blocked norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody response, but metoprolol was ineffective. Receptor binding competition of antagonists with the radioligant, ({sup 3}H)CGP-12177 was examined and results were analyzed with the computer program, LIGAND. Competition by ICI 118-551 identified 75% {beta}{sub 2}- and 25% {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors on splenic mononuclear cells. Enriched T lymphocytes exhibited 75% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors, while enriched B lymphocytes contained 90% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors as identified by ICI 118-551. Greater than twice as many total receptors were identified on B lymphocytes than T lymphocytes. A T cell lymphoma contained about 60% {beta}{sub 2}-receptors, while 100% were {beta}{sub 2} receptors on a B cell lymphoma, as assessed by ICI 118-551. Results support a heterogeneous {beta}-adrenergic receptor population on T lymphocytes and a more homogeneous {beta}{sub 2}-population on B lymphocytes.

  5. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...... study is carried out regarding the influence of the number of periods at various frequencies within a semi-infinite bar, stop bands are illustrated at certain periodic intervals within the structure. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz. Results from both...

  6. ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.

  7. A young person's game: immersion and distancing in bar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Thomas; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city that had a high density of bars and busy tourism industry. A total of 12 participants took part in focus groups (FGs) and seven in individual interviews. Four themes were identified in a thematic analysis. The central depiction of bar work was of an initial immersion in an intensive lifestyle characterised by heavy drinking, with subsequent distancing from the extremes of the lifestyle. The participants affiliated strongly with the bar work occupational identity, which included alcohol use in group scenarios for drinking during work, after work and on time off. The bar work lifestyle was most intense in the 'superpub' environment, characterised by permissive staff drinking norms and reported stress. Although an important identity, bar work was ultimately a transient role. The findings are considered in relation to research on occupation-specific stress and alcohol use, social identity and developmental needs in young adulthood.

  8. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  9. Real-time Grill Bar Occupation: Archiving Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The project explores the unregarded function of the classic Danish grill bar, currently disappearing due to processes of gentrification. Despite its unassuming appearance, the grill bar is a vital place for social interaction and coexistence on an informal basis.Its architecture, often referred......’, conducted at the Aarhus School of Architecture. Engaging Through Architecture: “Real time Grill Bar Occupation wants to engage with the audience and questions the role of the architect (and architecture itself) in relation to the social dimension of the city – more specifically the seemingly banal function...... of the typical Danish grill bar as a vital place of social co-existence and informal interaction”....

  10. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  11. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method of installing tubular anti-vibration bars into a tube bundle of a steam generator wherein the tube bundle comprises rows of tubes, with the anti-vibration bars received between adjacent rows of the tube bundle for stabilizing the tubes against vibration. The anti-vibration bars are first inserted between adjacent rows of the tube bundle and a pressurized fluid is then introduced into the anti-vibration bars which are thus expanded into contact with the tubes of the adjacent rows for support

  12. Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of BFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhou, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have the advantages of corrosion resistance, high strength, light weight, good dielectric properties, and they are new type of green reinforced alternative material. In order to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, the tensile strength of basalt fiber bars was necessary to be studied. The diameters of the basalt fiber bars were compared by means of uniaxial tensile test in this article. Then the stress-strain curve can be drawn out. The results show that the stress - strain curve of BFRP bars present straight line relation, and there is no sign before failure; there is no yield platform on the stress-strain curve of BFRP bars, which are typical brittle material;the tensile strength of BFRP bars is about 3 times higher than that of ordinary steel bars. and the elastic modulus is about 1/5 of that of ordinary steel; the ultimate tensile strength of BFRP bars varies little with the increase of diameter, but there exist some differences in modulus values.

  13. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    functional units, receptors co-operate. The total receptor apparatus of individual cell types is composed of different-ligand receptors (e.g. SRIF and non-SRIF receptors) and co-expressed receptor subtypes (e.g. sst(2) and sst(5) receptors) in characteristic proportions. In other words, levels of individual......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  14. Hyperon polarisation in the reaction p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X

    CERN Document Server

    Pomp, S; Bröders, R; Bunker, B; Dennert, H; Eisenstein, R E; Eyrich, W; Fischer, H; Franklin, G; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Harris, P; Hauffe, J; Hertzog, D; Johansson, T; Jones, T; Kilian, K; Kraft, R A; Meyer, C; Oelert, W; Quinn, B; Röhrich, K; Rössle, E; Sachs, K; Schmitt, H; Schumacher, R; Sefzick, T; Stinzing, F; Tayloe, R; Todenhagen, R; Traneus, E; Wirth, S

    2000-01-01

    Data from the p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X reaction, collected by the PS185 experiment at antiproton momenta around 1.44 GeV/c, 1.66 GeV/c and 1.77 GeV/c, have been analyzed and the LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar polarisations have been extracted. The events are classified as quasi-free or non-quasi-free and it is found that the polarisations for LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar differ in the latter case. Such an effect comes from differences in the interaction of the outgoing LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar with the residual nucleus and the measurement constitutes the first information on LAMBDA-bar interaction with nuclear matter.

  15. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  16. CP violation in hyperon decays: the case p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, N.; He, X.G.; Landua, R.; Ohlsson, S.; Steger, H.; Valencia, G.; Fischer, H.; Geyer, R.; Hertzog, D.; Kolo, B.; Miller, J.P.; Rohrich, K.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the experimental status of CP violation and of the phenomenology of hyperon non-leptonic decays. Updated information on the estimate of CP-violating observable in these decays is presented. An experimental programme is outlined, which aims to pursue the search for direct CP violation in hyperon-antihyperon decays by means of the reaction p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π + pπ - . The experiment as well as analysis methods are described. Alternative approaches employing hyperons are also discussed. 54 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  17. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  18. p-bar p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-01-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos do Jordao on January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of p-bar p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to make a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on back of the envelope estimates. Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. (author)

  19. /bar p/p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  1. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected.

  2. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  3. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that ∼50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar Ω p , while three (33%) do not.

  5. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  6. effect of adrenaline on glucose uptake by the canine large bowel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower metabolic activity in the colon. From the results we concluded that the colon is involved in glucose homeostasis and that the colonic increase in glucose uptake in response to adrenaline is mediated by alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. KEYWORDS: :Adrenaline, glucose uptake, colon, dog, adrenergic receptors.

  7. Different behaviour of GPCRs from rat brain cortex when exposed to Triton X-100

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Stöhr, Jiří; Bouřová, Lenka; Lisý, Václav; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 52-52 ISSN 0022-3042. [European Society for Neurochemistry Meeting /17./. 19.05.2007-22.05.2007, Salamanca] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * detergent resistant membrane domains * GABAB receptor * Beta-adrenergic receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  9. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  10. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  11. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  12. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  13. Alcohol Service Practices: A Survey of Bar and Restaurant Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result from illegal sales to intoxicated patrons at bars and restaurants. We surveyed bar/restaurant managers about their practices in reducing illegal sales to intoxicated patrons. We found that managers were confident that they could refuse service to intoxicated customers but were less likely to have…

  14. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.png" class="documentimage" >

  15. STELLAR, GAS, AND DARK MATTER CONTENT OF BARRED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo, E-mail: b.cervantes@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  16. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  17. The X-Bar Theory of Phrase Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, Andras; Pullman, Geoffrey K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a formalization of the content of X-bar theory reveals very little substance in its claims. Six conditions that encapsulate X-bar theory are discussed: lexicality, succession, uniformity, maximality, centrality, and optionality. (50 references) (JL)

  18. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies I. The atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R; Ehle, M; Harnett, J I; Haynes, R F; Shukurov, A M; Sokoloff, D D; Thierbach, M

    2002-01-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30 arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, \\Lambda, related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with \\Lambda, I \\propto \\Lambda^0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a lon...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Postinfective physeal bars – MRI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic physeal bar due to a Salter Harris IV fracture – T1 weighted (a) and gradient echo (b) .... the tilted growth arrest and recovery lines and for detecting fatty marrow ... Physeal bars are more common in the lower than upper.

  20. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la

  1. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  2. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la cinetique par des equations dependant purement du

  3. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  4. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes anti-vibrations bars structurally supporting tubes carrying high-temperature coolant in a steam generator, the antivibration bars being disposed between adjacent rows of tubes and expanded from a rest state to an expanded state as pressure is applied to the interior of the anti-vibration bars, each of the anti-vibration bars being configured as a hollow member of a rectangular shape. The rectangular shape comprising a pair of opposing wall lengths and a pair of opposing wall widths, each of the wall lengths have a thickness greater than that of the wall widths to facilitate expansion of the opposing wall lengths away from each other and into contact respectively with tubes of adjacent rows, the wall lengths having sufficient rigidity to resist deformation as the bars are expanded to their expanded state so that the wall lengths make a line contact with their respective tubes

  5. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments in Inclusive Semileptonic Decays (bar B) → Xc (ell)-(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present results for the moments of observed spectra in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays to charm hadrons (bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν). Moments of the hadronic-mass and the combined mass-and-energy spectra for different minimum electron or muon momenta between 0.8 and 1.9 GeV/c are obtained from a sample of 232 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-meson factory at SLAC. We also present a reevaluation of the moments of electron-energy spectra and partial decay fractions B((bar B) → X c e - (bar ν)) for minimum electron momenta between 0.6 and 1.5 GeV/c based on a sample of 51 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events. The measurements are used for the extraction of the total decay fraction, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |V cb |, the quark masses m b and m c , and four heavy-quark QCD parameters in the framework of a Heavy-Quark Expansion (HQE). We find B((bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν)) = (10.64 ± 0.17 ± 0.06)% and |V cb | = (42.05 ± 0.45 ± 0.70) x 10 -3 .

  6. Measurements of σ(e+e- hadrons) and B(ψ →(3770) DD-bar, non-DD-bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Gang

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of the cross sections for inclusive hadronic event production in e + e - annihilation at the energies of 3.650, 3.6648, and 3.773 GeV and measurements of the branching fractions for ψ(3770) → D 0 D b ar 0 , D + D - , DD-bar, and for ψ(3770) → non-DD-bar. (author)

  7. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  8. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  10. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  11. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  12. Structural strength of core graphite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Futakawa, M.

    1987-01-01

    A HTR core consists of fuel, hot plenum, reflector and thermal barrier blocks. Each graphite block is supported by three thin cylindrical graphite bars called support post. Static and dynamic core loads are transmitted by the support posts to the thermal barrier blocks and a support plate. These posts are in contact with the blocks through hemispherical post seats to absorb the relative displacement caused by seismic force and the difference of thermal expansion of materials at the time of the start-up and shutdown of a reactor. The mixed fracture criterion of principal stress and modified Mohr-Coulomb's theory as well as the fracture criterion of principal stress based on elastic stress analysis was discussed in connection with the application to HTR graphite components. The buckling fracture of a support post was taken in consideration as one of the fracture modes. The effect that the length/diameter ratio of a post, small rotation and the curvature of post ends and seats exerted on the fracture strength was studied by using IG-110 graphite. Contacting stress analysis was carried out by using the structural analysis code 'COSMOS-7'. The experimental method, the analysis of buckling strength and the results are reported. The fracture of a support post is caused by the mixed mode of bending deformation, split fracture and shearing fracture. (Kako, I.)

  13. A xylophone bar magnetometer for micro/pico satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Hervé; Niyonzima, Innocent; Rochus, Pierre; Rochus, Véronique

    2010-10-01

    The Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), "Centre Spatial de Liège" (CSL), "Laboratoire de Techniques Aéronautiques et Spatiales" (LTAS) of University of Liège, and the Microwave Laboratory of University of Louvain-La-Neuve (UCL) are collaborating in order to develop a miniature version of a xylophone bar magnetometer (XBM) using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The device is based on a classical resonating xylophone bar. A sinusoidal current is supplied to the bar oscillating at the fundamental transverse resonant mode of the bar. When an external magnetic field is present, the resulting Lorentz force causes the bar to vibrate at its fundamental frequency with an amplitude directly proportional to the vertical component of the ambient magnetic field. In this paper we illustrate the working principles of the XBM and the challenges to reach the required sensitivity in space applications (measuring magnetic fields with an accuracy of approximately of 0.1 nT). The optimal dimensions of the MEMS XBM are discussed as well as the constraints on the current flowing through the bar. Analytical calculations as well as simulations with finite element methods have been used. Prototypes have been built in the Microwave Laboratory using silicon on insulator (SOI) and bulk micromachining processes. Several methods to accurately measure the displacement of the bar are proposed.

  14. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  15. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  16. {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; ONeill, J.J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Schaffner, S.F.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Mukhin, Y.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Freyberger, A.; Gibaut, D.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; and others

    1997-09-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}, making the first observation of {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}. We present the cross section for {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} as a function of the {gamma}{gamma} center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia Expresion aberrante de receptores de glucagón en tejido adrenal de un paciente con síndrome de Cushing e hiperplasia adrenal macronodular indedependiente de ACTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.La hiperplasia adrenal macronodular bilateral independiente de ACTH (HAMIA es una causa infrecuente de Síndrome de Cushing, caracterizada por lesiones adrenales bilaterales, hipercortisolismo y ACTH plasmática suprimida. La síntesis de cortisol estaría regulada a través de ligandos de receptores asociados a proteína G que se expresan en forma aberrante en la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar

  18. The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5) Modulates Integrity of Intestinal Barrier and Immune Response to Experimental Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Distrutti, Eleonora; Renga, Barbara; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Baldelli, Franco; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Background GP-BAR1, a member G protein coupled receptor superfamily, is a cell surface bile acid-activated receptor highly expressed in the ileum and colon. In monocytes, ligation of GP-BAR1 by secondary bile acids results in a cAMP-dependent attenuation of cytokine generation. Aims To investigate the role GP-BAR1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in rodent models of colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in wild type and GP-BAR1−/− mice by DSS and TNBS administration. Potential GP-BAR1 agonists were identified by in silico screening and computational docking studies. Results GP-BAR1−/− mice develop an abnormal morphology of colonic mucous cells and an altered molecular architecture of epithelial tight junctions with increased expression and abnormal subcellular distribution of zonulin 1 resulting in increased intestinal permeability and susceptibility to develop severe colitis in response to DSS at early stage of life. By in silico screening and docking studies we identified ciprofloxacin as a GP-BAR1 ligand. In monocytes, ciprofloxacin increases cAMP concentrations and attenuates TNFα release induced by TLR4 ligation in a GP-BAR1 dependent manner. Treating mice rendered colitic by TNBS with ciprofloxacin and oleanolic acid, a well characterized GP-BAR1 ligand, abrogates signs and symptoms of colitis. Colonic expression of GP-BAR1 mRNA increases in rodent models of colitis and tissues from Crohn's disease patients. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that ≈90% of CD14+ cells isolated from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated mice stained positively for GP-BAR1. Conclusions GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand. PMID:22046243

  19. The bile acid receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5 modulates integrity of intestinal barrier and immune response to experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Cipriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GP-BAR1, a member G protein coupled receptor superfamily, is a cell surface bile acid-activated receptor highly expressed in the ileum and colon. In monocytes, ligation of GP-BAR1 by secondary bile acids results in a cAMP-dependent attenuation of cytokine generation. AIMS: To investigate the role GP-BAR1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in rodent models of colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in wild type and GP-BAR1(-/- mice by DSS and TNBS administration. Potential GP-BAR1 agonists were identified by in silico screening and computational docking studies. RESULTS: GP-BAR1(-/- mice develop an abnormal morphology of colonic mucous cells and an altered molecular architecture of epithelial tight junctions with increased expression and abnormal subcellular distribution of zonulin 1 resulting in increased intestinal permeability and susceptibility to develop severe colitis in response to DSS at early stage of life. By in silico screening and docking studies we identified ciprofloxacin as a GP-BAR1 ligand. In monocytes, ciprofloxacin increases cAMP concentrations and attenuates TNFα release induced by TLR4 ligation in a GP-BAR1 dependent manner. Treating mice rendered colitic by TNBS with ciprofloxacin and oleanolic acid, a well characterized GP-BAR1 ligand, abrogates signs and symptoms of colitis. Colonic expression of GP-BAR1 mRNA increases in rodent models of colitis and tissues from Crohn's disease patients. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that ≈90% of CD14+ cells isolated from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated mice stained positively for GP-BAR1. CONCLUSIONS: GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand.

  20. The macrophage A2B adenosine receptor regulates tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Johnston-Cox

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes continues to be an epidemic with significant risk for various pathologies. Previously, we identified the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR, an established regulator of inflammation, as a regulator of HFD-induced insulin resistance. In particular, HFD was associated with vast upregulation of liver A2bAR in control mice, and while mice lacking this receptor showed augmented liver inflammation and tissue insulin resistance. As the A2bAR is expressed in different tissues, here, we provide the first lead to cellular mechanism by demonstrating that the receptor's influence on tissue insulin sensitivity is mediated via its expression in macrophages. This was shown using a newly generated transgenic mouse model expressing the A2bAR gene in the macrophage lineage on an otherwise A2bAR null background. Reinstatement of macrophage A2bAR expression in A2bAR null mice fed HFD restored insulin tolerance and tissue insulin signaling to the level of control mice. The molecular mechanism for this effect involves A2bAR-mediated changes in cyclic adenosine monophosphate in macrophages, reducing the expression and release of inflammatory cytokines, which downregulate insulin receptor-2. Thus, our results illustrate that macrophage A2bAR signaling is needed and sufficient for relaying the protective effect of the A2bAR against HFD-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

  1. Shock waves in P-bar target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.

  2. Shock waves in P-bar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed

  3. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  4. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  5. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ribbed steel bars used in Nigeria's structural concrete practice to relevant ... cases of structural failure have recently become frequent, especially ... Page 4 ..... Nwabuokei S.O.(2007) “The Nigerian Steel Industry: Delta Steel Company.

  6. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  7. What is the peak stress in ceramic bar impacts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S.J.; Bedford, A.

    2000-01-01

    The bar impact experiment has been extensively used to characterize the high strain rate properties of high strength ceramics. In particular, alumina AD-99.5 has been widely studied; both stress gauge and VISAR bar impact data are available for this material. We have performed plate-on-bar impact experiments using this material in some novel configurations. An interface was introduced in the target bar (by cutting it) in the zone where the material fails by axial splitting. Such experiments resulted in a dramatic drop in the peak stress measured in the experiment, when compared to experiments with no interface. We show that the damage kinetics in tension influence these measurements. Since the peak stress is dependent on the damage kinetics we conclude that the measurement cannot be correlated to some intrinsic strength of the ceramic

  8. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  9. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    At the COMPASS experiment $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles are produced with high statistics in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes of 160 GeV/c polarized muons. Since both, beam and target, are polarized, various studies on the $\\Lambda$ polarization are possible. We present results on the longitudinal polarization transfer from muons to $\\Lambda$ hyperons produced by scattering off an unpolarized isoscalar target and preliminary results on the transverse $\\Lambda$ polarization with a transversely polarized proton target. The $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization can be studied by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. The longitudinal spin transfers to $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$. The $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$ dependences of $\\Lambda$ polarization are compatible with zero, while $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization tends to increase with $x_{F}$. Info...

  10. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.

    1999-10-01

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  11. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION OF THE MASS FUNCTION CAST BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of scientifically grounded technical decisions, the whole set of which has enabled to create technological processes of production of high-quality cast bars of mass appointment is offered.

  13. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  14. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G.; Morales, L.B.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo t abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  15. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  17. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells

  18. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  19. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  20. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  1. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  2. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  3. KLM's boric acid reclamation system (BARS). An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96-97 percent. BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. Within the scope of the project, a variety of contaminated process stream and mixed radwaste sources have been evaluated at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station. The design of an advanced prototype BARS as an optimized process alternative was the result of KLM's initial Phase 1 SBIR program with the DOE in 1984 and 1985

  4. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  5. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  6. Receptor assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K; Ibayashi, H [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    This paper summarized present status and problems of analysis of hormone receptor and a few considerations on clinical significance of receptor abnormalities. It was pointed that in future clinical field quantitative and qualitative analysis of receptor did not remain only in the etiological discussion, but that it was an epoch-making field of investigation which contained the possiblity of artificial change of sensitivity of living body on drugs and the development connected directly with treatment of various diseases.

  7. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  8. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c\\bar c)$ with a W or a Z in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS searches for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c\\bar c$ pair, produced in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson. The analyzed data correspond to $36.1\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of $13\\,\\text{TeV}$ proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18\\ \\text{(stat.)}^{+0.21}_{-0.19}\\ \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c\\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio of $2.7\\,\\text{pb}$.

  9. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c \\bar c)$ with a $W$ or a $Z$ Boson in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS search for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c \\bar c$ pair, produced in association with $W$ or $Z$ bosons. The analyzed data correspond to 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18 \\text{(stat.)} ^{+0.21}_{-0.19} \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c \\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio.

  10. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  11. The d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a pion cloud model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, J.; Christiansen, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    We study the d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a model approach in which hadronic fluctuations of the nucleon are generated through gluon splitting and recombination mechanisms. Within this framework, it is shown that the d -u asymmetry of the proton is consistently described by including only nucleon fluctuations to |πN> and |πΔ> bound states. Predictions of the model closely agree with the recent experimental data of the E-866/Nu Sea Collaboration. (author)

  12. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  13. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis - does adrenal function play a role? A hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theocharidou, Eleni; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    and electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT interval prolongation. With optimal diagnostic tests, AI is present in approximately 10% of patients with cirrhosis, particularly in those with advanced disease. Down-regulation and decreased number of beta-adrenergic receptors, and high catecholamine levels are common...

  14. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis - does adrenal function play a role? A hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theocharidou, Eleni; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    and electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT interval prolongation. With optimal diagnostic tests, AI is present in approximately 10% of patients with cirrhosis, particularly in those with advanced disease. Down-regulation and decreased number of beta-adrenergic receptors, and high catecholamine levels are common...

  15. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  16. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Stegeman, J. A.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L

  17. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  18. The first-in-man randomized trial of a beta3 adrenoceptor agonist in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Axelsson, Anna; Hartvig Thomsen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The third isotype of beta adrenergic receptors (β3 ARs) has distinctly different effects on cardiomyocytes compared with β1 and β2 ARs. Stimulation of β3 ARs may reduce cardiomyocyte Na+overload and reduce oxidative stress in heart failure (HF). We examined if treatment with the β3 AR agoni...

  19. Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.; Vervliet, B.

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that fear memories can change when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. We found that oral administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory reactivation in humans erased the behavioral expression of the fear memory 24 h

  20. The high-bar and low-bar back-squats: A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Brown, Scott R; Helms, Eric R; Duncan, J Scott; Storey, Adam G

    2017-02-08

    No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15.3 kg; age: 27.7 ± 3.8 years) performed the LBBS, HBBS, and both LBBS and HBBS (respectively) up to and including 100% 1RM. Small to moderate (d = 0.2-0.5) effect size differences were observed between the powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters in joint angles and Fv, although none were statistically significant. However, significant joint angle results were observed between the experienced powerlifters/weightlifters and the recreationally trained group. Our findings suggest that practitioners seeking to place emphasis on the stronger hip musculature should consider the LBBS. Also, when the goal is to lift the greatest load possible, the LBBS may be preferable. Conversely, the HBBS is more suited to replicate movements that exhibit a more upright torso position, such as the snatch and clean, or to place more emphasis on the associated musculature of the knee joint.

  1. α1b-Adrenergic Receptor Localization and Relationship to the D1-Dopamine Receptor in the Rat Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, Darlene A; Jackson, Kelsey; Finley, Samantha; Seeley, Allison

    2018-02-10

    The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) have been implicated in numerous actions of the brain, including attention and wakefulness. Additionally, they have been identified as contributing to disorders of the brain, such as drug addiction, and recent work has shown a role of these receptors in relapse to psychostimulants. While some functionality is known, the actual subcellular localization of the subtypes of the α1ARs remains to be elucidated. Further, their anatomical relationship to receptors for other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA), remains unclear. Therefore, using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy techniques, this study describes the subcellular localization of the α1b-adrenergic receptor (α1bAR), the subtype most tied to relapse behaviors, as well as its relationship to the D1-dopamine receptor (D1R) in both the shell and core of the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Overall, α1bARs were found in unmyelinated axons and axon terminals with some labeling in dendrites. In accordance with other studies of the striatum, the D1R was found mainly in dendrites and spines; therefore, colocalization of the D1R with the α1bAR was rare postsynaptically. However, in the NAc shell, when the receptors were co-expressed in the same neuronal elements there was a trend for both receptors to be found on the plasma membrane, as opposed to the intracellular compartment. This study provides valuable anatomical information about the α1bAR and its relationship to the D1R and the regulation of DA and norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmission in the brain which have been examined previously. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter of the... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil...

  3. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  4. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  5. Low-temperature growth of (2 1-bar 1-bar 0) ZnO nanofilm on NaCl (0 0 1) surface by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanofilm of the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) surface was prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. The nanofilm was prepared on NaCl (0 0 1) surface at 200 o C to produce nearly pure (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO texture and the orientation relationship was determined and the interface discussed. Transmission electron microscopy lattice images were used to find the interface formed between ZnO nanocrystals. The ZnO nanocrystals coalesced to form a straight (0 1 -bar 1 -bar 2) interface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO surface showed only a near-band-edge UV emission peak.

  6. Unstoppable brane-flux decay of (D6)-bar branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, UniversityH. [Institutionen för Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala (Sweden); Gautason, F.F. [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riet, T. Van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.University Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-03-27

    We investigate p (D6)-bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K×M D6 charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g{sub s}p is large, the (D6)-bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p/M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6)-bar branes and (D3)-bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3)-bar branes.

  7. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  8. 700 bar hydrogen cylinder design, testing and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight and high pressure cylinders for compressed hydrogen storage are essential components for fuel cell vehicles. Storage volume and mass are two key considerations. Current on-board hydrogen storage systems are based on a maximum pressure of 350 bar. While 350 bar systems are excellent solutions for many applications, some situations required higher storage densities due to space restrictions. As a result significant research and development work has been expended by cylinder manufacturers, systems providers, testing agencies and automotive manufacturers to develop 700 bar systems to reduce storage volume. Dynetek Industries Ltd has proactively developed a range of 700 bar storage cylinders based on a seamless aluminum liner over wrapped with a carbon fiber composite. This paper presents the challenges and processes involved in the design, testing and certification of the Dynetek Industries Ltd 700 bar cylinder. The paper also provides reasoning for further volume and mass optimization of compressed hydrogen cylinders by incorporating realistic cylinder usage parameters into standards. In particular the overly conservative fill life requirement for cylinders will be examined. (author)

  9. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  10. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  11. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF K YIELDS πν(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KETTELL, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental program for the study of the rare kaon decays, K → πν(bar ν) is summarized. A review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus of the world-wide kaon program is the two golden modes: K + → π + ν(bar ν) and K L o ν(bar ν). The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K + → π + ν(bar ν) events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe ∼10 Standard Model events, and the CKM experiment should observe ∼100 SM events by the end of this decade. Limits on the neutral analog K L o → =π o ν(bar ν) have been set by KTeV and within the next couple of years will be pushed by E391a. Measurements of the branching ratio should be made within the next 10 years by KOPIO, with a goal of ∼50 events, and at the JHF, with a goal of up to 1000 events

  13. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  14. A search for bar νe appearance from stopped π+ and μ+ decay at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a recent search for bar ν e appearance from stopped π + → μ + ν μ and μ + → e + ν e bar ν μ decay made by the LAMPF experiment E645. The appearance of bar ν e may occur from bar ν μ → bar ν e , ν e → bar ν eL , or ν μ → bar ν eL oscillations. Appearance may also occur from rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay, which is allowed by a multiplicative lepton charge conservation law. The neutrino energies range from E ν = 0 to 52.8MeV. The neutrino detector, which is located 26.1 meters from the neutrino source, consists of a segmented liquid scintillator and proportional drift tube central detector surrounded by both active and passive shielding. The central detector detects bar ν e through the bar ν e p → ne + Charge Current (CC) reaction, which is signaled by the direct detection of the final state positron and neutron. The hydrogen-rich liquid scintillators act as free proton targets for the bar ν e p CC reaction. The neutrons are detected through radiative neutron capture on gadolinium. He finds no evidence for bar ν e appearance in the first year of running. New limits on the bar ν μ , ν e , ν μ yields bar ν e oscillation parameters and the rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay branching ratio are presented

  15. Three-body charmful baryonic B decays B-bar→D(D*)NN-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Haiyang; Yang Kweichou

    2002-01-01

    We study the charmful three-body baryonic B decays B-bar→D ( * ) NN-bar: the color-allowed modes B-bar 0 →D ( * )+ np-bar and the color-suppressed ones B-bar 0 →D ( * )0 pp-bar. While the D* + /D + production ratio is predicted to be of order 3, it is found that D 0 pp-bar has a similar rate as D* 0 pp-bar. It is pointed out that B-bar 0 →D(D*)NN-bar are dominated by the nucleon vector current or by vector meson intermediate states, whereas B-bar 0 →D 0 pp-bar proceeds mainly via the exchange of the axial-vector intermediate state a 1 (1260). The study of the NN-bar invariant mass distribution in general indicates a threshold baryon pair production; that is, a recoil charmed meson accompanied by a low mass baryon pair except that the spectrum of D 0 pp-bar has a hump at large pp-bar invariant mass m pp-bar ∼3.0 GeV

  16. Impact of the Lok-bar for High-precision Radiotherapy with Tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Makoto; Monzen, Hajime; Tamura, Mikoto; Kubo, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hanaoka, Kohei; Okumura, Masahiko; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2018-05-01

    Patient immobilization systems are used to establish a reproducible patient position relative to the couch. In this study, the impact of conventional lok-bars for CT-simulation (CIVCO-bar) and treatment (iBEAM-bar) were compared with a novel lok-bar (mHM-bar) in tomotherapy. Verification was obtained as follows: i. artifacts in CT images; ii. dose attenuation rate of lok-bar, compared to without lok-bar; and iii. dose differences between the calculated and measured absorbed doses. With the CIVCO-bar, there were obvious metal artifacts, while there were nearly no artifacts with the mHM-bar. The mean dose attenuation rates with the mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar were 1.31% and 2.28%, and the mean dose difference was 1.55% and 1.66% for mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar. Using the mHM-bar reduced artifacts on the CT image and improved dose attenuation are obtained. The lok-bar needs to be inserted as a structure set in treatment planning with tomotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the weighing bar position in vessel on measurement of cement’s particle size distribution by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sihombing, R. O.; Simanjuntak, A.; Hanum, F.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a new simple and cost-effective method to determine the particle size distribution both settling and floating particle. In this method, the density change in a suspension due to particle migration is measured by weighing buoyancy against a weighing-bar hung in the suspension, and then the particle size distribution is calculated using the length of the bar and the time-course change in the mass of the bar. The apparatus of this method consists of a weighing-bar and an analytical balance with a hook for under-floor weighing. The weighing bar is used to detect the density change in suspension. In this study we investigate the influences of position of weighing bar in vessel on settling particle size distribution measurements of cement by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method. The vessel used in this experiment is graduated cylinder with the diameter of 65 mm and the position of weighing bar is in center and off center of vessel. The diameter of weighing bar in this experiment is 10 mm, and the kerosene is used as a dispersion liquids. The results obtained show that the positions of weighing bar in vessel have no significant effect on determination the cement’s particle size distribution by using buoyancy weighing-bar method, and the results obtained are comparable to those measured by using settling balance method.

  18. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  19. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  20. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  1. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order......, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation...

  2. Evaluation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumption of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Watts Bar T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  3. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    load were tested. Both types of beams were designed to have the same bearing capacity. Beams reinforced with GFRP rebar exhibited much bigger cracking than traditionally reinforced bars. The width of cracks appearing in beams reinforced with GFRP bars was equal or greater than limit values (0.4 mm) even though the ratio of moment of resistance and cracking moment was greater than 3. The composite rebar exhibits many significant advantages over steel rebar, but its rather low Young’s modulus comparing to steel causes exceeded deflection and cracking of bended concrete elements.

  4. Search for $t\\bar{t}H$ production in the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ channel

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top-quark pair, $t\\bar{t}H$, and targeting the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ decay mode is presented. The analysis uses 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2016. Events must contain either one or two electrons or muons from the top-quark decays and are further categorized according to the multiplicities of jets and jets containing a b-hadron (b-jets). Two-stage multivariate techniques are used to discriminate between signal and the dominant background $t\\bar{t}$ + jets. The ratio of the measured $t\\bar{t}H$ signal cross-section to the Standard Model expectation is found to be $\\mu = 0.84^{+0.64}_{-0.61}$. A value of μ greater than 2.0 is excluded at 95% confidence level. The expected upper limit is $\\mu$ < 1.2 in the absence of a $t\\bar{t}H$ signal.

  5. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  6. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  7. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  8. Symmetry Perspectives on Some Auxetic Body-Bar Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fowler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scalar mobility counting rules and their symmetry extensions are reviewed for finite frameworks and also for infinite periodic frameworks of the bar-and-joint, body-joint and body-bar types. A recently published symmetry criterion for the existence of equiauxetic character of an infinite framework is applied to two long known but apparently little studied hinged-hexagon frameworks, and is shown to detect auxetic behaviour in both. In contrast, for double-link frameworks based on triangular and square tessellations, other affine deformations can mix with the isotropic expansion mode.

  9. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  10. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  11. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, A Al; Ghachem, M Ben; Nassib, N; Chehida, F Ben [Hospital d' Enfants, Service d' orthopedie infantile, Tunis (Tunisia); Kozlowski, K [Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  12. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaissi, A. Al; Ghachem, M. Ben; Nassib, N.; Chehida, F. Ben; Kozlowski, K.

    2005-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  13. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  14. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-02-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit "bandwagon effects": reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations.

  15. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-01-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit 'bandwagon effects': reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations

  16. Composite Higgs Models and the tt-bar H Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, A.; Chala, M.; Santiago, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its suppressed couplings to Standard Model particles, a composite Higgs with mass m H = 125 GeV and a moderate degree of compositeness can be consistent with current Higgs searches, including a sizable enhancement in the H → γγ channel. Heavy resonances common to many composite Higgs models can mediate new Higgs production mechanisms. In particular, the tt-bar H channel can be accessible at the LHC in these models through the exchange of colored vector and fermion resonances. In this case, the tt-bar H channel is not a direct measure of the top Yukawa coupling. (authors)

  17. Implications for new physics from B-bar 0->π0π0 and B-bar 0->K-bar 0K0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianfeng; Gao Yuanning; Huang Chaoshang; Wu Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the B-bar 0 ->π 0 π 0 puzzle in three kinds of models beyond the standard model (SM). It is shown that the minimal flavor violation (MFV) models, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and the two Higgs doublet models (2HDM) I and II cannot give an explanation of the B-bar 0 ->π 0 π 0 puzzle within 1σ experimental bounds and the model III 2HDM can explain the puzzle without a conflict with other experimental measurements. If the constraint on C 8g from b->sg is not imposed, for all kinds of insertions considered there are regions of parameter space, where the scalar quark mass is larger (much larger) than the gluino mass in the case of LR or RL (LL or RR), in which the puzzle can be resolved within 1σ experimental bounds

  18. An alternative analysis of the LSND neutrino oscillation search data on bar νμ→ bar νe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of data from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) sets bounds on neutrino oscillations in the appearance channel bar ν μ → bar ν e by searching for the signature of the reaction bar ν e p→e + n: an e + followed by a 2.2 MeV γ ray from neutron capture. Five e ± -γ coincidences are observed in time with the LAMPF beam, with an estimated background of 6.2 events. The 90% confidence limits obtained in this analysis are Δm 2 2 for sin 2 2θ=1, and sin 2 2θ -3 for Δm 2 approx-gt 20 eV 2 . The possible signal at the edge of the detector's sensitivity is mentioned

  19. The B → D* vertical bar ν form factor at zero recoil and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, J.N.; Hashimoto, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Ryan, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We summarize our lattice QCD study of the form factor at zero recoil in the decay B → D* vertical bar ν. After careful consideration of all sources of systematic uncertainty, we find, h A 1 (1) 0.913 +24+17 -17-30 , where the first uncertainty is from statistics and fitting while the second combined uncertainty is from all other systematic effects

  20. Near threshold enhancement of the p p-bar mass spectrum in J/Psi decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Sibirtsev; J. Haidenbauer; S. Krewald; Ulf-G. Meissner; A.W. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the near-threshold enhancement in the p (bar p) invariant mass spectrum of the reaction J/Ψ → γ p (bar p) reported recently by the BES Collaboration. Using the Juelich N (bar N) model we show that the mass dependence of the p (bar p) spectrum close to the threshold can be reproduced by the S-wave p (bar p) final state interaction in the isospin I=1 state within the Watson-Migdal approach. However, because of our poor knowledge of the N (bar N) interaction near threshold and of the J/Ψ → γ p (bar p) reaction mechanism and in view of the controversial situation in the decay J/Ψ → π 0 p (bar p), where no obvious signs of a p (bar p) final state interaction are seen, explanations other than final state interactions cannot be ruled out at the present stage