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Sample records for beta strength function

  1. The beta strength function structure in \\beta + decay of lutecium, thulium and cesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Alkhazov, G D; Naumov, Yu V; Orlov, S Yu; Vitman, V D

    1981-01-01

    The spectra of total gamma -absorption in the decays of some lutetium, thulium and cesium isotopes have been measured. The probabilities for level population in the decay of the isotopes have been determined. The deduced beta strength functions reveal pronounced structure. Calculations of the strength functions using the Saxon-Woods potential and the residual Gamow-Teller interaction are presented. It is shown that in beta /sup +/ decay of light thulium and cesium isotopes the strength function comprises more than 70% of the Gamow-Teller excitations with mu /sub tau /=+1. This result is the first direct observation of the Gamov-Teller resonance in beta /sup +/ decay of nuclei with T/sub z/>0. (21 refs).

  2. Resonance structure of strength functions for first-forbidden {beta}{sup +}/EC transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. N., E-mail: izosimov@jinr.ru; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Solnyshkin, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    Experimental data obtained by measuring the fine structure of the strength function S{sub {beta}}(E) in spherical and deformed nuclei were analyzed. The use of modern nuclear-spectroscopy methods made it possible to reveal the nuclear-deformation-induced splitting of peaks in S{sub {beta}} (E) for transitions of the Gamow-Teller type. For first-forbidden transitions, the resonance nature of S{sub {beta}} (E) was proven experimentally both for spherical and for deformed nuclei. It is shown that, at some values of the excitation energy, the intensity of first-forbidden transitions in nuclei can be commensurate with the intensity of Gamow-Teller transitions.

  3. New method to study the photon strength function using the beta-decay of unstable nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddick, Sean

    2015-10-01

    The photon strength function is a fundamental property of the atomic nucleus that can be linked with many different areas of nuclear science. In particular, a knowledge of the photon strength function can be applied in statistical-model reaction calculations to constrain neutron capture rates useful for nuclear astrophysics and other applications. A new method has been developed which takes advantage of beta-decay to populate high-energy states in a daughter nucleus. This preparation is combined with a total absorption spectrometer to record the subsequent gamma-ray cascade and the overall technique is the so-called beta-Oslo method. The technique is applicable to very low production rates (~1 pps) and, thus, can be used to look at trends across a wide range of neutron and proton numbers. A description of the technique, and preliminary results on neutron-rich nuclei near Z = 28 and N = 40 will be presented.

  4. Investigation of the beta strength function at high energy: Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5.3-s 84As to 84Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system 84As(β-)84Se. We find that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe Ssub(β) by a statistical model. From the 84As decay scheme we deduce an experimental beta strength function. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV. (orig.)

  5. Structure effects in the calculation of beta strength functions and half lives of Rb and Br isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of beda delayed neutron emission of the precursors around mass 95 are investigated using spherical Shell Model plus pairing. The objective of this work is to find out the important parameters that effect these properties. The strength functions and half lives of both even and odd Rb and Br precursors are calculated in BCS quasi-particle theory as well as in Seniority Truncated Exact Diagonalization (STED) scheme. The calculated half lives from the two schemes are in close agreement with each other. STED gave much smoother overall trend which is in better agreement with experimental values. The calculations reveal that the so called 'odd decays' which depend in an essential way on the parent ground state configuration are of crucial importance in determining both half life, t/sub 1/2/ and delayed neutron emission probability, P/sub n/. Furthermore, it is shown that it is not possible to choose apriori global set for the single particle Shell model basis to predict the correct ground state configurations for both the odd and even nuclei. Instead, it is necessary to examine available experimental evidence in order to construct a more valid global set for single particle basis. The significant variations of the predicted half lives according to the different parent ground-state configuration choices, reveal the importance of nuclear structure effects in these isotopes. The calculated t/sub 1/2/ and P/sub n/ of Rb and Br precursors are presented, discussed and compared with experimental values

  6. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability: Beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the astrophysical site of the rapid neutron capture (r-) process which is believed to be responsible for the production of the heavy elements in the universe has been a problem in astrophysics for more than two decades. The solution of this problem is not only dependent on the development of realistic astrophysical supernova models, i.e. correct treatment of the hydrodynamics of gravitational collapse and supernova explosion and the equation of state of hot and dense matter, but is shown in this paper to be very sensitive also to 'standard' nuclear physics properties of nuclei far from stability such as beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. For both of the latter, strongly oversimplifying assumptions, not applying the development in nuclear physics during the last decade, have been made in almost all r-process calculations performed up to now. A critical discussion of the state of the art of such calculations seems therefore to be indicated. In this paper procedures are described which allow one to obtain: 1) β-decay properties (decay rates, β-delayed neutron emissions and fission rates); 2) neutron capture rates for neutron-rich nuclei considerably improved over what has been used up to now. The beta strength functions are calculated for approx. equal to6000 nuclei between beta stability line and neutron drip line. By hydrodynamical supernova explosion calculations using realistic stellar models it is shown that as a consequence of the improved β-rates explosive He burning is a convincing alternative site to the 'classical' r-process whose existence still is questionable. The new β-rates will be important also for the investigation of further astrophysical sites producing heavy elements such as the r(n)-processes in explosive C or Ne burning. (orig.)

  7. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  8. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  9. On Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying nuclei within continuum-QRPA

    CERN Document Server

    Igashov, S Yu; Faessler, Amand; Urin, M H

    2010-01-01

    An isospin-selfconsistent pn-continuum-QRPA approach is formulated and applied to describe the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying open-shell nuclei. The calculation results obtained for the pairs of nuclei $^{76}$Ge-Se, $^{100}$Mo-Ru, $^{116}$Cd-Sn, and $^{130}$Te-Xe are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as...... much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided....

  11. The moments of strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we show that a moment of order n of the strength function is determined by the same order of the Brillouin-Wigner perturbative expansion. This fact is used to study the second moment for single-particle and collective excitations in the framework of nuclear field theory. We discuss the relationship of the second moment with the spreading width of the giant isovector M1 resonances in 208Pb. (orig.)

  12. High strength beta titanium alloys: New design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel approach for development of high strength and ductile beta titanium alloys was proposed and successfully applied. The microstructure of the designed alloys is fully composed of a bcc β-Ti phase exhibiting dendritic morphology. The new Ti68.8Nb13.6Cr5.1Co6Al6.5 (at%) alloy (BETAtough alloy) exhibits a maximum tensile strength of 1290±50 MPa along with 21±3% of fracture strain. The specific energy absorption value upon mechanical deformation of the BETAtough alloy exceeds that of Ti-based metallic glass composites and commercial high strength Ti-based alloys. The deformation behavior of the new alloys was correlated with their microstructure by means of in-situ studies of the microstructure evolution upon tensile loading in a scanning electron microscope

  13. Three loop QCD MOM beta-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A

    2011-01-01

    We present the full expressions for the QCD beta-function in the MOMggg, MOMq and MOMh renormalization schemes at three loops for an arbitrary colour group in the Landau gauge. The results for all three schemes are in very good agreement with the SU(3) numerical estimates provided by Chetyrkin and Seidensticker.

  14. Gamow-Teller strength distributions for double-beta-decaying nuclei within continuum-QRPA

    OpenAIRE

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Rodin, V. A.; Urin, M.H.; Faessler, A.

    2007-01-01

    A version of the pn-continuum-QRPA is outlined and applied to describe the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for $\\beta\\beta$-decaying open-shell nuclei. The calculation results obtained for the pairs of nuclei $^{116}$Cd-Sn and $^{130}$Te-Xe are compared with available experimental data.

  15. ACCELERATORS: A GUI tool for beta function measurement using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Ling; Tian, Shun-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Cheng; Liu, Gui-Min

    2009-04-01

    The beta function measurement is used to detect the shift in the betatron tune as the strength of an individual quadrupole magnet is varied. A GUI (graphic user interface) tool for the beta function measurement is developed using the MATLAB program language in the Linux environment, which facilitates the commissioning of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. In this paper, we describe the design of the application and give some measuring results and discussions about the definition of the measurement. The program has been optimized to solve some restrictions of the AT tracking code. After the correction with LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits), the horizontal and the vertical root mean square values (rms values) can be reduced to 0.12 and 0.10.

  16. Ultra high strength beta titanium alloy for fasteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new high strength titanium alloy has been developed primarily intended for fastener applications. While Ti-6Al-4V is used extensively as a fastener alloy in the aerospace industry, its shear strength allowable is limited to 655 MPa (95 ksi). For higher shear strength requirements, various steels or nickel-based alloys are used (up to 860 MPa (125 ksi)), but with the attendant density penalty. This new alloy is intended to provide the 860 MPa shear strength at roughly a 40% weight savings. After screening various alloy systems, the optimum chemistry has been selected as follows: Ti-6.0V-6.2Mo-5.7Fe-3Al. In light of its 125 ksi shear strength goal, the alloy has been designated TIMETAL reg-sign 125

  17. Strength functions for fragmented doorway states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function

  18. A study of the role of Lyman {\\beta} fluorescence on OI line strengths in Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Blesson; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Ashok, N M

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of the Ly{\\beta} fluorescence mechanism being operational in classical Be stars and thereby contributing to the strength of the OI 8446 {\\AA} line has been recognized for long. However this supposition needs to be quantified by comparing observed and predicted OI line ratios. In the present work, optical and near-infrared spectra of classical Be stars are presented. We analyse the observed strengths of the OI 7774, 8446, 11287 and 13165 {\\AA} lines which have been theoretically proposed as diagnostics for identifying the excitation mechanism. We have considered and examined the effects of Ly{\\beta} fluorescence, collisional excitation, recombination and continuum fluorescence on these OI line strengths. From our analysis it appears that the Ly{\\beta} fluorescence process is indeed operative in Be stars.

  19. Gamow-Teller strength functions and neutrino problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative understanding of spin strengths in nuclei is of vital importance in studies of nuclear double beta decay and in solar neutrino spectroscopy. The current status of these problems is outlined

  20. Photon strength functions and cosmic nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Chithra; Junghans, Arnd R.; Erhard, Martin; Beyer, Roland; Schilling, Klaus D.; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Grosse, Eckart [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In network calculations for the cosmic nucleosynthesis the electromagnetic dissociation occurring in hot environments strongly depends on the low energy tail of the photon strength function peaking in the isovector giant dipole resonance (GDR). The widely used procedure of adjusting a single Lorentzian to the (gamma,n) cross section in the GDR maximum is clearly inadequate in various cases. Photo-dissociation studies of the p-rich nuclei {sup 92}Mo and {sup 144}Sm into several different exit channels show that competing processes are surprisingly strong, in particular in the tail region. Strength functions derived from a systematic study of many nuclei with A>80 were used in Hauser-Feshbach calculations performed with the code TALYS. They render a consistent description of the GDR for (gamma,n) and for the other observed channels. This study is based on droplet model results for the GDR-energy and on hydrodynamic considerations about its width as well as on nuclear shape parameters. For nuclei with A>80 these are sufficiently well known from nuclear structure studies resulting in a reliable prediction of photon strength functions also for deformed nuclei which can be used in calculations for the cosmic nucleosynthesis.

  1. Adjusting the IP $\\beta$ Functions in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Van Zeijts, J

    2004-01-01

    The beta functions at the IP can be adjusted without perturbation of other optics functions via several approaches. In this paper we describe a scheme based on a vector knob, which assigns fixed values to the different tuning quadrupoles and scales them by a common multiplier. The values for the knob vector were calculated for a lattice without any errors using MADX. Previous studies for the LHC [1] have shown that this approach can meet the design goals. A specific feature of the RHIC lattice is the nested power supply system. To cope with the resulting problems a detailed response matrix analysis has been carried out and different sets of knobs were calculated and compared. The knobs were tested at RHIC during the 2004 run and preliminary results are discussed. Simultaneously a new approach to measure the beam sizes of both colliding beams at the IP, based on the tunability provided by the knobs, was developed and tested.

  2. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-11-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  3. Photon strength function of 97Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Shea; Couture, Aaron; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-10-01

    Some of the major questions in stockpile stewardship require nuclear reaction rates on fission fragments where there are few or no experimental constraints. Theoretical calculations are an alternative, but their reliability is ultimately limited by our incomplete understanding of such physics inputs as the photon strength function. 96Zr lies near the light mass peak for 239Pu fission, and neutron capture on and near this nucleus is of great importance for applications. The DANCE array at LANSCE and the Apollo array coupled to HELIOS at Argonne National Laboratory offer complementary probes into the neutron capture reaction, and an experimental campaign is underway to study 96Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(d , p) with these instruments. The status of these reaction studies will be presented.

  4. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical act...

  5. Mitochondrial function in normal and diabetic beta-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maechler, Pierre; Wollheim, Claes

    2001-01-01

    The aetiology of type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus has been characterized in only a limited number of cases. Among these, mitochondrial diabetes, a rare subform of the disease, is the consequence of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which is distinct from the nuclear genome. The impact of such mutations on beta-cell function reflects the importance of mitochondria in the control of insulin secretion. The beta-cell mitochondria serve a...

  6. Low-energy behavior of $E2$ strength functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schwengner, R

    2014-01-01

    Electric quadrupole strength functions have been deduced from averages of a large number of $E2$ transition strengths calculated within the shell model for the nuclides $^{94}$Mo and $^{95}$Mo. These strength functions are at variance with phenomenological approximations as provided by the Reference Input Parameter Library RIPL-3 for calculations of reaction rates on the basis of the statistical model.

  7. The Relationship among the Inspiratory Muscle Strength, the Perception of Dyspnea and Inhaled Beta2-Agonists in Patients with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paltiel Weiner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well documented that the perception of dyspnea (POD, subjectively reported by patients, is related to the activity and strength of the inspiratory muscles, and influences the use of 'as needed' beta2-agonists.

  8. Insulin signaling regulates mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Liu

    Full Text Available Insulin/IGF-I signaling regulates the metabolism of most mammalian tissues including pancreatic islets. To dissect the mechanisms linking insulin signaling with mitochondrial function, we first identified a mitochondria-tethering complex in beta-cells that included glucokinase (GK, and the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD(S. Mitochondria isolated from beta-cells derived from beta-cell specific insulin receptor knockout (betaIRKO mice exhibited reduced BAD(S, GK and protein kinase A in the complex, and attenuated function. Similar alterations were evident in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial GK activity in betaIRKOs could be explained, in part, by reduced expression and altered phosphorylation of BAD(S. The elevated phosphorylation of p70S6K and JNK1 was likely due to compensatory increase in IGF-1 receptor expression. Re-expression of insulin receptors in betaIRKO cells partially restored the stoichiometry of the complex and mitochondrial function. These data indicate that insulin signaling regulates mitochondrial function and have implications for beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

  9. Evaluation of beta-decay III. The complex gamma function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two real, analytical, approximations for the square of the modulus of the complex gamma function as it appears in F(Z, W), the Fermi function for beta-decay, are evaluated; an accuracy bettering 10-4% can easily be achieved for all electron energies throughout the periodic table. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  10. Recovery of Muscle Function Following Strength Training in Rowers

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Strength training using free weights is performed by athletes in many sports as a means of enhancing performance. However, there is a dearth of research investigating the acute impact of bouts of this form of strength training on muscle function, which closely mimics the athletes’ sport or event. High forces are produced during a rowing race and subsequently strength training forms an integral part of the overall training programme for rowers. However, there is little documented evidence r...

  11. Dipole radiative strength functions from resonance neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon strength functions have been derived from discrete neutron resonance data for electric and magnetic dipole radiation using the methods of slow neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy. The data cluster reasonably well around strengths of b(E1-tilde)=0.04 Weisskopf units/MeV and b(M1)=1.4 Weisskopf units/MeV, respectively

  12. Fluctuation properties of strength function phenomena: A model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study fluctuation properties of strength function phenomena by employing a quantum mechanical model where a single parent state couples with a large number of background states. The background system is devised in such a way that the classical dynamics of the system may show a regular, an irregular, or a chaotic character as a function of a single parameter. The coupling of the parent state to the background states produces a fragmentation of the parent state, giving rise to a strength function phenomenon. We study various measures of the strength function that characterize its bulk structure or fluctuation properties. They include energy moments, strength distribution, fractal dimensions of the strength function, and Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function. Some of these measures, such as strength distribution or Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function, reflect characteristic aspects of the dynamics of the background system, i.e., if they have a regular or a chaotic character, while measures such as energy moments or fractal dimensions are rather insensitive to the dynamics. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Study of p-wave gamma-ray strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray strength functions are important for description of the gamma emission channel in nuclear reactions. The impact of different models- Weisskopf's single particle model, Brink's standard Lorentzian and Kopecky's generalized Lorentzian for gamma ray strength functions on the calculation of neutron capture related experimental quantities such as total radiation widths Γγ cross sections and gamma-ray spectra has been studied

  14. Photon strength function deduced from photon scattering and neutron capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength function of 78Se and 196Pt are investigated by two different experimental methods, capture of cold neutrons in 77Se and 195Pt and photon scattering experiments on 78Se and 196Pt. Considering the different ways of excitation, the strength function deduced from the results are expected to agree. The report shows the status of the data analysis and presents first preliminary results.

  15. Modeling the material strength and equations of state of beta-HMX from both first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Wang, Guangyu; Liu, G. R.; de, Suvranu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the elastic constants and equations of state (EOS) of the β-polymorph of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) energetic molecular crystal using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The combination of vdW-DF2 van der Waals functionals and PBE exchange-correlation functionals gives optimized results. The DFT results are used to optimize the Reactive Force Field (ReaxFF). The material strength and EOS of beta-HMX at finite temperatures are then predicted from ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that the optimized ReaxFF predicts the mechanics and EOS of beta-HMX well. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous financial support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant # HDTRA1-13-1-0025.

  16. Beta function in supersymmetric gauge theoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the background field formalism vacuum loops in supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. A direct connection is revealed between the absence (or presence) of high order contributions and infrared regularization. A simple explanation is given why the instanton amplitude is exhausted by one loop whilst in the standard supergraph technique the effective action contains terms of all orders in the coupling constant. Exact relation between the Gell-Mann-Low function and anomalous dimensions of matter superfields stemming from the instanton calculus are presented

  17. Gamma-ray strength function models and their parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M.; Kopecky, J.

    1994-10-01

    An upgraded compilation of experimental E1- and M1 strength functions resulting from the analysis of discrete resonance data is presented. The dependence of these strength functions on the mass number can be described by simple expressions. We further study the impact of models for gamma-ray strength functions f{sub XL} on the calculation of capture cross sections and related quantities. For M1 and E2 radiation we employ strength functions derived from a standard Lorentzian with a global set of paramters. For the dominant E1 strength, however, individual Lorentzian parameters derived from photoabsorption data are used as far as possible. Besides the standard Lorentzian we apply for f{sub E1} also a generalised Lorentzian, which is characterised by an energy dependent width and a finite limit as the energy tends to zero. In the mass region A=100-200 a standard Lorentzian for f{sub E1} works only for stronly deformed nuclei. For these nuclei the generalised Lorentzinan, which reasonably reproduces the data for many spherical and transitional nuclei in this mass region, fails. In order to obtain an E1 strength function model for the whole mass region we propose an ``enhanced generalised Lorentzian`` with two parameters depending rather smoothly on the mass number. (orig.).

  18. Gamma-ray strength function models and their parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An upgraded compilation of experimental E1- and M1 strength functions resulting from the analysis of discrete resonance data is presented. The dependence of these strength functions on the mass number can be described by simple expressions. We further study the impact of models for gamma-ray strength functions fXL on the calculation of capture cross sections and related quantities. For M1 and E2 radiation we employ strength functions derived from a standard Lorentzian with a global set of paramters. For the dominant E1 strength, however, individual Lorentzian parameters derived from photoabsorption data are used as far as possible. Besides the standard Lorentzian we apply for fE1 also a generalised Lorentzian, which is characterised by an energy dependent width and a finite limit as the energy tends to zero. In the mass region A=100-200 a standard Lorentzian for fE1 works only for stronly deformed nuclei. For these nuclei the generalised Lorentzinan, which reasonably reproduces the data for many spherical and transitional nuclei in this mass region, fails. In order to obtain an E1 strength function model for the whole mass region we propose an ''enhanced generalised Lorentzian'' with two parameters depending rather smoothly on the mass number. (orig.)

  19. Bone response and mechanical strength of rabbit femoral defects filled with injectable CaP cements containing TGF-beta 1 loaded gelatin microparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Link, D.P.; Dolder, J. van den; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Wolke, J.G.C.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused at the potential of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) loaded gelatin microparticles to enhance the bone response and mechanical strength of rabbit femoral defects filled with injectable calcium phosphate (CaP)/gelatin microparticle composites. Therefore, TGF-beta1 loa

  20. Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a [3H]ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle

  1. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  2. Circadian Transcription from Beta Cell Function to Diabetes Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelis, Mark; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Marcheva, Biliana; Bass, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian circadian clock plays a central role in the temporal coordination of physiology across the 24-h light-dark cycle. A major function of the clock is to maintain energy constancy in anticipation of alternating periods of fasting and feeding that correspond with sleep and wakefulness. While it has long been recognized that humans exhibit robust variation in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity across the sleep-wake cycle, experimental genetic analysis has now revealed that the clock transcription cycle plays an essential role in insulin secretion and metabolic function within pancreatic beta cells. This review addresses how studies of the beta cell clock may elucidate the etiology of subtypes of diabetes associated with circadian and sleep cycle disruption, in addition to more general forms of the disease. PMID:27440914

  3. Generating functions for q-Bernstein, q-Meyer-Konig-Zeller and q-Beta basis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vijay; Kim, Taekyun; Choi, Jongsung; Kim, Young-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with the q-analogue of Bernstein, Meyer-Konig-Zeller and Beta operators. Here we estimate the generating functions for q-Bernstein, q-Meyer-Konig-Zeller and q-Beta basis functions.

  4. Effect of strength and proprioception training on eversion to inversion strength ratios in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Buckley, B.; Powers, M.; Hubbard, T; Ortiz, C.; Mattacola, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of six weeks of strength and proprioception training on eversion to inversion isokinetic strength ratios (E/I ratios) in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability.

  5. Quadriceps Strength and Executive Functions in Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J. A.; Eggermont, L. H. P.; Geuze, R. H.; Vis, J.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to answer the question whether the strength of the knee extensor musculus quadriceps (m. quadriceps), in particular, is related to specific executive functions and whether this relationship is independent of aerobic fitness. The clinical relevance of this question

  6. El strength function at high spin and excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed

  7. Determination of the K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of atoms using a weak beta source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Savita B; Badiger, N M; Naik, L R [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580 003 (India)], E-mail: nagappa123@yahoo.co.in

    2008-05-14

    The K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of Gd, Hf and Ta atoms have been determined using a novel method. In this method, bremsstrahlung photons produced by beta particles from a weak beta source of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in a nickel foil are incident on an elemental target and the transmitted spectrum of photons emerging from the target is measured using an ORTEC make HPGe detector coupled to 8 K multichannel analyser. The recorded spectrum shows a sudden drop at the K shell binding energy of the target atom and an exponential decrease in the intensity above the K shell binding energy. These portions have been used to determine the K shell binding energy, photoelectric cross-section at the K edge, the K shell oscillator strength and the imaginary form factor of the elements Gd, Hf and Ta. Good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values is observed.

  8. Determination of the K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of atoms using a weak beta source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K shell oscillator strengths and the imaginary form factors of Gd, Hf and Ta atoms have been determined using a novel method. In this method, bremsstrahlung photons produced by beta particles from a weak beta source of 90Sr-90Y in a nickel foil are incident on an elemental target and the transmitted spectrum of photons emerging from the target is measured using an ORTEC make HPGe detector coupled to 8 K multichannel analyser. The recorded spectrum shows a sudden drop at the K shell binding energy of the target atom and an exponential decrease in the intensity above the K shell binding energy. These portions have been used to determine the K shell binding energy, photoelectric cross-section at the K edge, the K shell oscillator strength and the imaginary form factor of the elements Gd, Hf and Ta. Good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values is observed

  9. $\\beta$- decay of $^{58}$Zn. A critical test for the charge-exchange reaction as a probe for the $\\beta$- decay strength distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS353 \\\\ \\\\ Due to its importance in fundamental physics and astrophysics, a great effort both theoretically and experimentally is devoted to study Gamow Teller (GT)-strength. The GT-strength and its distribution play a key role in late stellar evolution. During the pre-supernova core-collapse of massive stars, the electron capture and nuclear $\\beta$ -decay determine the electron-to-baryon ratio, which influences the infall dynamics and the mass of the final core. The cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction at forward angles with energies above 100~MeV is expected to be proportional to the squares of Fermi and GT matrix elements. This proportionality should provide a Q-value free method to probe the weak interaction strength and renormalization effects in nuclei. Thus charge-exchange reactions are often used to determine the experimental GT-strength. However, the connection between the GT-strength and the cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction is partially model-dependent and the question aris...

  10. Stiffness and strength of oxygen-functionalized graphene with vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandiatashbar, A.; Ban, E.; Picu, R. C., E-mail: picuc@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The 2D elastic modulus (E{sup 2D}) and strength (σ{sup 2D}) of defective graphene sheets containing vacancies, epoxide, and hydroxyl functional groups are evaluated at 300 K by atomistic simulations. The fraction of vacancies is controlled in the range 0% to 5%, while the density of functional groups corresponds to O:C ratios in the range 0% to 25%. In-plane modulus and strength diagrams as functions of vacancy and functional group densities are generated using models with a single type of defect and with combinations of two types of defects (vacancies and functional groups). It is observed that in models containing only vacancies, the rate at which strength decreases with increasing the concentration of defects is largest, followed by models containing only epoxide groups and those with only hydroxyl groups. The effect on modulus of vacancies and epoxides present alone in the model is similar, and much stronger than that of hydroxyl groups. When the concentration of defects is large, the combined effect of the functional groups and vacancies cannot be obtained as the superposition of individual effects of the two types of defects. The elastic modulus deteriorates faster (slower) than predicted by superposition in systems containing vacancies and hydroxyl groups (vacancies and epoxide groups)

  11. MHC class I phenotype and function of human beta 2-microglobulin transgenic murine lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerager, L; Pedersen, L O; Bregenholt, S; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claesson, M H

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid cells from beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) knockout mice transgenic for human (h) beta 2m (C57BL/10 m beta 2m-/h beta 2m+) were compared with normal mice for their binding to exogenously added h beta 2m, binding to a H-2Db peptide and for functional activity in a one-way allogenic MLC...... normal splenocytes. In contrast, transgenic alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes developed earlier in MLC than their non-transgenic counterparts. These data indicate that the hybrid mouse heavy chain/h beta 2m complex alters the alloantigenic repertoire and influences important aspects of T...

  12. Interactions between beta subunits of the KCNMB family and Slo3: beta4 selectively modulates Slo3 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pH and voltage-regulated Slo3 K(+ channel, a homologue of the Ca(2+- and voltage-regulated Slo1 K(+ channel, is thought to be primarily expressed in sperm, but the properties of Slo3 studied in heterologous systems differ somewhat from the native sperm KSper pH-regulated current. There is the possibility that critical partners that regulate Slo3 function remain unidentified. The extensive amino acid identity between Slo3 and Slo1 suggests that auxiliary beta subunits regulating Slo1 channels might coassemble with and modulate Slo3 channels. Four distinct beta subunits composing the KCNMB family are known to regulate the function and expression of Slo1 Channels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the ability of the KCNMB family of auxiliary beta subunits to regulate Slo3 function, we co-expressed Slo3 and each beta subunit in heterologous expression systems and investigated the functional consequences by electrophysiological and biochemical analyses. The beta4 subunit produced an 8-10 fold enhancement of Slo3 current expression in Xenopus oocytes and a similar enhancement of Slo3 surface expression as monitored by YFP-tagged Slo3 or biotin labeled Slo3. Neither beta1, beta2, nor beta3 mimicked the ability of beta4 to increase surface expression, although biochemical tests suggested that all four beta subunits are competent to coassemble with Slo3. Fluorescence microscopy from beta4 KO mice, in which an eGFP tag replaced the deleted exon, revealed that beta4 gene promoter is active in spermatocytes. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that beta4 and Slo3 exhibit comparable mRNA abundance in both testes and sperm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results argue that, for native mouse Slo3 channels, the beta4 subunit must be considered as a potential interaction partner and, furthermore, that KCNMB subunits may have functions unrelated to regulation of the Slo1 alpha subunit.

  13. Energy density functional study of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless $\\beta\\beta$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive study of nuclear matrix elements (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay of the nuclei $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{124}$Sn, $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, and $^{150}$Nd based on state-of-the-art energy density functional methods using the Gogny D1S functional. Beyond mean-field effects are included within the generating coordinate method with particle number and angular momentum projection for both initial and final ground states. We obtain a rather constant value for the NME's around 4.7 with the exception of $^{48}$Ca and $^{150}$Nd, where smaller values are found. We analyze the role of deformation and pairing in the evaluation of the NME and present detailed results for the decay of $^{150}$Nd.

  14. Decay experiments to test β- and γ-strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decays of six delayed-proton precursors have now been studied with the particle-X-ray coincidence technique, yielding a more or less detailed view of level widths in the proton emitting nuclei. The results lead to a reevaluation of our techniques for calculating level densities and average gamma-decay widths in exotic nuclei. With these aspects of β-delayed proton decay specified, the proton energy spectra of a number of precursors (65 <= A <= 121) are examined for evidence of structure in the β-strength functions. Overall, the 'gross theory' β-strength functions are remarkably reliable, although some systematic deviations are observed in the xenon and tellurium isotopes. (orig.)

  15. On microscopic theory of the gamma-ray strength functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Voitenkov, Dmitrii

    2011-01-01

    Using the Theory of Finite Fermi Systems, we obtained a non-magic nuclei generalization of the old theoretical results by J. Speth for magic nuclei dealing with the transitions between excited states and moment values of excited state. Such an extension is quite necessary for microscopic calculations of the gamma ray strength function. The comparison with the standard QRPA has shown that the modern many-body approach gives some new physics. The calculated value of the quadrupole moment of the...

  16. Newly developed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si-Fe biomedical beta titanium alloys with increased strength and enhanced biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Landa, Michal; Janeček, Miloš; Bačákova, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    Beta titanium alloys are promising materials for load-bearing orthopaedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, low elastic modulus and moderate strength. Metastable beta-Ti alloys can be hardened via precipitation of the alpha phase; however, this has an adverse effect on the elastic modulus. Small amounts of Fe (0-2 wt.%) and Si (0-1 wt.%) were added to Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta (TNZT) biocompatible alloy to increase its strength in beta solution treated condition. Fe and Si additions were shown to cause a significant increase in tensile strength and also in the elastic modulus (from 65 GPa to 85 GPa). However, the elastic modulus of TNZT alloy with Fe and Si additions is still much lower than that of widely used Ti-6Al-4V alloy (115 GPa), and thus closer to that of the bone (10-30 GPa). Si decreases the elongation to failure, whereas Fe increases the uniform elongation thanks to increased work hardening. Primary human osteoblasts cultivated for 21 days on TNZT with 0.5Si+2Fe (wt.%) reached a significantly higher cell population density and significantly higher collagen I production than cells cultured on the standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, the Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta-2Fe-0.5Si alloy proves to be the best combination of elastic modulus, strength and also biological properties, which makes it a viable candidate for use in load-bearing implants. PMID:26706526

  17. Time-dependent density-functional studies on strength functions in neutron-rich nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Inakura, Tsunenori; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The electric dipole (E1) strength functions have been systematically calculated based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), using the finite amplitude method and the real-time approach to the TDDFT with pairing correlations. The low-energy E1 strengths in neutron-rich isotopes show peculiar behaviors, such as sudden enhancement and reduction, as functions of the neutron numbers.They seem to be due to the interplay between the neutron shell effect and the deformation effect.

  18. Description of radiative strength functions of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative strength functions of E1R- and M1-transitions from ground states of doubly even deformed nuclei to states near the neutron binding energy Bsub(n), the wave functions of which include one- and two-phonon components, are calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The calculations were made with the Pauli principle being or not included in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. It is shown that the radiative E1R- and M1-strength functions as well as the widths of giant dipole resonances in deformed nuclei are slightly influenced by the two-phonon components of the wave functions and they can be calculated in the random phase approximation. The ksub(E1) and ksub(M1)-values are calculated for some deformed nuclei of the rare-earth and actinide region. The calculated values of ksub(E1) are 1.5-2 times larger and the values of ksub(M1) are somewhat less than the average values obtained from the analysis of available experimental data

  19. \\beta-deformed matrix model and Nekrasov partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    We study Penner type matrix models in relation with the Nekrasov partition function of four dimensional \\mathcal{N}=2, SU(2) supersymmetric gauge theories with N_F=2,3 and 4. By evaluating the resolvent using the loop equation for general \\beta, we explicitly construct the first half-genus correction to the free energy and demonstrate the result coincides with the corresponding Nekrasov partition function with general \\Omega-background, including higher instanton contributions after modifying the relation of the Coulomb branch parameter with the filling fraction. Our approach complements the proof using the Selberg integrals directly which is useful to find the contribution in the series of instanton numbers for a given deformation parameter.

  20. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.

    2015-10-01

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME's) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME's can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  1. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, P., E-mail: ring@ph.tum.de [Physik-Department der Technischen Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, J. M. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Song, L. S. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); Hagino, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7602 (South Africa)

    2015-10-15

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  2. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort

  3. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on elderly cough function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeock; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle strength, known as sarcopenia, in the expiratory muscles, along with reductions in lung elastic recoil and chest wall compliance decreases the intrathoacic airway pressure as well as expiratory flow rates and velocity, greatly impacting an elderly person's ability to generate the forces essential for cough. This study examined the effects of a 4-week expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) program on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and cough function in 18 healthy but sedentary elderly adults. MEP significantly increased after the EMST program from 77.14+/-20.20 to 110.83+/-26.11cmH(2)O. Parameters measured during reflexive coughs produced by capsaicin challenge, indicated that compression phase duration significantly decreased (from 0.35+/-0.19 to 0.16+/-0.17s), peak expiratory flow rate decreased (from 4.98+/-2.18 to 8.00+/-3.05l/s) and post-peak plateau integral amplitude significantly increased (from 3.49+/-2.46 to 6.83+/-4.16l/ss) with the EMST program. EMST seems to be an effective program to increase the expiratory muscle strength in the sedentary elderly, which contribute to an enhanced cough function. PMID:18457885

  4. Functional beta3-adrenoceptor in the human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, C.; Tavernier, G.; Charpentier, F.; Langin, D.; Le Marec, H

    1996-01-01

    Beta3-adrenoceptors are involved in metabolism, gut relaxation, and vascular vasodilation. However, their existence and role in the human heart have not been documented. We investigated the effects of several beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on the mechanical properties of ventricular endomyocardial biopsies. In the presence of nadolol, a beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist, isoprenaline produced consistent negative inotropic effects. Similar negative inotropic effects also res...

  5. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate blunts negative age-related changes in body composition, functionality and myofiber dimensions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacob M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To determine the effects of 16 wk. of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB administration on age-related changes in functionality and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI determined myofiber dimensions. Methods Twelve young (44 wk., 6 middle-aged (60 wk., 10 old (86 wk., and 5 very old (102 wk. male Fisher-344 rat's body composition and grip strength were assessed at baseline. Following, 6 young, 6 middle-aged, 5 old and 5 very old rats were sacrificed for baseline myofiber dimensions and gene transcript factor expression in the soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius (GAS. The remaining 6 young and 5 old rats were given HMB for 16 wk. and then sacrificed. Results Fat mass increased in the middle-aged control condition (+49% but not the middle-aged HMB condition. In addition, fat mass declined (-56% in the old HMB condition but not the old control condition. Normalized strength declined and maintained respectively in the control and HMB conditions from 44 to 60 wk. and increased (+23% (p Conclusions HMB may blunt age-related losses of strength and myofiber dimensions, possibly through attenuating the rise in protein breakdown.

  6. How Ionic Strength Affects the Conformational Behavior of Human and Rat Beta Amyloids - A Computational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kriz Z.; Klusak J.; Kristofikova Z.; Koca J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive cerebral deposition of amyloid beta occurs in Alzheimeŕs disease and during the aging of certain mammals (human, monkey, dog, bear, cow, cat) but not others (rat, mouse). It is possibly due to different amino acid sequences at positions 5, 10 and 13. To address this issue, we performed series of 100 ns long trajectories (each trajectory was run twice with different initial velocity distribution) on amyloid beta (1–42) with the human and rat amino acid sequence in three different e...

  7. New developments in the calculation of β-strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have further developed a QRPA model that uses single-particle levels and wave-functions as the starting point for calculating Gamov-Teller β-strength functions. In our enhanced version Nilsson, Woods-Saxon, or folded-Yukawa wave functions and single-particle energies may serve as the starting point for determining the wave functions of the mother and daughter nuclei involved in the β-decay. Pairing may be treated in either the BCS or the Lipkin-Nogami approximation. To account for the retardation of low-energy GT decay rates we add, as in the earlier model, a simple residual interaction specific to GT decay, namely VGT=:β1-.β1+:, to the hamiltonian. This residual interaction is studied in the RPA approximation. In the case of odd-mass nuclei the Δv=0 transitions are generally treated in a first-order perturbation expansion. We found that these expansions occasionally break down, and have modified them to avoid the singularities. The odd-odd case is treated in a way analogous to the odd-A case by considering one or the other of the odd particles as a spectator for Δv=0 and both as spectators for Δv=2. As a final extension of the earlier model, we also allow the unpaired odd particle to be in an excited state. We use the enhanced model to calculate Gamov-Teller β-strength functions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron emission probabilities for nuclei in several regions of the periodic system, but with the main emphasis on the rare-earth region. (orig.)

  8. Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: Narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Laciuga, MA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings.

  9. On the increasing of adhesive strength of nanotube layers on beta titanium alloys for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojt, Jaroslav; Filip, Vladimir; Joska, Ludek

    2015-11-01

    The nanostructuring of titanium and its alloys surfaces is used inter alia for increasing the medical implants osseointegration. Many papers about this topic were published. However, in most cases there were no informations about nanostructures adhesion to the surface, which is crucial from the application point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare nanostructures on titanium beta alloy and optimized its adhesion to the alloy surface. Nanotubes were formed by anodic polarization in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. The composition of the nanotubes was described by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nanostructures adhesion was tested by pull-of method. The nanotubes on the Ti-36Nb-6Ta beta alloy surface were prepared by anodization. The nanostructures properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. The adhesion of the nanotubes prepared in this work was satisfactory for implantological applications.

  10. N-terminal tyrosine modulation of the endocytic adaptor function of the beta-arrestins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Sébastien; Fralish, Gregory B; Laporte, Stéphane; Caron, Marc G; Barak, Larry S

    2007-06-29

    The highly homologous beta-arrestin1 and -2 adaptor proteins play important roles in the function of G protein-coupled receptors. Either beta-arrestin variant can function as a molecular chaperone for clathrin-mediated receptor internalization. This role depends primarily upon two distinct, contiguous C-terminal beta-arrestin motifs recognizing clathrin and the beta-adaptin subunit of AP2. However, a molecular basis is lacking to explain the different endocytic efficacies of the two beta-arrestin isoforms and the observation that beta-arrestin N-terminal substitution mutants can act as dominant negative inhibitors of receptor endocytosis. Despite the near identity of the beta-arrestins throughout their N termini, sequence variability is present at a small number of residues and includes tyrosine to phenylalanine substitutions. Here we show that corresponding N-terminal (Y/F)VTL sequences in beta-arrestin1 and -2 differentially regulate mu-adaptin binding. Our results indicate that the beta-arrestin1 Tyr-54 lessens the interaction with mu-adaptin and moreover is a Src phosphorylation site. A gain of endocytic function is obtained with the beta-arrestin1 Y54F substitution, which improves both the beta-arrestin1 interaction with mu-adaptin and the ability to enhance beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization. These data indicate that beta-arrestin2 utilizes mu-adaptin as an endocytic partner, and that the inability of beta-arrestin1 to sustain a similar degree of interaction with mu-adaptin may result from coordination of Tyr-54 by neighboring residues or its modification by Src kinase. Additionally, these naturally occurring variations in beta-arrestins may also differentially regulate the composition of the signaling complexes organized on the receptor. PMID:17456469

  11. Role of topology in complex functional networks of beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Christian; Filippi, Simonetta; Gizzi, Alessio; Loppini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    The activity of pancreatic β cells can be described by biological networks of coupled nonlinear oscillators that, via electrochemical synchronization, release insulin in response to augmented glucose levels. In this work, we analyze the emergent behavior of regular and percolated β-cells clusters through a stochastic mathematical model where "functional" networks arise. We show that the emergence and robustness of the synchronized dynamics depend both on intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. In particular, cellular noise level, glucose concentration, network spatial architecture, and cell-to-cell coupling strength are the key factors for the generation of a rhythmic and robust activity. Their role in the functional network topology associated with β-cells clusters is analyzed and discussed. PMID:26565267

  12. A Low-Cost Hierarchical Nanostructured Beta-Titanium Alloy with High Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir S.; Duz, Volodymr; Lavender, Curt A.

    2016-04-09

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  13. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  14. Sizeable beta-strength in {sup 31}Ar (β3p) decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koldste, G.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Blank, B. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fraile, L.M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Johansen, J.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jonson, B. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kurturkian-Nieto, T. [Centre d' Études Nucléaire de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Bordeaux I, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Nilsson, T. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Perea, A.; Pesudo, V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-10-07

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode β-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow–Teller strength distribution from the decay of {sup 31}Ar revealing that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the β3p-decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in {sup 31}Cl is provided.

  15. Quantum gravitational contributions to the beta function of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Because of the negative mass dimension of the coupling constant perturbative Einstein quantum gravity (EQG) is nonrenormalizable. However, one can still make sense of EQG if it's interpreted as an effective field theory within a low energy expansion of a more fundamental theory. In an effective field theory all interactions compatible with its essential symmetry content are in principle allowed into the Lagrangian and thus it establishes a systematic framework to calculate quantum gravitational effects. This approach has been used to study the asymptotic behavior at high energies of quantum field theories that incorporate the gravitational field. Some studies analyze the asymptotic freedom for the coupling constants of some theories including gravitation near the Planck scale. For example, Robinson and Wilczek suggest that the gravitational field improve the asymptotic freedom of pure Yang-Mills near the Planck scale. Already , a similar calculation in the Maxwell-Einstein theory suggest that such conclusion is gauge dependence. This result was obtained by Pietrykowski. D. Toms say what the effective action is calculated in a gauge-condition independent version of the background field method using dimensional regularization it's argued that the gravitational field plays no role in the beta function of the Yang-Mills coupling. Another calculation done by Ebert, Plefka and Rodigast using conventional diagrammatic methods confirms the result obtained by Toms. In a recent publication, again published by Toms in 2010, claimed that quadratic divergent contributions were responsible to improve asymptotic freedom of fine structure constant by quantum gravity effects by using proper time cutoff regularization and effective action methods. However, the physical reality of the result in Tom's was questioned in recent work. This purpose of this work is to shed light on the origin of such controversies using only a diagrammatic analysis. As an effective model EQG is

  16. The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jacob M.; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Andersen, J.C.; Wilson, Stephanie M. C.; Stout, Jeffrey R; Duncan, Nevine; Fuller, John C; Baier, Shawn M; Naimo, Marshall A.; Rathmacher, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Studies utilizing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in trained populations are limited. No long-term studies utilizing HMB free acid (HMB-FA) have been conducted. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, body composition, strength, and power in trained individuals. We also determined the effects of HMB-FA on muscle damage and performance during an overreaching cycle. Methods A three-phase dou...

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary function in beta-thalassemia major patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe and quantify the functional change of the lung in patients with beta-thalassemia major (TM) and determine the correlation between pulmonary function test (PFT) results with hemoglobin, ferritin and age changes. Methodology: Pulmonary function tests were performed on 60 transfusion-dependent patients with TM, ranging in age from 10 to 45 years. Percent-predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flows (FEF) 25-75% were significantly reduced, whereas forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC were closed to normal limits, indicating a restrictive disease. All factors including; FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% were negatively correlated with age and ferritin levels. In contrast, all factors including; FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% were positively correlated with hemoglobin (Hb). We performed linear regression analysis to study the simultaneous influence of the presence of age, ferritin, and Hb on obstructive PFT indexes. Results: Pulmonary function test results were normal in only 32 (53.3%) of 60 patients and the rest 28 cases (46.7%) showed abnormal pulmonary function. FEV1 and FEF 25% - 75% have significant negative correlation with age (r = - 0.64 p(r) = 0.003 and r = - 0.58 p(r) = 0.02 respectively), also have significant positive correlation with Hb (r = 0.31 p(r) = 0.015 and r = 0.33 p(r) = 0.01 respectively), and only FEF 25% - 75% has significant negative correlation with ferritin (r -0.26 p(r) = 0.04). Conclusion: The present study has shown that restrictive disease and reduced lung diffusing capacity are the predominant abnormalities of pulmonary function patients with TM. The low hemoglobin concentration and a fall in the diffusing capacity of the alveola - capillary membrane, together with the dependence of the reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity on age and serum ferritin levels, as well as of the entity of restrictive disease on age, suggests that pulmonary

  18. Green's function method for strength function in three-body continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Y; Baye, D

    2009-01-01

    Practical methods to compute dipole strengths for a three-body system by using a discretized continuum are analyzed. New techniques involving Green's function are developed, either by correcting the tail of the approximate wave function in a direct calculation of the strength function or by using a solution of a driven Schroedinger equation in a summed expression of the strength. They are compared with the complex scaling method and the Lorentz integral transform, also making use of a discretized continuum. Numerical tests are performed with a hyperscalar three-body potential in the hyperspherical-harmonics formalism. They show that the Lorentz integral transform method is less practical than the other methods because of a difficult inverse transform. These other methods provide in general comparable accuracies.

  19. Pancreatic beta cell function in the fetal pig and sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Comline, R S; Silver, M

    1982-04-01

    Insulin secretion was investigated in acutely anaesthetized and chronically catheterized sows and their fetuses during late gestation. In the conscious animals, the mean fetal concentration of plasma insulin was 8.4 +/- 1.5 microunits/ml which was significantly less than the corresponding maternal value of 33.9 +/- 6.5 microunits/ml (n = 12, P less than 0.01). The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose in the new-born piglets from these litters were not significantly different from the values observed in utero. The plasma concentration of insulin in the anaesthetized fetuses was significantly less than that in the chronically catheterized piglets over the same range of glucose levels. In the chronically catheterized animals, both fetal and maternal levels of insulin rose with increasing concentrations of plasma glucose while under acute conditions there was no correlation between the endogenous concentrations of insulin and glucose in either the fetuses or their mothers. Infusion of exogenous glucose (0.5 g as a 50% solution in 0.9% NaCl) stimulated the release of insulin in all the chronically catheterized fetuses studied but rarely increased the concentration of insulin in the anaesthetized fetusus. The present findings show that anaesthesia and surgery depress pancreatic beta cell function in the pig, particularly in the fetus. PMID:7043523

  20. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications. PMID:27034109

  1. The Fas pathway is involved in pancreatic beta cell secretory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumann, Desiree M; Maedler, Kathrin; Franklin, Isobel;

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell mass and function increase in conditions of enhanced insulin demand such as obesity. Failure to adapt leads to diabetes. The molecular mechanisms controlling this adaptive process are unclear. Fas is a death receptor involved in beta cell apoptosis or proliferation, depending...... on the activity of the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP. Here we show that the Fas pathway also regulates beta cell secretory function. We observed impaired glucose tolerance in Fas-deficient mice due to a delayed and decreased insulin secretory pattern. Expression of PDX-1, a beta cell......-specific transcription factor regulating insulin gene expression and mitochondrial metabolism, was decreased in Fas-deficient beta cells. As a consequence, insulin and ATP production were severely reduced and only partly compensated for by increased beta cell mass. Up-regulation of FLIP enhanced NF-kappaB activity via...

  2. A high statistics study of the beta-function in the SU(2) lattice thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Antropov, S S; Skalozub, V V

    2013-01-01

    The beta-function is investigated on the lattice in SU(2) gluodynamics. It is determined within a scaling hypothesis while a lattice size fixed to be taken into account. The functions calculated are compared with the ones obtained in the continuum limit. Graphics processing units (GPU) are used as a computing platform that allows gathering a huge amount of statistical data. Numerous beta-functions are analyzed for various lattices. The coincidence of the lattice beta-function and the analytical expression in the region of the phase transition is shown. New method for estimating a critical coupling value is proposed.

  3. Mouse egg integrin alpha 6 beta 1 functions as a sperm receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E A; Huovila, A P; Sutherland, A E; Stephens, L E; Calarco, P G; Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M; Sonnenberg, A; Primakoff, P; Myles, D G; White, J M

    1995-06-30

    Binding between sperm and egg plasma membranes is an essential step in fertilization. Whereas fertilin, a mammalian sperm surface protein, is involved in this crucial interaction, sperm receptors on the egg plasma membrane have not been identified. Because fertilin contains a predicted integrin ligand domain, we investigated the expression and function of integrin subunits in unfertilized mouse eggs. Polymerase chain reactions detected mRNAs for alpha 5, alpha 6, alpha v, beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5. Immunofluorescence revealed alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3 on the plasma membrane. GoH3, a function-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, abolished sperm binding, but a nonfunction-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, a function-blocking anti-alpha v beta 3 polyclonal antibody, and an RGD peptide had no effect. Somatic cells bound sperm avidly, but only if they expressed alpha 6 beta 1. A peptide analog of the fertilin integrin ligand domain inhibited sperm binding to eggs and alpha 6 beta 1+ cells and diminished GoH3 staining of eggs. Our results indicate a novel role for the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 as a cell-cell adhesion receptor that mediates sperm-egg binding. PMID:7600577

  4. Ablation of PGC-1beta results in defective mitochondrial activity, thermogenesis, hepatic function, and cardiac performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lelliott

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT. Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1beta was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1betaKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1betaKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1beta also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1beta plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress.

  5. Scalar 3-point functions in CFT: renormalisation, beta functions and anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Bzowski, Adam; Skenderis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion of renormalisation of 3-point functions of scalar operators in conformal field theories in general dimension. We have previously shown that conformal symmetry uniquely determines the momentum-space 3-point functions in terms of certain integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (triple-K integrals). The triple-K integrals diverge when the dimensions of operators satisfy certain relations and we discuss how to obtain renormalised 3-point functions in all cases. There are three different types of divergences: ultralocal, semilocal and nonlocal, and a given divergent triple-K integral may have any combination of them. Ultralocal divergences may be removed using local counterterms and this results in new conformal anomalies. Semilocal divergences may be removed by renormalising the sources, and this results in CFT correlators that satisfy Callan-Symanzik equations with beta functions. In the case of non-local divergences, it is the triple-K representation that is...

  6. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A;

    2007-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its...... reported high-resolution structure of beta2AR-T4L provides insights into inverse-agonist binding and the structural changes required to accommodate catecholamine agonists. Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a...

  7. Regulation of Beta-Cell Function and Mass by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Elke

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most rapidly increasing diseases worldwide, whereby approximately 90-95% of patients suffer from type 2 diabetes. Considering its micro- and macrovascular complications like blindness and myocardial infarction, a reliable anti-diabetic treatment is needed. Maintaining the function and the mass of the insulin producing beta-cells despite elevated levels of beta-cell-toxic prediabetic signals represents a desirable mechanism of action of anti-diabetic drugs. The dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) inhibits the action of two transcription factors within the beta-cell, thereby interfering with insulin secretion and production and the conservation of beta-cell mass. Furthermore, DLK action is regulated by prediabetic signals. Hence, the inhibition of this kinase might protect beta-cells against beta-cell-toxic prediabetic signals and prevent the development of diabetes. DLK might thus present a novel drug target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:27100796

  8. Functional biosynthesis of an allophycocyan beta subunit in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Baosheng; Sun, Haixiang; Feng, Yang; Yang, Jinying; Qin, Song

    2009-03-01

    Allophycocyanin is a phycobiliprotein with various biological and pharmacological properties. An expression vector was constructed using CpeS as the bilin lyase for the allophycocyanin beta subunit, resulting in overexpression of a fluorescent allophycocyanin beta-subunit in Escherichia coli. A high-density cell culture was developed using a continuous feeding strategy. After 16 h of culture, the dry cell density reached 21.4 g l(-1), the expression of the allophycocyanin beta-subunit was 0.86 g l(-1) broth, and the relative chromoprotein yield was 81.4%. The recombinant protein showed spectral features similar to native allophycocyanin, which provide an efficient methodology for large-scale production of this valuable fluorescent protein. PMID:19269586

  9. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  10. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H2O2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H2O2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced TXNIP expression

  11. Vascular Function and Handgrip Strength in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relationship of handgrip strength with forearm blood flow (BF and vascular resistance (VR in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. Forearm BF at rest (RBF and after upper arm occlusion (RHBF, and handgrip strength were examined in 78 individuals (RA=42 and controls (CT=36. Subsequently, VR at rest (RVR and after occlusion (RHVR were calculated. Results. The patients’ RBF (P=0.02 and RHBF (P=0.0001 were less, whereas RVR (P=0.002 and RHVR (P=0.0001 were greater as compared to the CTs. Similarly, handgrip strength was lower in the RAs (P=0.0001. Finally, handgrip strength was directly associated with RBF (r=0.43; P=0.0001, and RHBF (r=0.5; P=0.0001, and inversely related to RVR (r=-0.3; P=0.009 and RHVR (r=-0.3; P=0.007. Conclusion. The present study uniquely identifies an association between regional measures of forearm blood flow and handgrip strength in patients and healthy control. In addition, this study confirms the presence of vascular and muscle dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as evidenced by lower forearm blood flow indices, at rest and following occlusion, and lower handgrip strength as compared to healthy individuals.

  12. Assessment of beta-cell function and insulin secretion in subjects that underwent renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, Andrea; Hecking, Manfred; Wolzt, Michael; Saemann, Marcus D; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    In this study we aimed to assess the performance of various indices of beta-cell function derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in subjects that underwent renal transplantation. Impaired insulin secretion seems in fact central for development of new onset diabetes after transplantation, but its assessment has not been systematically evaluated. Twenty subjects underwent a 75 g 2h-OGTT for measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide. OGTT indices of beta-cell function were either derived by mathematical modeling (yielding the reference index: glucose sensitivity) or were empirical: insulinogenic index (IGI), IGI derived indices, whole shape C-peptide (WHOSH_CP). Indices of beta cell function, showed significant correlation with glucose sensitivity (R(2)=0.40-0.86, all Pbody mass index, mean glycemia. In conclusion, in transplanted subjects OGTT empirical indices are typically acceptable for the estimation of beta-cell function. PMID:26736770

  13. Gauge Coupling Beta Functions in the Standard Model to Three Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, Luminita N; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compute the three-loop corrections to the beta functions of the three gauge couplings in the Standard Model of particle physics using the minimal subtraction scheme and taking into account Yukawa and Higgs self couplings.

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  15. On the four-loop strong coupling beta-function in the SM

    CERN Document Server

    Bednyakov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In the talk the leading four-loop contribution to the beta-function of the strong coupling in the SM is discussed. Some details of calculation techniques are provided. Special attention is paid to the ambiguity due to utilized $\\gamma_5$ treatment and a particular prescription with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ is advocated. As a by-product of our computation the four-loop beta-function in QCD with "gluino" is also obtained.

  16. Novel synthesis of {beta}-cyclodextrin functionalized CdTe quantum dots as luminescent probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaofeng; Zhou Min; Chang Yanping [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ren Cuiling [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Hongli, E-mail: hlchen@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Xingguo [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel, inexpensive procedure for the preparation of highly fluorescent and water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) using {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) as surface-coating agents was fabricated through the substitution reaction at the C-6 position of mono-6-deoxy-6-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-cyclodextrin (6-TsO-{beta}-CD) by the -NH{sub 2} of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-coated CdTe QDs (APTES/CdTe QDs) under mild conditions. The results revealed that {beta}-CD/APTES/CdTe QDs simultaneously possessed unique optical properties of QDs and excellent molecules recognition ability of {beta}-CD through combining their individual distinct advantages. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel preparation of {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) functionalized CdTe quantum dots has been constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemicals and reagents used are inexpensive and straightforward. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial shows highly fluorescence and the molecular recognition properties. - Abstract: A novel, inexpensive procedure for the preparation of highly fluorescent and water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) using {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) as surface-coating agents was fabricated through the substitution reaction at the C-6 position of mono-6-deoxy-6-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-cyclodextrin (6-TsO-{beta}-CD) by the -NH{sub 2} of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-coated CdTe QDs (APTES/CdTe QDs) under mild conditions. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence (FL) spectrophotometer were used to characterize the obtained nanoparticles, which proved that the CdTe QDs have been effectively modified by {beta}-CD. The quantum yields (QYs) of CdTe QDs, APTES/CdTe QDs and {beta}-CD/APTES/CdTe QDs in water comparative to Rhodamine 6G were about 17%, 12%, and 9%, respectively. A pair

  17. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Iain P; Harris, Roger C; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Chang Keun; Dang, Viet H; Lam, Thanh Q; Bui, Toai T; Smith, Marcus; Wise, John A

    2008-05-01

    Carnosine (Carn) occurs in high concentrations in skeletal muscle is a potent physico-chemical buffer of H+ over the physiological range. Recent research has demonstrated that 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-alanine (beta-ala) can significantly increase skeletal muscle Carn concentrations (M-[Carn]) whilst the resultant change in buffering capacity has been shown to be paralleled by significant improvements in anaerobic and aerobic measures of exercise performance. Muscle carnosine increase has also been linked to increased work done during resistance training. Prior research has suggested that strength training may also increase M-[Carn] although this is disputed by other studies. The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of 10 weeks resistance training on M-[Carn], and, secondly, to investigate if increased M-[Carn] brought about through beta-ala supplementation had a positive effect on training responses. Twenty-six Vietnamese sports science students completed the study. The subjects completed a 10-week resistance-training program whilst consuming 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-ala (beta-ALG) or a matched dose of a placebo (PLG). Subjects were assessed prior to and after training for whole body strength, isokinetic force production, muscular endurance, body composition. beta-Alanine supplemented subjects increased M-[Carn] by 12.81 +/- 7.97 mmol x kg(-1) dry muscle whilst there was no change in PLG subjects. There was no significant effect of beta-ala supplementation on any of the exercise parameters measured, mass or % body fat. In conclusion, 10 weeks of resistance training alone did not change M-[Carn]. PMID:18175046

  18. Evidence implying DNA polymerase beta function in excision repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlecki, J A; Szyszko, J.; Pietrzykowska, I; Zmudzka, B

    1980-01-01

    Comparison was made of the ability of calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha and beta to replicate the following templates: native E. coli CR-34 DNA (T-DNA), calf thymus DNA activated by DNase I (act.DNA), BU-DNA (from E. coli CR-34 cells cultured on BUdR-containing medium) with damages resulting from incomplete excision repair, as well as thermally denatured act.DNA and BU-DNA (s.s.act.DNA and s.s.BU-DNA). 3H-TTP incorporation during extensive replication of act.DNA was similar for both enzymes, ...

  19. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.; Harris, T. B.; Zivkovic, S.; Goodpaster, B. H.; Satterfield, S.; Kritchevsky, S.; Schwartz, A. V.; Vinik, A. I.; Cauley, J. A.; Newman, A. B.; Strotmeyer, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally. Methods. We assessed whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function predicts strength longitudinally in 1,830 participants (age...... = 76.3 +/- 2.8, body mass index = 27.2 +/- 4.6 kg/m(2), strength = 96.3 +/- 34.7 Nm, 51.0% female, 34.8% black) from the Health ABC study. Isokinetic quadriceps strength was measured semiannually over 6 years. Peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity were recorded. Sensory nerve function...

  20. Soft structures of γ-ray strength functions studied with the Oslo method

    OpenAIRE

    Voinov A.; Toft H.K.; Siem S.; Syed N.U.H.; Schiller A.; Mitchell G.E.; Nyhus H.T.; Guttormsen M.; Lönnroth T.; Goriely S.; Brger A.; Chankova R.; Bernstein L.A.; Agvaanluvsan U.; Larsen A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We present experimental γ-ray strength functions up to Eγ ∼ Sn measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for several Sc, V, Mo, and Sn isotopes. For the lighter nuclei, an unexpected enhancement of the strength function at low γ-ray energies has been revealed. This enhancement could potentially have an impact on neutron-capture cross sections for unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. For the Sn isotopes, we observe increased strength around the neutron separation energy Sn.

  1. Soft structures of γ-ray strength functions studied with the Oslo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental γ-ray strength functions up to Eγ ∼ Sn measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for several Sc, V, Mo, and Sn isotopes. For the lighter nuclei, an unexpected enhancement of the strength function at low γ-ray energies has been revealed. This enhancement could potentially have an impact on neutron-capture cross sections for unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. For the Sn isotopes, we observe increased strength around the neutron separation energy Sn. (authors)

  2. Properties of harmonic functions which are convex of order $ \\bf \\beta $ with respect to symmetric points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Janteng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Let $ \\mathcal{H} $ denote the class of functions $ f $ which are harmonic and univalent in the open unit disc $ {D=\\{z:|z|<1\\}} $. This paper defines and investigates a family of complex-valued harmonic functions that are orientation preserving and univalent in $ \\mathcal{D} $ and are related to the functions convex of order $ \\beta(0\\leq \\beta <1 $, with respect to symmetric points. We obtain coefficient conditions, growth result, extreme points, convolution and convex combinations for the above harmonic functions.

  3. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus-associated sodium channel beta1 subunit mutations severely reduce beta subunit-mediated modulation of sodium channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Thomas, E A; Gazina, E V; Richards, K L; Quick, M; Wallace, R H; Harkin, L A; Heron, S E; Berkovic, S F; Scheffer, I E; Mulley, J C; Petrou, S

    2007-08-10

    Two novel mutations (R85C and R85H) on the extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain of the sodium channel beta1 subunit have been identified in individuals from two families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The functional consequences of these two mutations were determined by co-expression of the human brain NaV1.2 alpha subunit with wild type or mutant beta1 subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293T cells. Patch clamp studies confirmed the regulatory role of beta1 in that relative to NaV1.2 alone the NaV1.2+beta1 currents had right-shifted voltage dependence of activation, fast and slow inactivation and reduced use dependence. In addition, the NaV1.2+beta1 current entered fast inactivation slightly faster than NaV1.2 channels alone. The beta1(R85C) subunit appears to be a complete loss of function in that none of the modulating effects of the wild type beta1 were observed when it was co-expressed with NaV1.2. Interestingly, the beta1(R85H) subunit also failed to modulate fast kinetics, however, it shifted the voltage dependence of steady state slow inactivation in the same way as the wild type beta1 subunit. Immunohistochemical studies revealed cell surface expression of the wild type beta1 subunit and undetectable levels of cell surface expression for both mutants. The functional studies suggest association of the beta1(R85H) subunit with the alpha subunit where its influence is limited to modulating steady state slow inactivation. In summary, the mutant beta1 subunits essentially fail to modulate alpha subunits which could increase neuronal excitability and underlie GEFS+ pathogenesis. PMID:17629415

  4. Subtleties in the beta function calculation of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchiglia, A L; Hiller, B; Scarpelli, A P Baêta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some peculiarities in the calculation of the two-loop beta-function of $N=1$ supersymmetric models which are intimately related to the so-called "Anomaly Puzzle". There is an apparent paradox when the computation is performed in the framework of the covariant derivative background field method. In this formalism, it is obtained a finite two-loop effective action, although a non-null coefficient for the beta-function is achieved by means of the renormalized two-point function in the background field. We show that if the standard background field method is used, this two-point function has a divergent part which allows for the calculation of the beta-function via the renormalization constants, as usual. Therefore, we conjecture that this paradox has its origin in the covariant supergraph formalism itself, possibly being an artifact of the rescaling anomaly.

  5. Subtleties in the beta-function calculation of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L. [ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Sampaio, Marcos [ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [CFisUC, Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Coimbra (Portugal); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate some peculiarities in the calculation of the two-loop beta function of N = 1 supersymmetric models which are intimately related to the so-called ''anomaly puzzle''. There is an apparent paradox when the computation is performed in the framework of the covariant derivative background field method. In this formalism, there is obtained a finite two-loop effective action, although a non-null coefficient for the beta function is achieved by means of the renormalized two-point function in the background field. We show that if the standard background field method is used, this two-point function has a divergent part which allows for the calculation of the beta function via the renormalization constants, as usual. Therefore, we conjecture that this paradox has its origin in the covariant supergraph formalism itself, possibly being an artifact of the rescaling anomaly. (orig.)

  6. Subtleties in the beta-function calculation of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate some peculiarities in the calculation of the two-loop beta function of N = 1 supersymmetric models which are intimately related to the so-called ''anomaly puzzle''. There is an apparent paradox when the computation is performed in the framework of the covariant derivative background field method. In this formalism, there is obtained a finite two-loop effective action, although a non-null coefficient for the beta function is achieved by means of the renormalized two-point function in the background field. We show that if the standard background field method is used, this two-point function has a divergent part which allows for the calculation of the beta function via the renormalization constants, as usual. Therefore, we conjecture that this paradox has its origin in the covariant supergraph formalism itself, possibly being an artifact of the rescaling anomaly. (orig.)

  7. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  8. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  9. Expression and Antimicrobial Function of Beta-Defensin 1 in the Lower Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Becknell, Brian; Spencer, John David; Carpenter, Ashley R.; Chen, Xi; Singh, Aspinder; Ploeger, Suzanne; Kline, Jennifer; Ellsworth, Patrick; Li, Birong; Proksch, Ehrhardt; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Hains, David S.; Justice, Sheryl S.; McHugh, Kirk M.

    2013-01-01

    Beta defensins (BDs) are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1) expression in the lower urinary tract, regulation by cystitis, and antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in vivo. Human DEFB1 and orthologous mouse ...

  10. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Sprague, Andrew G; de Fougerolles, Antonin R; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of...... alpha(1)beta(1) parallels that of viral-specific effector CD8(+) T cells (defined by tetramer and IFN-gamma staining). In an adoptive transfer model, mAb-mediated blockade of these integrins on activated effector and memory T cells inhibited Ag-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity responses; similar...

  11. Abnormal mitochondrial function impairs calcium influx in diabetic mouse pancreatic beta cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fei; D. Marshall Porterfield; ZHENG Xi-yan; WANG Wen-jun; XU Yue; ZHANG Zong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells is now regarded as the more primary defect than the insulin function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes.Previous studies found impaired mitochondrial function and impaired Ca2+ influx in beta cells in diabetic patients and animal models,suggesting a role for these processes in proper insulin secretion.The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed relationship of mitochondrial function,Ca2+ influx,and defective insulin secretion.Methods We investigated mitochondrial function and morphology in pancreatic beta cell of diabetic KK-Ay mice and C57BL/6J mice.Two types of Ca2+ channel activities,L-type and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC),were evaluated using whole-cell patch-clamp recording.The glucose induced Ca2+ influx was measured by a non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT).Results Mitochondria in KK-Ay mice pancreatic beta cells were swollen with disordered cristae,and mitochondrial function decreased compared with C57BL/6J mice.Ca2+ channel activity was increased and glucose induced Ca2+ influx was impaired,but could be recovered by genipin.Conclusion Defective mitochondrial function in diabetic mice pancreatic beta cells is a key cause of abnormal insulin secretion by altering Ca2+ influx,but not via Ca2+ channel activity.

  12. Solved problems in analysis as applied to gamma, beta, Legendre and Bessel functions

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Orin J

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 200 problems, each with a detailed, worked-out solution, deal with the properties and applications of the gamma and beta functions, Legendre polynomials, and Bessel functions. The first two chapters examine gamma and beta functions, including applications to certain geometrical and physical problems such as heat-flow in a straight wire. The following two chapters treat Legendre polynomials, addressing applications to specific series expansions, steady-state heat-flow temperature distribution, gravitational potential of a circular lamina, and application of Gauss's mechanical quadrature

  13. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H;

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control of...... renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  14. MST1: a promising therapeutic target to restore functional beta cell mass in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Amin; Maedler, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    The loss of insulin-producing beta cells by apoptosis is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes mellitus. Strategies to prevent beta cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed to restore the insulin-producing cells and to prevent severe diabetes progression. We recently identified the serine/threonine kinase known as mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta cell death and dysfunction. MST1 activates several apoptotic signalling pathways, which further stimulate its own cleavage, leading to a vicious cycle of cell death. This led us to hypothesise that MST1 signalling is central to the initiation of beta cell death in diabetes. We found that MST1 is strongly activated in a diabetic beta cell and induces not only its death but also directly impairs insulin secretion through promoting proteasomal degradation of key beta cell transcription factor, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), which is critical for insulin production.Pre-clinical studies in various animal models of diabetes have reported that MST1 deficiency remarkably restores normoglycaemia and beta cell function and prevents the development of diabetes. Importantly, MST1 deficiency can revert fully diabetic beta cells to a non-diabetic state. MST1 may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes that trigger the cause of the disease, namely, the destruction of the beta cells. The major current focus of our investigation is to identify and test the efficacy of potent inhibitors of this death signalling pathway to protect beta cells against the effects of autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes and to preserve beta cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Heiko Lickert and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3949-9 , and by Harry

  15. Retinal and choroidal TGF-beta in the tree shrew model of myopia: isoform expression, activation and effects on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Andrew Ian; Wan, Ran; Gentle, Alex; Bui, Bang Viet; McBrien, Neville Anthony

    2009-03-01

    A visually evoked signalling cascade, which begins in the retina, transverses the choroid, and mediates scleral remodelling, is considered to control eye growth. The ubiquitous cytokine TGF-beta has been associated with alterations in ocular growth, where alterations in scleral TGF-beta isoforms mediate the scleral remodelling that results in myopia. However, while the TGF-beta isoforms have been implicated in the scleral change during myopia development, it is unclear whether alterations in retinal and choroidal isoforms constitute part of the retinoscleral cascade. This study characterised the retinal and choroidal TGF-beta isoform profiles and TGF-beta2 activation during different stages of myopia development, as induced by form deprivation, in a mammalian model of eye growth. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the mRNA for all three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta was detected in tree shrew retina and choroid. Distinct tissue-specific isoform profiles were observed for the retina (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=20:2085:1) and choroid (TGF-beta1:TGF-beta2:TGF-beta3=16:23:1), which remained constant over the development period under investigation. The active and latent pools of retinal TGF-beta2 were quantified using ELISA with the majority (>94%) of total TGF-beta2 found in the latent form. Unlike previous scleral data showing early and continuous decreases in TGF-beta isoform expression during myopia development, the levels of the three isoforms remained within normal ranges for retinal (TGF-beta1, -14 to +14%; TGF-beta2, -2 to +20%; TGF-beta3, -10 to +26%) and choroidal (TGF-beta1, -19 to +21%; TGF-beta2, -26 to +8%; TGF-beta3, -11 to +28%) tissues during myopia development (induction times of 3h, 7h, 11h, 24h, and 5 days). A 40% decrease in retinal TGF-beta2 activation was observed after 5 days of myopia development, however, there was no functional correlate of altered TGF-beta2 activity, as assessed by the retinal ERG response. Overall, these data highlight

  16. PET measures of pre- and post-synaptic cardiac beta adrenergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Jeanne M.; Stratton, John R.; Levy, Wayne; Poole, Jeanne E.; Shoner, Steven C.; Stuetzle, Werner; Caldwell, James H. E-mail: jcald@u.washington.edu

    2003-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography was used to measure global and regional cardiac {beta}-adrenergic function in 19 normal subjects and 9 congestive heart failure patients. [{sup 11}C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine was used to image norepinephrine transporter function as an indicator of pre-synaptic function and [{sup 11}C]-CGP12177 was used to measure cell surface {beta}-receptor density as an indicator of post-synaptic function. Pre-synaptic, but not post-synaptic, function was significantly different between normals and CHF patients. Pre-synaptic function was well matched to post-synaptic function in the normal hearts but significantly different and poorly matched in the CHF patients studied. This imaging technique can help us understand regional sympathetic function in cardiac disease.

  17. Cochlear function in mice lacking the BK channel alpha, beta1, or beta4 subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, Sonja J; Meredith, Andrea L; Fodor, Anthony A; Vázquez, Ana E; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Aldrich, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are important for regulating many essential cellular functions, from neuronal action potential shape and firing rate to smooth muscle contractility. In amphibians, reptiles, and birds, BK channels mediate the intrinsic frequenc

  18. Pancreatic hormone secretion in chronic pancreatitis without residual beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Hilsted, J; Tronier, B;

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal responses (glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin) to iv glucagon, iv arginine, and ingestion of a mixed meal were investigated in 6 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis without beta-cell function, in 8 Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetics...... without beta-cell function, and 8 healthy subjects. No significant differences were found between the two diabetic groups regarding glucagon responses to arginine and meal ingestion. In the patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis compared with Type I diabetics and normal controls...... no residual beta-cell function. These findings suggest that pancreatic glucagon deficiency is not absolute in insulin-dependent diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis. A high level of somatostatin may contribute to a lower blood glucose level in patients with chronic pancreatitis....

  19. Fixed point merger in the SU(N) gauge beta functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss qualitative behavior of the SU(N) gauge beta functions in QCD with many massless flavors. Nonperturbative beta functions can be obtained by extracting the renormalized trajectories in the exact renormalization group framework. We examine the renormalization group equations for the general four-fermi couplings as well as the gauge coupling obtained in a simple approximation scheme. It is shown that the gauge beta function possesses not only an IR but also a UV fixed point in the conformal window. These fixed points merge with each other and disappear at the edge of the conformal window. The scaling dimensions of the quark mass operator at the fixed points are also shown.

  20. Low Functional beta-Diversity Despite High Taxonomic beta-Diversity among Tropical Estuarine Fish Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Villéger; Julia Ramos Miranda; Domingo Flores Hernandez; David Mouillot

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic a...

  1. The hyperbolic effect of density and strength of inter beta-cell coupling on islet bursting: a theoretical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xujing

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin, the principal regulating hormone of blood glucose, is released through the bursting of the pancreatic islets. Increasing evidence indicates the importance of islet morphostructure in its function, and the need of a quantitative investigation. Recently we have studied this problem from the perspective of islet bursting of insulin, utilizing a new 3D hexagonal closest packing (HCP model of islet structure that we have developed. Quantitative non-linear dependence of islet function on its structure was found. In this study, we further investigate two key structural measures: the number of neighboring cells that each β-cell is coupled to, nc, and the coupling strength, gc. Results β-cell clusters of different sizes with number of β-cells nβ ranging from 1–343, nc from 0–12, and gc from 0–1000 pS, were simulated. Three functional measures of islet bursting characteristics – fraction of bursting β-cells fb, synchronization index λ, and bursting period Tb, were quantified. The results revealed a hyperbolic dependence on the combined effect of nc and gc. From this we propose to define a dimensionless cluster coupling index or CCI, as a composite measure for islet morphostructural integrity. We show that the robustness of islet oscillatory bursting depends on CCI, with all three functional measures fb, λ and Tb increasing monotonically with CCI when it is small, and plateau around CCI = 1. Conclusion CCI is a good islet function predictor. It has the potential of linking islet structure and function, and providing insight to identify therapeutic targets for the preservation and restoration of islet β-cell mass and function.

  2. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  3. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  4. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N;

    2007-01-01

    . Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...

  5. Comparitive Assessment of Isokinetic and Pneumatic Lower Limb Strength in Functionally-Limited Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic and pneumatic knee extensor strength in functionally-limited elders and to compare the respective changes in knee extensor peak torque and one repetition maximum strength (1RM) after a randomized controlled progressive ...

  6. Beta functions of Bruhat-Tits buildings and deformation of l2 on the set of p-adic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the space Latn of all lattices in an n-dimensional p-adic linear space an analogue of the matrix beta function is constructed; this beta function can degenerate to the Tamagawa zeta function. An analogue of Berezin kernels for Latn is proposed. Conditions for the positive-definiteness of these kernels and an explicit Plancherel's formula are obtained

  7. The resilience function of character strengths in the face of war and protracted conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eShoshani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13-15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war and political violence. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political conflict exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments.

  8. Coating nanofiber scaffolds with beta cell membrane to promote cell proliferation and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wansong; Zhang, Qiangzhe; Luk, Brian T.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Liu, Younian; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-05-01

    The cell membrane cloaking technique has emerged as an intriguing strategy in nanomaterial functionalization. Coating synthetic nanostructures with natural cell membranes bestows the nanostructures with unique cell surface antigens and functions. Previous studies have focused primarily on development of cell membrane-coated spherical nanoparticles and the uses thereof. Herein, we attempt to extend the cell membrane cloaking technique to nanofibers, a class of functional nanomaterials that are drastically different from nanoparticles in terms of dimensional and mechanophysical characteristics. Using pancreatic beta cells as a model cell line, we demonstrate successful preparation of cell membrane-coated nanofibers and validate that the modified nanofibers possess an antigenic exterior closely resembling that of the source beta cells. When such nanofiber scaffolds are used to culture beta cells, both cell proliferation rate and function are significantly enhanced. Specifically, glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the cells is increased by near five-fold compared with the same beta cells cultured in regular, unmodified nanofiber scaffolds. Overall, coating cell membranes onto nanofibers could add another dimension of flexibility and controllability in harnessing cell membrane functions and offer new opportunities for innovative applications.

  9. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions in 44,45Sc

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Lönnroth, T; Messelt, S; Ingebretsen, F; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Syed, N U H; Voinov, A

    2007-01-01

    The scandium isotopes 44,45Sc have been studied with the 45Sc(3He,alpha gamma)44Sc and 45Sc(3He,3He' gamma)45Sc reactions, respectively. The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions have been extracted using the Oslo method. The experimental level densities are compared to calculated level densities obtained from a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. This model also gives information about the parity distribution and the number of broken Cooper pairs as a function of excitation energy. The experimental gamma-ray strength functions are compared to theoretical models of the E1, M1, and E2 strength, and to data from (gamma,n) and (gamma,p) experiments. The strength functions show an enhancement at low gamma energies that cannot be explained by the present, standard models.

  10. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  11. General trend and local variations of neutron resonance cascade gamma-decay radiative strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new hypothesis on the dependence of the form of the radiative strength functions of electric and magnetic dipole gamma transitions in a heated nucleus on the excited level density was suggested and tested experimentally. For this purpose, the region of possible values of random values of the level density and radiative strength functions which precisely reproduced experimental intensity of two-step cascades for 41 nuclei from 40K to 200Hg was determined. It was obtained that the suggested hypothesis can provide the maximal increase of radiative strength functions values by order of magnitude in comparison with existing notations as a result of collective effects enhancement. This result points to the necessity to take into account this possibility in existing and future models of radiative strength functions

  12. ROS signaling, oxidative stress and Nrf2 in pancreatic beta-cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on the emerging evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism, such as H2O2, act as metabolic signaling molecules for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential inhibitory role of endogenous antioxidants, which rise in response to oxidative stress, in glucose-triggered ROS and GSIS. We propose that cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress challenge, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant induction, plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic beta-cell function. On the one hand, induction of antioxidant enzymes protects beta-cells from oxidative damage and possible cell death, thus minimizing oxidative damage-related impairment of insulin secretion. On the other hand, the induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling, thus resulting in reduced GSIS. These two premises are potentially relevant to impairment of beta-cells occurring in the late and early stage of Type 2 diabetes, respectively. In addition, we summarized our recent findings that persistent oxidative stress due to absence of uncoupling protein 2 activates cellular adaptive response which is associated with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function.

  13. Testing and improvements of gamma-ray strength functions for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data

    OpenAIRE

    Plujko, V. A.

    1999-01-01

    A closed-form thermodynamic pole approach,TPA, is developed for average description of the E1 radiative strength functions using the microcanonical ensemble for initial states. A semiclassical description of the collective excitation damping in this method is based on modern physical notion on the relaxation processes in Fermi systems.The TPA model gives rather accurate means of simultaneous description of the gamma- decay and photoabsorption strength functions in the medium and heavy nuclei....

  14. Associations between muscle strength, spirometric pulmonary function and mobility in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Elina; Stenroth, Lauri; Bijlsma, A. Y.; Rantanen, Taina; McPhee, J. S.; Maden-Wilkinson, T. M.; Jones, D. A.; Narici, M. V.; Gapeyeva, H.; Pääsuke, M.; Barnouin, Y.; Butler-Browne, G S; Meskers, C. G.; Maier, A. B.; Törmäkangas, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathological obstruction in lungs leads to severe decreases in muscle strength and mobility in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interdependency between muscle strength, spirometric pulmonary functions and mobility outcomes in healthy older men and women, where skeletal muscle and pulmonary function decline without interference of overt disease. Methods: 135 69 to 81‐yr‐old participants...

  15. Low-energy enhancement in the \\gamma-ray strength functions of $^{73,74}$Ge

    OpenAIRE

    Renstrøm, T.; Nyhus, H. -T.; Utsumoniya, H.; Schwengner, R.; Goriely, S.; Larsen, A.C.; D.M. Filipescu; Gheorghe, I; Bernstein, L.A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Glodariu, T.; A. Görgen; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Kheswa, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    The $\\gamma$-ray strength functions and level densities of $^{73,74}$Ge have been extracted up to the neutron separation energy S$_n$ from particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence data using the Oslo method. Moreover, the $\\gamma$-ray strength function of $^{74}$Ge above S$_n$ has been determined from photo-neutron measurements, hence these two experiments cover the range of E$_\\gamma \\approx$ 1-13 MeV for $^{74}$Ge. The obtained data show that both $^{73,74}$Ge display an increase in strength at low $\\...

  16. Numerical estimation of the $\\beta$-function in 2D systems with spin-orbit coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Yoichi; Slevin, Keith; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    We report a numerical study of Anderson localization in a 2D system of non-interacting electrons with spin-orbit coupling. We analyze the scaling of the renormalized localization length for the 2D SU(2) model and estimate its $\\beta$-function over the full range from the localized to the metallic limits.

  17. Differentiability of Mather's $\\beta$-function vs Ma\\~n\\'e's conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We prove that if a time-periodic Tonelli Lagrangian on a closed manifold $M$ satisfies a strong version of the Differentiability Problem for Mather's $\\beta$-function, then the Legendre transforms of rational homology classes are dense in the first cohomology of $M$, which is a first step towards Ma\\~n\\'e's conjecture.

  18. Weighted $\\beta\\gamma$-summability of fuzzy functions of order $\\theta$

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, Sarita; Srivastava, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of weighted $\\beta\\gamma$ - summability of order $\\theta$ in case of fuzzy functions is introduced and classified into ordinary and absolute sense. Several inclusion relations among the sets are investigated. Also we have found some suitable conditions to get its relation with the generalized statistical convergence. Finally we have proved a generalized version of Tauberian theorem.

  19. On k-Gamma and k-Beta Distributions and Moment Generating Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to define k-gamma and k-beta distributions and moments generating function for the said distributions in terms of a new parameter k>0. Also, the authors prove some properties of these newly defined distributions.

  20. Two-loop beta-functions of the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recalculate the two-loop beta-functions in the two-dimensional sine-Gordon model in a two-parameter expansion around the asymptotically free point. Our results agree with those of Amit et al (Amit D J, Goldschmidt Y Y and Grinstein G 1980 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 13 585). (author)

  1. Hepatic fat is not associated with beta-cell function or postprandial free fatty acid response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Doesburg, T.; Girman, C.J.; Mari, A.; Rhodes, T.; Gastaldelli, A.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the association of hepatic fat with beta-cell function estimated from the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) suppression after a meal tolerance test (MTT) is linked to hepatic fat. Individuals with normal glucose me

  2. Towards the five-loop Beta function for a general gauge group

    CERN Document Server

    Luthe, Thomas; Marquard, Peter; Schroder, York

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical results for the $N_f^4$ and $N_f^3$ terms of the five-loop Beta function, for a general gauge group. While the former term agrees with results available from large-$N_f$ studies, the latter is new and extends the value known for SU(3) from an independent calculation.

  3. PANCREATIC BETA-CELL FUNCTION AND ISLET-CELL PROLIFERATION - EFFECT OF HYPERINSULINEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOITER, TR; WIJKSTRA, S; VANDERSCHAAFVERDONK, GCJ; MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA

    1995-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell function was studied in adult female rats, in which endogenous insulin demand was fully met by SC infusion of human insulin (4.8 IU/24 h) for 6 days, resulting in hyperinsulinaemia and severe hypoglycaemia. The amount of pancreatic endocrine tissue declined by 40%, (pro)insulin

  4. Generalized Bessel transform of $(\\beta, \\gamma)$-generalized Bessel Lipschitz functions

    OpenAIRE

    DAHER, Radouan; El Hamma, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove an analog of Younis’s theorem 5.2 in~[4] for the generalized Fourier-Bessel transform on the Half line for functions satisfying the $(\\beta, \\gamma)$-generalized Bessel Lipschitz condition in the space $\\mathrm{L}^{2}_{\\alpha,n}$.

  5. Novel Computational Protocols for Functionally Classifying and Characterising Serine Beta-Lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Dobrijevic, Dragana; Ward, John; Orengo, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Beta-lactamases represent the main bacterial mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and are a significant challenge to modern medicine. We have developed an automated classification and analysis protocol that exploits structure- and sequence-based approaches and which allows us to propose a grouping of serine beta-lactamases that more consistently captures and rationalizes the existing three classification schemes: Classes, (A, C and D, which vary in their implementation of the mechanism of action); Types (that largely reflect evolutionary distance measured by sequence similarity); and Variant groups (which largely correspond with the Bush-Jacoby clinical groups). Our analysis platform exploits a suite of in-house and public tools to identify Functional Determinants (FDs), i.e. residue sites, responsible for conferring different phenotypes between different classes, different types and different variants. We focused on Class A beta-lactamases, the most highly populated and clinically relevant class, to identify FDs implicated in the distinct phenotypes associated with different Class A Types and Variants. We show that our FunFHMMer method can separate the known beta-lactamase classes and identify those positions likely to be responsible for the different implementations of the mechanism of action in these enzymes. Two novel algorithms, ASSP and SSPA, allow detection of FD sites likely to contribute to the broadening of the substrate profiles. Using our approaches, we recognise 151 Class A types in UniProt. Finally, we used our beta-lactamase FunFams and ASSP profiles to detect 4 novel Class A types in microbiome samples. Our platforms have been validated by literature studies, in silico analysis and some targeted experimental verification. Although developed for the serine beta-lactamases they could be used to classify and analyse any diverse protein superfamily where sub-families have diverged over both long and short evolutionary timescales. PMID

  6. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.;

    2016-01-01

    to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10......, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P < 0.05). Long-term strength training...... training led to increased quadriceps and hamstring strength, whereas the adaptations to football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair...

  7. Joe Doupe lecture: emerging strategies for the preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function in early type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes is the inability to prevent the ongoing deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function over time that underlies the chronic progressive nature of this condition. Importantly, beta-cell dysfunction has both reversible and irreversible components. Furthermore, the amelioration of reversible beta-cell dysfunction through the early institution of short-term insulin-based therapy has emerged as a strategy that can yield temporary remission of type 2 diabetes. In this context, we have forwarded a novel therapeutic paradigm consisting of initial induction therapy to improve beta-cell function early in the course of diabetes followed by maintenance therapy aimed at preserving this beneficial beta-cell effect. Ultimately, this approach may yield an optimized therapeutic strategy for the durable preservation of beta-cell function and consequent modification of the natural history of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25618275

  8. Electromagnetically induced nuclear beta decay calculated by a Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition probability for enhancement of forbidden nuclear beta decay by an applied plane-wave electromagnetic field is calculated in a nonrelativistic spinless approximation by a Green's function method. The calculation involves a stationary-phase approximation. The stationary phase points in the presence of an intense field are located in very different positions than they are in the field-free case. In order-of-magnitude terms, the results are completely consistent with an earlier, much more complete wave-function calculation which includes spin and relativistic effects. Both the present Green's function calculation and the earlier wave function calculation give electromagnetic contributions in first-forbidden nuclear beta decay matrix elements which are of order (R0/lambda-dash-bar/sub C/)2 with respect to allowed decays, where R0 is the nuclear radius and lambda-dash-bar/sub C/ is the electron Compton wavelength

  9. MicroRNAs as regulators of beta-cell function and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmai, Mirwais; Osmai, Yama; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H; Pallesen, Emil M H; Vestergaard, Anna L; Novotny, Guy W; Pociot, Flemming; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, there has been an explosion in both the number of and knowledge about miRNAs associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Even though we are presently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of posttranscriptional regulators are involved in diabetes, recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators of the islet transcriptome, controlling apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation, as well as regulating unique islet and beta-cell functions and pathways such as insulin expression, processing and secretion. Furthermore, a large number of miRNAs have been linked to diabetogenic processes induced by elevated levels of glucose, free fatty acids and inflammatory cytokines. Thus, miRNAs are novel therapeutic targets with the potential of protecting the beta-cell, and there is proof of principle that miRNA antagonists, so-called antagomirs, are effective in vivo for other disorders. miRNAs are exported out of cells in exosomes, raising the intriguing possibility of cell-to-cell communication between distant tissues via miRNAs and that miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of beta-cell function, mass and survival. The purpose of this review is to provide a status on how miRNAs control beta-cell function and viability in health and disease. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26418758

  10. Phylogenetic and functional alpha and beta diversity in temperate and tropical tree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan G Swenson; Erikson, David L.; Mi, Xiangcheng; Norman A. Bourg; Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Ge, Xuejun; Howe, Robert; Lake, Jeffrey K.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Keping; Pei, Nancai; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Wolf, Amy; Wright, S. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study of biodiversity has tended to focus primarily on relatively information poor measures of species diversity. Recently, many studies of local diversity (alpha diversity) have begun to use measures of functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. Investigations into the phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity (beta diversity) of communities have been far less numerous, but these dissimilarity measures have the potential to infer the mechanisms underlying community assembly and dynamic...

  11. Nuclear $\\beta^+$/EC decays in covariant density functional theory and the impact of isoscalar proton-neutron pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Z M; Liu, Q; Liang, H Z; Guo, J Y

    2013-01-01

    Self-consistent proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation based on the spherical nonlinear point-coupling relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory is established and used to investigate the $\\beta^+$/EC-decay half-lives of neutron-deficient Ar, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Sn isotopes. The isoscalar proton-neutron pairing is found to play an important role in reducing the decay half-lives, which is consistent with the same mechanism in the $\\beta$ decays of neutron-rich nuclei. The experimental $\\beta^+$/EC-decay half-lives can be well reproduced by a universal isoscalar proton-neutron pairing strength.

  12. E 1 and M 1 γ -strength functions in 144Nd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Both E 1 and M 1 γ -strength functions below the neutron separation energy were analyzed based on experimental data from 143Nd(n ,γ )144Nd and 143Nd(n ,γ α )140Ce reactions. It is confirmed that the commonly adopted E 1 model based on the temperature dependence of the width of the giant dipole resonance works well. The popular M 1 strength function due to the spin-flip magnetic resonance located near the neutron binding energy is not capable of reproducing experimental data. The low-energy enhancement of the M 1 strength or the energy-independent model of Weisskopf, both leading to the low-energy strength sizable to E 1 one, fit experimental data best.

  13. Tail universalities in rank distributions as an algebraic problem: the beta-like function

    CERN Document Server

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2007-01-01

    Although power laws of the Zipf type have been used by many workers to fit rank distributions in different fields like in economy, geophysics, genetics, soft-matter, networks etc., these fits usually fail at the tails. Some distributions have been proposed to solve the problem, but unfortunately they do not fit at the same time both ending tails. We show that many different data in rank laws, like in granular materials, codons, author impact in scientific journal, etc. are very well fitted by a beta-like function. Then we propose that such universality is due to the fact that a system made from many subsystems or choices, imply stretched exponential frequency-rank functions which qualitatively and quantitatively can be fitted with the proposed beta-like function distribution in the limit of many random variables. We prove this by transforming the problem into an algebraic one: finding the rank of successive products of a given set of numbers.

  14. Nonperturbative beta function of eight-flavor SU(3) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Veernala, Aarti

    2014-01-01

    We present a new lattice study of the discrete beta function for SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=8 massless flavors of fermions in the fundamental representation. Using the gradient flow running coupling, and comparing two different nHYP-smeared staggered lattice actions, we calculate the 8-flavor step-scaling function at significantly stronger couplings than were previously accessible. Our continuum-extrapolated results for the discrete beta function show no sign of an IR fixed point up to couplings of g^2~14. At the same time, we find that the gradient flow coupling runs much more slowly than predicted by two-loop perturbation theory, reinforcing previous indications that the 8-flavor system possesses nontrivial strongly coupled IR dynamics with relevance to BSM phenomenology.

  15. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  16. The changes of pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in pulmonary function and pulmonary strength according to time of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy adults who had no cardiopulmonary-related diseases. Pulmonary function and pulmonary strength tests were performed on the same subjects at 9:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 5:00 pm. The pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow betwe...

  17. STRENGTH TRAINING AFTER STROKE: EFFECTS ON MUSCLE FUNCTION, GAIT PERFORMANCE AND PERCEIVED PARTICIPATION

    OpenAIRE

    Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt

    2006-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of strength training on muscle function, gait performance and perceived participation in subjects with chronic mild to moderate post-stroke hemiparesis. A main impairment after stroke is reduced muscle strength. This post-stroke weakness is a major contributor to mobility limitations, which can prevent the resumption of activities of daily living and have an adverse effect on perceived participation: persons? lived experiences ...

  18. Level density of $^{56}$Fe and low-energy enhancement of $\\gamma$-strength function

    CERN Document Server

    Voinov, A V; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2006-01-01

    The $^{55}$Mn$(d,n)^{56}$Fe differential cross section is measured at $E_d=7$ MeV\\@. The $^{56}$Fe level density obtained from neutron evaporation spectra is compared to the level density extracted from the $^{57}$Fe$(^3$He,$\\alpha\\gamma)^{56}$Fe reaction by the Oslo-type technique. Good agreement is found between the level densities determined by the two methods. With the level density function obtained from the neutron evaporation spectra, the $^{56}$Fe $\\gamma$-strength function is also determined from the first-generation $\\gamma$ matrix of the Oslo experiment. The good agreement between the past and present results for the $\\gamma$-strength function supports the validity of both methods and is consistent with the low-energy enhancement of the $\\gamma$ strength below $\\sim 4$ MeV first discovered by the Oslo method in iron and molybdenum isotopes.

  19. Low-energy enhancement in the γ -ray strength functions of Ge,7473

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrøm, T.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Schwengner, R.; Goriely, S.; Larsen, A. C.; Filipescu, D. M.; Gheorghe, I.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Glodariu, T.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Lui, Y.-W.; Negi, D.; Ruud, I. E.; Shima, T.; Siem, S.; Takahisa, K.; Tesileanu, O.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Wiedeking, M.

    2016-06-01

    The γ -ray strength functions and level densities of Ge,7473 have been extracted up to the neutron-separation energy Sn from particle-γ coincidence data using the Oslo method. Moreover, the γ -ray strength function of 74Ge above Sn has been determined from photoneutron measurements; hence these two experiments cover the range of Eγ≈1 -13 MeV for 74Ge. The obtained data show that both Ge,7473 display an increase in strength at low γ energies. The experimental γ -ray strength functions are compared with M 1 strength functions deduced from average B (M 1 ) values calculated within the shell model for a large number of transitions. The observed low-energy enhancements in Ge,7473 are adopted in the calculations of the Ge,7372(n ,γ ) cross sections, where there are no direct experimental data. Calculated reaction rates for more neutron-rich germanium isotopes are shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of the low-energy enhancement.

  20. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. PMID:25584722

  1. The influence of conformational fluctuations on enzymatic activity: modelling the functional motion of {beta}-secretase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, M [SISSA and INFM, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Cascella, M [SISSA and INFM, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Micheletti, C [SISSA and INFM, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2005-05-11

    Considerable insight into the functional activity of proteins and enzymes can be obtained by studying the low energy conformational distortions that the biopolymer can sustain. We carry out the characterization of these large scale structural changes for a protein of considerable pharmaceutical interest, the human {beta}-secretase. Starting from the crystallographic structure of the protein, we use the recently introduced {beta}-Gaussian model to identify, with negligible computational expenditure, the most significant distortions occurring in thermal equilibrium and the associated timescales. The application of this strategy helps us to gain considerable insight into the putative functional movements and, furthermore, allows us to identify a handful of key regions in the protein which have an important mechanical influence on the enzymatic activity despite being spatially distant from the active site. The results obtained within the Gaussian model are validated through an extensive comparison against an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation.

  2. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases: A density functional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Olsen, L.; Antony, J.; Ryde, U.; Adolph, H.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal......-limiting step. The barrier for the breakdown of the intermediate is low, 0-10 kcal/mol, if it is assisted by a water molecule or by a Cys or Asp model. Thus, the results indicate that proton transfer is not rate-limiting, and that any of the residues from the second metal site may function as proton shuttle...... model with Asp as a proton shuttle, attack of the zinc-bond hydroxide ion seems to be concerted with the proton transfer. We have also studied the effect of replacing one of the histidine ligands by an asparagine or glutamine residue, giving a zinc site representative of other subclasses of metallo...

  3. [Assessment of endogenous intoxication and thrombocyte functions in beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orudzhev, A G; Guseĭnova, E E; Khalilova, I S; Dzhavadov, S A

    2003-03-01

    The parameters of humeral immunity and of the aggregation function of blood platelets were comparatively analyzed in 11 healthy and 26 children with beta-thalassemia; 18 of them had beta-thalassemia of the homozygous type (spleen was extracted in 8 children, and it remained intact in 10 children). It was demonstrated that there was an increased quantity of antibodies to blood platelets and an increased quantity of large, medium-size and small circulating immune complexes in patients with beta-thalassemia and especially in those, who did not undergo splenectomy; there was also an increased quantity of immunoglobulins of classes A, M, and G, a reduced total activity of the complement and a high parameter of the degree of endogenous intoxication, i.e. the content of medium-size molecular peptides. The mentioned disorders were accompanied by worsened aggregation abilities of blood platelets and by their increased disaggregation. Finally, insignificant changes were detected in patients with beta-thalassemia of the heterozygous type. PMID:12715396

  4. GEN IV MATERIALS HANDBOOK BETA RELEASE FOR STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Luttrell, Claire [ORNL

    2006-09-12

    Development of the Gen IV Materials Handbook is briefly summarized up to date. Current status of the Handbook website construction is described. The developed Handbook components and access control of the beta version are discussed for the present evaluation release. Detailed instructions and examples are given to provide guidance for evaluators to browse the constructed parts and use all the currently developed functionalities of the Handbook in evaluation.

  5. MicroRNAs as regulators of beta-cell function and dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmai, Mirwais; Osmai, Yama; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner;

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an explosion in both the number of and knowledge about miRNAs associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Even though we are presently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of posttranscriptional regulators are involved in diabetes, re...... review is to provide a status on how miRNAs control beta-cell function and viability in health and disease....

  6. Beta functions of Bruhat-Tits buildings and deformation of l^2 on the set of p-adic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretin, Yu A.

    2003-12-01

    For the space \\operatorname{Lat}_n of all lattices in an n-dimensional p-adic linear space an analogue of the matrix beta function is constructed; this beta function can degenerate to the Tamagawa zeta function. An analogue of Berezin kernels for \\operatorname{Lat}_n is proposed. Conditions for the positive-definiteness of these kernels and an explicit Plancherel's formula are obtained.

  7. The $\\beta$-function of $SU(3)$ gauge theory with $ N_f = 10 $ massless fermions in the fundamental representation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Ting-Wai

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of the discrete $\\beta$-function of the $ SU(3) $ gauge theory with 10 massless domain-wall fermions in the fundamental representation. The renormalized coupling is obtained by the finite-volume gradient flow scheme, and the discrete $\\beta$-function is extrapolated to the continuum limit by the step-scaling method. Our result of the discrete $\\beta$-function (with $ s = 2 $) suggests that this theory possesses an infrared fixed point around $ g_c^2 \\sim 7.0 $ for $ c = \\sqrt{8t}/L = 0.3 $.

  8. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2014-01-01

    % lower (P < 0.001) in FG, but unchanged in ST and CO. Sit-to-stand performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 29% in FG and 26% in ST, but not in CO. In conclusion, football and strength training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...... additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance.......The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0...

  9. Regulation of dioxin receptor function by different beta-carboline alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goetz, Christine; Krug, Nathalie; Bothe, Hanno; Abel, Josef [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf gGmbH, Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF), Duesseldorf (Germany); Sendker, Jandirk; Proksch, Peter [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Institut fuer Pharmazeutische Biologie und Biotechnologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fritsche, Ellen [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf gGmbH, Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF), Duesseldorf (Germany); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Dermatology, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The dioxin receptor, also known as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins and related environmental contaminants. In addition, there is a growing list of natural compounds, mainly plant polyphenols that can modulate AhR function and downstream signaling with quite unknown consequences for cellular function. We investigate the potential of four different {beta}-carboline alkaloids to stimulate AhR signaling in human hepatoma cells and keratinocytes. Three test substances, namely rutaecarpine, annomontine and xestomanzamine A, increase AhR-driven reporter gene activity as well as expression of two AhR target genes in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Additionally, the three test alkaloids stimulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 enzyme activity without showing any antagonistic effects regarding benzo(a)pyrene-stimulated CYP1 activation. The AhR-activating property of the {beta}-carbolines is completely abrogated in AhR-deficient cells providing evidence that rutaecarpine, annomontine and xestomanzamine A are natural stimulators of the human AhR. The toxicological relevance of beta-carboline-mediated AhR activation is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavukcu, E

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary {gamma} rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary {gamma}-ray spectrum represents the {gamma}-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary {gamma}-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary {gamma}-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe. The experimental level densities in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe have surprisingly high values at low {gamma}-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low {gamma}-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  11. The cognitive effects of trauma: reversal of alpha function and the formation of a beta screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence J

    2005-04-01

    Following a brief review of Freud's writings on trauma, the author discusses relevant theories of Bion, and in particular the concepts of the alpha function and the beta screen. A clinical example is presented in which the patient's relatively recent trauma in adulthood had become fused with prior related experiences, leading to a propensity for repeated enactments in analysis and a failure to learn from experience. Drawing on the analyst's alpha function, the patient was gradually able to use mentalization to transform her rigidly structured traumatic organization. The author highlights the roles of dreams/dream associations and of screen memories in the patient's analysis. PMID:15889686

  12. Distribution of Partial Neutron Widths for Nuclei close to a Maximum of the Neutron Strength Function

    OpenAIRE

    WeidenmÜller, H.

    2010-01-01

    For nuclei near a maximum of the neutron strength function, the secular dependence on energy E of s-wave partial neutron widths differs from the canonical form given by the square root of E. We derive the universal form of that dependence and show that it is expected to significantly influence the analysis of neutron resonance data.

  13. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  14. Bmal1 and Beta cell clock are required for adaptation to circadian disruption, and their loss of function leads to oxidative stress-induced Beta cell failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circadian disruption has deleterious effects on metabolism. Global deletion of Bmal1, a core clock gene, results in Beta cell dysfunction and diabetes. However, it is unknown if this is due to loss of cell-autonomous function of Bmal1 in Beta cells. To address this, we generated mice with Beta cell ...

  15. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, sigmaE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodius, Virgil A; Mutalik, Vivek K

    2010-02-16

    Sequenced bacterial genomes provide a wealth of information but little understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuits largely because accurate prediction of promoters is difficult. We examined two important issues for accurate promoter prediction: (1) the ability to predict promoter strength and (2) the sequence properties that distinguish between active and weak/inactive promoters. We addressed promoter prediction using natural core promoters recognized by the well-studied alternative sigma factor, Escherichia coli sigma(E), as a representative of group 4 sigmas, the largest sigma group. To evaluate the contribution of sequence to promoter strength and function, we used modular position weight matrix models comprised of each promoter motif and a penalty score for suboptimal motif location. We find that a combination of select modules is moderately predictive of promoter strength and that imposing minimal motif scores distinguished active from weak/inactive promoters. The combined -35/-10 score is the most important predictor of activity. Our models also identified key sequence features associated with active promoters. A conserved "AAC" motif in the -35 region is likely to be a general predictor of function for promoters recognized by group 4 sigmas. These results provide valuable insights into sequences that govern promoter strength, distinguish active and inactive promoters for the first time, and are applicable to both in vivo and in vitro measures of promoter strength. PMID:20133665

  16. Pancreatic beta-cell overexpression of the glucagon receptor gene results in enhanced beta-cell function and mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelling, Richard W; Vuguin, Patricia M; Du, Xiu Quan;

    2009-01-01

    . beta-Cell mass and pancreatic insulin content were also increased (20 and 50%, respectively) in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), both control and RIP-Gcgr mice developed similar degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the severity of both fasting...... in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic beta-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin...... hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Furthermore, the insulin response of RIP-Gcgr mice to an IPGTT was twice that of controls when fed the HFD. These data indicate that increased pancreatic beta-cell expression of the Gcgr increased insulin...

  17. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In...

  18. Grazing effects on soil mechanical strength and physical functions in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Reszkowska, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Overgrazing has become over the last decades a major cause of grassland deterioration in Inner Mongolia, China leading to a decline in its productivity and carrying capacity. Among others, an intensified grazing has significant consequences for soil structure, soil mechanical strength as well as its functions. Furthermore, together with decline of soil functions also intensification of water and wind erosion as well as loss of nutrients in soil can be observed. In order to prevent further lan...

  19. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Spurney

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  20. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes Giovanni S.; Novaes Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves José; Costa e Silva Gabriel; Garrido Nuno D.; Furtado Hélio; Reis Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performe...

  1. New approach to beta cell function screening by nitric oxide assessment of obese individuals at the population level

    OpenAIRE

    Chaim EA; Gobato RC

    2012-01-01

    Elinton Adami Chaim, Renata Cristina GobatoUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP), Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, BrazilBackground: Approximately 27% of Americans today are obese, and this condition increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that loss of beta cell function can begin at least 10 years before diagnosis, and mean beta cell function i...

  2. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost. PMID:26696703

  3. Relationships Among Lower Body Strength, Power and Performance of Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    There is a large degree of variability among crewmembers with respect to decrements in muscle strength and power following long duration spaceflight, ranging from 0 to approx.30% reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of varying decrements in lower body muscle strength and power (relative to body weight) on the performance of 2 occupationally relevant tasks (ladder climb and supine egress & walk). Seventeen participants with leg strength similar to US crewmembers performed a leg press power test, an isokinetic knee extension strength test and they were asked to complete the 2 functional tasks as quickly as possible. On additional test days the participants were asked to repeat the functional tasks under 3 conditions where a different external load was applied each time using a weighted suit in order to experimentally manipulate participants strength/body weight and power/body weight ratios. The weight in the suit ranged from 20-120% of body weight and was distributed in proportion to limb segment weights to minimize changes in center of gravity. The ladder task consisted of climbing 40 rungs on a ladder treadmill as fast as possible. The supine egress & walk task consisted of rising from a supine position and walking through an obstacle course. Results show a relatively linear relationship between strength/body weight and task time and power/body weight with task time such that the fastest performance times are associated with higher strength and power with about half the variance in task time is accounted for by a single variable (either strength or power). For the average person, a 20% reduction in power/body weight (from 18 to 14.4 W/kg) induces an increase (slowing) of about 10 seconds in the ladder climb task from 14 to 24 seconds (approx.70%) and a slowing of the supine egress & walk task from 14 to 21 seconds (approx.50%). Similar relationships were observed with strength/body weight and task performance. For the average

  4. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle....

  5. Observations on Tune and $\\beta$ Functions at the ATF Damping Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Potier, J P; Terunuma, N; Mimashi, T; Kubo, K; Korhonen, T T; Hayano, H; Okugi, T; Kashiwagi, S; Zimmermann, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The precise measurement of the transverse tunes and their spectra is a basic demand in accelerator commissioning. It provides a simple access to lattice characterisation and validation of the optical model. This contribution describes recent improvements of the tune monitor system at the Accelerator Test Facility Damping Ring (ATF-DR) and the performance achieved. We present preliminary measurement results of beta functions, chromaticity, and dispersion on a relaxed optics with 90 degree horizontal phase advance per cell and compare these with the theoretical predictions.

  6. One loop beta functions and fixed points in higher derivative sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the one loop beta functions of nonlinear sigma models in four dimensions containing general two- and four-derivative terms. In the O(N) model there are four such terms and nontrivial fixed points exist for all N≥4. In the chiral SU(N) models there are in general six couplings, but only five for N=3 and four for N=2; we find fixed points only for N=2, 3. In the approximation considered, the four-derivative couplings are asymptotically free but the coupling in the two-derivative term has a nonzero limit. These results support the hypothesis that certain sigma models may be asymptotically safe.

  7. Photon strength functions in Gd isotopes studied from radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental spectra of γ rays following radiative neutron capture on isolated resonances of stable 152,154–158Gd targets were measured by the DANCE calorimeter installed at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center in New Mexico, USA. These spectra were analyzed within the extreme statistical model to get new information on the photon strength functions. Special emphasis was put on study of the scissors vibrational mode present in these isotopes. Our data show that the scissors-mode resonances are built not only on the ground states but also on the excited levels of all studied Gd isotopes. The scissors mode strength observed in 157,159Gd products is significantly higher than in neighboring even-even nuclei 156,158Gd. Such a difference indicates the existence of an odd-even effect in the scissors mode strength. Moreover, there exists no universal parameter-free model of the electric dipole photon strength function describing the experimental data in all of the Gd isotopes studied. The results for the scissors mode are compared with the (γ, γ′ data for the ground-state transitions and with the results from 3He-induced reactions.

  8. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.......The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the...

  9. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    beta -Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase a......-carbamyl-beta -alanine, but not by uracil. This wrork establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta -alanine production in eukaryotes....

  10. Self-consistent calculations of the strength function and radiative neutron capture cross section for stable and unstable tin isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, S; Krewald, S

    2011-01-01

    The E1 strength function for 15 stable and unstable Sn even-even isotopes from A=100 till A=176 are calculated using the self-consistent microscopic theory which, in addition to the standard (Q)RPA approach, takes into account the single-particle continuum and the phonon coupling. Our analysis shows two distinct regions for which the integral characteristics of both the giant and pygmy resonances behave rather differently. For neutron-rich nuclei, starting from $^{132}$Sn, we obtain a giant E1 resonance which significantly deviates from the widely-used systematics extrapolated from experimental data in the $\\beta$-stability valley. We show that the inclusion of the phonon coupling is necessary for a proper description of the low-energy pygmy resonances and the corresponding transition densities for $A132$ region the influence of phonon coupling is significantly smaller. The radiative neutron capture cross sections leading to the stable $^{124}$Sn and unstable $^{132}$Sn and $^{150}$Sn nuclei are calculated wi...

  11. A subset of human pancreatic beta cells express functional CD14 receptors: a signaling pathway fot beta cell-related glycolipids, sulfatide and beta-galactosylceramide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osterbye, T.; Funda, David; Fundová, Petra; Mansson, J.-E.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Buschard, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2010), s. 656-667. E-ISSN 1520-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/1329; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GA310/09/1640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : human beta-cell * cd14 * innate immunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Knee muscle strength, balance and functional independence in persons with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, B.; Batista, F; Beckert, P.; Ivangelista, I; Ferreira, MJ; Prates, L; Sérgio, J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between knee muscle strength, balance and functional independence within the first month after stroke. Relevance: Cerebral vascular disease is one of the main causes of morbidity, disability and mortality in developed countries. Problems with movement control are frequent after stroke. Lower limb weakness and impaired balance are common problems that are related with the risk of falls and are likely to interfere with the ability to perform dai...

  13. A comparison of the strength of biodiversity effects across multiple functions

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Eric; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weigelt, Alexandra; Roscher, Christiane; Baade, Jussi; Barnard, Romain L.; Beßler, Holger; Buchmann, Nina; Ebeling, Anne; Eisenhauer, Nico; Engels, Christof; Fergus, Alexander J F; Gleixner, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In order to predict which ecosystem functions are most at risk from biodiversity loss, meta-analyses have generalised results from biodiversity experiments over different sites and ecosystem types. In contrast, comparing the strength of biodiversity effects across a large number of ecosystem processes measured in a single experiment permits more direct comparisons. Here, we present an analysis of 418 separate measures of 38 ecosystem processes. Overall, 45 % of processes were significantly af...

  14. Impact of beta2-agonists, beta-blockers, and their combination on cardiac function in elderly male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng LH; Hu YX; Liu L; Zhang M; Cui H

    2013-01-01

    Long-Huan Zeng,1,* Yi-Xin Hu,2,* Lin Liu,2 Meng Zhang,1 Hua Cui1 1Second Geriatric Cardiology Division, 2Clinical Department of Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the association between cardiac function and therapy with beta2-adrenoceptor agonists (β2-agonists), β-blockers, or β-blocker–β2-agonist com...

  15. Non-Perturbative QCD Coupling and Beta Function from Light Front Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-05-26

    The light-front holographic mapping of classical gravity in AdS space, modified by a positive-sign dilaton background, leads to a non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q{sup 2}). It agrees with hadron physics data extracted from different observables, such as the effective charge defined by the Bjorken sum rule, as well as with the predictions of models with built-in confinement and lattice simulations. It also displays a transition from perturbative to nonperturbative conformal regimes at a momentum scale {approx} 1 GeV. The resulting {beta}-function appears to capture the essential characteristics of the full {beta}-function of QCD, thus giving further support to the application of the gauge/gravity duality to the confining dynamics of strongly coupled QCD. Commensurate scale relations relate observables to each other without scheme or scale ambiguity. In this paper we extrapolate these relations to the nonperturbative domain, thus extending the range of predictions based on {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q{sup 2}).

  16. Size dependence of yield strength simulated by a dislocation-density function dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P. S. S.; Leung, H. S.; Cheng, B.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2015-04-01

    The size dependence of the strength of nano- and micron-sized crystals is studied using a new simulation approach in which the dynamics of the density functions of dislocations are modeled. Since any quantity of dislocations can be represented by a density, this approach can handle large systems containing large quantities of dislocations, which may handicap discrete dislocation dynamics schemes due to the excessive computation time involved. For this reason, pillar sizes spanning a large range, from the sub-micron to micron regimes, can be simulated. The simulation results reveal the power-law relationship between strength and specimen size up to a certain size, beyond which the strength varies much more slowly with size. For specimens smaller than ∼4000b, their strength is found to be controlled by the dislocation depletion condition, in which the total dislocation density remains almost constant throughout the loading process. In specimens larger than ∼4000b, the initial dislocation distribution is of critical importance since the presence of dislocation entanglements is found to obstruct deformation in the neighboring regions within a distance of ∼2000b. This length scale suggests that the effects of dense dislocation clusters are greater in intermediate-sized specimens (e.g. 4000b and 8000b) than in larger specimens (e.g. 16 000b), according to the weakest-link concept.

  17. Level density of $^{56}$Fe and low-energy enhancement of $\\gamma$-strength function

    OpenAIRE

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Belgya, T.; Brune, C. R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hornish, M. J.; T. Massey; Mitchell, G. E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.

    2006-01-01

    The $^{55}$Mn$(d,n)^{56}$Fe differential cross section is measured at $E_d=7$ MeV\\@. The $^{56}$Fe level density obtained from neutron evaporation spectra is compared to the level density extracted from the $^{57}$Fe$(^3$He,$\\alpha\\gamma)^{56}$Fe reaction by the Oslo-type technique. Good agreement is found between the level densities determined by the two methods. With the level density function obtained from the neutron evaporation spectra, the $^{56}$Fe $\\gamma$-strength function is also de...

  18. Level densities and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions in Sn isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A.C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear level densities of $^{118,119}$Sn and the $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{116,118,119}$Sn below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the ($^3$He, \\,$\\alpha \\gamma$) and ($^3$He,$^3$He$^\\prime\\gamma$) reactions. The level density function of $^{119}$Sn displays step-like structures. The microcanonical entropies are deduced from the level densities, and the single neutron entropy of $^{119}$Sn is determined to be $(1.7 \\pm 0.2)\\,k_B$. Results ...

  19. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26348137

  20. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea;

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C......-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses, total insulin secretion, and enhancement of beta-cell glucose sensitivity (OGTT/IV ratio = 1.73 +/- 0.24, P = NS vs. NGT). However, the time courses of incretin-mediated insulin secretion and potentiation were altered......, with a predominance of glucose-induced vs. incretin-mediated stimulation. We conclude that, under physiological circumstances, incretin-mediated stimulation of insulin secretion results from an enhancement of all dynamic aspects of beta-cell function, particularly beta-cell glucose sensitivity. In IGT, beta...

  1. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  2. Muscle strength and executive function as complementary parameters for the assessment of impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannyel Barbirato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients' functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS III. Method Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y. They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r 2 =0.30; p=0.005 and executive function (r 2 =0.37; p=0.004. In relation to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r 2 =0.27; p=0.010 and global cognitive status (r 2 =0.24; p=0.024. Conclusion The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.

  3. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fabrication and static strength evaluation of Cu/Si3N4 functionally gradient material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to insure reliability of the thermoelectric module, we had applied FGM layer with composition of Cu and Si3N4 to the bonding parts in the module and decided the functionally graded compositional profile based on numerical analysis. In this report, Cu/Si3N4FGM was fabricated by the hot press and observation of microstructure, measurement of mechanical properties and evaluation of static strength at room temperature were carried out. As a results, the FGM with stepwise compositional profile could be fabricated. Mechanical properties and static strength of the composite materials with the composition of the interlayer were measured and finite element analysis of the FGM was carried out using the properties of the monolithic composite materials. It was possible to predict fracture stress and the site of fracture initiation by using the fracture criterion for monolithic composite materials. (author)

  5. Radial basis function network learns ceramic processing and predicts related strength and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cios, K.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.; Vary, A.; Tjia, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks were trained using the data from 273 Si3N4 modulus of rupture (MOR) bars which were tested at room temperature and 135 MOR bars which were tested at 1370 C. Milling time, sintering time, and sintering gas pressure were the processing parameters used as the input features. Flexural strength and density were the outputs by which the RBF networks were assessed. The 'nodes-at-data-points' method was used to set the hidden layer centers and output layer training used the gradient descent method. The RBF network predicted strength with an average error of less than 12 percent and density with an average error of less than 2 percent. Further, the RBF network demonstrated a potential for optimizing and accelerating the development and processing of ceramic materials.

  6. Radial basis function network learns ceramic processing and predicts related strength and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cios, K.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.; Vary, A. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)); Tjia, R.E. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks were trained using the data from 273 Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] modulus of rupture (MOR) bars that were tested at room temperature and 135 MOR bars that were tested at 1,370 C. Milling time, sintering time, and sintering gas pressure were the processing parameters used s the input features. Flexural strength and density were the outputs by which the RBF networks were assessed. The nodes at data points'' method was used to set the hidden layer centers and output layer training used the gradient descent method. The RBF network predicted strength with an average error of less than 12% and density with an average error of less than 2%. Further, the RBF network demonstrated a potential for optimizing and accelerating the development and processing of emerging ceramic materials.

  7. Do we understand gamma strength functions? The case of 96Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma strength function of 96Mo derived from a variety of experimental methods show quite severe disagreement, in particular near the neutron threshold. A new experimental method is discussed, viz. relativistic proton scattering under extreme forward angles at RCNP Osaka, Japan, which allows a consistent analysis of data below and above the particle threshold. Here, intermediate-energy proton beams are used in combination with a high energy resolution of the order Δ E/E ∼ 8.10-5. E1 and M1 strength distributions can be determined by a multipole decomposition of angular distributions utilizing DWBA. The additional measurement of polarization transfer observables provides an independent check of the method. First results from a recent experiment are presented.

  8. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  9. Radial basis function network learns ceramic processing and predicts related strength and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Vary, Alex; Tjia, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks were trained using the data from 273 Si3N4 modulus of rupture (MOR) bars which were tested at room temperature and 135 MOR bars which were tested at 1370 C. Milling time, sintering time, and sintering gas pressure were the processing parameters used as the input features. Flexural strength and density were the outputs by which the RBF networks were assessed. The 'nodes-at-data-points' method was used to set the hidden layer centers and output layer training used the gradient descent method. The RBF network predicted strength with an average error of less than 12 percent and density with an average error of less than 2 percent. Further, the RBF network demonstrated a potential for optimizing and accelerating the development and processing of ceramic materials.

  10. Balance, gait, functionality and strength: comparison between elderly fallers and non-fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Cebolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accidental falls are a major health problem related to aging and affect one in every three elderly individuals over the age of sixty. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the muscle strength, gait kinematics parameters, and performance in functional tests between elderly subjects with and without a prior history of falls. In addition, the association between the history of falls and the variables that demonstrated differences between groups were tested. METHOD: 62 elderly subjects participated in the study and were allocated to the group with falls history (FG; n=20; 68.0±6.9 years old or the group without falls history (CG; n=42; 65.5±4.1 years old. Maximal strength, gait kinematics parameters, and functional tests were tested. RESULTS: The FG showed lower muscle strength in the knee flexors (51.45±8.6 vs. 62.09±19 Kg, lower average toe clearance during the swing phase (0.04±0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005 m, and lower performance in the "8-foot up-and-go" test (5.3±0.7 vs. 5.8±0.7 s (p<0.05. There were no associations between any variables and falls, but the increased time in the "8-foot up-and-go" test may double the likelihood of a fall occurring. CONCLUSION: Fallers have reduced lower limb strength, gait alterations, the worst performance in the dynamic balance test, and an increased risk of falls.

  11. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  12. Repetitive in vivo treatment with human recombinant interleukin-1 beta modifies beta-cell function in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L D; Reimers, J; Nerup, J;

    1992-01-01

    beta per kg body weight on blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, glucagon and corticosterone in Wistar Kyoto rats, either untreated or pre-treated with 4 micrograms/kg of interleukin-1 daily for 3 or 5 days; (b) the cumulative effects of repetitive intraperitoneal injections of 4 micrograms....../kg interleukin-1 on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, plasma levels of insulin, glucagon and corticosterone, pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic ultrastructure; and (c) blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon and corticosterone 10 h after the last of five intraperitoneal injections of...... interleukin-1, at which time point the inhibitory effect of short-term interleukin-1 exposure on insulin secretion reaches its nadir in vitro. A single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of interleukin-1 caused a slight, but significant lowering of blood glucose 2 h after interleukin-1 injection with no significant...

  13. Chronic effects of strength training vs. Hydro aerobics on functional and cardiorespiratory ability in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa E; Garrido, Nuno D; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  14. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Giovanni S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m. Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14, another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17 and a control group (CG; n = 7, where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002 were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05. With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  15. Beta-cell function in isolated human pancreatic islets in long-term tissue culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1981-01-01

    Human pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase treatment of pancreatic tissue obtained from 27 individuals aged 12 to 69 years. The islets were maintained free floating in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with calf or human serum. In two cases the insulin production was followed...... adult human pancreatic tissue and that their beta-cell function can be maintained for up to two years. The variation in insulin production rate could not be ascribed to age or sex and may reflect both physiological and methodological factors....... up to nearly two years. The insulin production rate of the individual islet preparations varied between 0.2 and 8 ng per islet per day. No significant correlation with donor age or sex was found. The glucose concentration in the medium influenced the insulin release in a dose dependent manner. The...

  16. Nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay: beyond mean-field covariant density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, J M; Hagino, K; Ring, P; Meng, J

    2014-01-01

    We report a systematic study of nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) in neutrinoless double-beta decays with state-of-the-art beyond mean-field covariant density functional theory. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as quadrupole shape fluctuations are taken into account with projections and generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The full relativistic transition operator is adopted to calculate the NMEs which are found to be consistent with the results of previous beyond non-relativistic mean-field calculation based on a Gogny force with the exception of $^{150}$Nd. Our study shows that the total NMEs can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term, the calculation of which is computationally much cheaper than that of full terms.

  17. On the impact of kinetic mixing in beta functions at two-loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic mixing is a fundamental property of models with a gauge symmetry involving several $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ group factors. In this paper, we perform a numerical study of the impact of kinetic mixing on beta functions at two-loop. To do so, we use the recently published PyR@TE 2 software to derive the complete set of RGEs of the SM B-L model at two-loop including kinetic mixing. We show that it is important to properly account for kinetic mixing as the evolution of the parameters with the energy scale can change drastically. In some cases, these modifications can even lead to a different conclusion regarding the stability of the scalar potential.

  18. New ways to test beta cell functionality in health and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Thomas Vagn

    and divided the subjects into five groups. Interestingly, when correcting for the FPG, the mean plasma glucose concentration profiles from each of the five groups are strikingly similar, despite quite large differences in the corresponding mean plasma insulin profiles. From the graphs of the means of...... the differentiated individual glucose profiles within the respective groups of subjects with diabetes, this similarity of the glucose profiles is even more evident. Same results are obtained when analysing the data from the database, where the subjects with type 2 diabetes have been followed...... the brain participating in the overall control of glucose concentration and fluxes of glucose equivalents. Hence, neural effects seem to be an important component that needs to be added to models that are set up to describe beta cell functionality as well as glucose uptake in a physiological relevant...

  19. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per;

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...... for further three soils and performed accurately for all three. Consequently, we suggest that the α(θ) model represents a useful strategy to predict the entire soil-water repellency characteristic curve, and thus potential risks for enhanced runoff and preferential (fingered) soil-water flow at given initial...

  20. New parameterization of the E1 gamma-ray strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant dipole (GD) parameters of peak energy, width, and cross section were satisfactorily correlated for elements from V to Bi, assuming two overlapping peaks with a separation dependent on deformation. The energy dependence of the GD resonance is assumed to have a Breit-Wigner form, but with an energy-dependent width. The resulting gamma-ray strength function model is used to predict neutron capture cross sections and gamma-ray spectra for isotopes of Ta, Os, and Au. 23 references

  1. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women. PMID:27009295

  2. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS...

  3. Loop A is critical for the functional interaction of two Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Rosi, Pablo; Sigaut, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; Alleva, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Research done in the last years strongly support the hypothesis that PIP aquaporin can form heterooligomeric assemblies, specially combining PIP2 monomers with PIP1 monomers. Nevertheless, the structural elements involved in the ruling of homo versus heterooligomeric organization are not completely elucidated. In this work we unveil some features of monomer-monomer interaction in Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins. Our results show that while BvPIP2;2 is able to interact with BvPIP1;1, BvPIP2;1 shows no functional interaction. The lack of functional interaction between BvPIP2;1 and BvPIP1;1 was further corroborated by dose-response curves of water permeability due to aquaporin activity exposed to different acidic conditions. We also found that BvPIP2;1 is unable to translocate BvPIP1;1-ECFP from an intracellular position to the plasma membrane when co-expressed, as BvPIP2;2 does. Moreover we postulate that the first extracellular loop (loop A) of BvPIP2;1, could be relevant for the functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. Thus, we investigate BvPIP2;1 loop A at an atomic level by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) and by direct mutagenesis. We found that, within the tetramer, each loop A presents a dissimilar behavior. Besides, BvPIP2;1 loop A mutants restore functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. This work is a contribution to unravel how PIP2 and PIP1 interact to form functional heterooligomeric assemblies. We postulate that BvPIP2;1 loop A is relevant for the lack of functional interaction with BvPIP1;1 and that the monomer composition of PIP assemblies determines their functional properties. PMID:23483963

  4. Loop A is critical for the functional interaction of two Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Jozefkowicz

    Full Text Available Research done in the last years strongly support the hypothesis that PIP aquaporin can form heterooligomeric assemblies, specially combining PIP2 monomers with PIP1 monomers. Nevertheless, the structural elements involved in the ruling of homo versus heterooligomeric organization are not completely elucidated. In this work we unveil some features of monomer-monomer interaction in Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins. Our results show that while BvPIP2;2 is able to interact with BvPIP1;1, BvPIP2;1 shows no functional interaction. The lack of functional interaction between BvPIP2;1 and BvPIP1;1 was further corroborated by dose-response curves of water permeability due to aquaporin activity exposed to different acidic conditions. We also found that BvPIP2;1 is unable to translocate BvPIP1;1-ECFP from an intracellular position to the plasma membrane when co-expressed, as BvPIP2;2 does. Moreover we postulate that the first extracellular loop (loop A of BvPIP2;1, could be relevant for the functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. Thus, we investigate BvPIP2;1 loop A at an atomic level by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS and by direct mutagenesis. We found that, within the tetramer, each loop A presents a dissimilar behavior. Besides, BvPIP2;1 loop A mutants restore functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. This work is a contribution to unravel how PIP2 and PIP1 interact to form functional heterooligomeric assemblies. We postulate that BvPIP2;1 loop A is relevant for the lack of functional interaction with BvPIP1;1 and that the monomer composition of PIP assemblies determines their functional properties.

  5. Analysis of the effect of diabetes type 2 duration on beta cell secretory function and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder. Pathogenesis of diabetes type 2 results from the impaired insulin secretion, impaired insulin action and increased endogenous glucose production. Diabetes evolves through several phases characterized by qualitative and quantitative changes of beta cell secretory function. The aim of our study was to analyze the impact of diabetes duration on beta cell secretory function and insulin resistance. The results indicated significant negative correlation of diabetes duration and fasting insulinemia, as well as beta cell secretory function assessed by HOMA β index. Our study also found significant negative correlation of diabetes duration and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index. Significant positive correlation was established between beta cell secretory capacity (fasting insulinemia and HOMA β and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index, independently of diabetes duration. These results indicate that: beta cell secretory capacity, assessed by HOMA β index, significantly decreases with diabetes duration. In parallel with decrease of fasting insulinemia, reduction of insulin resistance assessed by HOMA IR index was found as well.

  6. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  7. Expression and antimicrobial function of beta-defensin 1 in the lower urinary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Beta defensins (BDs are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1 expression in the lower urinary tract, regulation by cystitis, and antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC in vivo. Human DEFB1 and orthologous mouse Defb1 mRNA are detectable in bladder and ureter homogenates, and human BD-1 protein localizes to the urothelium. To determine the relevance of BD-1 to lower urinary tract defense in vivo, we evaluated clearance of UPEC by Defb1 knockout (Defb1(-/- mice. At 6, 18, and 48 hours following transurethral UPEC inoculation, no significant differences were observed in bacterial burden in bladders or kidneys of Defb1(-/- and wild type C57BL/6 mice. In wild type mice, bladder Defb1 mRNA levels decreased as early as two hours post-infection and reached a nadir by six hours. RT-PCR profiling of BDs identified expression of Defb3 and Defb14 mRNA in murine bladder and ureter, which encode for mBD-3 and mBD-14 protein, respectively. MBD-14 protein expression was observed in bladder urothelium following UPEC infection, and both mBD-3 and mBD-14 displayed dose-dependent bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro. Thus, whereas mBD-1 deficiency does not alter bladder UPEC burden in vivo, we have identified mBD-3 and mBD-14 as potential mediators of mucosal immunity in the lower urinary tract.

  8. Study of beta-cell function (by HOMA model in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS, which strongly predict risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies implicate insulin resistance (IR in the development of diabetes, but ignore the contribution of beta-cell dysfunction. Hence, we studied beta-cell function, as assessed by HOMA model, in subjects with MS. Materials and Methods: We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, biochemical, and insulin measurement. IR and secretion were calculated by HOMA model. Results: Subjects with MS had more IR (HOMA-IR than controls (3.35 ± 3.14 vs. 1.76 ± 0.53, P = 0.029 and secreted less insulin (HOMA-S than controls (66.80 ± 69.66 vs. 144.27 ± 101.61, P = 0.0003, although plasma insulin levels were comparable in both groups (10.7 ± 10.2 vs. 8.2 ± 2.38, P = 0.44. HOMA-IR and HOMA-S were related with number of metabolic abnormalities. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio, body fat mass, and percent body fat. HOMA-S was negatively associated with waist hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol and positively with basal metabolic rate. Percent body fat was an independent predictor of HOMA-IR and waist hip ratio of HOMA-S in multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: Subjects with MS have increased IR and decreased insulin secretion compared with healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve IR, insulin secretion, and various components and effects of MS. Hence, there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent ongoing epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia.

  10. Reference beta radiations for calibrating dosemeters and dose ratemeters and for determining their response as a function of beta radiation energy. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This International Standard specifies the requirements for reference beta radiations produced by radionuclide sources to be used for the calibration of protection level dosemeters and dose ratemeters, and for the determination of their response as a function of beta energy. It gives the characteristics of radionuclides which have been used to produce reference beta radiations, gives examples of suitable source constructions and describes methods for the measurement of the residual maximum beta energy and the absorbed dose rate at a depth of 7 mg·cm-2 in a semi-infinite tissue-equivalent medium. The energy range involved lies between 66 keV and 3.6 MeV and the absorbed dose rates are in the range from about 10 μGy·h-1 (1 mrad·h-1) to at least 10 Gy·h-1 (103 rad·h-1). This International Standard proposes two series of beta reference radiations from which the radiation necessary for determining the characteristics (calibration and energy response) of an instrument shall be selected. Series 1 reference radiations are produced by radionuclide sources used with beam flattening filters designed to give uniform dose rates over a large area at a specific distance. The proposed sources of 90Sr+90Y, 204TI and 147Pm produce maximum dose rates of approximately 5mGy·h-1 (0.5 rad·h-1). Series 2 reference radiations are produced without the use of beam flattening filters which allows a range of source-to-calibration plane distances to be used. Close to the sources only relatively small areas of uniform dose rate are produced but this Series has the advantage of extending the energy and dose rate ranges beyond those of Series 1. The radionuclides used are those of Series 1 with the addition of the radionuclides 14C and 106Ru+106Rh; these sources produce dose rates of up to 10 Gy·h-1 (103 rad·h-1)

  11. The relationship between the renal clearance of creatinine and the apparent renal clearance of beta-2-microglobulin in patients with normal and impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Guelen, P J; Jongman-Nix, B; Walenkamp, G H

    1981-07-18

    The renal clearances of creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin of patients with either normal or impaired kidney function were measured. The renal clearance of beta 2-microglobulin depends on the urinary pH and must be considered as an apparent renal clearance because after tubular reabsorption the compound is metabolized in the kidney. Impaired kidney function reduces the percentage of tubular reabsorption of beta 2-microglobulin. PMID:6166414

  12. Characterization of Interface Strength as Function of Temperature and Moisture Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D. van Driel; P.J.J.H.A. Habets; M.A.J. van Gils; G.Q. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Since Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) tests are part of the international reliability qualification standards, all the microelectronics components/products have to pass these specifications. Therefore, it is important to be able to efficiently and accurately characterize and predict the moisture related material and interface behavior in the real manufacturing, processing, testing and application conditions. The success of interfacial fracture mechanics approach to analyze moisture-induced failures in IC packaging strongly depend on accurate characterization of the critical adhesion strength, Gc. However, its measurement is complicated by the fact that adhesion depends not only on moisture concentration, C, but also temperature, T, and mode mixity, ψ. This paper described our research to develop a reliable methodology for interface toughness evaluation as function of temperature, humidity and mode mixity. Our methodology includes using the four-point bending test and shaft-loaded-blister method. Dedicated specimens consisting of various types of moulding compounds bonded onto leadframe are manufactured. Besides temperature, moisture content and mode mixity effects, also the influences of surface treatment (leadframe oxidation and contamination) and production process on the interface fracture toughness are evaluated. Multi-physics-based numerical methods are used to transfer the experimental critical loads to an interface strength parameter. These analysis covers mechanical,moisture diffusion, vapor pressure, hygro-swelling and CTE-mismatch modeling. To test and improve the methodology, various effects are evaluated, such as crack-length dependency, material properties, specimenwidth, displacement-rate of the upper support/shaft, etc. The results of the proposed methodology indicate, as expected, a change in interface toughness by mode mixity, moisture content and temperature. It is found that Gc decreases with increasing moisture content and temperature. The

  13. New insights into structure-function relationship of the DHPR beta1a subunit in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling using zebrafish 'relaxed' as an expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paralyzed zebrafish strain relaxed carries a null mutation for the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) [beta]1a subunit. The lack of [beta]1a not only impedes functional [alpha]1S membrane expression but also precludes the skeletal muscle-specific ultrastructural arrangement of DHPRs into tetrads opposite ryanodine receptor (RyR1), coherent with the absence of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. With the plethora of experimental approaches feasible with zebrafish model organism and importantly with the [beta]1-null mutation having a monogenetic inheritance and because of the survival of the relaxed larvae for some days, we were able to establish the zebrafish relaxed as an expression system. Linking in vitro to in vivo observations, a clear differentiation between the major functional roles of [beta] subunits in EC coupling was feasible. The skeletal muscle [beta]1a subunit was able to restore all parameters of EC coupling upon expression in relaxed myotubes and larvae. Expression of the phylogenetically closest isoform to [beta]1a, the cardiac/neuronal [beta]2a subunit or the most distant neuronal [beta]M from the housefly in relaxed myotubes and larvae was likewise able to fully restore [alpha]1S triad targeting and facilitate charge movement. However, efficient tetrad formation and thus intact DHPR-RyR1 coupling was exclusively promoted by the [beta]1a isoform. Consequently, we postulated a model according to which [beta]1a acts as a unique allosteric modifier of [alpha]1S conformation crucial for skeletal muscle EC coupling. Therefore, unique structural elements in [beta]1a must be present which endow it with this exclusive property. Earlier, a unique hydrophobic heptad repeat motif (LVV) in the [beta]1a C-terminus was postulated by others to be essential for skeletal muscle EC coupling. We wanted to address the question if the proposed [beta]1a heptad repeat motif could be an active element of the DHPR-RyR1 signal transduction

  14. The Inactivation of Arx in Pancreatic alpha-Cells Triggers Their Neogenesis and Conversion into Functional beta-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Courtney; Elisabet Gjernes; Noémie Druelle; Christophe Ravaud; Andhira Vieira; Nouha Ben-Othman; Anja Pfeifer; Fabio Avolio; Gunter Leuckx; Sandra Lacas-Gervais; Fanny Burel-Vandenbos; Damien Ambrosetti; Jacob Hecksher-Sorensen; Philippe Ravassard; Harry Heimberg

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that pancreatic new-born glucagon-producing cells can regenerate and convert into insulinproducing beta-like cells through the ectopic expression of a single gene, Pax4. Here, combining conditional loss-of-function and lineage tracing approaches, we show that the selective inhibition of the Arx gene in alpha-cells is sufficient to promote the conversion of adult alpha-cells into beta-like cells at any age. Interestingly, this conversion induces the continuous mob...

  15. Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Brain Homocarnosine/Carnosine Signal and Cognitive Function: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Yazigi Solis; Simon Cooper; Hobson, Ruth M; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Otaduy, Maria C.; Hamilton Roschel; Jacques Robertson; Daniel Martin; Vitor S Painelli; Harris, Roger C; Bruno Gualano; Craig Sale

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1) and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men) and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen...

  16. Fabrication of W–Cu functionally graded material with improved mechanical strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pei [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Guo, Shibin; Liu, Guanghua; Chen, Yixiang [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jiangtao, E-mail: ljt0012@vip.sina.com [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We prepared W–Cu FGM, valuable for nuclear fusion, by a new method in a short time. • Some of the Cu grains which were surrounded by W were about 50 nm. • The prepared W–Cu showed 15% higher bending strength than commercial W–Cu products. • The prepared W–Cu also showed a better plasticity than commercial W–Cu products. - Abstract: W–Cu functionally graded material (FGM) is prepared by a novel method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in a short time. In the W–Cu FGM, W grains are micron-sized and partially sintered to form an incomplete net structure, the Cu grains surrounded by W are about 50 nm, and lots of dislocations exist in the Cu phase. The W-rich layer shows both better strength and plasticity than the commercial W–Cu composite with a similar composition prepared by a conventional infiltration method.

  17. Fabrication of W–Cu functionally graded material with improved mechanical strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We prepared W–Cu FGM, valuable for nuclear fusion, by a new method in a short time. • Some of the Cu grains which were surrounded by W were about 50 nm. • The prepared W–Cu showed 15% higher bending strength than commercial W–Cu products. • The prepared W–Cu also showed a better plasticity than commercial W–Cu products. - Abstract: W–Cu functionally graded material (FGM) is prepared by a novel method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in a short time. In the W–Cu FGM, W grains are micron-sized and partially sintered to form an incomplete net structure, the Cu grains surrounded by W are about 50 nm, and lots of dislocations exist in the Cu phase. The W-rich layer shows both better strength and plasticity than the commercial W–Cu composite with a similar composition prepared by a conventional infiltration method

  18. [Transforming growth factor beta-1: structure, function, and regulation mechanisms in cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Lagunas-Martínez, A; Madrid-Marina, V

    2001-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) is produced by several cell lineages such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these and other cells. In general, TGF-beta 1 has pleiotropic properties on the immune response during the development of infection diseases and cancer; however, the mechanisms of action and regulation of gene expression of this cytokine are poorly understood, in this review, the biological properties and the molecular mechanisms that regulate TGF-beta 1 gene expression are described, to understand the role of this cytokine in growth and cell differentiation. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms of gene expression of TGF-beta 1 may serve to develop new cancer therapies. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547595

  19. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on functional status in patients with heart failure--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Køber, Lars; Christensen, Erik;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results of randomised control trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on functional status in patients with chronic heart failure are conflicting. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on New York Heart...... Association (NYHA) classification and exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected 28 RCTs evaluating beta-blocker versus placebo in addition to ACE inhibitor therapy. Combined results of 23 RCTs showed that beta-blockers improved NYHA class by at least one class with odds...... ratio (OR) 1.80 (1.33-2.43) p<0.0001. Meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a significant prolongation of exercise time by 44.19 (6.62-81.75) s p=0.021. Combining 8 RCTs evaluating the maximal peak oxygen uptake and 9 RCTs evaluating 6-min walk distance showed that beta-blockers had no significant effect...

  20. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  1. Gamow-Teller strength functions of superfluid odd nuclei and neutrino capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge-exchange excitations of superfluid odd-A nuclei are studied within the framework of the self-consistent finite Fermi-system theory. The pairing blocking effect due to the odd quasiparticle, the effective NN-interactions both in the particle-hole (ph) and particle-particle (pp) channel, and also the ph-continuum are taken into account. Gamow-Teller strength functions of 71Ga, 115In and 19F nuclei are calculated and compared with those extracted from experimental spectra of (p,n) reactions. The total capture cross sections of the reactor electron antineutrinos are calculated (assuming complete μe-bar→μe conversion), as well as the solar neutrino capture rates for the 71Ga and 115In+19F detectors. Uncertainties regarding nuclear structure information involved in these calculations are discussed. (authors) 55 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Gamow-Teller strength functions of stable and neutron-deficient nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic calculations of the Gamow-Teller-strength functions of non-magic nuclei has been made in the finite Fermi-system theory (FFST) frame, taking an accurate account of the particle-hole (ph) continuum and effective NN-interactions in ph and particle-particle channels. The study has been carried out for nuclei in the Fe-Ni region, as well as for neutron-deficient nuclei in the vicinity of 'magic' 100Sn and 146Gd nuclei. The universality of the local charge eq(oτ), i.e. the renormalization of spin-isospin vertex in nuclear matter (eq(τ=g-tildeA/gA), has been verified. 60 refs.; 10 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. A Monte Carlo method for calculating strength functions in many-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of moments is an essential first step in the calculation of strength functions for operators. A method for calculating approximate moments of a variety of operators in large vector spaces (dimension Nsub(e)) based on the use of sets of random multiparticle vectors (dimension Nsub(d) in two nuclear cases: 21Ne(n = 1 to 10) and 28Si(n = 1 to 3). The random vectors, which we call RRV's (random representative vectors), are constructed by statistically sampling a fraction f = Nsub(d)/Nsub(e) of the full space. Useful results are obtained with f -6 (case of 28Si, Nsub(e) = 5.5 x 107). For Nsub(d) = Nsub(e) (case of 21Ne, Nsub(e) = 1935) our results for the dispersions of the sets of the moments closely approximate the predictions of Porter. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of beta-lactones by the regioselective, cobalt and Lewis acid catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J T; Thomas, P J; Alper, H

    2001-08-10

    The PPNCo(CO)(4) and BF(3) x Et(2)O catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides in DME gives the corresponding beta-lactones regioselectively in good to high yields. The carbonylation occurred selectively at the unsubstituted C-O bond of the epoxide ring, and this reaction tolerates various functional groups such as alkenyl, halide, hydroxy, and alkyl ether. PMID:11485465

  5. Development of magnetic resonance imaging based detection methods for beta amyloids via sialic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Hovig

    The development of a non-invasive method for the detection of Alzheimer's disease is of high current interest, which can be critical in early diagnosis and in guiding preventive treatment of the disease. The aggregates of beta amyloids are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Carbohydrates such as sialic acid terminated gangliosides have been shown to play significant roles in initiation of amyloid aggregation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach using sialic acid coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles for in vitro detection in addition to the assessment of the in vivo mouse-BBB (Blood brain barrier) crossing of the BSA (bovine serum albumin)-modified ones. The sialic acid functionalized dextran nanoparticles were shown to bind with beta amyloids through several techniques including ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), gel electrophoresis and tyrosine fluorescence assay. The superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed easy detection of the beta amyloids in mouse brains in both in vitro and ex vivo model by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the sialic acid nanoparticles greatly reduced beta amyloid induced cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, highlighting the potential of the glyconanoparticles for detection and imaging of beta amyloids. Sialic acid functionalized BSA (bovine serum albumin) nanoparticles also showed significant binding to beta amyloids, through ELISA and ex vivo mouse brain MRI experiments. Alternatively, the BBB crossing was demonstrated by several techniques such as confocal microscopy, endocytosis, exocytosis assays and were affirmed by nanoparticles transcytosis assays through bEnd.3 endothelial cells. Finally, the BBB crossing was confirmed by analyzing the MRI signal of nanoparticle-injected CD-1 mice.

  6. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength functions S0 and S1, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S0, S1 and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S0, S1 and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author)

  7. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal and cognitive function: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yazigi Solis

    Full Text Available Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1 and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2.In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation, with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task being performed before and after exercise on each occasion.In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99 or omnivores (p = 0.27; nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19. Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27. In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P 0.05 of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise.28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists.

  8. On the Question of an Ultraviolet Zero of the Beta Function of the $\\lambda (\\vec{\\phi}^2)^2_4$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shrock, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of an ultraviolet (UV) zero in the $n$-loop beta function of a $\\lambda (\\vec{\\phi}^2)^2$ field theory with an $N$-component scalar field, $\\vec{\\phi}$, in four spacetime dimensions, up to the level of $n=5$ loops. Although the two-loop beta function has a UV zero, we find that the $n$-loop beta function for $n=3, \\ 4, \\ 5$ either does not have a UV zero or does not have one at a value of $\\lambda$ in approximate agreement with the two-loop calculation. Similar results are obtained after application of scheme transformations to the beta function and via calculation of Pad\\'e approximants. We thus conclude that in the range of $\\lambda$ where the perturbative calculation of the $n$-loop beta function is reliable, the theory does not exhibit robust evidence of a UV zero up to the level of $n=5$ loops.

  9. Knee extension strength and post-operative functional prediction in quadriceps resection for soft-tissue sarcoma of the thigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Aoki, K.; Kito, M.; Okamoto, M.; Suzuki, S.; Momose, T.; Kato, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to predict the knee extension strength and post-operative function in quadriceps resection for soft-tissue sarcoma of the thigh. Methods A total of 18 patients (14 men, four women) underwent total or partial quadriceps resection for soft-tissue sarcoma of the thigh between 2002 and 2014. The number of resected quadriceps was surveyed, knee extension strength was measured with the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system (affected side/unaffected side) and relationships between these were examined. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score, Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) score and the Short Form 8 were used to evaluate post-operative function and examine correlations with extension strength. The cutoff value for extension strength to expect good post-operative function was also calculated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Fisher’s exact test. Results Extension strength decreased when the number of resected quadriceps increased (p < 0.001), and was associated with lower MSTS score, TESS and EQ-5D (p = 0.004, p = 0.005, p = 0.006, respectively). Based on the functional evaluation scales, the cutoff value of extension strength was 56.2%, the equivalent to muscle strength with resection of up to two muscles. Conclusion Good post-operative results can be expected if at least two quadriceps muscles are preserved. Cite this article: A. Tanaka, Y. Yoshimura, K. Aoki, M. Kito, M. Okamoto, S. Suzuki, T. Momose, H. Kato. Knee extension strength and post-operative functional prediction in quadriceps resection for soft-tissue sarcoma of the thigh. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:232–238. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.2000631. PMID:27317788

  10. Characterization of GLP-1 effects on beta-cell function after meal ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrén, Bo; Holst, Jens Juul; Mari, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    have been characterized in humans during graded intravenous infusions of glucose, whereas its effects after more physiological stimuli, like meal intake, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight women (aged 69 years, fasting glucose 3.7-10.3 mmol/l, BMI 22.4-43.9 kg/m(2)) who had fasted...... overnight were served a breakfast (450 kcal) with intravenous infusion of saline or synthetic GLP-1 (0.75 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and beta-cell function was evaluated by estimating the relationship between glucose concentration and insulin secretion (calculated by deconvolution of C-peptide data). RESULTS......: -GLP-1 markedly augmented insulin secretion, despite lower glucose. Total insulin secretion was 29.7 +/- 4.2 nmol/m(2) with GLP-1 versus 21.0 +/- 1.6 nmol/m(2) with saline (P = 0.048). GLP-1 increased the dose-response relationship between glucose concentration and insulin secretion (70 +/- 26 with GLP...

  11. The evolution of the [OII], H{\\beta} and [OIII] emission-line luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Johan; Perez-Gonzalez, Violeta; Norberg, Peder; Newman, Jeffrey; Tresse, Laurence; Richard, Johan; Yepes, Gustavo; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Raichoor, Anand; Prada, Francisco; Maraston, Claudia; Yèche, Christophe; Delubac, Timothée; Jullo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are one of the main tracers of the large-scale structure to be targeted by the next-generation dark energy surveys. To provide a better understanding of the properties and statistics of these galaxies, we have collected spectroscopic data from the VVDS and DEEP2 deep surveys and estimated the galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) of three distinct emission lines, [OII], H$\\beta$ and [OIII] at redshifts ($0.2 < z < 1.3$). Our measurements are based on the largest sample so far. We present the first measurement of the \\Hb LF at these redshifts. We have also compiled LFs from the literature that were based on independent data or covered different redshift ranges, and we fit the entire set over the whole redshift range with analytic Schechter and Saunders models, assuming a natural redshift dependence of the parameters. We find that the characteristic luminosity ($L_*$) and density ($\\phi_*$) of all LFs increase with redshift. Using the Schechter model, we find that $L^*$ of [OII] ...

  12. Rotational strength, range of motion, and function in people with unaffected shoulders from various stages of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different measurements are used to assess shoulder function, including range of motion, strength, functional performance and self-report function. To understand disablement, it is necessary to understand the relationship between impairments and function in persons without shoulder problems. This study was conducted to enhance existing comparative data in subjects without upper extremity pathology, and to assess the relationships between impairments (range of motion, strength and self-reported or measured function/disability. The impact of age, gender and dominance was determined. Methods Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with unaffected shoulders were recruited. The subjects (mean age: 37 years old were divided into three subgroups, 18–39, 40–59, and over 60 years of age. During a single session, at least two of the following variables were measured: self-reported function (shoulder disability scales, range of motion, isometric rotational strength, or upper limb functional performance (FIT-HaNSA. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine, for each variable, the effects of age and gender. The relationship between the outcomes was established using Pearson product correlations. Results Men were significantly stronger than women for all age categories. There was an age-related decline in strength in men in the over-60 age category. Significant negative correlations between strength and range of motion were demonstrated (-0.22 r r = -0.202. Conclusion Self-reported disability was low in individuals without upper extremity problems, although recruitment of such individuals was difficult in the older age groups due to the high prevalence of shoulder pathology. A low correlation between self-report disability and strength/range of motion in these unaffected subjects reflects the lack of disability reported by all subjects without pathology despite normal variations in strength and motion.

  13. The impact of models for E1 gamma-ray strength functions in the mass region A=140-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Feshbach calculations of capture cross sections require among other ingredients gamma-ray strength functions fXL for various multipole orders XL. We assess the validity of various models for the dominating E1 strength by demanding the simultaneous reproduction of various experimental data related to neutron capture. For the strength of the other less important multipole radiations simple global prescriptions are used. None of the commonly used fE1 models gives satisfactory results in the whole mass range A = 140-200. In order to obtain an E1 strength function prescription for the whole mass region, we employ an enhancement in terms of two parameters of the width of the ''generalised Lorentzian'' model. In view of cross section calculations we study the systematics of these parameters. (orig.)

  14. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population in...... Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...... physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...

  15. Gamow-Teller strength function in 71Ge via the (p,n) reaction at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamow-Teller strength function in 71Ge has been measured by use of the 71Ga(p,n) reaction at E/sub p/ = 120 and 200 MeV. While a significant fraction of the total strength is associated with excited states located below particle-emission threshold, the first excited state exhibits little strength. Excited-state contributions to the total solar-neutrino capture rate for a 71Ga detector are about 14 solar neutrino units for the neutrino spectrum of the standard solar model and about 3--4 solar neutrino units for representative nonstandard solar models

  16. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical examination by interview indicated that pain, swelling, instability, running, and support capacity of the ankle joint significantly improved with the strategic strength resistance exercise program. For the isokinetic peak torque of the ankles, significant differences were observed in right plantar flexion and bilateral dorsiflexion. [Conclusion] The strategic strength resistance exercise program is highly recommended for the functional stability of the ankle joint. Efficient exercise therapy is useful for muscle damage prevention, muscle strengthening, and functional interventions. PMID:26644696

  17. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical examination by interview indicated that pain, swelling, instability, running, and support capacity of the ankle joint significantly improved with the strategic strength resistance exercise program. For the isokinetic peak torque of the ankles, significant differences were observed in right plantar flexion and bilateral dorsiflexion. [Conclusion] The strategic strength resistance exercise program is highly recommended for the functional stability of the ankle joint. Efficient exercise therapy is useful for muscle damage prevention, muscle strengthening, and functional interventions. PMID:26644696

  18. Effects of breast cancer related lymphedema on hand muscle strength, hand functions and sensory loss of hand

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Mete Civelek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical features of patients with breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) and effects of BCRL on hand muscle strength and function. Materials and Methods: Patients applying to oncologic rehabilitation polyclinic with right hand dominancy were included in the study. Clinical and demographic data of all patients were noted, physical examinations were performed. The presence of shoulder pain was questioned. To determine the hand grip strength J...

  19. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Hubal, Monica J; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American de...

  20. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): Strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L.H.; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to asse...

  1. Clinical measurements of proprioception, muscle strength and laxity in relation to function in the ACL-injured knee.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David; Ageberg, Eva; Andersson, Gert; Fridén, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A knee injury with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture may cause deficits in proprioception, increased laxity and decreased muscle strength. Although it may be common knowledge that these factors affect knee function, only a few studies have been performed where this has been investigated in the clinical situation, and the results are not conclusive. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how and to what extent proprioception, laxity and strength affect knee joint functio...

  2. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  3. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS...

  4. Pseudospectral calculation of helium wave functions, expectation values, and oscillator strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Chernoff, David F. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We show that the pseudospectral method is a powerful tool for finding precise solutions of Schroedinger's equation for two-electron atoms with general angular momentum. Realizing the method's full promise for atomic calculations requires special handling of singularities due to two-particle Coulomb interactions. We give a prescription for choosing coordinates and subdomains whose efficacy we illustrate by solving several challenging problems. One test centers on the determination of the nonrelativistic electric dipole oscillator strength for the helium 1 {sup 1} S{yields}2 {sup 1} P transition. The result achieved, 0.276 164 99(27), is comparable to the best in the literature. The formally equivalent length, velocity, and acceleration expressions for the oscillator strength all yield roughly the same accuracy. We also calculate a diverse set of helium ground-state expectation values, reaching near state-of-the-art accuracy without the necessity of implementing any special-purpose numerics. These successes imply that general matrix elements are directly and reliably calculable with pseudospectral methods. A striking result is that all the relevant quantities tested in this paper--energy eigenvalues, S-state expectation values and a bound-bound dipole transition between the lowest energy S and P states--converge exponentially with increasing resolution and at roughly the same rate. Each individual calculation samples and weights the configuration space wave function uniquely but all behave in a qualitatively similar manner. These results suggest that the method has great promise for similarly accurate treatment of few-particle systems.

  5. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  6. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  7. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  8. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate [( 3H] TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively [3H] flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-[3H]CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated [3H]muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-[3H]CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]muscimol and [3H]TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested

  9. Functionalization of electrospun {beta}-cyclodextrin/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with silver nanoparticles: Broad-spectrum antibacterial property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shan [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China); Bai Jie, E-mail: baijie@imut.edu.cn [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China); Li Chunping; Zhang Jianbin [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PAN nanofibers contained {beta}-cyclodextrin and Ag nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanofibers as antibacterial material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers containing {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Ag nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning technology. The silver nanoparticles were obtained from the AgNO{sub 3}/PAN/DMF solution, in which AgNO{sub 3} acted as the precursor, DMF as reducing reagent, and PAN as protective agent. Then, {beta}-CD was added to above solution and the resultant Ag/{beta}-CD-PAN/DMF solution was directly electrospun to prepare Ag/{beta}-CD-PAN nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial properties were investigated by Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and the results indicated that the composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity.

  10. TGF-beta1 release from biodegradable polymer microparticles: its effects on marrow stromal osteoblast function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controlled release of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) to a bone defect may be beneficial for the induction of a bone regeneration cascade. The objectives of this work were to assess the feasibility of using biodegradable polymer microparticles as carriers for controlled TGF-beta1 delivery and the effects of released TGF-beta1 on the proliferation and differentiation of marrow stromal cells in vitro. METHODS: Recombinant human TGF-beta1 was incorporated into microparticles of blends of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was co-encapsulated as a porogen. The effects of PEG content (0, 1, or 5% by weight [wt%]) and buffer pH (3, 5, or 7.4) on the protein release kinetics and the degradation of PLGA were determined in vitro for as long as 28 days. Rat marrow stromal cells were seeded on a biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) substrate. The dose response and biological activity of released TGF-beta1 was determined after 3 days in culture. The effects of TGF-beta1 released from PLGA/PEG microparticles on marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation were assessed during a 21-day period. RESULTS: TGF-beta1 was encapsulated along with FITC-BSA into PLGA/PEG blend microparticles and released in a multiphasic fashion including an initial burst for as long as 28 days in vitro. Increasing the initial PEG content resulted in a decreased cumulative mass of released proteins. Aggregation of FITC-BSA occurred at lower buffer pH, which led to decreased release rates of both proteins. The degradation of PLGA was increased at higher PEG content and significantly accelerated at acidic pH conditions. Rat marrow stromal cells cultured on PPF substrates showed a dose response to TGF-beta1 released from the microparticles similar to that of added TGF-beta1, indicating that the activity of TGF-beta1 was retained during microparticle

  11. Strength and pain are related to different measures of functional ability in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, Joseph; Abujaber, Sumayah; Pozzi, Federico; Raisis, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Performance tests and self-reported questionnaires capture different domains of function in patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis, but the impairments related to each of these domains have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how strength and joint pain influence performance-based tests and self-reported questionnaires of functional ability of individuals with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. Methods Fifty-six patients scheduled to undergo unilateral total hip arthroplasty were included in this cross sectional analysis. Subjects completed the Hip Outcome Survey (HOS) and pain in the affected hip was quantified on a scale from 0–10. Performance-based tests included the Six Minute Walk (6MW), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Stair Climbing Test (SCT). Isometric strength of the hip abductors and knee extensors was collected. Hierarchical linear regressions were created to determine the contributions of pain, knee extensor strength, and hip strength for each outcome measure (TUG, 6MW, SCT, HOS). Height and BMI were entered first, followed by pain, then knee extensor strength, then hip abduction strength. Results Greater pain significantly predicted lower HOS scores, but hip strength did not significantly improve the model. Hip pain was also significantly related to TUG, SCT and 6MW values, but hip and knee strength explained additional variance for these performance-based measures. Conclusions Self-report and performance-based measures capture different aspects of disability and are influenced by different underlying impairments. Both types of outcome measures should be used in studies that evaluate functional changes in patients with hip osteoarthritis. PMID:24664893

  12. The strength and function of hip abductors following anterolateral minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Jixiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the extent of postoperative hip abductor insufficiency in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA patients undergoing anterolateral minimally invasive (ALMI approach, and to investigate whether the clinical outcomes are more favorable in femoral neck fracture (FNF patients than in non-femoral neck fracture (nFNF patients. Methods:A total of 48 patients were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent a clinical examination preoperatively and 6, 12, 24 and 48 weeks postoperatively. The abductor torque, Trendelenburg's sign, gait velocity, Harris hip score, Oxford hip score, Westren Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC score and visual analog scale pain score were recorded. Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS software version 18.0. The significance level was set at P<0.05. Results:The abductor torque of the operated hip and the recovery ratio showed a gradual improving tendency from 6 weeks postoperatively until the last follow-up. Gait velocity, Harris hip score, Oxford hip score and WOMAC score improved significantly after the operation until 24 weeks postoperatively. In the FNF group, the abductor torque of the operated side and the recovery ratio were significantly higher than in nFNF group at 6 weeks postoperatively, however, as time passed, this trend tended to disappear. Conclusion:This study demonstrates that patients can obtain good abductor strength and function in the early postoperative period and the hip abductor function of patients who suffer from hip osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head could be significantly improved following ALMI THA. Key words: Arthroplasty, replacement, hip; Surgical procedures, minimally invasive; Recovery of function

  13. Giant dipole resonance in $^{88}$Mo from phonon damping model's strength functions averaged over temperature and angular momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, N Dinh; Kmiecik, M; Maj, A

    2013-01-01

    The line shapes of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in the decay of the compound nucleus $^{88}$Mo, which is formed after the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{48}$Ti + $^{40}$Ca at various excitation energies $E^{*}$ from 58 to 308 MeV, are generated by averaging the GDR strength functions predicted within the phonon damping model (PDM) using the empirical probabilities for temperature and angular momentum. The average strength functions are compared with the PDM strength functions calculated at the mean temperature and mean angular momentum, which are obtained by averaging the values of temperature and angular momentum using the same temperature and angular-momentum probability distributions, respectively. It is seen that these two ways of generating the GDR linear line shape yield very similar results. It is also shown that the GDR width approaches a saturation at angular momentum $J\\geq$ 50$\\hbar$ at $T=$ 4 MeV and at $J\\geq$ 70$\\hbar$ at any $T$.

  14. Fine structure of strength function for β+/EC decay of 160gHo (25.6 min)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strength function for the β+/EC decay of the deformed 160gHo (25.6 min) nucleus has been obtained from the experimental data. The fine structure of the strength function Sβ(E) is analyzed. It is found to have a pronounced resonant structure for Gamow-Teller transitions. In Sβ(E) with μτ=+1 the Gamow-Teller resonance is observed to split into two components. This splitting is associated with anisotropy of isovector density oscillation in deformed nuclei. The β+/EC strength function for first-forbidden transitions is obtained in the Coulomb (ξ) approximation. It is shown that Sβ(E) for first-forbidden transitions does not have a pronounced resonant structure

  15. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; Gerchman, Fernando; Marcovina, Santica M; Watson, Catherine E; Ligueros-Saylan, Monica A; Foley, James E; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Kahn, Steven E

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...... age 59.6 +/- 11.5 years) were treated orally with 100 mg vildagliptin once daily in a single-blind study. Subjects received placebo for 2 weeks (run-in) followed by vildagliptin for 6 weeks (treatment) and then placebo for 2 weeks (washout). A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test...... (FSIGT), followed by a 2-h meal tolerance test (MTT), was performed at 2, 8, and 10 weeks. From the FSIGT, the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)) and insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) were determined and used to compute the disposition index (AIR(g) x S(I)) as a measure of beta-cell function...

  16. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitvanit Haziza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence

  17. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L; Sheffield, Val C; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  18. Relationship between the level of fasting plasma glucose and beta cell functions in Chinese with or without diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Can; BAO Yu-qian; WANG Chen; LU Jun-xi; JIA Wei-ping; XIANG Kun-san

    2008-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive loss of beta cell functions.However,the evaluation of beta cell functions is either expensive or inconvenient for clinical practice.We aimed to elucidate the association between the changes of insulin responsiveness and the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) during the development of diabetes.Methods A total of 1192 Chinese individuals with normal blood glucose or hyperglycemia were enrolled for the analysis.The early insulinogenic index (△I30/△G30),the area under the curve of insulin (AUC-I),and homeostasis model assessment were applied to evaluate the early phase secretion,total insulin secretion,and insulin resistance respectively.Polynomial regression analysis was performed to estimate the fluctuation of beta cell functions.Results The △I30/△G30 decreased much more rapidly than the AUC-I accompanying with the elevation of FPG.At the FPG of 110 mg/dl (a pre-diabetic stage),the △I30/△G30 lost 50% of its maximum while the AUC-I was still at a compensated normal level.The AUC-I exhibited abnormal and decreased gradually at the FPG of from 130 mg/dl to higher (overt diabetes),while the △I30/△G30 almost remained at 25% of its maximum value.When hyperglycemia continuously existed at >180 mg/dl,beth the △I30/△G30 and AUC-I were totally lost.Conclusion The increased fasting plasma glucose reflects progressive decompensation of beta cell functions,and could be used to guide the strategy of clinical treatments.

  19. Functional exercise capacity, physical activity, and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in pulmonary hypertension according to disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Akdogan, Ali; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated functional capacity, physical activity, and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in different functional classes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) compared with healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 31 patients with class II (n = 16) or class III (n = 15) PAH, classified according to the World Health Organization. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Functional capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (6MW...

  20. Genetic randomization reveals functional relationships among morphologic and tissue-quality traits that contribute to bone strength and fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Karl J; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Terranova, Carl J.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    We examined femora from adult AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to identify skeletal traits that are functionally related and to determine how functional interactions among these traits contribute to genetic variability in whole-bone stiffness, strength, and toughness. Randomization of A/J and C57BL/6J genomic regions resulted in each adult male and female RI strain building mechanically functional femora by assembling unique sets of morphologic and tissue-quality traits. A correl...

  1. Functional capacity in healthy volunteers before and following beta-blockade with controlled-release metoprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnevik, P K; Nordrehaug, J E; von der Lippe, G

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the beta 1-selective beta-adrenergic blocker metoprolol on physiological responses, exercise capacity and gas exchange parameters were measured in healthy men using different graded bicycle exercise protocols on separate days before and following administration of 200 mg controlled-release metoprolol. Eleven men performed in randomised order maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on 50-W/6-min stage, 50-W/3-min stage and ramp (15-W/min-1) protocols. Peak heart rate and peak heart rate-blood pressure products were similar on all exercise protocols, and were significantly reduced by metoprolol. Submaximal and peak oxygen consumption were similar before and following beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Depending on the exercise protocol applied, an insignificant decrease of 4-10% in maximal cumulated exercise capacity (work-rate x time integral) was observed following administration of metoprolol. It is concluded that in healthy men evaluated with different exercise protocols the beta 1-selective controlled-release beta-adrenoceptor blocker metoprolol does not influence exercise capacity despite a marked reduction of heart rate and rate-pressure product. PMID:7589026

  2. New approach to beta cell function screening by nitric oxide assessment of obese individuals at the population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim EA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elinton Adami Chaim, Renata Cristina GobatoUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, BrazilBackground: Approximately 27% of Americans today are obese, and this condition increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that loss of beta cell function can begin at least 10 years before diagnosis, and mean beta cell function is already less than 50% at diagnosis. The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of detecting loss of beta cell function in obese patients by a novel approach involving nitric oxide assessment using a combination of technologies.Materials and methods: One hundred and fifteen obese patients (93 women, 22 men of mean age 39 (range 17–62 years, who were candidates for bariatric surgery were included in the study, and underwent laboratory tests, including fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin plasma, and examination with the Electro Sensor complex. The Electro Sensor complex offers a new way to assess nitric oxide production using five technologies managed by software, ie, the galvanic skin response, photoelectrical plethysmography, heart rate variability analysis, bioimpedance analysis, and blood pressure oscillometric measurements. The homeostasis model assessment 2% beta cell function (HOMA2% β algorithm was calculated from fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin plasma using free software provided by The University of Oxford Diabetes Trial Unit. The Electro Sensor complex percent beta (ESC% β algorithm was calculated from the Electro Sensor complex data and statistical neural network. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate ESC% β and HOMA2% β using the coefficient of correlation and Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were also constructed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of ESC% β in

  3. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...... treatment group were treated in groups with progressive resistance strength training in addition to standard care. Progressive resistance strength training of the lower extremities was performed in three sets of 12-15 repetitions, intensity 60-70% of one repetition maximum, in four 50-minute sessions per...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared...

  4. Knee function and knee muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional limitations exist postmeniscectomy, but preoperative data are scarce. PURPOSE: To examine knee function, knee muscle strength and performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears, eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-two participants with MRI verified degenerative meniscal tear (35% women, mean age 49 years) answered the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and were tested for isokinetic knee muscle strength and lower extremity performance (one-leg hop for distance, 6 m timed...

  5. One-year treatment with exenatide improves beta-cell function, compared with insulin glargine, in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunck, M.C.M.; Diamant, M.; Corner, A.; Eliasson, B.; Malloy, J.L.; Shaginian, R.M.; Deng, W.; Kendall, D.M.; Taskinen, M.R.; Smith, U.; Yki-Jarvinen, H.; Heine, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    0.0001). beta-Cell function measures returned to pretreatment values in both groups after a 4-week off-drug period. A1C and body weight rose to pretreatment values 12 weeks after discontinuation of either exenatide or insulin glargine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Exenatide significantly improves beta-cell

  6. Study of the Photon Strength Functions for Gadolinium Isotopes with the DANCE Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gadolinium isotopes are interesting for reactor applications as well as for medicine and astrophysics. The gadolinium isotopes have some of the largest neutron capture cross sections. As a consequence they are used in the control rod in reactor fuel assembly. From the basic science point of view, there are seven stable isotopes of gadolinium with varying degrees of deformation. Therefore they provide a good testing ground for the study of deformation dependent structure such as the scissors mode. Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on Gd isotopes are detected by the DANCE array, which is located at flight path 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a specific isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. Various photon strength function models are used for comparison with experimentally measured DANCE data and provide insight for understanding the statistical decay properties of deformed nuclei.

  7. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that tension strength with one grab and one hook better represent how holes are generated in bed nets in real life. Methods Measurements of bursting strength and tension strengths in the two directions are analysed for eight model nets created for the study. The nets were made in the most commonly used denier (75 and 100 D) and mesh (156 holes/inch2) for multifilament polyester yarns, texturized or not, and with 4 or 6 sided holes. All were made from one polyester quality. Data was arranged in a randomized, complete block design and analysed for significant variables and their interactions. Data was then subjected to regression analyses using net square metre weight as a weighting factor with stepwise removal of variables. This revealed how the four textile variables interacted and allowed for making predictions for the strength of commercial nets in polyester or polyethylene. Results For the model nets, higher denier provided higher bursting strength and tension strengths, texturizing weakened nets and four-sided holes were stronger than six-sided holes. Even when compensating for square metre weight, 100 D nets are stronger than 75 D nets. Results for the commercial polyester net nets are less clear, probably because of different qualities of polyester. Tensile strength: a 75 denier net knitted tightly to provide the same square metre weight as a standard 100 denier net therefore does not obtain the same strength. Polyethylene nets are made of mono-fibre yarns and, therefore, have higher tension strength in both directions than multifilament polyester nets. For bursting strength results overlap for 100 denier yarns of both yarn types. As a class, commercial polyethylene nets are stronger than commercial polyester net whatever method is used for evaluation. Conclusion Tension strength measured in the length and width directions of the net using one hook

  8. Beta-blockers, left and right ventricular function, and in-vivo calcium influx in muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Blain

    Full Text Available Beta-blockers are used to treat acquired heart failure in adults, though their role in early muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy is unclear. We treated 2 different dystrophic mouse models which have an associated cardiomyopathy (mdx: model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Sgcd-/-: model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F and wild type controls (C57 Bl10 with the beta blocker metoprolol or placebo for 8 weeks at an early stage in the development of the cardiomyopathy. Left and right ventricular function was assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and in-vivo myocardial calcium influx with manganese enhanced MRI. In the mdx mice at baseline there was reduced stroke volume, cardiac index, and end-diastolic volume with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. These abnormalities were no longer evident after treatment with beta-blockers. Right ventricular ejection fraction was reduced and right ventricular end-systolic volume increased in the mdx mice. With metoprolol there was an increase in right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Left and right ventricular function was normal in the Sgcd-/- mice. Metroprolol had no significant effects on left and right ventricular function in these mice, though heart/body weight ratios increased after treatment. In-vivo myocardial calcium influx with MEMRI was significantly elevated in both models, though metoprolol had no significant effects on either. In conclusion, metoprolol treatment at an early stage in the development of cardiomyopathy has deleterious effects on right ventricular function in mdx mice and in both models no effect on increased in-vivo calcium influx. This suggests that clinical trials need to carefully monitor not just left ventricular function but also right ventricular function and other aspects of myocardial metabolism.

  9. Renormalization constants and beta functions for the gauge couplings of the Standard Model to three-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, Luminita N; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We compute the beta functions for the three gauge couplings of the Standard Model in the minimal subtraction scheme to three loops. We take into account contributions from all sectors of the Standard Model. The calculation is performed using both Lorenz gauge in the unbroken phase of the Standard Model and background field gauge in the spontaneously broken phase. Furthermore, we describe in detail the treatment of $\\gamma_5$ and present the automated setup which we use for the calculation of the Feynman diagrams. It starts with the generation of the Feynman rules and leads to the bare result for the Green's function of a given process.

  10. Beta-Blockers and the Kidney: Implications for Renal Function and Renin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Murray; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews and discusses current information on the human renal response as related to beta-blockers (antihypertension agents). Topic areas considered include cardioselectivity, renal hemodynamics, systemic hemodynamics, changes with acute and chronic administration, influence of dose, and others. Implications and an 11-item multiple-choice self-quiz…

  11. The function of the human interferon-beta 1a glycan determined in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Meldgaard, Michael; Højrup, Peter; Finsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    counterpart, due to a protein stabilization/solubilization effect of the glycan. It is interesting to note that the terminating sialic acids were essential for these effects. Conclusively, the structure/bioactivity relationship of rhIFN-beta1a was determined in vivo, and it provided a novel insight into the...

  12. Abnormal lens morphogenesis and ectopic lens formation in the absence of beta-catenin function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krešlová, Jana; Machoň, Ondřej; Růžičková, Jana; Láchová, Jitka; Wawrousek, E.F.; Kemler, R.; Krauss, S.; Piatigorsky, J.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2007), s. 157-168. ISSN 1526-954X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/04/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wnt * beta-catenin * gene * lens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.516, year: 2007

  13. Vitamin D and diabetes: Its importance for beta cell and immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Mathieu, Chantal

    D supplementation may decrease the risk of these disorders. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the regulation of several components such as the immune system and calcium homeostasis. However, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that vitamin D also affects beta cells...

  14. Large-scale calculations of the beta-decay rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzov, I.N.; Goriely, S. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Pearson, J.M. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium)]|[Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state and {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei is outlined. The structure of the {beta}-strength functions in stable and short-lived nuclei is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations and recent experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Applications of TAGS data in beta decay energies and decay heat calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, N. S.; 片倉 純一

    2007-01-01

    The recent data of beta-decay intensity measured by using the total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (TAGS), for several fission products (FP), has been applied for calculations of the average energies and spectra, and decay heat summations. The calculations were performed based on the Gross theory of beta decay, in which the beta strength functions were experimentally derived from TAGS data. The deviations of decay heat power predictions from the original decay data of JENDL Decay Data File...

  16. Prognostic value of physical function tests: hand grip strength and six-minute walking test in elderly hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Hernández-Betancor, Iván; González-Reimers, Emilio; Hernández-Luis, Rubén; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Santolaria, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    To discern if physical function test are better mortality predictors than muscle mass in elderly hospitalized patients, we analyzed the prognostic value of muscle mass malnutrition and compared it with physical muscle function tests, including the six-minute walking test (6 MWT) and hand grip strength. We included the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess arterial disease, related to muscle atrophy due to hypoperfusion. We also analyzed the relationship of ABI with malnutrition, physical function tests and survival. We studied 310 hospitalized patients older than 60 years. To assess nutritional status, we determined BMI, triceps skinfold and mid-arm muscle area; we performed a subjective nutritional assessment; and evaluated the degree of inflammatory stress. We assessed physical function by hand grip strength and 6 MWT. We evaluated arterial disease by ABI. Forty-one patients died during hospitalization; 269 were discharged and followed for a mean 808 days, reaching a mortality of 49%. Muscle malnutrition was frequent and was related to mortality, but the best predictors were physical function tests: inability to perform the 6 MWT and low handgrip strength. Function tests were closely related to each other and correlated with nutritional data. Reduced ABI was related to impaired nutritional status, physical function tests and mortality. PMID:25531922

  17. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations. Traditionall

  18. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  19. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  20. The effect of the 238U neutron strength function uncertainty on resonance structure calculations in unresolved regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the neutron strength function uncertainties on the calculated values of the self-shielding factors and energy dependence of the total and capture 238U cross-sections in the unresolved resonance region are investigated. (author). 26 refs, 5 figs

  1. Association of serum uric acid level with muscle strength and cognitive function among Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Jiang, Wenjie; Wang, Shaojie; Tan, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    represent lower limb strength. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to estimate the participants' cognitive function. Lifestyle, comorbidities and laboratory measures were considered as potential confounders. Multiple linear regression models and binary logistic regression were fitted to find...

  2. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17-10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  3. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  4. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13–15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD In...

  5. The resilience function of character strengths in the face of war and protracted conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Anat eShoshani; Michelle eSlone

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13-15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war and political violence. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political conflict exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Result...

  6. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    OpenAIRE

    Akça Firat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing an...

  7. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical exa...

  8. Neutrino Induced 4He Break-up Reaction -- Application of the Maximum Entropy Method in Calculating Nuclear Strength Function

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, T; Sato, T; Nakamura, S X

    2016-01-01

    The maximum entropy method is examined as a new tool for solving the ill-posed inversion problem involved in the Lorentz integral transformation (LIT) method. As an example, we apply the method to the spin-dipole strength function of 4He. We show that the method can be successfully used for inversion of LIT, provided the LIT function is available with a sufficient accuracy.

  9. Prognostic value of physical function tests: hand grip strength and six-minute walking test in elderly hospitalized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Martín-Ponce; Iván Hernández-Betancor; Emilio González-Reimers; Rubén Hernández-Luis; Antonio Martínez-Riera; Francisco Santolaria

    2014-01-01

    To discern if physical function test are better mortality predictors than muscle mass in elderly hospitalized patients, we analyzed the prognostic value of muscle mass malnutrition and compared it with physical muscle function tests, including the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and hand grip strength. We included the ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess arterial disease, related to muscle atrophy due to hypoperfusion. We also analyzed the relationship of ABI with malnutrition, physical functi...

  10. Factorization of integrals, defining the beta-function, into integrals of total derivatives in N=1 SQED, regularized by higher derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Some calculations in supersymmetric theories, made with the higher derivative regularization, show that the beta-function is given by integrals of total derivatives. This is qualitatively explained for the N=1 supersymmetric electrodynamics in all orders.

  11. Sensitive behavior of 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay amplitude within QRPA and broken SU(4) symmetry in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Vadim A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vadim.rodin@uni-tuebingen.de; Urin, Michael H. [Department of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, Moscow State Engineering and Physics Institute, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kernfysisch Versneller Institute, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Faessler, Amand [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2005-01-24

    Making use of an identity transformation independent of a nuclear model, we represent the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-amplitude as a sum of two terms. One term accounts for most of the sensitivity of the original 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-amplitude to gpp' for realistic gpp'{approx}1 (with gpp' being the ratio of the triplet and singlet p-p interaction strengths) and is determined by a specific energy-weighted sum rule. The sum rule depends only on the particle-particle residual interaction (being linear function of gpp' in the QRPA) and passes through zero at the point gpp'=1 where the Wigner SU(4) symmetry is restored in the p-p sector of the Hamiltonian. The second term in the decomposition of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-amplitude is demonstrated within the QRPA to be a much smoother function for the realistic values of gpp' than the original 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-amplitude. This term is mainly determined by the intensity of the spin-orbit interaction of the nuclear mean field. Thus, the analysis of the present work reveals the reasons for the sensitivity of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-amplitude to different components of the nuclear Hamiltonian and thereby can help in constraining nuclear model uncertainties in calculations of the amplitude.

  12. PET imaging of dopamine transporters in the human brain using [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT, a cocaine derivative lacking the 2{beta}-ester function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbaechler, Roland D.; Gucker, Pascale M.; Arigoni, Michele; Kneifel, Stefan; Vollenweider, Franz X.; Buck, Alfred; Burger, Cyrill; Berthold, Thomas; Bruehlmeier, Matthias; Schubiger, P. August; Ametamey, Simon M. E-mail: simon-mensah.ametamey@psi.ch

    2002-01-01

    The compound 3{beta}-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2{beta}-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)tropane (CPPIT or RTI 177) is a 2{beta}-heterocyclic substituted cocaine congener with high in vitro selectivity and affinity for the dopamine transporter relative to serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo selectivity of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT and to determine whether [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT may be a suitable alternative to existing DAT PET radioligands. [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was prepared by N-alkylation of the free amine with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. In mouse brain, the striatal binding of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was reduced significantly by preinjecting the dopamine reuptake antagonist GBR 12909 (5 mg/kg). By contrast, radioactivity uptake in the brain was not affected significantly by the preinjection of citalopram (5 mg/kg) and desipramine (5 mg/kg), inhibitors for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, respectively. No effect was also observed by pretreatment with ketanserin (2.5 mg/kg) a compound with high affinity for the 5-HT{sub 2A}-receptor and the vesicular monoamine transporter. In a PET study with six healthy volunteers high striatal uptake was observed. The distribution pattern of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was similar to the known distribution of the dopamine transporter in the human brain. Compared to {sup 123}I labeled {beta}-CIT, the rate of metabolic degradation of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT was almost twofold slower suggesting that bioisosteric heterocyclic substitution of the ester group at the 2{beta}-position of the tropane ring does have an influence on the rate of metabolism of [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT. The rank order of the distribution volumes obtained via the one-tissue compartment model is also similar to the reported distribution of DAT. These preliminary results suggest that [{sup 11}C]-{beta}-CPPIT may be a useful PET radioligand for the visualization and quantification of

  13. Self-directed Strength Training with Primary School Children and its Effect on Functional Body-related Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Nitzsche; Toni Lange; Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years) and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years). The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit...

  14. Pygmy resonance and low-energy enhancement in the $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of Pd~isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Tomas Kvalheim; Nyhus, Hilde-Therese; Guttormsen, Magne; Görgen, Andreas; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Renstrøm, Therese; Ruud, Inger-Eli; Siem, Sunniva; Toft, Heidi Kristine; Tveten, Gry Merete; Wilson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected enhancement in the $\\gamma$-ray strength function, as compared to the low energy tail of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR), has been observed for Sc, Ti, V, Fe and Mo isotopes for $E_\\gamma4$ MeV, which is interpreted as a PDR centered at $E_{\\gamma}\\approx8$ MeV. An enhanced $\\gamma$-ray strength at low energies is also observed for $^{105}$Pd, which is the lightest isotope measured in this work. Further, the results correspond and agree very well with the observations from the ...

  15. The NSVZ beta-function and the Schwinger-Dyson equations for N=1 SQED with N_f flavors, regularized by higher derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    The effective diagram technique based on the Schwinger-Dyson equations is constructed for N=1 SQED with N_f flavors, regularized by higher derivatives. Using these effective diagrams, it is possible to derive the exact NSVZ relation between the beta-function and the anomalous dimension of the matter superfields exactly in all loops, if the renormalization group functions are defined in terms of the bare coupling constant. In particular, we verify that all integrals which give the beta-functio...

  16. In vivo imaging of dopamine transporter function in rat striatum using pinhole SPECT and 123I-beta-CIT coregistered with small animal MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish in vivo imaging of dopamine transporter function in a small animal model of Parkinson's disease using pinhole SPECT and 123I labeled beta-CIT. Since functional imaging of small animals can hardly be interpreted without localization to related anatomical structures, MRI-SPECT coregistration secondly was established as an inexpensive tool for in vivo monitoring of physiological and pathological alterations in striatal dopamine transporters using beta-CIT as an specific radionuclear ligand.

  17. Experimental Study of a Beta Stirling Thermal Machine Type Functioning in Receiver and Engine Modes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Gheith; F. Aloui; S. Ben Nasrallah

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we studied a beta type Stirling machine. At first, we present the adopted theoretical quasi-stationary model. Then, we pass to the physical and geometrical presentation of this machine. The Latter was experimented according to two configurations: motor configuration and receiver configuration. For the first configuration, in order to improve the performances of the machine, we proceeded to the insulation of the machine hot room to reduce losses by radiation. ...

  18. Identification, cloning and functional characterization of novel beta-defensins in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Frank S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract and have roles in non-immunological processes such as sperm maturation and capacitation. Characterization of novel defensins in the male reproductive tract can lead to increased understanding of their dual roles in immunity and sperm maturation. Methods In silico rat genomic analyses were used to identify novel beta-defensins related to human defensins 118–123. RNAs isolated from male reproductive tract tissues of rat were reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene specific primers for defensins. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their identity. RT-PCR analysis was performed to analyze the tissue distribution, developmental expression and androgen regulation of these defensins. Recombinant defensins were tested against E. coli in a colony forming unit assay to analyze their antimicrobial activities. Results Novel beta-defensins, Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 were identified in the rat male reproductive tract. Defb30 and Defb36 were the most restricted in expression, whereas the others were expressed in a variety of tissues including the female reproductive tract. Early onset of defensin expression was observed in the epididymides of 10–60 day old rats. Defb21-Defb36 expression in castrated rats was down regulated and maintained at normal levels in testosterone supplemented animals. DEFB24 and DEFB30 proteins showed potent dose and time dependent antibacterial activity. Conclusion Rat Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 are abundantly expressed in the male reproductive tract where they most likely protect against microbial invasion. They are developmentally regulated and androgen is required for full expression in the adult epididymis.

  19. Density functional theory study of electroreductive hydrocoupling of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Naoki

    2006-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The electroreductive hydrocoupling of methyl cinnamate, methyl crotonate, cumarin, and benzalacetone was studied by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++ G**) calculations. The computational outcomes for the transition states in the hydrocoupling of anion radicals generated by a one-electron transfer to the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds well agree with the diastereoselectivities in the experimental results previously reported. PMID:17109548

  20. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  1. Decreased muscle strength is associated with impaired long-term functional outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    clinical examination of 48 patients treated with intramedullary nailing after femoral shaft fracture between 2007 and 2010. The patients underwent a clinical examination and assessment of walking ability, maximal muscle strength during knee flexion and extension and hip abduction. Hip disability and......PURPOSE:To examine the long-term outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral diaphysial fractures measured as disease-specific patient reported function, walking ability, muscle strength, pain and quality of life (QOL). METHODS:Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review and follow-up with...... strength of knee flexion with the injured leg (226.0 N) was significantly lower then knee flexion with the non-injured leg (259.5 N, P < 0.0001). Likewise for knee extension (335.2 vs 406.4 N, P < 0.001) and hip abduction (129.2 vs 156.0 N, P < 0.001). Significant association between HOOS and an increase...

  2. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  3. Pancreatic beta cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas; Blaszczak, Alecia;

    2013-01-01

    composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography) were also measured before and after the intervention. Exercise dose was computed using VO2-heart rate derived linear-regression equations. Subjects expended 474.5±8.8 kcal/session (2372.5±44.1 kcal/week) during the intervention, and lost......While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise...

  4. Three-loop \\beta-functions for top-Yukawa and the Higgs self-interaction in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, K G

    2012-01-01

    We analytically compute the dominant contributions to the \\beta-functions for the top-Yukawa coupling, the strong coupling and the Higgs self-coupling as well as the anomalous dimensions of the scalar, gluon and quark fields in the unbroken phase of the Standard Model at three-loop level. These are mainly the QCD and top-Yukawa corrections. The contributions from the Higgs self-interaction which are negligible for the running of the top-Yukawa and the strong coupling but important for the running of the Higgs self-coupling are also evaluated.

  5. One-Loop Renormalization of Non-Abelian Gauge Theory and \\beta Function Based on Loop Regularization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jian-Wei; Wu, Yue-Liang(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong Guan Cun East Street 55 #, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing, 100190 P.R. China)

    2008-01-01

    All one-loop renormalization constants for Non-Abelian gauge theory are computed in details by using the symmetry-preserving Loop Regularization method proposed in\\cite{LR1,LR2}. The resulting renormalization constants are manifestly shown to satisfy Ward-Takahaski-Slavnov-Taylor identities, and lead to the well-known one loop $\\beta$ function for Non-Abelian gauge theory of QCD\\cite{GWP}. The loop regularization method is realized in the dimension of original field theories, it maintains not...

  6. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  7. Effect of Hypertriglyceridemia on Beta Cell Mass and Function in ApoC3 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Zi; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ting; Lee, Sojin; Yamauchi, Jun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Gittes, George; Qu, Shen; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Dong, H Henry

    2016-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia results from increased production and decreased clearance of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins, a pathological condition that accounts for heightened risk of ischemic vascular diseases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite its intimate association with insulin resistance, whether hypertriglyceridemia constitutes an independent risk for beta cell dysfunction in diabetes is unknown. Answering this fundamental question is stymied by the fact that hypertriglyceridemia is intertwined with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. To circumvent this limitation, we took advantage of apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3)-transgenic mice, a model with genetic predisposition to hypertriglyceridemia. We showed that ApoC3-transgenic mice, as opposed to age/sex-matched wild-type littermates, develop hypertriglyceridemia with concomitant elevations in plasma cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Anti-insulin and anti-glucagon dual immunohistochemistry in combination with morphometric analysis revealed that ApoC3-transgenic and wild-type littermates had similar beta cell and alpha cell masses as well as islet size and architecture. These effects correlated with similar amplitudes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and similar degrees of postprandial glucose excursion in ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. Oil Red O histology did not visualize lipid infiltration into islets, correlating with the lack of ectopic triglyceride and cholesterol depositions in the pancreata of ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. ApoC3-transgenic mice, despite persistent hypertriglyceridemia, maintained euglycemia under both fed and fasting conditions without manifestation of insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia. Thus, hypertriglyceridemia per se is not an independent risk factor for beta cell dysfunction in ApoC3 transgenic mice. PMID:27226540

  8. Experimental Study of a Beta Stirling Thermal Machine Type Functioning in Receiver and Engine Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gheith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied a beta type Stirling machine. At first, we present the adopted theoretical quasi-stationary model. Then, we pass to the physical and geometrical presentation of this machine. The Latter was experimented according to two configurations: motor configuration and receiver configuration. For the first configuration, in order to improve the performances of the machine, we proceeded to the insulation of the machine hot room to reduce losses by radiation. For the second configuration, the machine is experimented as a heat pump and refrigerator. Comparisons between the theoretical and experimental results are also presented. We finally validated the results obtained by the model with experiments.

  9. Study of Photon Strength Functions of Actinides: the case of U-235, Np-238 and Pu-241

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, C; Cano-Ott, D; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Villamarin, D; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Andriamonje, S; Calviani, M; Chiaveri, E; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Heil, M; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    The decay from excited levels in medium and heavy nuclei can be described in a statistical approach by means of Photon Strength Functions and Level Density distributions combined with the theory of the compound. The study of electromagnetic cascades following neutron capture by means of high efficiency detectors has been shown to be well suited for probing the properties of the Photon Strength Function of heavy (high level density) and/or radioactive (high background) nuclei. In this work we have investigated for the first time the validity of the recommended PSF for actinides, in particular 235U, 238Np and 241Pu. Our study includes the search for resonance structures in the PSF below Sn and draws conclusions regarding their existence and their characteristics in terms of energy, width and electromagnetic nature.

  10. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after...

  11. The effect of physical training on maintenance and recovery of the functional muscular strength in rats injected with EAE

    OpenAIRE

    EKWEMPE EBWEKOH, Clifford

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this report was to study the effect of physical training on maintenance and recovery of the functional muscular strength in rats injected with Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis. For this effect 25 rats from different mothers and of the same gender were randomly selected. The 25 rats were again randomly assigned to two treatments groups. One group treated with EAE (13 rats) and the rest assigned to the control group (12 rats). Each treatment group was subdivided...

  12. Effect of Isometric Quadriceps Exercise on Muscle Strength, Pain, and Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40–65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, where...

  13. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  14. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  15. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D L; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Faerch, K; Mwaniki, D L; Boit, M K; Kilonzo, B; Tetens, I; Friis, H; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic differences in insulin indices. The Maasai had 32 and 17% higher insulin resistance than the Luo and Kamba, respectively (p Maasai compared to the Luo (p Maasai compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1-7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5-14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution. PMID:23563691

  16. Adhesion Strength of Cellulosic Varnish Coated Wood Species as Function of Their Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate adhesion strength of four wood species, namely, beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata Yalt., spruce (Picea orientalis L. Link, and fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. coated with cellulosic varnish. Samples were prepared in tangential and radial grain orientations from the above species. Surface quality of the specimens was also measured employing stylus type equipment after samples of all four types of species were sanded with 80- and 180-grit sandpaper prior to coating process. Surface roughness of the specimens sanded with 80-grit sandpaper resulted in significantly higher mean peak-to-valley height (Rz values based on the measurement employing stylus type profilometer. The highest adhesion strength values of 2.39 N/mm2 and 2.03 N/mm2 were found for beech and alder samples, respectively. It appears that overall higher roughness characteristics of the specimens exhibited enhanced adherence between substrate and varnish resulting in higher adhesion strength values.

  17. Effect of beta-blockade on low-dose dobutamine-induced changes in left ventricular function in healthy volunteers: assessment by gated SPET myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Franken, P.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels (AZ VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-04-01

    Viability studies are often performed in patients receiving beta-blocking agents. However, the intake of beta-blocking agents could influence the identification of viable myocardium when low-dose dobutamine is used to demonstrate inotropic reserve. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of beta-blockade on global and regional left ventricular function in healthy volunteers using low-dose dobutamine gated single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Ten subjects were studied once ''on'' and once ''off'' beta-blocker therapy (metoprolol succinate, 100 mg day{sup -1}). On each occasion four consecutive gated SPET acquisitions (of 7 min duration) were recorded after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a triple-headed camera equipped with focussing (Cardiofocal) collimators. Acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2) and 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine. Wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained using the Cedars-Sinai algorithm. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the end of each acquisition. At baseline LVEF, WT and systolic BP values under beta-blockade were not significantly different from those obtained in the non-beta-blocked state. The mean HR and diastolic BP at baseline were lower under beta-blockade. Dobutamine administration (at 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) induced a significant increase in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in all subjects both on and off beta-blockade. The increases in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in the beta-blocked state were less pronounced but not significantly different. HR increased significantly at 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine without beta-blocker administration, while no increase in HR was observed in the beta-blocked state. Beta

  18. Effect of beta-blockade on low-dose dobutamine-induced changes in left ventricular function in healthy volunteers: assessment by gated SPET myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viability studies are often performed in patients receiving beta-blocking agents. However, the intake of beta-blocking agents could influence the identification of viable myocardium when low-dose dobutamine is used to demonstrate inotropic reserve. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of beta-blockade on global and regional left ventricular function in healthy volunteers using low-dose dobutamine gated single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Ten subjects were studied once ''on'' and once ''off'' beta-blocker therapy (metoprolol succinate, 100 mg day-1). On each occasion four consecutive gated SPET acquisitions (of 7 min duration) were recorded after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a triple-headed camera equipped with focussing (Cardiofocal) collimators. Acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2) and 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 μg kg-1 min-1 dobutamine. Wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained using the Cedars-Sinai algorithm. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the end of each acquisition. At baseline LVEF, WT and systolic BP values under beta-blockade were not significantly different from those obtained in the non-beta-blocked state. The mean HR and diastolic BP at baseline were lower under beta-blockade. Dobutamine administration (at 5 and 10 μg kg-1 min-1) induced a significant increase in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in all subjects both on and off beta-blockade. The increases in WT, LVEF and systolic BP in the beta-blocked state were less pronounced but not significantly different. HR increased significantly at 10 μg kg-1 min-1 dobutamine without beta-blocker administration, while no increase in HR was observed in the beta-blocked state. Beta-blocker therapy in healthy subjects attenuates the inotropic and chronotropic myocardial

  19. Assessment on Functionality and Viability of Beta Cells Following Repetitive Dosage Administration of Ethanolic Extracts of Andrographis paniculata on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zaini, A; A Mariam; Amirin, S; Abdul Razak, K

    2010-01-01

    The study was done at the aim to assess the functionality and viability of the beta cells of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats model following repetitive dosage of administration of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata. Materials and Methods: The diabetic rats were treated with the extracts for fourteen days and at the dose given was 500 mg/kg twice daily. The assessments were made on fasting blood glucose, insulin, and immunohistochemical aspect of beta cells before and after...

  20. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  1. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L. Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n=42 and healthy controls (CON, n=20 participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n=18, general fitness training (GFT, n=16, or a reference group without physical training (REF, n=8. Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle.

  2. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward b...

  3. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Ekiz, MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05. KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters.

  4. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters. PMID:26220179

  5. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 promotes functional regeneration of sensory axons in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Yip, Ping K; Battaglia, Anna; Grist, John; Corcoran, Jonathan; Maden, Malcolm; Azzouz, Mimoun; Kingsman, Susan M; Kingsman, Alan J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; McMahon, Stephen B

    2006-02-01

    The embryonic CNS readily undergoes regeneration, unlike the adult CNS, which has limited axonal repair after injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), critical in development for neuronal growth, may enable adult neurons to grow in an inhibitory environment. Overexpression of RARbeta2 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion cultures increased intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and stimulated neurite outgrowth. Stable RARbeta2 expression in DRG neurons in vitro and in vivo enabled their axons to regenerate across the inhibitory dorsal root entry zone and project into the gray matter of the spinal cord. The regenerated neurons enhanced second-order neuronal activity in the spinal cord, and RARbeta2-treated rats showed highly significant improvement in sensorimotor tasks. These findings show that RARbeta2 induces axonal regeneration programs within injured neurons and may thus offer new therapeutic opportunities for CNS regeneration. PMID:16388307

  6. Event-Related Beta EEG Changes During Active, Passive Movement and Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuang; Yi, Weibo; Xu, Jiapeng; Qi, Hongzhi; Du, Jingang; Wang, Chunfang; He, Feng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    A number of electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have reported on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) during active movements, passive movements, and the movements induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, the quantitative differences in ERD values and affected frequency bands associated with the lower limb have not been discussed. The goal of this paper was to quantitatively compare the ERD patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb. 64-channel EEG signals were recorded to investigate the brain oscillatory patterns during active movement, passive movement and FES-induced movement of the lower limb in twelve healthy subjects. And passive movement and FES-induced movement were also performed in a hemiplegic stroke patient. For healthy subjects, FES-induced movement presented significantly higher characteristic frequency of central beta ERD while there was no significant difference in ERD values compared with active or passive movement. Meanwhile, beta ERD values of FES-induced movement were significantly correlated with those of active movement, and spatial distribution of beta ERD pattern for FES-induced movement was more correlated with that for active movement. In addition, the stroke patient presented central ERD patterns during FES-induced movement, while no ERD with similar frequencies could be found during passive movement. This work implies that the EEG oscillatory pattern under FES-induced movement tends more towards active movement instead of passive movement. The quantification of ERD patterns could be expected as a potential technique to evaluate the brain response during FES-induced movement. PMID:26441422

  7. Muscle strength but not functional capacity is associated with plasma interleukin-6 levels of community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.G. Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels, muscle strength and functional capacity was investigated in a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling elderly women from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Elderly people who present controlled chronic diseases with no negative impact on physical, psychosocial and mental functionality are considered to be community-dwelling. Psychological and social stress due to unsuccessfully aging can represent a risk for immune system disfunctions. IL-6 levels, isokinetic muscle strength of knee flexion/extension, and functional tests to determine time required to rise from a chair and gait velocity were measured in 57 participants (71.21 ± 7.38 years. Serum levels of IL-6 were measured in duplicate and were performed within one single assay (mouse monoclonal antibody against IL-6; High-Sensitivity, Quantikine®, R & D Systems, USA; intra-assay coefficient of variance = 6.9-7.4%; interassay coefficient of variance = 9.6-6.5%; sensitivity = 0.016-0.110 pg/mL; mean = 0.039 pg/mL. Muscle strength was assessed with the isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro®. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was applied, correlations were investigated using Spearman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Post hoc analysis was performed using the Dunn test. A significant negative correlation was observed between plasma IL-6 levels (1.95 ± 1.77 pg/mL and muscle strength for knee flexion (70.70 ± 21.14%; r = -0.265; P = 0.047 and extension (271.84 ± 67.85%; r = -0.315; P = 0.017. No significant correlation was observed between IL-6 levels and the functional tests (time to rise from a chair = 14.65 ± 2.82 s and gait velocity = 0.95 ± 0.14 m/s. These results suggest that IL-6 is associated with reduced muscle strength.

  8. AT1-IR-beta Association: A New Mechanism for the Inhibition of Insulin Receptor Function in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Pulakat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence show that increased mortality in breast cancer is linked to hypertension and insulin resistance. Because Angiotensin II (Ang II, a hormone implicated in hypertension and insulin resistance, is a normal mitogen for breast tissue and elevated expression of the Ang II receptor AT1 is seen in breast cancer, we analyzed the effects of Ang II exposure on the functions of IR in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Exposure of MCF-7 to Ang II for 2 hours a significantly reduced 125I-insulin binding to IR, and b induced co-immuno-precipitation of the AT1 with IR-beta subunit. These Ang II-mediated effects on IR were inhibited by the AT1 antagonist losartan, and were not observed when exposure time was below 1-hour. These observations suggest extended exposure to Ang II have detrimental effects on insulin binding to IR that were not discovered in the previous studies where Ang II-exposure of insulin responsive cells was performed for periods less than one hour. In addition, they suggest a novel mechanism that involves AT1-IR-beta association for the inhibition of insulin binding to IR in response to extended exposure (2-hours of breast cancer cells to elevated levels of Ang II (as seen in hypertensive patients, and provides a molecular link for the inhibition of normal IR signaling by Ang II in breast cancer.

  9. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  10. Calculation of two-loop beta-function for general N=1 supersymmetric Yang--Mills theory with the higher covariant derivative regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenov, A. B.; Shevtsova, E. S.; Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2009-01-01

    For the general renormalizable N=1 supersymmetric Yang--Mills theory, regularized by higher covariant derivatives, a two-loop beta-function is calculated. It is shown that all integrals, needed for obtaining this function, can be easily calculated, because they are integrals of total derivatives.

  11. Predictive timing functions of cortical beta oscillations are impaired in Parkinson's disease and influenced by L-DOPA and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gulberti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortex-basal ganglia circuits participate in motor timing and temporal perception, and are important for the dynamic configuration of sensorimotor networks in response to exogenous demands. In Parkinson's disease (PD patients, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS induces motor performance benefits. Hitherto, little is known concerning contributions of the basal ganglia to sensory facilitation and cortical responses to RAS in PD. Therefore, we conducted an EEG study in 12 PD patients before and after surgery for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS and in 12 age-matched controls. Here we investigated the effects of levodopa and STN-DBS on resting-state EEG and on the cortical-response profile to slow and fast RAS in a passive-listening paradigm focusing on beta-band oscillations, which are important for auditory–motor coupling. The beta-modulation profile to RAS in healthy participants was characterized by local peaks preceding and following auditory stimuli. In PD patients RAS failed to induce pre-stimulus beta increases. The absence of pre-stimulus beta-band modulation may contribute to impaired rhythm perception in PD. Moreover, post-stimulus beta-band responses were highly abnormal during fast RAS in PD patients. Treatment with levodopa and STN-DBS reinstated a post-stimulus beta-modulation profile similar to controls, while STN-DBS reduced beta-band power in the resting-state. The treatment-sensitivity of beta oscillations suggests that STN-DBS may specifically improve timekeeping functions of cortical beta oscillations during fast auditory pacing.

  12. Sex Differences in the Level and Rate of Change of Physical Function and Grip Strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Maier, Heiner; McGue, Matt;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. METHOD: The baseline survey included 2,262 Danes born in 1905 and alive in 1998 and followed-up in 2000, 2003, and 2005. Hence, the authors fully used the...... power of having a cohort with multiple assessments in late life and virtually complete follow-up of lifespan (through December 2008). Latent growth curve modeling was used. RESULTS: Men had higher initial levels and rates of decline in strength score and grip strength. Lifespan was positively correlated...... with intercepts and slopes. DISCUSSION: The Danish data suggested that the longest-living individuals have higher initial levels of strength score and grip strength and smaller rate of change. The data further suggested that the initial level of strength score and grip strength was more predictive of...

  13. Intrinsic buckling strength of graphene: First-principles density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2010-09-01

    How graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional crystal, explores the third spatial dimension by buckling under compression is not yet understood. Knowledge of graphene’s buckling strength, the load at which it transforms from planar to buckled form, is a key to ensure mechanical stability of graphene-based nanoelectronic and nanocomposite devices. Here, we establish using first-principles theoretical analysis that graphene has an intrinsic rigidity against buckling, and it manifests in a weakly linear component in the dispersion of graphene’s flexural acoustic mode, which is believed to be quadratic. Contrary to the expectation from the elastic plate theory, we predict within continuum analysis that a graphene monolayer of macroscopic size buckles at a nonzero critical compressive strain at T=0K , and demonstrate it numerically from first principles. The origin of this rigidity is traced to the coupling between structural and electronic degrees of freedom arising from curvature-induced overlap between π orbitals in graphene.

  14. Assembly and function of AsGlu2 fibrillar multimer of oat beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Nam; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Choi, Sa-Ra; Kim, In-Soo

    2009-03-01

    Oat beta-glucosidase in plastid exists as a long fibrillar structure of AsGlu1 homomultimer (type I) and heteromultimer of AsGlu1 and AsGlu2 (type II). In spite of the high amino acid sequence homology of AsGlu1 and AsGlu2, AsGlu1 assembles into the fibrillar multimers but AsGlu2 forms a dimer when expressed in E. coli. A swapping analysis of AsGlu2 cDNA with AsGlu1 cDNA indicated that the C-terminal segment of AsGlu1 was critical for the fibrillar multimerization. A single substitution of glutamic acid-495 of AsGlu2 in the C-terminal region with lysine, an AsGlu1 counterpart amino acid for the glutamic acid-495, assembled the AsGlu2 into fibrillar homomultimers. The mutant AsGlu2 homomultimer was highly stable and had relatively faster electric mobility in native gel than the AsGlu1 homomultimer. Multimerization increased enzyme affinity to substrates. PMID:19100871

  15. Functional imaging of interleukin 1 beta expression in inflammatory process using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhihui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β plays an important role in a number of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. To understand the role of IL-1β in disease processes and develop an in vivo screening system for anti-inflammatory drugs, a transgenic mouse line was generated which incorporated the transgene firefly luciferase gene driven by a 4.5-kb fragment of the human IL-1β gene promoter. Luciferase gene expression was monitored in live mice under anesthesia using bioluminescence imaging in a number of inflammatory disease models. Results In a LPS-induced sepsis model, dramatic increase in luciferase activity was observed in the mice. This transgene induction was time dependent and correlated with an increase of endogenous IL-1β mRNA and pro-IL-1β protein levels in the mice. In a zymosan-induced arthritis model and an oxazolone-induced skin hypersensitivity reaction model, luciferase expression was locally induced in the zymosan injected knee joint and in the ear with oxazolone application, respectively. Dexamethasone suppressed the expression of luciferase gene both in the acute sepsis model and in the acute arthritis model. Conclusion Our data suggest that the transgenic mice model could be used to study transcriptional regulation of the IL-1β gene expression in the inflammatory process and evaluation the effect of anti-inflammatory drug in vivo.

  16. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld;

    2016-01-01

    effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12...... functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used......Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the...

  17. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; (Houston)

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  19. Role of transcription factor KLF11 and its diabetes-associated gene variants in pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neve, Bernadette; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Ashkenazi-Katalan, Vered; Dina, Christian; Hamid, Yasmin H; Joly, Erik; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Benmezroua, Yamina; Durand, Emmanuelle; Bakaher, Nicolas; Delannoy, Valerie; Vaxillaire, Martine; Cook, Tiffany; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Jansen, Hans; Charles, Marie-Aline; Clément, Karine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Charpentier, Guillaume; Prentki, Marc; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Urrutia, Raul; Melloul, Danielle; Froguel, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    KLF11 (TIEG2) is a pancreas-enriched transcription factor that has elicited significant attention because of its role as negative regulator of exocrine cell growth in vitro and in vivo. However, its functional role in the endocrine pancreas remains to be established. Here, we report, for the first...... time, to our knowledge, the characterization of KLF11 as a glucose-inducible regulator of the insulin gene. A combination of random oligonucleotide binding, EMSA, luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays shows that KLF11 binds to the insulin promoter and regulates its activity in...... beta cells. Genetic analysis of the KLF11 gene revealed two rare variants (Ala347Ser and Thr220Met) that segregate with diabetes in families with early-onset type 2 diabetes, and significantly impair its transcriptional activity. In addition, analysis of 1,696 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 1...

  20. Low-energy. beta. -function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-02-14

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass ..mu... The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of ..mu.. leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing ..beta..-function.

  1. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  2. Self-directed Strength Training with Primary School Children and its Effect on Functional Body-related Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nitzsche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years. The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit training, scope of load: 45-60 minutes, duration 20-30 seconds, 7 stations, rest between sets 20-30 seconds, self-regulated intensity. After 9 weeks, both groups were tested for motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Results: For push-ups (PRETEST: Z=103.2±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=114.7±9; d=1.4; P<0.01 and sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=90.9±8 vs. POSTTEST: Z=98.6±9; d=0.89; P<0.01, a significant improvement was established in the intervention group. The control group showed substantial improvement for push-ups (PRETEST: Z=101.8±10 vs. POSTTEST: Z=107.5±9; d=0.58; P<0.01 and significant decline for sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=99.1±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=96.6±6; d=-0.36; P<0.05. As to the knowledge test, the intervention group increased their performance considerably (PRETEST: 35±2 points vs. POSTTEST: 40±4 points; d=0.9; P<0.01 when compared to the control group (PRETEST: 34.2±4.6 points vs. POSTTEST: 31.2±4.5 points; d=-0.69; P<0.01. Discussion: A nine-week, self-regulated strength training for children has positive effects on sport motor performance (push-ups and sit-ups and functional body-related knowledge.Keywords: Strength training, children, motor performance, functional body-related knowledge, self-controlled load perception

  3. Impact of a low-energy enhancement in the gamma-ray strength function on the radiative neutron-capture

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A.C.; Goriely, S.

    2012-01-01

    A low-energy enhancement of the gamma-ray strength function in several light and medium-mass nuclei has been observed recently in 3He-induced reactions. The effect of this enhancement on (n,gamma) cross-sections is investigated for stable and unstable neutron-rich Fe, Mo and Cd isotopes. Our results indicate that the radiative neutron capture cross sections may increase considerably due to the low-energy enhancement when approaching the neutron drip line. This could have non-negligible conseq...

  4. Total radiative widths of neutron resonances and photon dipole strength function of compound-compound gamma transi-- tions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total radiation widths of s-neutron resonances for intermediate and heavy spherical nuclei in the range 78<=A<=200 are calculated in the framework of statistical approach without using free parameters. The effect of the choice of density of low-lying meters. The effect of the choice of density of low-lying excited states on values of the total radiation widths is analyzed. On the basis of obtained satisfactory agreement between the calculation results and experimental data the conclusion is drawn about approximate equality and constancy of E1- and M1-strength functions of the low energy compound-compound γ-transitions

  5. Vector Correlator in Massless QCD at Order O(alpha_s^4) and the QED beta-function at five loop

    CERN Document Server

    Baikov, P A; Kühn, J H; Rittinger, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a concise summary of recent results for the vector correlator in massless QCD at order ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^4)$, with all colour factors being given for a generic colour group. As a direct consequence we arrive at: (i) the full QCD contribution to the QED $\\beta$--function of order $\\alpha^2\\, \\alpha_s^4$ in the \\MSbar- \\ and MOM-schemes; (ii) the full five-loop result of order $\\alpha^6$ for the $\\beta$-function of QED with a generic number of single-charged fermions, again for the \\MSbar- \\ and MOM-schemes.

  6. Anatomical connection strength predicts dopaminergic drug effects on fronto-striatal function

    OpenAIRE

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke E.; Geurts, Dirk E M; Arnt F.A. Schellekens; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert J.; Cools, Roshan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role in cognitive functions that are associated with fronto-striatal circuitry and has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there is a large variability in the direction and extent of dopaminergic drug effects across individuals. Objectives We investigated whether individual differences in dopaminergic drug effects on human fronto-striatal functioning are associated with individual differences in white matter tracts. ...

  7. Associations between isokinetic muscle strength, high-level functional performance, and physiological parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1 Brendan J Pikaluk,2 Robyn L Chura,1 Mark J Walkner,1 Jonathan P Farthing,2 Darcy D Marciniuk31School of Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 3Division of Respiratory, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaAbstract: High-level activities are typically not performed by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which results in reduced functional performance; however, the physiological parameters that contribute to this reduced performance are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between high-level functional performance, leg muscle strength/power, aerobic power, and anaerobic power. Thirteen patients with COPD underwent an incremental maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, quadriceps isokinetic dynamometry (isometric peak torque and rate of torque development; concentric isokinetic peak torque at 90°/sec, 180°/sec, and 270°/sec; and eccentric peak torque at 90°/sec, a steep ramp anaerobic test (SRAT (increments of 25 watts every 10 seconds, and three functional measures (timed up and go [TUG], timed stair climb power [SCPT], and 30-second sit-to-stand test [STS]. TUG time correlated strongly (P < 0.05 with all muscle strength variables and with the SRAT. Isometric peak torque was the strongest determinant of TUG time (r = –0.92. SCPT and STS each correlated with all muscle strength variables except concentric at 270°/sec and with the SRAT. The SRAT was the strongest determinant of SCPT (r = 0.91, and eccentric peak torque at 90°/sec was most significantly associated with STS (r = 0.81. Performance on the SRAT (anaerobic power; slower-velocity concentric, eccentric, and isometric contractions; and rate of torque development are reflected in all functional tests, whereas cardiopulmonary exercise test performance (aerobic power

  8. Changes in the reproductive function and developmental phenotypes in mice following intramuscular injection of an activin betaA-expressing plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Kelly E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TGF-beta family protein activin has numerous reported activities with some uncertainty in the reproductive axis and development. The precise roles of activin in in vivo system were investigated using a transient gain of function model. Methods To this end, an expression plasmid, pCMV-rAct, with the activin betaA cDNA fused to the cytomegalovirus promoter, was introduced into muscle of the female adult mice by direct injection. Results Activin betaA mRNA was detected in the muscle by RT-PCR and subsequent Southern blot analysis. Activin betaA was also detected, and western blot analysis revealed a relatively high level of serum activin with correspondingly increased FSH. In the pCMV-rAct-injected female mice, estrus stage within the estrous cycle was extended. Moreover, increased numbers of corpora lutea and a thickened granulosa cell layer with a small antrum in tertiary follicles within the ovary were observed. When injected female mice were mated with males of proven fertility, a subset of embryos died in utero, and most of those that survived exhibited increased body weight. Conclusion Taken together, our data reveal that activin betaA can directly influence the estrous cycle, an integral part of the reproduction in female mice and activin betaA can also influence the embryo development as an endocrine fashion.

  9. Characterization of fracture and deformation mechanism in a high strength beta titanium alloy Ti-10-2-3 using EBSD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, fracture toughness tested specimens in longitudinal (LT) and transverse loading (TL) directions of beta titanium alloy have been investigated using Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. The orientation images captured at three different locations i.e. machine notch, fatigue pre-crack and final fracture have been compared. The LT sample exhibits with more facets than TL sample. The faceted aspect of the crack is generally associated with quasi-cleavage mechanism. The EBSD analysis clearly points out that in the LT specimen, the hexagonal orientation has moved towards near basal during the test. This may be the reason for the observance of facets in the LT specimen. The cracking in TL specimen might have been taken over by the bcc phase as it is oriented with harder planes of cubic {001} planes. Further, the Schmid factor has also been computed based on the defined loading conditions. Significant variation has been observed in the slip plane orientations and distributions at these three locations. The Schmid analysis has highlighted the significant contribution of different slip systems towards deformation and cracking in LT and TL specimens

  10. Independent and Interactive Influences of the APOE Genotype and Beta-Amyloid Burden on Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Kang, Seong-Ho; Choo, Il Han

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and interactive influences of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and beta-amyloid (Aβ) on multiple cognitive domains in a large group of cognitively normal (CN) individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were included if clinical and cognitive assessments, amyloid imaging, and APOE genotype were all available from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (CN = 324, MCI = 502, AD = 182). Individuals with one or two copies of ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 carriers (ε4+); individuals with no ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 non-carriers (ε4-). Based on mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, participants were classified as Aβ burden-positive (Aβ+) or Aβ burden-negative (Aβ-). In MCI, APOE ε4 effects were predominantly observed on frontal executive function, with ε4+ participants exhibiting poorer performances; Aβ positivity had no influence on this effect. Aβ effects were observed on global cognition, memory, and visuospatial ability, with Aβ+ participants exhibiting poorer performances. Measures of frontal executive function were not influenced by Aβ. Interactive effects of APOE ε4+ and Aβ were observed on global cognition and verbal recognition memory. Aβ, not APOE ε4+, influenced clinical severity and functional status. The influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function were minimal in CN and AD. In conclusion, we provide further evidence of both independent and interactive influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function in MCI, with APOE ε4+ and Aβ showing dissociable effects on executive and non-executive functions, respectively. PMID:26839485

  11. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2015-01-01

    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis of...... phase. Thus, the space between the functional groups can be varied, by using different dimethylsiloxane spacer units between the dipolar molecules. Furthermore, the degree of functionalization can be varied accurately by changing the feed of dipolar molecules. As a result, a completely tunable elastomer...

  12. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo protects mitochondrial function against amyloid beta toxicity in primary cultured mouse neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongtao; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial defects including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and compromised ATP generation are featured pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated mitochondrial ROS overproduction disrupts intra-neuronal Redox balance, in turn exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal injury. Previous studies have found the beneficial effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury in AD animal and cell models, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS scavengers hold promise for the treatment of this neurological disorder. In this study, we have determined that mitotempo, a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant protects mitochondrial function from the toxicity of Aβ in primary cultured neurons. Our results showed that Aβ-promoted mitochondrial superoxide production and neuronal lipid oxidation were significantly suppressed by the application of mitotempo. Moreover, mitotempo also demonstrated protective effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics evidenced by preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity as well as ATP production. In addition, the Aβ-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and decreased expression levels of mtDNA replication-related DNA polymerase gamma (DNA pol γ) and Twinkle were substantially mitigated by mitotempo. Therefore, our study suggests that elimination of excess mitochondrial ROS rescues mitochondrial function in Aβ-insulted neruons; and mitotempo has the potential to be a promising therapeutic agent to protect mitochondrial and neuronal function in AD. PMID:27444386

  13. Tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes via dual non-cell-autonomous functions of a Na,K-ATPase beta subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Beleggia, Filippo; Herzig, Hannah; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Wollnik, Bernd; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathways underlying tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here, we identify cooperative non-cell-autonomous functions of a single gene that together provide a novel mechanism of tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes of zebrafish embryos. A loss-of-function mutation in atp1b1a, encoding the beta subunit of a Na,K-ATPase pump, causes edema and epidermal malignancy. Strikingly, basal cell carcinogenesis only occurs when Atp1b1a function is compromised in both the overlying periderm (resulting in compromised epithelial polarity and adhesiveness) and in kidney and heart (resulting in hypotonic stress). Blockade of the ensuing PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-NFκB-MMP9 pathway activation in basal cells, as well as systemic isotonicity, prevents malignant transformation. Our results identify hypotonic stress as a (previously unrecognized) contributor to tumor development and establish a novel paradigm of tumor suppression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14277.001 PMID:27240166

  14. Observation on beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: o study the pancreatic islets β-cell function in type 2 diabitic patients through the changes of parameters of β-cell function and the effects of plasma glucose levels on insulin secretion function in subjects with different blood glucos levels. ethods:A total of 172 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 controls were enrolled to take oral 75g glucose tolerance test and insulin releasing test (TRT). These patients were of four groups based upon their fasting insulin levels group A fasting low insulin (30/ΔG30). Basic insulin secretion index (HOMA β) and modified β-cell function index (MBCI) were calculated. Results:Insulin levels in group A, B, C, D were significantly different from those of controls (P30/ΔG30) between group A and group B. There were significant difference in MBCI between group C and group D. There was significant difference in HOMA β between group A and group B as well as between group C and group D. The ΔI30/ΔG30 was positively correlated with HOMA β in all groups however, ΔI30/ΔG30 was not correlated with BCI. Conclusion:ΔI30/ΔG30, MBCI and HOMA may be used to evaluate β-cell function. Both the insulin release test and glucose tolerance test should be performed before treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen bonding strength of diblock copolymers affects the self-assembled structures with octa-functionalized phenol POSS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Syuan; Yu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chih; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the functional groups by the diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) on their blends with octa-functionalized phenol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OP-POSS) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The relative hydrogen bonding strengths in these blends follow the order PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS based on the Kwei equation from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that the morphologies of the self-assembly structures are strongly dependent on the hydrogen bonding strength at relatively higher OP-POSS content. The PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS hybrid complex system with the strongest hydrogen bonds shows the order-order transition from lamellae to cylinders and finally to body-centered cubic spheres upon increasing OP-POSS content. However, PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS and PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS hybrid complex systems, having relatively weaker hydrogen bonds, transformed from lamellae to cylinder structures at lower OP-POSS content (50 wt%). PMID:26781581

  16. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  17. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...

  18. Functional-task exercise versus resistance strength exercise to improve daily function in older women : A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, MM; van Meeteren, NLU; Duursma, SA; Verhaar, HJJ; de Vreede, P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a functional-task exercise program and a resistance exercise program have different effects on the ability of community-living older people to perform daily tasks. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Community leisure center in Utrecht, the

  19. Anomalies, Beta Functions, and SGUT's with Higher-Dimensional Higgs Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimal Higgs sectors of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SGUT's) can be extended by introducing higher dimensional (anomaly free) representations. We have found models with different anomaly free combinations of SU(5) representations which are different in terms or their β functions. It is also interesting to consider the RGE effect associated with the Yukawa coupling that involve the additional Higgs representations. In order to do this we shall consider the 2-loop β functions for the gauge coupling, but will keep only the 1-loop RGE for the new Yukawa couplings, in a SU(5) SGUT model.

  20. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  1. Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, H.; Henry, L.; Messer, D. J.; Ronnberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but belo...

  2. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    OpenAIRE

    Pua Yong-Hao; Ong Peck-Hoon; Chong Hwei-Chi; Yeo William; Tan Celia; Lo Ngai-Nung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM) are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoper...

  3. Studies of the variability of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta / TCF2) and the dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DcoH / PCBD) genes in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus and beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Grarup, N; Urhammer, S A; Gaede, P H; Drivsholm, T; Borch-Johnsen, K; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O

    2001-01-01

    mutations in HNF-1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of MODY or late-onset diabetes with and without nephropathy in Danish Caucasians we examined the HNF-1beta (TCF2) and the dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DCoH, PCBD) genes for mutations in 11 MODY probands, 28 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy...

  4. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  5. Comparison of the effects of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides on pulmonary function in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of pulmonary function in representative groups of dogs developing nonneoplastic lung disease, after single inhalation exposures to cerium-144 or plutonium-238 in relatively insoluble particulate forms, were compared. The inhaled particles had similar aerodynamic diameters and effective half-lives of retention in the lung. The mean initial lung burdens of the 144Ce- and 238Pu-exposed groups were 51 and 0.65 μCi/kg of body weight, respectively. Because of the respective ranges of the beta emissions from 144Ce and the alpha emissions from 238Pu, the lungs of the 144Ce-exposed dogs were relatively uniformly irradiated, whereas only approximately 6% of the lung tissue of rates to the 238Pu-exposed dogs was irradiated. The calculated average dose rates to the irradiated tissue were similar for both radionuclides. Pulmonary function was measured serially without sedation. Both groups developed progressive, restrictive lung disease, which ended in death from pulmonary failure. Dogs that inhaled 144Ce had an early reduction of CO diffusing capacity followed by a progressive mechanical and gas-exchange impairment similar to that reported for dogs and men exposed to external irradiation. Dogs that inhaled 238Pu had increased respiratory frequencies which often persisted for months before mechanical and gas-exchange abnormalities became evident

  6. Concurrent assessments of lower limb loading patterns, mechanical muscle strength and functional performance in ACL-patients - A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, C; Mortensen, N H M; Aagaard, P

    2014-01-01

    Full recovery in muscle strength and functional performance may not be achieved after ACL-injury. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate loading patterns during jumping, muscle function and functional performance in ACL-reconstructed patients and to investigate the origin of between...

  7. Beta-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca G Baez-Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Blanca G Baez-Duarte1,3, María Del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén3†, Ricardo Pérez-Fuentes2,3, Irma Zamora-Ginez1,3, Bertha Alicia Leon-Chavez1, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve4, Sergio Islas-Andrade41Posgrado en Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México; 2Facultad de Medicina, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Oriente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Atlixco, Puebla, México; 4Multidiciplinary Research Group on Diabetes (José Sánchez-Corona, Fernando Guerrero-Romero, Martha Rodriguez-Moran, Agustin Madero, Jorge Escobedo-de-la-Peña, Silvia Flores-Martinez, Esperanza, Martinez-Abundis, Manuel Gonzalez-Ortiz, Alberto Rascon-Pacheco, Margarita Torres-Tamayo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Distrito Federal, México; †María Del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén passed away on 27 November 2009.Aims: The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects.Material and methods: This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1 control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2 group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out.Results: Average age of the

  8. beta-Function of Anderson localization transition in three dimensions at unitary symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Sanghamitra

    In recent years, with the advances in experimental techniques, the characteristic length scales of the materials synthesized, are becoming increasingly small. Many of these microscopic structures found their places in important commercial applications. However, the thermal loads imposed on these devices and structures create a major obstacle toward their applicability. This challenge is driving a renewed interest among researchers from various disciplines, toward the topic of thermal management. The interest in the topic of thermal transport in small scale structures, served as the motivation for the work performed in this dissertation. More specifically, the following topics were investigated: • Transport in One-Dimensional Nonlinear Systems: Thermal transport in materials can be explained in terms of the diffusive motion of the heat carriers at the microscopic level. An important and surprising situation emerges in some low dimensional model systems; the thermal conductivity diverges with system size. It was shown (Toda, 1979) that nonlinearity has an important effect on the heat transport in low dimensional systems. We investigate the transport of energy in a nonlinear one-dimensional chain. We show that solitons are spontaneous generated when we apply forcing functions at the end of the chain. We investigate the different characteristics of these solitons generated in the chain. • Transport in Fluids --- Study of Pair Distribution Function: Thermal transport in fluids depends on the distribution of particles in the fluid. It is well known that the two-particle distribution function can describe most of the thermodynamic properties for classical fluids in thermal equilibrium. We review the approximate integral equation theories (Percus-Yevick, Hypernetted chain approximation) to obtain the pair distribution functions of classical fluids. We find that these methods are highly dependent on the choice of the thermodynamic parameters of the fluid. We solve

  9. Integrins (alpha7beta1) in muscle function and survival. Disrupted expression in merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vachon, P H; Xu, H; Liu, L;

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in genes coding for dystrophin, for alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-sarcoglycans, or for the alpha2 chain of the basement membrane component merosin (laminin-2/4) cause various forms of muscular dystrophy. Analyses of integrins showed an abnormal expression and localization of alpha7beta1...

  10. SUSY non-Abelian gauge models: exact beta function from one loop of perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating the exact β function (to all orders in the coupling constant) proposed earlier in supersymmetric electrodynamics is extended. The starting point is the observation that the low-energy effective action is exhausted by one loop provided that the theory is regularized supersymmetrically both in the ultraviolet and infrared domains in four dimensions. The Pouli-Villars method of the ultraviolet regularization is used. Two methods for the infrared regularization are considered. The first one - quantization in a box with a finite volume L3 - is universally applicable to anygauge theory. The second method is based on the effective Higgs mechanism for mass generation and requires the presence of certain matter superfields in the lagrangian. Within this method the necessary condition is the existence of flat directions, so called valeys, along which the vacuum energy vanishes. The theory is quantized near epsilon non-vanishing value of the scalar field from the bottom of the valley. After calculating the one-loop effective action one and the same exact expression is obtained for the β function within the both approaches, and it also coincides with our earlier result extracted from instanton calculus. A few remarks on the problem of anomalies in SUSY gauge theories are presented

  11. EFFECTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISES AND COMPLEX DECONGESTIVE THERAPY ON ARM FUNCTION AND MUSCULAR STRENGTH IN BREAST CANCER RELATED LYMPHEDEMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, J H; Kim, W; Cho, Y K; Lee, J; Song, E J; Chun, Y M; Jeon, J Y

    2015-12-01

    The incorporation of resistance exercises into the lifestyle of patients with lymphedema is understudied and an emerging interest. We investigated the effectiveness and results of adding a moderate intensity resistance exercise program for 8 weeks in conjunction with intensive CDT for 1 or 2 weeks (depending on severity) on arm volume, arm function, QOL, and muscular strength in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. This prospective, pilot trial included forty-four patients with a history of breast cancer who were beginning complex decongestive therapy for lymphedema. They were assigned to either the intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 22). groups. The intervention comprised of resis- tance band exercises 5 times a week for 8 weeks. These were initially supervised during the intensive lymphedema treatment, but performed independently during the study period. Limb volume, muscular strength, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC-Breast Cancer-Specific QOL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the intervention group demonstrated statistically significant differences (p cancer related lymphedema during and shortly post intensive CDT lymphedema treatment. PMID:27164764

  12. Calculation of Gamow-Teller #betta#-strength functions in the Rubidium region in the RPA approximation with Nilsson model wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate allowed Gamow-Teller and, in a few cases, Fermi #betta#strength functions in a model that is applicable to studies of nuclei throughout the periodic system. For our first study we have selected a sequence of rubidium isotopes, namely 8937Rb - 9937Rb. We develop a model that use calculated Nilsson model wave functions, spherical or deformed, as the case may be, as the starting point for determining the wave functions of the mother and daughter nuclei in the #betta# decay. Pairing is treated in the BCS approximation. To account for the retardation of low-energy GT-decay rates we add, as is customarily done, a simple residual interaction specific to GT decay, namely V sub (GT)=:#betta#-1 x #betta#1:, to the Hamiltonian. This residual interaction is treated in the RPA approximation. The strength of the interaction is adjusted to get agreement between the calculated and experimental energy of the giant Gamow-Teller resonance for 208Pb and 144Sm. Since the present model is based on calculated wave functions and single-particle levels, studies of nuclei far from stability, where little experimental information is available, are more straightforward relative to calculations where experimental levels are used. The model can treat deformed nuclei employing wave functions calculated to desired accuracy, within the framework of the model, for the deformed single-particle well. The calcualtions show that use of single-particle parameters appropriate to the region studied and taking deformation into account is important. We find good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra over the region studied, provided an appropriate choice of single-particle parameters and deformation is made. (Authors)

  13. Calculation of Gamow-Teller β-strength functions in the rubidium region in the RPA approximation with Nilsson-model wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate allowed Gamow-Teller and, in a few cases, Fermi β-strength functions in a model that is applicable to studies of nuclei throughout the periodic system. For our first study we have selected a sequence of rubidium isotopes, namely 3789Rb-3799Rb. We develop a model that uses calculated Nilsson-model wave functions, spherical or deformed, as the case may be, as the starting point for determining the wave functions of the mother and daughter nuclei in the β-decay. Pairings is treated in the BCS approximation. To account for the retardation of low-energy GT decay rates we add, as is customarily done, a simple residual interaction specific to GT decay, namely Vsub(GT)=:β1-β1+:; to the hamiltonian. This residual interaction is treated in the RPA approximation. The strength of the interaction is adjusted to get agreement between the calculated and experimental energy of the giant Gamow-Teller resonance for 208Pb and 144Sm. Since the present model is based on calculated wave functions and single-particle levels, studies of nuclei far from stability, where little experimental information is available, are more straightforward relative to calculations where 'experimental' levels are used. The model can treat deformed nuclei employing wave functions calculated to desired accuracy, within the framework of the model, for the deformed single-particle well. The calculations show that use of single-particle parameters appropriate to the region studied and taking deformation into account is important. We find good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra over the region studied, provided an appropriate choice of single-particle parameters and deformation is made. (orig.)

  14. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  15. Assessment of Beta-Cell Function During Pregnancy and after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova M. P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess β-cell function using homeostasis model (HOMA-B and disposition index (DI in pregnant women with/without gestational diabetes, and after delivery. A total of 102 pregnant women between 24-28 gestational weeks (53 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and 49 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 22 GDM postpartum women (8-12 weeks after delivery were included in the study. All postpartum women had a history of GDM. HOMA indexes (insulin resistance - HOMA-IR and HOMA-B for assessing β-cell function were calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. To estimate insulin secretion independent of insulin sensitivity, DI was calculated using glucose and insulin levels at 0 and 60 min during the course of a 2 h 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. In GDM pregnant women HOMA-B was significantly lower compared to NGT women (p = 0.017, but there was no significant difference compared to women after birth (NS. There was difference between NGT and postpartum women (p < 0.05. DI was significantly lower for GDM pregnant women in comparison to NGT and postpartum women (p < 0.0001; p = 0.011, between NGT and women after birth (p < 0.04. In our study, comparison of НОМА-В in NGT and GDM pregnant women demonstrated that the OR of developing GDM was 0.989 (95% CI, 0.980-0.998, P = 0.013, and comparison of DI in healthy pregnant and GDM showed that the OR of developing GDM was 0.967 (95% CI, 0.947-0.988, P = 0.002. Therefore, HOMA-B and DI appear to be protective factors in the risk of developing GDM. According to our results, assessment of β-cell function, using HOMA-B and DI, showed that they are lower in GDM than NGT group and postpartum women. It is important to note that HOMA-B did not show significant difference between GDM pregnant and women after delivery with a history for GDM. We assume that pregnant women with GDM have a pancreatic β-cell defect that remains after birth. These women

  16. Beta function in the non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the structure of the renormalization group in non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model up to 1-loop order. The model is not perturbatively renormalizable in the usual power counting sense, but it is treated as an effective theory, valid in a scale of energy in which p<<Λ, where p is the external momenta of the loop and Λ is a massive parameter that characterizes the couplings of the nonrenormalizable vertex. We clarify the tensorial structure of the interaction vertices and calculate the functions of the renormalization group. The analysis of the fixed points of the theory is also presented using Zimmermann's procedure for reducing the coupling constants. We find that the origin is an infrared-stable fixed point at low energies and also there is a nontrivial ultraviolet stable fixed point, indicating that the theory could be perturbatively investigated in the low momentum regime.

  17. Fabrication of beta-PVDF membranes by track etching and specific functionalization of nano-pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)(β-PVDF) nano-porous membranes were made by chemical revealing of tracks induced from swift heavy ions irradiation. Pore opening and radii can be varied in a controllable manner with the etching time. nano-pores size in nano-meter scale (from 12 nm to 50 nm) appears to be linearly dependent to the etching time. It was then necessary to adapt the characterization tools to these membranes. Consequently, we resorted to the use of structural analysis methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and developed evaluation methods of the membranes transport properties like gas permeation and ionic diffusion. Results obtained confirm the pores opening (break through) and the hydrophobicity of material, which we have modified with hydrophilic molecules. In this precise case, the grafting of acrylic acid was initiated by the radicals still remains after track-etching (called radio-grafting). This key result was obtained by a study of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The labelling of introduced chemical functionalities with fluorescent probes was a very effective mean to visualize very few amounts of molecules by confocal microscopy. The radio-grafting was found specifically localized inside etched tracks. The protocol offers the possibility to create a double functionality, the one localized inside the nano-pores and the other on the surface of membranes. The modification of radio-grafting parameters (the acrylic acid concentration, solvent nature, use of transfer agent) and the chemical properties of the nano-pore walls have a direct incidence on the transport properties. (author)

  18. Functional Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Oxygen Consumption Predict Mortality in Patients with Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini Pereira, José Leonardo; Galant, Lucas Homercher; Rossi, Danusa; Telles da Rosa, Luis Henrique; Garcia, Eduardo; de Mello Brandão, Ajácio Bandeira; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Liver diseases influence musculoskeletal functions and may negatively affect the exercise capacity of patients with cirrhosis. Aim. To test the relationship between the six-minute walk test (6MWT), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and exercise capacity (VO2peak) measures and the survival rate of patients with cirrhosis. Methods. This prospective cohort study consisted of 86 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis with the following aetiology: hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and/or alcoholic cirrhosis (AC). All patients were followed up for three years and submitted to the 6MWT, pressure measurements with a compound gauge, and an exercise test (VO2peak). Results. The survival analysis showed that the individuals who covered a distance shorter than 410 m during the 6MWT had a survival rate of 55% compared with a rate of 97% for the individuals who walked more than 410 m (p = 0.0001). Individuals with MIPs below -70 cmH2O had a survival rate of 62% compared with a rate of 93% for those with MIPs above -70 cmH2O (p = 0.0001). The patients with values below 17 mL/kg had a survival rate of 55% compared with a rate of 94% for those with values above 17 mL/kg (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. The 6MWT distance, MIP, and oxygen consumption are predictors of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:27559536

  19. Functional Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Oxygen Consumption Predict Mortality in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Faustini Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver diseases influence musculoskeletal functions and may negatively affect the exercise capacity of patients with cirrhosis. Aim. To test the relationship between the six-minute walk test (6MWT, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP, and exercise capacity (VO2peak measures and the survival rate of patients with cirrhosis. Methods. This prospective cohort study consisted of 86 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis with the following aetiology: hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and/or alcoholic cirrhosis (AC. All patients were followed up for three years and submitted to the 6MWT, pressure measurements with a compound gauge, and an exercise test (VO2peak. Results. The survival analysis showed that the individuals who covered a distance shorter than 410 m during the 6MWT had a survival rate of 55% compared with a rate of 97% for the individuals who walked more than 410 m (p = 0.0001. Individuals with MIPs below −70 cmH2O had a survival rate of 62% compared with a rate of 93% for those with MIPs above −70 cmH2O (p = 0.0001. The patients with values below 17 mL/kg had a survival rate of 55% compared with a rate of 94% for those with values above 17 mL/kg (p = 0.0001. Conclusion. The 6MWT distance, MIP, and oxygen consumption are predictors of mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

  20. A pervasive assessment of motor function: a lightweight grip strength tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghoon Ivan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Mortazavi, Bobak Jack; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2013-11-01

    With the growing cost associated with the diagnosis and treatment of chronic neuro-degenerative diseases, the design and development of portable monitoring systems becomes essential. Such portable systems will allow for early diagnosis of motor function ability and provide new insight into the physical characteristics of ailment condition. This paper introduces a highly mobile and inexpensive monitoring system to quantify upper-limb performance for patients with movement disorders. With respect to the data analysis, we first present an approach to quantify general motor performance using the introduced sensing hardware. Next, we propose an ailment-based analysis which employs a significant-feature identification algorithm to perform cross-patient data analysis and classification. The efficacy of the proposed framework is demonstrated using real data collected through a clinical trial. The results show that the system can be utilized as a preliminary diagnostic tool to inspect the level of hand-movement performance. The ailment-based analysis performs an intergroup comparison of physiological signals for cerebral vascular accident (CVA) patients, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients, and healthy individuals. The system can classify each patient group with an accuracy of up to 95.00% and 91.42% for CVA and CIDP, respectively. PMID:24240720

  1. Factors that influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether type 1 and type 2 diabetes associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and residual beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In the second part, a pilot, non-randomized, controlled intervention trial is performed, in order to examine whether a single autologous cord blood infusion can change the natural course of metabolic and immune function in children type 1 diabetes. Di...

  2. Generation of Functional Beta-Like Cells from Human Exocrine Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria J.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Docherty, Hilary M.; McGowan, Neil W. A.; Forbes, Shareen; Heremans, Yves; Heimberg, Harry; Casey, John; Docherty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor mediated lineage reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine tissue could conceivably provide an unlimited supply of islets for transplantation in the treatment of diabetes. Exocrine tissue can be efficiently reprogrammed to islet-like cells using a cocktail of transcription factors: Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA and Pax4 in combination with growth factors. We show here that overexpression of exogenous Pax4 in combination with suppression of the endogenous transcription factor ARX considerably enhances the production of functional insulin-secreting β-like cells with concomitant suppression of α-cells. The efficiency was further increased by culture on laminin-coated plates in media containing low glucose concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed that reprogrammed cultures were composed of ~45% islet-like clusters comprising >80% monohormonal insulin+ cells. The resultant β-like cells expressed insulin protein levels at ~15–30% of that in adult human islets, efficiently processed proinsulin and packaged insulin into secretory granules, exhibited glucose responsive insulin secretion, and had an immediate and prolonged effect in normalising blood glucose levels upon transplantation into diabetic mice. We estimate that approximately 3 billion of these cells would have an immediate therapeutic effect following engraftment in type 1 diabetes patients and that one pancreas would provide sufficient tissue for numerous transplants. PMID:27243814

  3. Generation of Functional Beta-Like Cells from Human Exocrine Pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Lima

    Full Text Available Transcription factor mediated lineage reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine tissue could conceivably provide an unlimited supply of islets for transplantation in the treatment of diabetes. Exocrine tissue can be efficiently reprogrammed to islet-like cells using a cocktail of transcription factors: Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA and Pax4 in combination with growth factors. We show here that overexpression of exogenous Pax4 in combination with suppression of the endogenous transcription factor ARX considerably enhances the production of functional insulin-secreting β-like cells with concomitant suppression of α-cells. The efficiency was further increased by culture on laminin-coated plates in media containing low glucose concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed that reprogrammed cultures were composed of ~45% islet-like clusters comprising >80% monohormonal insulin+ cells. The resultant β-like cells expressed insulin protein levels at ~15-30% of that in adult human islets, efficiently processed proinsulin and packaged insulin into secretory granules, exhibited glucose responsive insulin secretion, and had an immediate and prolonged effect in normalising blood glucose levels upon transplantation into diabetic mice. We estimate that approximately 3 billion of these cells would have an immediate therapeutic effect following engraftment in type 1 diabetes patients and that one pancreas would provide sufficient tissue for numerous transplants.

  4. Immune Intervention and Preservation of Pancreatic Beta Cell Function in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kimber M; Gottlieb, Peter A; Michels, Aaron W

    2016-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells located within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The autoimmune process leads to a deficiency in insulin production and resultant hyperglycemia requiring lifelong treatment with insulin administration. T1D continues to dramatically increase in incidence, especially in young children. Substantial knowledge surrounding human disease pathogenesis exists, such that T1D is now predictable with the measurement of antibodies in the peripheral blood directed against insulin and other β cell proteins. With the ability to predict, it naturally follows that T1D should be preventable. As such, over the last two decades, numerous well-controlled clinical trials have been completed attempting to prevent diabetes onset or maintain residual β cell function after clinical onset, all providing relatively disappointing results. Here, we review the T1D prevention efforts, the current landscape of clinical therapies, and end with a discussion regarding the future outlook for preventing T1D. PMID:27558810

  5. A Density Functional Theory study of the chemical surface modification of {beta}-SiC nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvino, M.; Trejo, A.; Cuevas, J.L.; Carvajal, E.; Duchen, G.I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Irisson, M., E-mail: irisson@ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    The dependence of the electronic band structure and density of states on the chemical surface passivation of cubic porous silicon carbide (PSiC) is investigated by means of the ab-initio Density Functional Theory and the supercell method in which pores with different sizes and morphologies were created. The porous structures were modeled by removing atoms in the [0 0 1] direction producing two different surface chemistries; one with both Silicon (Si) and Carbon (C) atoms and the other with only Si or C atoms. The changes in the electronic band gap due to a Si-rich and C-rich phase in the porous surfaces are studied with two kind of surface passivation, one with hydrogen atoms and other with a combination between hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The calculations show that for the hydrogenated case, the band gap is larger for the C-rich than for the Si-rich case. For the partial oxygenation the tendency is contrary, by decreasing and increasing the band gap for the C-rich and Si-rich configuration, respectively, according to the percentage of oxygen in the pore surface.

  6. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had hematoly......Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....

  8. Fasting serum levels of ferritin are associated with impaired pancreatic beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Linéa; Ellervik, Christina; Friedrich, Nele;

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the nature of this association remains elusive. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an elevated fasting serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of type 2...... OGTT examinations. Results: The ORs for type 2 diabetes were 4.2 (95% CI 2.4, 7.2) for the highest vs the lowest quintile of serum ferritin, and 17 (95% CI 8.9, 33) for serum ferritin levels ≥97.5th percentile vs <20th percentile. Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with elevated plasma...... glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min (p < 0.001), elevated serum insulin levels at 0 and 120 min (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001), decreased beta cell function estimated as the insulinogenic index and corrected insulin response (p < 0.001), and decreased insulin sensitivity estimated by the Matsuda index of...

  9. Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, I.; Lutostansky, Yu; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2016-01-01

    For the nucleosynthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei fission becomes very important when the r-process runs in a very high neutron density environment. In part, fission is responsible for the formation of heavy nuclei due to the inclusion of fission products as new seed nuclei (fission cycling). More than that, beta-delayed fission, along with spontaneous fission, is responsible in the late stages of the r-process for the suppression of superheavy element yields. For beta-delayed fission probability calculations a model description of the beta-strength- functions is required. Extended theoretical predictions for astro-physical applications were provided long ago, and new predictions also for superheavy nuclei with uptodate nuclear input are needed. For the further extension of data to heavier transactinides the models of strength- functions should be modified, taking into account more complicated level schemes. In our present calculations the strength-function model is based on the quasi-particle approximation of Finite Fermi Systems Theory. The probabilities of beta-delayed fission and beta-delayed neutron emission are calculated for some transfermium neutron-rich nuclei, and the influence of beta-delayed fission upon superheavy element formation is discussed.

  10. Function of the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 in metastatic breast carcinoma cells assessed by expression of a dominant-negative receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, L M; Chao, C; Wewer, U M;

    1996-01-01

    : alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 1, but uses only alpha 6 beta 1 to mediate adhesion and migration on laminin matrices. To investigate the contribution of alpha 6 beta 1 to the aggressive behavior of these cells, we developed a dominant-negative strategy for knocking out alpha 6 beta 1...

  11. Beta decay properties from a statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work assumes that any intrinsic structure in the nuclei involved is not important. Only spin, parity, and energy are considered. Quantities such as half-life, average beta energy, or average gamma energy can be obtained by integrals over the beta strength function weighted by kinematic and other factors. The beta strength function is proportional to the level density multiplied by a reduced transition probability. Delayed neutron emission is calculated by assuming that the daughter is a compound nucleus which then statistically decays as in the Hauser-Feshbach approach. Using the ENDF/B-V fission product file which contains 877 nuclei, energy-dependent reduced transition probabilities were found for allowed 0+ → 1+ transitions (50 cases) and for other allowed transitions (over 600 cases), corresponding to log ft values of 4.3 and 5.6 respectively. No dependence on either transition energy or on mass was found. A reduced transition probability corresponding to log ft of 7.1 was used for first forbidden transitions. Some results are presented and discussed

  12. Beta-Blockers, Left and Right Ventricular Function, and In-Vivo Calcium Influx in Muscular Dystrophy Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Blain; Elizabeth Greally; Steve Laval; Andrew Blamire; Volker Straub; MacGowan, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are used to treat acquired heart failure in adults, though their role in early muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy is unclear. We treated 2 different dystrophic mouse models which have an associated cardiomyopathy (mdx: model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Sgcd-/-: model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F) and wild type controls (C57 Bl10) with the beta blocker metoprolol or placebo for 8 weeks at an early stage in the development of the cardiomyopathy. Left and righ...

  13. Degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function in patients with Hansen's disease with common peroneal nerve damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Sales Téles Véras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function (RMS in individuals with leprosy. METHODS: We assessed 29 individuals with leprosy showing common peroneal nerve damage and grade 1 or 2 disability who were referred for physiotherapeutic treatment, as well as a control group of 19 healthy participants without leprosy. All subjects underwent analyses of degree of disability, electromyographic tests, voluntary muscle force, and the Visual Analog Pain Scale. RESULTS: McNemar's test found higher levels of grade 2 of disability (Δ = 75.9%; p = 0.0001 among individuals with leprosy. The Mann-Whitney test showed greater pain levels (Δ = 5.0; p = 0.0001 in patients with leprosy who had less extension strength in the right and left extensor hallucis longus muscles (Δ = 1.28, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.55, p = 0.0001, respectively and dorsiflexion of the right and left feet (Δ = 1.24, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.45, p = 0.0001, respectively than control subjects. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the RMS score for dorsiflexion of the right (Δ = 181.66 m·s-2, p = 0.001 and left (Δ = 102.57m·s-2, p = 0.002 feet was lower in patients with leprosy than in control subjects, but intragroup comparisons showed no difference. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy had a negative influence on all of the study variables, indicating the need for immediate physiotherapeutic intervention in individuals with leprosy. This investigation opens perspectives for future studies that analyze leprosy treatment with physical therapeutic intervention.

  14. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Aagaard, Per; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    during a one-leg hop test and the maximum number of knee bends performed in 30 s. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to evaluate self-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Overall changes from 2 to 4 years post APM did not differ in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, and.......6 ± 5.0, BMI 24.7 ± 2.9) and 25 controls (age 46.4 ± 5.2, BMI 25.1 ± 4.6) previously examined at ~2 years post APM were examined again at ~4 years post surgery for maximal knee extensor/flexor voluntary contraction (MVC) and rapid force capacity. Functional performance was assessed by the distance achieved...... functional performance between the operated and contra-lateral leg of patients or control legs. However, secondary analysis showed a difference in change in knee extensor MVC resulting in a 6% difference between the operated and contra-lateral leg of patients at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in...

  15. Functional properties of protein from frozen mantle and fin of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in function of pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, J G; Córdova-Murueta, J H; García-Carreño, F L

    2010-10-01

    Functional properties of protein from mantle and fin of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas were explained based on microscopic muscle fiber and protein fractions profiles as observed in SDS-PAGE. Fin has higher content of connective tissue and complex fiber arrangement, and we observed higher hardness of fin gels as expected. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was found in sarcoplasmic, myofibril and soluble-in-alkali fractions of mantle and only in sarcoplasmic and soluble-in-alkali fractions of fin. An additive effect of salt concentration and pH affected the solubility and foaming properties. Fin and mantle proteins yielded similar results in solubility tests, but significant differences occurred for specific pH and concentrations of salt. Foaming capacity was proportional to solubility; foam stability was also affected by pH and salt concentration. Hardness and fracture strength of fin gels were significantly higher than mantle gels; gels from proteins of both tissues reached the highest level in the folding test. Structural and molecular properties, such as MHC and paramyosin solubility, arrangement of muscle fibers and the content of connective tissue were useful to explain the differences observed in these protein properties. High-strength gels can be formed from squid mantle or fin muscle. Fin displayed similar or better properties than mantle in all tests. PMID:21339164

  16. Polymorphisms within the novel type 2 diabetes risk locus MTNR1B determine beta-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Staiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Very recently, a novel type 2 diabetes risk gene, i.e., MTNR1B, was identified and reported to affect fasting glycemia. Using our thoroughly phenotyped cohort of subjects at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, we assessed the association of common genetic variation within the MTNR1B locus with obesity and prediabetes traits, namely impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 1,578 non-diabetic subjects, metabolically characterized by oral glucose tolerance test, for five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency > 0.05 within the MTNR1B locus (rs10830962, rs4753426, rs12804291, rs10830963, rs3781638. In a subgroup (N = 513, insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and in a further subgroup (N = 301, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. After appropriate adjustment for confounding variables and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, none of the tagging SNPs was reliably associated with measures of adiposity. SNPs rs10830962, rs4753426, and rs10830963 were significantly associated with higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations (p < 0.0001 and reduced OGTT- and IVGTT-induced insulin release (p < or = 0.0007 and p < or = 0.01, respectively. By contrast, SNP rs3781638 displayed significant association with lower fasting plasma glucose levels and increased OGTT-induced insulin release (p<0.0001 and p < or = 0.0002, respectively. Moreover, SNP rs3781638 revealed significant association with elevated fasting- and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (p < or = 0.0021. None of the MTNR1B tagging SNPs altered proinsulin-to-insulin conversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, common genetic variation within MTNR1B determines glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and plasma glucose concentrations. Their impact on beta

  17. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B; Friis-Møller, Nina; Storgaard, Heidi; Vølund, Aage; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Iversen, Johan; Madsbad, Sten

    2003-10-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were similar between study groups. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp showed an impaired glucose disposal rate (GDR) in HALS patients (5.6 v 8.3 mg glucose/min. kg(FFM), P =.0006). As demonstrated by indirect calorimetry, HALS patients showed an impaired nonoxidative glucose metabolism (NOGM, 2.2 v 4.2, P =.006), whereas levels of basal and insulin-stimulated oxidative glucose metabolism (OGM) (2.4 v 2.3, P =.55, and 3.3 v 4.0, P =.064, respectively) were not significantly different between groups. Despite comparable total fat masses, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans showed that the percentage of limb fat (ie, peripheral-fat-mass/[peripheral-fat-mass + trunk-fat-mass]. 100%) was reduced in HALS patients (36% v 46%, P =.0002). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that percentage of limb fat explained 53% of the variability of GDR and 45% of the variability of NOGM in HALS patients. In HALS patients, leg fat mass correlated positively with NOGM (r =.51, P <.05), whereas abdominal fat mass and NOGM did not correlate (P =.91). Analyzing the relationship between first phase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, 6 HALS patients compared with none of the control subjects exhibited impaired insulin secretion (P <.05). Our data suggest that fat redistribution independently of antiretroviral therapy is highly related to insulin resistance in HALS patients. Furthermore, in HALS patients, impaired glucose metabolism most likely relates to decreased NOGM and to defects in beta-cell function. PMID:14564688

  18. Experimental constraints on the $\\gamma$-ray strength function in $^{90}$Zr using partial cross sections of the $^{89}$Y(p,$\\gamma$)$^{90}$Zr reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Netterdon, L; Goriely, S; Mayer, J; Scholz, P; Spieker, M; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    Partial cross sections of the $^{89}$Y(p,$\\gamma$)$^{90}$Zr reaction have been measured to investigate the $\\gamma$-ray strength function in the neutron-magic nucleus $^{90}$Zr. For five proton energies between $E_p=3.65$ MeV and $E_p=4.70$ MeV, partial cross sections for the population of seven discrete states in $^{90}$Zr have been determined by means of in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Since these $\\gamma$-ray transitions are dominantly of $E1$ character, the present measurement allows an access to the low-lying dipole strength in $^{90}$Zr. A $\\gamma$-ray strength function based on the experimental data could be extracted, which is used to describe the total and partial cross sections of this reaction by Hauser-Feshbach calculations successfully. Significant differences with respect to previously measured strength functions from photoabsorption data point towards deviations from the Brink-Axel hypothesis relating the photo-excitation and de-excitation strength functions.

  19. Experimental constraints on the γ-ray strength function in 90Zr using partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Netterdon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction have been measured to investigate the γ-ray strength function in the neutron–magic nucleus 90Zr. For five proton energies between Ep=3.65 MeV and Ep=4.70 MeV, partial cross sections for the population of seven discrete states in 90Zr have been determined by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Since these γ-ray transitions are dominantly of E1 character, the present measurement allows an access to the low-lying dipole strength in 90Zr. A γ-ray strength function based on the experimental data could be extracted, which is used to describe the total and partial cross sections of this reaction by Hauser–Feshbach calculations successfully. Significant differences with respect to previously measured strength functions from photoabsorption data point towards deviations from the Brink–Axel hypothesis relating the photo-excitation and de-excitation strength functions.

  20. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only: a two to five-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Thomeé, Roland; Neeter, Camille;

    2008-01-01

    surgery in restoring muscle function is unclear. METHODS: Of 121 patients with ACL injury included in a randomized controlled trial on training and surgical reconstruction versus training only (the Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, NON-surgical versus surgical treatment [KANON] study, ISRCTN: 84752559...... strength or functional performance. Between 44% and 89% of subjects had normal muscle function in the single tests, and between 44% and 56% had normal function in the test batteries. CONCLUSION: The lack of differences between patients treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only......OBJECTIVE: To study muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury with or without surgical reconstruction 2 to 5 years after injury. Good muscle function is important in preventing early-onset osteoarthritis (OA), but the role of reconstructive...

  1. Assembly, intracellular processing, and expression at the cell surface of the human alpha beta T cell receptor/CD3 complex. Function of the CD3-zeta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Rubin, B

    1989-01-01

    complex, the role of the CD3 chains for the TCR/CD3 expression have not been experimentally addressed in human T cells. In this study the function of the CD3-zeta chain for the assembly, intracellular processing, and expression of the TCR/CD3 complex in the human leukemic T cell line Jurkat was......The TCR/CD3 complex is a multimeric protein complex composed of a minimum of seven transmembrane chains (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta 2). Whereas earlier studies have demonstrated that both the TCR-alpha and -beta chains are required for the cell surface expression of the TCR/CD3...... investigated. The results indicate that: 1) CD3-zeta is required for the cell surface expression of the TCR/CD3 complex; 2) the pentameric form (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon) of the TCR/CD3 complex and single TCR chains associated with CD3 (TCR alpha-CD3 gamma delta epsilon and TCR beta-CD3 gamma...

  2. Top-Yukawa effects on the $\\beta$-function of the strong coupling in the SM at four-loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Zoller, M F

    2015-01-01

    We present analytical results for the QCD $\\beta$-function extended to the gaugeless limit of the unbroken phase of the Standard Model at four-loop level. Apart from the strong coupling itself we include the top-Yukawa contribution and the Higgs self-coupling. We observe a non-naive $\\gamma_5$ contribution at order $y_t^4 g_s^4$, a feature not encountered in lower loop orders.

  3. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan M

    2016-01-01

    Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a res...

  4. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a...

  5. Improved pancreatic beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients after lifestyle-induced weight loss is related to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of insulin secretion is critical for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exercise and diet can alter glucose-induced insulin responses, but whether this is due to changes in beta-cell function per se is not clear. The mechanisms by which lifestyle intervention may modify insulin secretion...... in type 2 diabetes have also not been examined but may involve the incretin axis....

  6. Parameters Measuring Beta-Cell Function Are Only Valuable in Diabetic Subjects with Low Body Mass Index, High Blood Glucose Level, or Long-Standing Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Won; Lee, Sangheun; Kim, Se Hwa; Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Byung Soo; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Lee, Min Kyung; Koh, Won Jun; Kang, Won Sik; Kim, Hyeong Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify the most precise and clinically practicable parameters that predict future oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) failure in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to determine whether these parameters are valuable in various subgroups. Materials and Methods We took fasting blood samples from 231 patients for laboratory data and standard breakfast tests for evaluation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were tested, and we collected...

  7. Strength functions for transfer of a neutron-proton pair on 82Se, 96Mo, 116Cd and 128Te nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the calculation of strength functions for neutron-proton pair transfer on 82Se, 96Mo, 116Cd and 128Te even-even nuclei. We study 1+ states, which are a part of the Gamow-Teller (GT) giant resonances in neighboring odd-odd nuclei, excited via the neutron-proton pair transfer on even-even parent nuclei. The main result of this work is to find these states using strength functions. Calculations have been made only in the particle-particle channel of charge-exchange spin-spin forces via the random phase approximation (RPA).

  8. Gamma strength function and level densities of $^{208}$Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bassauer, S; Tamii, A

    2016-01-01

    Gamma strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 data base for the case of $^{208}$Pb. The upward GSF and LDs in $^{208}$Pb are compared to gamma decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. The E1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at RCNP, Osaka, Japan. Total LDs in $^{208}$Pb are derived from $1^-$ LDs extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. The E1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 data base showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known s...

  9. Improved function and proliferation of adult human beta cells engrafted in diabetic immunodeficient NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice treated with alogliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczyk A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agata Jurczyk,1 Philip diIorio,1 Dean Brostowin,1 Linda Leehy,1 Chaoxing Yang,1 Fumihiko Urano,2 David M Harlan,3 Leonard D Shultz,4 Dale L Greiner,1 Rita Bortell1 1Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 2Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 3Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 4The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA Purpose: Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are known to increase insulin secretion and beta cell proliferation in rodents. To investigate the effects on human beta cells in vivo, we utilize immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets. The study goal was to determine the efficacy of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, to enhance human beta cell function and proliferation in an in vivo context using diabetic immunodeficient mice engrafted with human pancreatic islets. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG mice were transplanted with adult human islets in three separate trials. Transplanted mice were treated daily by gavage with alogliptin (30 mg/kg/day or vehicle control. Islet graft function was compared using glucose tolerance tests and non-fasting plasma levels of human insulin and C-peptide; beta cell proliferation was determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation. Results: Glucose tolerance tests were significantly improved by alogliptin treatment for mice transplanted with islets from two of the three human islet donors. Islet-engrafted mice treated with alogliptin also had significantly higher plasma levels of human insulin and C-peptide compared to vehicle controls. The percentage of insulin+BrdU+ cells in human islet grafts from alogliptin-treated mice was approximately 10-fold more than from vehicle control mice, consistent with a significant increase in human beta cell proliferation. Conclusion: Human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice

  10. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD and multiple system atrophy (MSA versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. METHODS: Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS separately as diagnosed. RESULTS: Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (p<0.05. Diffusing capacity was decreased in the MSA group, compared with PD and normal elderly control groups (p<0.05. Respiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (p<0.05. The values representing spirometry function and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  11. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Humby, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Beller, J.; Bernards, C.; Crider, B. P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Löher, B.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-05-01

    A series of photon scattering experiments has been performed on the double-beta decay partners 76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  12. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  13. Leading QCD-induced four-loop contributions to the $\\beta$-function of the Higgs self-coupling in the SM and vacuum stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, K G

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical results for the leading top-Yukawa and QCD contribution to the $\\beta$-function for the Higgs self-coupling $\\lambda$ of the Standard Model at four-loop level, namely the part $\\propto y_t^4 g_s^6$. We also give the contribution $\\propto y_t^2 g_s^6$ of the anomalous dimension of the Higgs field as well as the terms $\\propto y_t g_s^8$ to the top-Yukawa $\\beta$-function which can also be derived from the anomalous dimension of the top quark mass. Together with the recently computed top-Yukawa and QCD contributions to $\\beta_{g_s}$ these constitute the leading four-loop contributions to the evolution of the Higgs self-coupling. A numerical estimate of these terms at the scale of the top-quark mass is presented as well as an analysis of the impact on the evolution of $\\lambda$ up to the Planck scale and the vacuum stability problem.

  14. Improved drug delivery properties of PVDF membranes functionalized with beta-cyclodextrin--application to guided tissue regeneration in periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschin, F; Blanchemain, N; Bria, M; Delcourt-Debruyne, E; Morcellet, M; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a membrane for guided tissue regeneration applicable in periodontology that could release antimicrobial agent during the healing period. Our strategy consisted to graft beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), a molecule that is known to form inclusion complexes with a large variety of drugs, onto PVDF membranes. Grafting occurred by using citric acid that provoked a crosslinking reaction of beta-CD, and the resulting polymer was imprisoned into the porous structure of the PVDF membrane. The reaction produced a weight increase of the membrane, the range of which depended on the temperature and on the time of curing applied in the process. The biological behavior of the membranes evaluated by proliferation and vitality tests showed good proliferation and improved activity of L132 epithelial cells on the raw and on the grafted membranes. Doxycyclin (DOX) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were used as antimicrobial agents. Their inclusion into the beta-CD cavity in aqueous solutions was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. After the impregnation of the membranes with DOX and CHX, their release was studied in vitro in batch type experiments and measured by UV spectrophotometry. Low amounts of DOX and CHX were delivered from the raw membranes within the first few hours of tests. Grafted membranes, however, delivered DOX and CHX in larger quantities within 24 h and 10 days respectively. PMID:16758457

  15. Oral salmon calcitonin attenuates hyperglycaemia and preserves pancreatic beta-cell area and function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Andreassen, K V; Neutzsky-Wulff, A V;

    2012-01-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT), a dual-action amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, improved glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats. Here, we have evaluated the anti-diabetic efficacy of oral sCT using parameters of glycaemic control and beta-cell morphology in male Zucker diabetic fatty...

  16. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Arazi; Hadi Rohani; Ahmad Ghiasi; Nasrin Abdi Keikanloo

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated i...

  17. Functional interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha and Mef-2C on human carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1beta (CPT1beta) gene activation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldán Aranda, Ángel; Relat Pardo, Joana; Marrero González, Pedro F.; Haro Bautista, Diego

    2004-01-01

    Muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1β) is considered to be the gene that controls fatty acid mitochondrial β-oxidation. A functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive element (PPRE) and a myocite-specific (MEF2) site that binds MEF2A and MEF2C in the promoter of this gene had been previously identified. We investigated the roles of the PPRE and the MEF2 binding sites and the potential interaction between PPARα and MEF2C regulating the CPT1β gene promot...

  18. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-rando

  19. Imidazolium-Functionalized Anion Exchange Polymer Electrolytes with High Tensile Strength and Stability for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports novel kinds of high tensile strength alkaline anion-exchange membranes composed of imidazolium-functionalized anion exchange polymer electrolytes. The membranes were prepared by a combined thermal and chemical cross-linking of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (3-methyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride)-co-(1-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMVIC-co-VP). Characterizations by AC impedance technique, mechanical property, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), along with the water uptake, alkaline resistance and oxidation stability were carried out on the membranes consisting of different PVA/PVA-PMVIC-co-VP mass ratios to evaluate their applicability in alkaline fuel cells. The membrane in a mass ratio of 1:0.4 exhibited high tensile stress at break in the range of 59.3∼76.6 MPa, and the elongation at break around 9.2∼14.9%, depending on the annealing temperature from 130∼190 °C. The OH− conductivity of the membranes was found to be increased with increasing annealing temperature and mass ratio, and reached high up to 1.7 × 10−2 S cm−1. Besides, the membranes showed perfect oxidation stability in 30% H2O2 for 250 hours with no obvious weight loss was observed. XPS analysis indicated that some degradation occurred when the membrane was exposed to 8 M KOH at 85 °C for 312 h, but no lessened OH− conductivity was detected. SEM pictures revealed an ordered microvoid structure with pore size ca. 100∼150 nm uniformly dispersed on the membrane surface, which imparted the PVA/PVA-PMVIC-co-VP membrane with good OH− conductivity

  20. Abnormal Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength Findings in Chinese Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy–Comparison with Normal Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Methods P...

  1. Carriers of loss-of-function mutations in EXT display impaired pancreatic beta-cell reserve due to smaller pancreas volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J Bernelot Moens

    Full Text Available Exotosin (EXT proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME. Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development and beta-cell function, and genetic variations in EXT2 are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that loss of function of EXT1 or EXT2 in subjects with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME affects pancreatic insulin secretion capacity and development. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT followed by hyperglycemic clamps to investigate first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in HME patients and age and gender matched non-affected relatives. Pancreas volume was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. OGTT did not reveal significant differences in glucose disposal, but there was a markedly lower GSIS in HME subjects during hyperglycemic clamp (iAUC HME: 0.72 [0.46-1.16] vs. controls 1.53 [0.69-3.36] nmol·l-1·min-1, p<0.05. Maximal insulin response following arginine challenge was also significantly attenuated (iAUC HME: 7.14 [4.22-10.5] vs. controls 10.2 [7.91-12.70] nmol·l-1·min-1 p<0.05, indicative of an impaired beta-cell reserve. MRI revealed a significantly smaller pancreatic volume in HME subjects (HME: 72.0±15.8 vs. controls 96.5±26.0 cm3 p = 0.04. In conclusion, loss of function of EXT proteins may affect beta-cell mass and insulin secretion capacity in humans, and render subjects at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes when exposed to environmental risk factors.

  2. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubici...

  3. Function of glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha2beta1 in the procoagulant response of single, collagen-adherent platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, J W; Siljander, P; Vuist, W M; Breikers, G; Reutelingsperger, C P; Barnes, M J; Knight, C G; Lassila, R; Farndale, R W

    1999-05-01

    Various collagen-based materials were used to assess the structural requirements of collagen for inducing the procoagulant response of adhering platelets, as well as the collagen receptors involved. Cross-linked or monomeric collagen-related peptide (CRP), Gly-Cys-Hyp-(Gly-Pro-Hyp)10-Gly-Cys-Hyp-Gly was highly adhesive for platelets in a glycoprotein VI-(GpVI-)dependent manner. Adhesion was followed by a prolonged increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]i, formation of membrane blebs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and generation of prothrombinase-stimulating activity. Fibrils of type-I collagen were less adhesive but, once adhered, many of the platelets presented a full procoagulant response. Monomeric type-I collagen was unable to support adhesion, unless Mg(2+)-dependent integrin alpha2beta1 interactions were facilitated by omission of Ca2+ ions. With all surfaces, however, post-addition of CaCl2 to adhering platelets resulted in a potent Ca(2+)-influx signal, followed by PS exposure and bleb formation. The procoagulant response elicited by binding to CRP was inhibited by anti-GpVI Fab fragments, but not by impeding integrin alpha2beta1-mediated events. With fibrillar collagen, it was inhibited by blocking either the GpVI- or integrin alpha2beta1-mediated interactions. This suggests that the triple-helical Gly-Pro-Hyp repeat in CRP and analogous sequences in fibrillar collagen stimulate the procoagulant response of adherent platelets by acting as ligands for GpVI. Influx of Ca2+ is required for this response, and adhesion via integrin alpha2beta1 serves to potentiate the signaling effects of GpVI. PMID:10365754

  4. The spoiled QCD $\\beta$-function factorization property of the generalized Crewther relation in the 't Hooft $\\bar{MS}$-based scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Garkusha, A V

    2011-01-01

    We apply the 't Hooft $\\bar{MS}$-based scheme to study the scheme-dependence of the QCD generalization of Crewther relation for the product of the normalized non-singlet perturbative contributions to the $e^+e^-$-annihilation Adler function and to the Bjorken sum rule of the polarized lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering process. We prove that the $\\bar{MS}$-scheme characteristic property of this relation, namely the factorization of the $\\beta$-function in its conformal symmetry breaking part, is spoiled by the transformations from the pure $\\bar{MS}$-scheme to the 't Hooft scheme. Another "non-comfortable" theoretical consequence of the application of this prescription in $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY QED model is mentioned. The utilization of the 't Hooft scheme for simplifying the expansions of Green functions in terms of the Lambert function in high orders of perturbation theory is discussed.

  5. A functional polymorphism in the interleukin-1beta and severity of nicotine dependence in male schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Yun-Long; Tan, Shu-ping; Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Rao, Wenwang; Yu, Qiong; Kou, Changgui; Allen, Melissa; Correll, Christoph U; Wu, Jingqin; Soares, Jair C

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the functional 511C/T polymorphism in the IL-1beta-gene may be implicated in the susceptibility for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent studies suggested that IL-1 participates in the progression of lung disease in smokers, which are overrepresented in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the IL-1beta-511C/T polymorphism and smoking behavior in schizophrenia versus healthy controls in a Chinese population. The IL-1beta-511C/T polymorphism was genotyped in 638 male patients with chronic schizophrenia (smoker/never-smoker = 486/152) and 469 male controls (smoker/never-smoker = 243/226). The cigarettes smoked per day, the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) and the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence (FTND) were assessed. Patients were also rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The results showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distribution between patients and controls, and between smokers and never-smokers in either the patient or control group. However, in patients, smokers with the C/C genotype had significantly higher HSI (p smoking status in Chinese individuals, but may affect the severity of nicotine dependence among male smokers with schizophrenia. PMID:25858413

  6. Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, M E; Dinesen, B; Hartling, S G;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease in which both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are pathogenetic factors. Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia (elevated proinsulin/insulin) is another abnormality in type 2 diabetes whose mechanism is unknown. Increased demand due to...... obesity and/or insulin resistance may result in secretion of immature beta-cell granules with a higher content of intact proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of obesity on beta-cell secretion in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients by measuring intact proinsulin...... diabetic patients matched for fasting glucose (10.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l) were compared with age- and BMI-matched lean (22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) (LC) and obese (30.8 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) (OC) normal control subjects. RESULTS: Diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC) had elevated fasting levels of intact...

  7. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  8. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass was...

  9. Effect of Exercise Therapy Compared with Arthroscopic Surgery on Knee Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Patients with Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 12-wk exercise therapy program and arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on knee strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears. DESIGN: A total of 82 patients (mean age, 49 yrs; 35% women...... initiation were isokinetic knee muscle strength, lower extremity performance, and self-reported global rating of change. RESULTS: Mean difference in isokinetic knee extension peak torque between the two groups was 16% (95% confidence interval, 7.1-24.0) (P < 0.0001), favoring the exercise group. Patients in......) with a symptomatic, unilateral, magnetic resonance imaging-verified degenerative meniscus tear and no or mild radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a supervised neuromuscular and strength exercise program or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Outcomes assessed 3 mos after intervention...

  10. Strength Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person's own weight to build muscles and strength. Olympic lifting, or powerlifting, which people often think of ... in the group effectively. Here are some basic rules to follow in strength training: Start with body ...

  11. The four-loop renormalization group QCD and QED $\\beta$-functions in the $V$-scheme and their analogy with the Gell-Mann--Low function in QED and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2015-01-01

    The semi-analytical expression for the forth coefficient of the renormalization group $\\beta$-function in the ${\\rm{V}}$-scheme is obtained in the case of the $SU(N_c)$ gauge group. In the process of calculations we use the three-loop perturbative approximation for the QCD static potential, evaluated in the $\\rm{\\overline{MS}}$-scheme. The importance of getting more detailed expressions for the $n_f$-independent three-loop contribution to the static potential,obtained at present by two groups, is emphasised. The comparison of the numerical structure of the four-loop approximations for the RG $\\beta$- function of QCD in the gauge-independent ${\\rm{V}}$- and $\\rm{\\overline{MS}}$-schemes and in the minimal MOM scheme in the Landau gauge are presented. Considering the limit of QED with $N$-types of leptons we discover that the $\\beta^{\\rm{V}}$-function is starting to differ from the Gell-Mann--Low function $\\Psi(\\alpha_{\\rm{MOM}})$ at the level of the forth-order perturbative corrections, receiving the proportion...

  12. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  13. Influence of functional groups on the C{sub {alpha}-}C{sub {beta}}chain of L-phenylalanine and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Aravindhan [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Brunger, Michael [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Wang Feng, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.a [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2010-07-21

    L-phenylalanine (L-phe) consists of three different functional groups, i.e., phenyl, carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH{sub 2}), joining through the C{sub {alpha}-}C{sub {beta}}bridge. Substitution of these groups produces 2-phenethylamine (PEA) and 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA). Electronic structures of L-phe, PEA and PPA together with smaller 'fragments' L-alanine and benzene were determined using density functional theory (DFT), from which core and valence shell ionization spectra were simulated. Comparison of the spectra reveals that core shell ionization energies clearly indicate that the carbon bridge is significantly affected by their functional group substitutions particularly at the C{sub {alpha}}site. In the valence space, quite unexpectedly, the frontier orbitals are concentrated on the benzene group although some energy splitting is observed. The orbitals which significantly affect the C{sub {alpha}-}C{sub {beta}}carbon backbone are from the inner valence shell in the ionization energy region of 20-26 eV of the molecules.

  14. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes

  15. Closed-form expressions for moments of a class of beta generalized distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Gauss M.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, we derive explicit closed-form expressions for moments of some beta generalized distributions including the beta gamma, beta normal, beta beta, beta Student t and beta F distributions. These expressions are given as infinite weighted sums of well-known special functions for which numerical routines for computation are available.

  16. The effects of aerobic and strength exercises on pulmonary function tests and quality of life in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesharaki M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Asthma is a major health condition in Iran. This randomized clinical trial was aimed for the comparison of the effects of two exercise protocols (aerobic and aerobic-strength on the pulmonary indices and quality of life of asthmatic patients."n "nMethods: The study was conducted in pulmonary ward of Dr Shariati Hospital in Tehran, and Research Center of Exercise Medicine of Tehran in 2009. Fifty six asthmatic patients were selected and after two weeks of education, their spirometric parameters were recorded and the St George's respiratory questionnaire was completed. Then patients were randomly assigned to two groups of A and B. For ten weeks group A did the aerobic-strength exercises and group B did only the aerobic ones at home. At the end, again their spirometric parameters were recorded and the questionnaire was completed. Finally 42 patients completed the study. "n "nResults: After the intervention, FEV1 and FVC but not FEV1/FVC increased in group A. There were no changes in these parameters in group B. In addition, post-intervention FEV1 and FVC were significantly higher in group A than group B. All scores of St George's respiratory questionnaire were significantly improved in both groups but they were not different between them."n "nConclusions: Our findings showed that regular aerobic exercises, individually or concomitant with strength exercises, could improve vital signs and quality of life of mild to moderate asthmatic patients. However, only aerobic exercises with strength ones improve spirometric parameters. Therefore, a combination of both aerobic and strength exercises could be considered in treatment protocols of asthmatic patients.

  17. Application of novel Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized zeolite Beta/MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanocomposite for adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution and industrial wastewater: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Hamedreza; Taghavi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical zeolite consists of both microporous and unordered mesoporous structures. A composite of Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared, characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and BET analysis and applied in the investigation of its adsorption characteristics for the removal of Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in the presence of aerosil-200 as a silica source by two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. Batch mode experiments were conducted and three kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process. The experimental data fitted very well with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) revealed that the adsorption of Hg2+ onto PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is an endothermic and spontaneous process. It was found that temperature has a positive effect on the removal efficiency and that PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is potentially able to remove Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions at even high concentrations (400 mg L-1). The recovery of Hg2+ from the PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 adsorbent was found to be more than 90% using 0.5 M H2SO4, and the ability of the absorbent to be reused for removal of Hg2+ was investigated.

  18. Application of novel Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized zeolite Beta/MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanocomposite for adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution and industrial wastewater: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierarchical zeolite consists of both microporous and unordered mesoporous structures. A composite of Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared, characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and BET analysis and applied in the investigation of its adsorption characteristics for the removal of Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in the presence of aerosil-200 as a silica source by two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. Batch mode experiments were conducted and three kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process. The experimental data fitted very well with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) revealed that the adsorption of Hg2+ onto PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is an endothermic and spontaneous process. It was found that temperature has a positive effect on the removal efficiency and that PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is potentially able to remove Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions at even high concentrations (400 mg L−1). The recovery of Hg2+ from the PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 adsorbent was found to be more than 90% using 0.5 M H2SO4, and the ability of the absorbent to be reused for removal of Hg2+ was investigated.

  19. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson José

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Participants: Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. Intervention: The experimental group (n = 32 underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n = 17 underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending. Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. Results: There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59 and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182. There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. Conclusion: The improvement in functional outcomes after an

  20. Combined study of the gamma-ray strength function of 114Cd with (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgya T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration on strength function measurements and level density determinations is ongoing between the Budapest Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis and the ELBE Nuclear Physics groups within the framework of EU FP6 EFNUDAT project. The idea is to prove that good theoretical fits to the measured gamma-ray spectra collected in the (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions can be carried out using common photon strength and level density functions over a wide spectral energy range from 1 to 10 MeV for the same residual nucleus. Here, preliminary results on the isotope pair of 113,114Cd are presented for which the neutron capture state in 114Cd has 1+ or 0+ spin and parity.

  1. The Influence of Exercise on an Unstable Surface on the Physical Function and Muscle Strength of Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Chan-Woo; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the influence of exercise on an unstable surface on ROM of the knee, muscle strength and the physical function of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee, they were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). [Methods] The experimental group performed exercise using an aero step XL (TOGU, Germany) 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. A control g...

  2. Functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength assessment of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Catherine L.; McDonald, Christine F; Parry, Selina M.; Oliveira, Cristino C; Denehy, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement properties of instruments used to assess functional capacity, physical activity and muscle strength in participants with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been systematically reviewed. Method Objectives: To identify outcome measures used to assess these outcomes in participants with NSCLC; and to evaluate, synthesise and compare the measurement properties of the outcome measures identified. Data Sources: A systematic review of articles using electronic dat...

  3. Effects of long-term resistance training and simultaneous electro-stimulation on muscle strength and functional mobility in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    BROEKMANS, Tom; ROELANTS, Machteld; Feys, Peter; Alders, Geert; Gijbels, Domien; Hanssen, Ine; Stinissen, Piet; Op 't Eijnde, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Resistance training studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) often use short intervention periods. Furthermore, training efficiency could be optimized by unilateral training and/or electrical stimulation. Objective: To examine the effect(s) of unilateral long-term (20 weeks) standardized resistance training with and without simultaneous electro-stimulation on leg muscle strength and overall functional mobility. Methods: A randomized controlled trial involving 36 persons with MS. At base...

  4. Structural and Functional Analyses of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme with an Unexpected [beta]-Fucosidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Park, David S.; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick; Cann, Isaac K.O.; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC)

    2012-02-15

    We present characterization of PbFucA, a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5) from Prevotella bryantii B{sub 1}4. While GH5 members typically are xylanases, PbFucA shows no activity toward xylan polysaccharides. A screen against a panel of p-nitrophenol coupled sugars identifies PbFucA as a {beta}-D-fucosidase. We also present the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution structure of PbFucA and use structure-based mutational analysis to confirm the role of catalytically essential residues. A comparison of the active sites of PbFucA with those of family 5 and 51 glycosidases reveals that while the essential catalytic framework is identical between these enzymes, the steric contours of the respective active site clefts are distinct and likely account for substrate discrimination. Our results show that members of this cluster of orthologous group (COG) 5520 have {beta}-D-fucosidase activities, despite showing an overall sequence and structural similarity to GH-5 xylanases.

  5. Isolation, molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel beta-toxin from the Venezuelan scorpion, Tityus zulianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Alfonzo, Marcelo J; García, Carmen C; Winand, Nena J; Leipold, Enrico; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2004-05-01

    Sting in children by Tityus zulianus scorpions (western Venezuela) often produces cardiorespiratory arrest and death by pulmonary oedema. To assess its toxicity, lethality in mice of T. zulianus soluble venom was determined. Toxin composition was studied by fractionating the crude venom through reversed-phase HPLC. The most abundant peptide, Tz1, was purified further and its N-terminal sequence, amino acid composition and molecular mass (by electron-spray ionization mass spectrometry) determined. In the presence of Tz1, activation of recombinant rat skeletal muscle sodium channels (Na(V)1.4) was shifted about 35 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction in a prepulse-dependent manner. This typical beta-toxin effect had an apparent EC50 of 3.5 microM A cDNA sequence encoding Tz1 was isolated from T. zulianus venom gland RNA using a combination of 5'- and 3'-RACE PCR. Analysis of the encoded sequence indicated that Tz1 is the processed product of a precursor containing: (i) a 20-residue long leader peptide; (ii) the amino acid sequence of the mature toxin (64 residues); and (iii) an extra Gly-Lys tail at the C-terminus, probably removed post-translationally. A comparison of Tz1 with Tityus serrulatus beta-toxin Ts1 revealed that some of the non-conservative replacements in Tz1 lie in regions potentially involved in receptor recognition. PMID:15109888

  6. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. RESULTS For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by −11.3% (95% CI −17.0 to −5.2), −12.2% (−18.2 to −5.7), and −8.9% (−14.4 to −3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. PMID:23579180

  7. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akana,J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8}-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn{sup 2+} which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn{sup 2+} and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn{sup 2+} is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn{sup 2+} ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn{sup 2+} that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn{sup 2+} and participate as acid/base catalysts

  8. News on $\\beta$-delayed particle emission from $^{14}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Jeppesen, H; Borge, M J G; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Fedoseyev, V N; Hansper, V Y; Jonson, B; Markenroth, K; Mishin, V I; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K

    2002-01-01

    $\\beta$-delayed charged particles from $^{14}$Be have been measured and give an upper limit on $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$-particles of B($\\beta\\alpha$) < $\\,6.7\\times\\!10^{-5}$ and a tentative branching ratio on $\\beta$-delayed tritons of $7.5\\times\\!10^{-5}$ < B($\\beta$t) < $\\,3.9\\times\\!10^{-4}$. We combine the knowledge on $\\beta$-delayed particles from $^{14}$Be to deduce information on the $\\beta$-strength distribution.

  9. Statistical properties of warm nuclei: Investigating the low-energy enhancement in the $\\gamma$- strength function of neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to start a program to study the $\\gamma$-ray strength function of neutron rich nuclei in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams at HIE-ISOLDE. An unexpected increase in the $\\gamma$-strength function at low energy has been observed in several stable nuclei using the Oslo method. This year these results were confirmed with a different experimental technique and model independent analysis developed by iThemba/Livermore. If this enhancement of the $\\gamma$-strength function is also present in neutron-rich nuclei, it will strongly affect the neutron capture cross sections, which are important input in stellar models of synthesis of heavier elements in stars. We propose to start with an experiment using a $^{66}$Ni beam of 5.5 MeV /u, where the data will be analyzed using both methods independently, and we are sure to get enough statistics, before moving to more neutron-rich nuclei. When/if neutron-rich Ti, Fe or Mo beams will be available at ISOLDE, we will submit additional proposals.

  10. Understanding college students' fruit consumption. Integrating habit strength in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2010-02-01

    The additive and interactive effect of habit strength in the explanation of young adults' fruit consumption was studied within the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Additionally, behavioural and control beliefs were modelled as predictors of profile membership based on current fruit consumption, motivation and habit strength towards fruit consumption. Cross-sectional data were available from undergraduate students (n=538; mean age=21.19; S.D.=2.57) who completed measures of fruit consumption, habit strength, TPB-concepts, and behavioural and control beliefs. Data were analyzed using stepwise regression analysis, simple slope analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results showed that, based on a significant intention x habit interaction (beta=.13), the intention-fruit consumption relationship was more than twice as strong at low levels of habit strength (beta=.39) than at high levels of habit strength (beta=.16). Furthermore, beliefs regarding health and weight management were relatively unable to distinguish profiles created from motivation, habit strength and current fruit consumption. Rather, beliefs about controllability of fruit consumption were amongst the most consistent discriminating beliefs. Findings suggest that stronger fruit consumption habits make fruit consumption less intentional and that interventions aiming to increase fruit consumption may need to develop persuasive messages focusing on situational beliefs, rather than emphasizing health outcomes. PMID:19712718

  11. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J R Bossers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0. In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. RESULTS: Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003, Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031, and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: trialregister.nl 1230.

  12. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  13. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2003-01-01

    exhibited impaired insulin secretion (P <.05). Our data suggest that fat redistribution independently of antiretroviral therapy is highly related to insulin resistance in HALS patients. Furthermore, in HALS patients, impaired glucose metabolism most likely relates to decreased NOGM and to defects in beta-cell...... =.006), whereas levels of basal and insulin-stimulated oxidative glucose metabolism (OGM) (2.4 v 2.3, P =.55, and 3.3 v 4.0, P =.064, respectively) were not significantly different between groups. Despite comparable total fat masses, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans showed that the...... percentage of limb fat (ie, peripheral-fat-mass/[peripheral-fat-mass + trunk-fat-mass]. 100%) was reduced in HALS patients (36% v 46%, P =.0002). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that percentage of limb fat explained 53% of the variability of GDR and 45% of the variability of NOGM in HALS...

  14. Factorization of integrals defining the two-loop beta-function for the general renormalizable N=1 SYM theory, regularized by the higher covariant derivatives, into integrals of double total derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    The integrals defining the two-loop beta-function for the general renormalizable N=1 supersymmetric Yang--Mills theory, regularized by higher covariant derivatives, are investigated. It is shown that they are given by integrals of double total derivatives. These integrals are not equal to zero due to appearing of delta-functions. These delta-functions allow to reduce the two-loop integrals to one-loop integrals, which can be easily calculated. The result agrees with the exact NSVZ beta-functi...

  15. Large-scale deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations of the $\\gamma$-ray strength function using the Gogny force

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M; Hilaire, S; Goriely, S; Lechaftois, F

    2016-01-01

    Valuable theoretical predictions of nuclear dipole excitations in the whole chart are of great interest for different nuclear applications, including in particular nuclear astrophysics. Here we present large-scale calculations of the $E1$ $\\gamma$-ray strength function obtained in the framework of the axially-symmetric deformed QRPA based on the finite-range Gogny force. This approach is applied to even-even nuclei, the strength function for odd nuclei being derived by interpolation. The convergence with respect to the adopted number of harmonic oscillator shells and the cut-off energy introduced in the 2-quasiparticle (2-$qp$) excitation space is analyzed. The calculations performed with two different Gogny interactions, namely D1S and D1M, are compared. A systematic energy shift of the $E1$ strength is found for D1M relative to D1S, leading to a lower energy centroid and a smaller energy-weighted sum rule for D1M. When comparing with experimental photoabsorption data, the Gogny-QRPA predictions are found to...

  16. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood......-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes.CONCLUSIONSIncreasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...

  17. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabal J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Joan Trabal,1 Maria Forga,1 Pere Leyes,1 Ferran Torres,2,3 Jordi Rubio,4 Esther Prieto,5 Andreu Farran-Codina6 1Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínic Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 3Biostatistics Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Residencia Ballesol Almogavers, Grupo Ballesol, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Centre de Rehabilitacio, Fundació Amiba, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; 6Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Objective: To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults.Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15 or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15, plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation.Results: Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes.Conclusion: Our combined analysis showed moderate

  18. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Buarque Franco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week. The variables studied (before and after the intervention were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017, as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively. There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients.

  19. Structural and functional analyses of beta-glucosidase 3B from Thermotoga neapolitana: a thermostable three-domain representative of glycoside hydrolase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Tania; Pasten, Javier Linares; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Logan, Derek T

    2010-04-01

    Based on sequence and phylogenetic analyses, glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 can be divided into several clusters that differ in the length of their primary sequences. However, structural data on representatives of GH3 are still scarce, since only three of their structures are known and only one of them has been thoroughly characterized-that of an exohydrolase from barley. To allow a deeper structural understanding of the GH3 family, we have determined the crystal structure of the thermostable beta-glucosidase from Thermotoga neapolitana, which has potentially important applications in environmentally friendly industrial biosynthesis at a resolution of 2.05 A. Selected active-site mutants have been characterized kinetically, and the structure of the mutant D242A is presented at 2.1 A resolution. Bgl3B from Th. neapolitana is the first example of a GH3 glucosidase with a three-domain structure. It is composed of an (alpha/beta)(8) domain similar to a triose phosphate isomerase barrel, a five-stranded alpha/beta sandwich domain (both of which are important for active-site organization), and a C-terminal fibronectin type III domain of unknown function. Remarkably, the direction of the second beta-strand of the triose phosphate isomerase barrel domain is reversed, which has implications for the active-site shape. The active site, at the interface of domains 1 and 2, is much more open to solvent than the corresponding site in the structurally homologous enzyme from barley, and only the -1 site is well defined. The structures, in combination with kinetic studies of active-site variants, allow the identification of essential catalytic residues (the nucleophile D242 and the acid/base E458), as well as other residues at the -1 subsite, including D58 and W243, which, by mutagenesis, are shown to be important for substrate accommodation/interaction. The position of the fibronectin type III domain excludes a direct participation of this domain in the recognition of small

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apl2p, a homologue of the mammalian clathrin AP beta subunit, plays a role in clathrin-dependent Golgi functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, M R; Phan, H L; Kirchrath, L; Tan, P K; Kirchhausen, T; Hollenberg, C P; Payne, G S

    1995-04-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles mediate selective intracellular protein traffic from the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. At these sites, clathrin-associated protein (AP) complexes have been implicated in both clathrin coat assembly and collection of cargo into nascent vesicles. We have found a gene on yeast chromosome XI that encodes a homologue of the mammalian AP beta subunits. Disruptions of this gene, APl2, and a previously identified beta homologue, APl1, have been engineered in cells expressing wild-type (CHC1) or temperature sensitive (chc1-ts) alleles of the clathrin heavy chain gene. APl1 or APl2 disruptions (apl1 delta or apl2 delta) yield no discernable phenotypes in CHC1 strains, indicating that the Apl proteins are not essential for clathrin function. However, the apl2 delta, but not the apl1 delta, allele enhances the growth and alpha-factor pheromone maturation defects of chc1-ts cells. Disruption of APl2 also partially suppresses the vacuolar sorting defect that occurs in chc1-ts cells immediately after imposition of the non-permissive temperature. These Golgi-specific effects of apl2 delta in chc1-ts cells provide evidence that Apl2p is a component of an AP complex that interacts with clathrin at the Golgi apparatus. PMID:7615679

  1. Improved glucose regulation in type 2 diabetic patients with DPP-4 inhibitors: focus on alpha and beta cell function and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Bo; Foley, James E

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an established glucose-lowering strategy for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 inhibitors reduce both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, resulting in reduced HbA1c with low risk for hypoglycaemia and weight gain. They act primarily by preventing inactivation of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, thereby prolonging the enhanced endogenous levels of these hormones after meal ingestion. This in turn causes islet and extrapancreatic effects, including increased glucose sensing in islet alpha and beta cells. These effects result in increased insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion being more effective in hyperglycaemic states and reduced insulin secretion and increased glucagon secretion being more effective during hypoglycaemia. Other secondary pharmacological actions of DPP-4 inhibitors include mobilisation and burning of fat during meals, decrease in fat extraction from the gut, reduction of fasting lipolysis and liver fat and increase in LDL particle size. These actions contribute to the clinical effects of DPP-4 inhibition, and the reduced demand for insulin could also lead to a durability benefit. This review summarises the current knowledge of the secondary pharmacological actions of DPP-4 inhibitors that lead to improved glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes, focusing on alpha and beta cell function and lipid metabolism. PMID:26894277

  2. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Matrix Metalloproteinases: Functional Interactions in Tumor Stroma-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Krstic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is a pleiotropic factor with several different roles in health and disease. In tumorigenesis, it may act as a protumorigenic factor and have a profound impact on the regulation of the immune system response. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family that comprises more than 25 members, which have recently been proposed as important regulators acting in tumor stroma by regulating the response of noncellular and cellular microenvironment. Tumor stroma consists of several types of resident cells and infiltrating cells derived from bone marrow, which together play crucial roles in the promotion of tumor growth and metastasis. In cancer cells, TGF-β regulates MMPs expression, while MMPs, produced by either cancer cells or residents’ stroma cells, activate latent TGF-β in the extracellular matrix, together facilitating the enhancement of tumor progression. In this review we will focus on the compartment of myeloid stroma cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic and mast cells, which are potently regulated by TGF-β and produce large amounts of MMPs. Their interplay and mutual implications in the generation of pro-tumorigenic cancer microenvironment will be analyzed.

  3. Old women with a recent fall history show improved muscle strength and function sustained for six months after finishing training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Nina; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional and...

  4. Antigen and transforming growth factor beta receptors contribute to long term functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of memory CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong eHu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen-specific CD8 T cells provide a mechanism for selectively eliminating host cells that are harboring intracellular pathogens. The pathogens are killed when lytic molecules are injected into the cytoplasm of the infected cells and begin an apoptotic cascade. Activated CD8 T cells also release large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines that stimulate other immune cells in the local vicinity. As the alveoli are extraordinarily sensitive to cytokine induced damage, multiple layers of immune regulation limit the activities of immune cells that enter the lungs. These mechanisms include receptor-mediated signaling pathways in CD8 T cells that respond to peptide antigens and transforming growth factor-beta. Both pathways influence the functional and phenotypic properties of long-lived CD8 T cells populations in peripheral and lymphoid tissues.

  5. Mixed-meal tolerance test versus glucagon stimulation test for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; McGee, Paula Friedenberg;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study...... Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects...... completed 348 tests (up to 3 each) with either two MMTTs or two GSTs. RESULTS: Among individuals with up to 4 years' duration of type 1 diabetes, >85% had measurable stimulated C-peptide values. The MMTT stimulus produced significantly higher concentrations of C-peptide than the GST. Whereas both tests were...

  6. Quantification of beta-cell function during IVGTT in Type II and non-diabetic subjects: assessment of insulin secretion by mathematical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Vølund, A; Madsbad, Sten

    2001-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We compared four methods to assess their accuracy in measuring insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and with varying beta-cell function and matched control subjects. METHODS: Eight control...... subjects and eight Type II diabetic patients underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test with tolbutamide and an intravenous bolus injection of C-peptide to assess C-peptide kinetics. Insulin secretion rates were determined by the Eaton deconvolution (reference method), the Insulin SECretion method...... first-phase insulin response (r = 0.78). The two-compartment combined model failed to provide reliable estimates of insulin secretion in three of the control subjects and in two patients with Type II diabetes. The four methods were accurate with respect to mean basal and first-phase secretion response...

  7. Sorption of 63Ni(II) to montmorillonite as a function of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions and humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinds of clay minerals have been studied extensively in the removal of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions because of their high sorption capacity. Herein, the Na-montmorillonite was characterized by using XRD and FTIR in detail. The sorption of 63Ni(II) from aqueous solution to montmorillonite as a function of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature was studied by batch technique. The sorption of 63Ni(II) on montmorillonite achieved equilibration quickly. The sorption of 63Ni(II) to montmorillonite was strongly dependent on pH, and dependent on ionic strength at low pH and independent of ionic strength at high pH values. The sorption of 63Ni(II) on montmorillonite was enhanced at low pH in the presence of humic acid (HA), while a negative effect of HA on 63Ni(II) sorption was found at high pH values. At low pH values, the sorption of 63Ni(II) was attributed to outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange, whereas the sorption was dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation at high pH values. The montmorillonite sample is a suitable material in the preconcentration of radionuclides from large volumes and the material can be used as backfill material in nuclear waste repository. (author)

  8. Effects of Group-Based Exercise on Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, Functional Ability, and Pain During the Acute Phase After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kamitani, Tsukasa; Wada, Osamu; Mizuno, Kiyonori; Yamada, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study including a historical control group. Background The extent to which group-based exercise (G-EXE) improves knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and gait ability is similar to that of individualized exercise (I-EXE) at 6 weeks and 8 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the benefits of G-EXE for patients during the acute recovery phase after TKA remain unclear. Objective To determine the effects of G-EXE during the acute recovery phase after TKA on knee ROM, quadriceps strength, functional ability, and knee pain. Methods Two hundred thirty-one patients participated in G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises twice daily during the hospital stay. Outcomes were compared to those of a retrospectively identified, historical control group (I-EXE group [n = 206]) that included patients who performed exercises identical to those performed by the G-EXE group. The outcomes included knee ROM, quadriceps strength, pain intensity, and timed up-and-go test score at 1 month before surgery and at discharge. Analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, length of hospital stay, and preoperative values. Results Changes in ROM of knee flexion and extension (PSports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):742-748. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6409. PMID:27494052

  9. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Thiago Tafarel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a negative factor in the recovery process of postoperative patients, causing pulmonary alterations and complications and affecting functional capacity. Thus, it is plausible to introduce transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS for pain relief to subsequently reduce complications caused by this pain in the postoperative period. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of TENS on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors. Methods/design Seventy-four patients will be randomly allocated into 2 groups: active TENS or placebo TENS. All patients will be assessed for pain intensity, walk function (Iowa Gait Test, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure and vital capacity before and after the TENS application. The data will be collected by an assessor who is blinded to the group allocation. Discussion This study is the first to examine the effects of TENS in this population. TENS during the postoperative period may result in pain relief and improvements in pulmonary tests and mobility, thus leading to an improved quality of life and further promoting organ donation. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos (ReBEC, number RBR-8xtkjp.

  10. Candidate gene association study in type 2 diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in beta-cell function as well as insulin action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Barroso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common, serious metabolic disorder with a substantial inherited component. It is characterised by defects in both insulin secretion and action. Progress in identification of specific genetic variants predisposing to the disease has been limited. To complement ongoing positional cloning efforts, we have undertaken a large-scale candidate gene association study. We examined 152 SNPs in 71 candidate genes for association with diabetes status and related phenotypes in 2,134 Caucasians in a case-control study and an independent quantitative trait (QT cohort in the United Kingdom. Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33% encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic beta-cell function-ABCC8 (sulphonylurea receptor, KCNJ11 (KIR6.2, SLC2A2 (GLUT2, HNF4A (HNF4alpha, and INS (insulin-significantly altered disease risk, and in three genes, the risk allele, haplotype, or both had a biologically consistent effect on a relevant physiological trait in the QT study. We examined 35 genes predicted to have their major influence on insulin action, and three (9%-INSR, PIK3R1, and SOS1-showed significant associations with diabetes. These results confirm the genetic complexity of Type 2 diabetes and provide evidence that common variants in genes influencing pancreatic beta-cell function may make a significant contribution to the inherited component of this disease. This study additionally demonstrates that the systematic examination of panels of biological candidate genes in large, well-characterised populations can be an effective complement to positional cloning approaches. The absence of large single-gene effects and the detection of multiple small effects accentuate the need for the study of larger populations in order to reliably identify the size of effect we now expect for complex diseases.

  11. Candidate Gene Association Study in Type 2 Diabetes Indicates a Role for Genes Involved in beta-Cell Function as Well as Insulin Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Ines

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common, serious metabolic disorder with a substantial inherited component. It is characterised by defects in both insulin secretion and action. Progress in identification of specific genetic variants predisposing to the disease has been limited. To complement ongoing positional cloning efforts, we have undertaken a large-scale candidate gene association study. We examined 152 SNPs in 71 candidate genes for association with diabetes status and related phenotypes in 2,134 Caucasians in a case-control study and an independent quantitative trait (QT cohort in the United Kingdom. Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33% encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic beta-cell function-ABCC8 (sulphonylurea receptor, KCNJ11 (KIR6.2, SLC2A2 (GLUT2, HNF4A (HNF4alpha, and INS (insulin-significantly altered disease risk, and in three genes, the risk allele, haplotype, or both had a biologically consistent effect on a relevant physiological trait in the QT study. We examined 35 genes predicted to have their major influence on insulin action, and three (9%-INSR, PIK3R1, and SOS1-showed significant associations with diabetes. These results confirm the genetic complexity of Type 2 diabetes and provide evidence that common variants in genes influencing pancreatic beta-cell function may make a significant contribution to the inherited component of this disease. This study additionally demonstrates that the systematic examination of panels of biological candidate genes in large, well-characterised populations can be an effective complement to positional cloning approaches. The absence of large single-gene effects and the detection of multiple small effects accentuate the need for the study of larger populations in order to reliably identify the size of effect we now expect for complex diseases.

  12. Structures in the β--strength function and their influence on decay properties of nuclei far from the valley of β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of β-delayed particles has turned out to provide a powerful tool for studying nuclear properties at medium excitation energies. On the neutron-rich side of the stability line the strength function (Ssub(β)) in β--decay holds a key position because of its pronounced energy dependence. For studying Ssub(β)-neutron spectroscopy seems especially valuable since the β--delayed neutrons probe the most interesting top part (energy region of 4 to 10 MeV) of the excitation spectrum in a very sensitive way. (orig./AH)

  13. Factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1: estructura, función y mecanismos de regulación en cáncer Transforming growth factor beta-1: structure, function and regulation mechanisms in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1 (TGF-beta1 es sintetizado por muchas estirpes celulares como linfocitos, macrófagos y células dendríticas, y su expresión regula de manera autócrina o parácrina la diferenciación, proliferación y el estado de activación de éstas y muchas otras células. En general, el TGF-beta1 tiene propiedades pleiotrópicas en el contexto de la respuesta inmune durante el desarrollo de infecciones y procesos neoplásicos; sin embargo, los mecanismos de acción y regulación de la expresión de esta citocina aún no se comprenden del todo. En la presente revisión se describen las propiedades biológicas y los procesos moleculares que regulan la expresión del TGF-beta1, para entender los efectos de esta citocina durante la proliferación y la diferenciación celular. El conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares de la regulación del TGF-beta1 puede representar una importante estrategia de tratamiento del cáncer. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlTransforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1 is produced by several cell lineages such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these and other cells. In general, TGF-beta1 has pleiotropic properties on the immune response during the development of infection diseases and cancer; however, the mechanisms of action and regulation of gene expression of this cytokine are poorly understood, In this review, the biological properties and the molecular mechanisms that regulate TGF-beta1 gene expression are described, to understand the role of this cytokine in growth and cell differentiation. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms of gene expression of TGF-beta1 may serve to develop new cancer therapies. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase-like function is shared by the beta- and gamma- subset of the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad V Kuny

    Full Text Available The UL97 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or HHV-5 (human herpesvirus 5, is a kinase that phosphorylates the cellular retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor and lamin A/C proteins that are also substrates of cellular cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks. A functional complementation assay has further shown that UL97 has authentic Cdk-like activity. The other seven human herpesviruses each encode a kinase with sequence and positional homology to UL97. These UL97-homologous proteins have been termed the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases (CHPKs to distinguish them from other human herpesvirus-encoded kinases. To determine if the Cdk-like activities of UL97 were shared by all of the CHPKs, we individually expressed epitope-tagged alleles of each protein in human Saos-2 cells to test for Rb phosphorylation, human U-2 OS cells to monitor nuclear lamina disruption and lamin A phosphorylation, or S. cerevisiae cdc28-13 mutant cells to directly assay for Cdk function. We found that the ability to phosphorylate Rb and lamin A, and to disrupt the nuclear lamina, was shared by all CHPKs from the beta- and gamma-herpesvirus families, but not by their alpha-herpesvirus homologs. Similarly, all but one of the beta and gamma CHPKs displayed bona fide Cdk activity in S. cerevisiae, while the alpha proteins did not. Thus, we have identified novel virally-encoded Cdk-like kinases, a nomenclature we abbreviate as v-Cdks. Interestingly, we found that other, non-Cdk-related activities reported for UL97 (dispersion of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs and disruption of cytoplasmic or nuclear aggresomes showed weak conservation among the CHPKs that, in general, did not segregate to specific viral families. Therefore, the genomic and evolutionary conservation of these kinases has not been fully maintained at the functional level. Our data indicate that these related kinases, some of which are targets of approved or developmental antiviral drugs

  15. Environmental cracking of the alpha-beta titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of environment, yield strength and stress state on the cracking susceptibility of beta-extruded Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn have been examined. At a constant yield strength and under plane strain conditions, the stress intensity required for slow crack propagation decreased as the severity of the environment increased, i.e., from laboratory air to 3.5% NaCl. Furthermore, the crack propagation rates were a function of both stress intensity, and environmental severity. Although the fracture toughness and threshold stress intensities for slow crack growth generally decreased with increasing yield strength, aging, which resulted in the precipitation of ordered Ti3Al particles in the primary alpha phase, tended to accentuate the susceptibility of this alloy to sustained load/stress corrosion cracking. Finally, at constant yield strength, the sustained load cracking threshold stress intensity was a function of stress state

  16. Application of novel Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized zeolite Beta/MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanocomposite for adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution and industrial wastewater: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Hamedreza, E-mail: Hamedreza.Javadian@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavi, Mehdi [Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, 47416-95447, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Hierarchical zeolite consists of both microporous and unordered mesoporous structures. A composite of Polypyrrole/thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared, characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and BET analysis and applied in the investigation of its adsorption characteristics for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solutions. Thiol-functionalized Beta/MCM-41 (SH-Beta/MCM-41) was prepared by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in the presence of aerosil-200 as a silica source by two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. Batch mode experiments were conducted and three kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process. The experimental data fitted very well with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) revealed that the adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} onto PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is an endothermic and spontaneous process. It was found that temperature has a positive effect on the removal efficiency and that PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 is potentially able to remove Hg{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solutions at even high concentrations (400 mg L{sup −1}). The recovery of Hg{sup 2+} from the PPy/SH-Beta/MCM-41 adsorbent was found to be more than 90% using 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and the ability of the absorbent to be reused for removal of Hg{sup 2+} was investigated.

  17. The fourth order QCD approximations for the renormalization group quantities in the V -scheme and the relation of the $\\beta^{V}(\\alpha_V)$-function with the Gell-Mann--Low function in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2015-01-01

    The semi-analytical $O(\\alpha_s^4)$ expression for the renormalization group $\\beta$-function in the ${\\rm{V}}$-scheme is obtained in the case of the $SU(N_c)$ gauge group. In the process of calculations we use the existing information about the three-loop perturbative approximation for the QCD static potential, evaluated in the $\\rm{\\overline{MS}}$-scheme. The comparison of the numerical values of the third and fourth coefficients for the QCD RG $\\beta$- functions in the gauge-independent ${\\rm{V}}$- and $\\rm{\\overline{MS}}$-schemes and in minimal MOM scheme in the the Landau gauge is presented. The phenomenologically-oriented comparisons for the coefficients of $O(\\alpha_s^4)$ expression for the $e^+e^-$-annihilation R-ratio in these schemes are presented. It is shown, that taking into account of these QCD contributions are of vital importance and lead to the drastic decrease of the scheme-dependence ambiguities of the fourth-order perturbative QCD approximations for the $e^+e^-$ annihilation R-ratio for th...

  18. The supersymmetric Curci-Paffuti relation and vanishing of the dilation beta function in the N=2 SUSY sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors extend the Curci-Paffuti relation of bosonic sigma models to the supersymmetric case. In the N = 1 model, a similar relation is found, while in the N = 2 model, a vanishing result ensues for the dilaton β-function. One contribution to the dilaton β-function in the N = 2 model is identified as a previous result of Grisaru and Zanon; however, if the authors remain within a minimal subtraction scheme, other terms coming from finite subtractions appear which precisely cancel that and give a vanishing result

  19. Induction of cell scattering by expression of beta1 integrins in beta1-deficient epithelial cells requires activation of members of the rho family of GTPases and downregulation of cadherin and catenin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimond, C; van Der Flier, A; van Delft, S;

    1999-01-01

    was required for a complete morphological transition towards the spindle-shaped fibroblast-like phenotype. The expression of an interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R)-beta1A chimera and its incorporation into focal adhesions also induced the disruption of cadherin-based adhesions and the reorganization of ECM......Adhesion receptors, which connect cells to each other and to the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), play a crucial role in the control of tissue structure and of morphogenesis. In this work, we have studied how intercellular adhesion molecules and beta1 integrins influence each other using two......-catenin protein levels accompanied by their redistribution from the cytoskeleton-associated fraction to the detergent-soluble fraction. Regulation of alpha-catenin protein levels by beta1 integrins is likely to play a role in the morphological transition, since overexpression of alpha-catenin in GE11 cells before...

  20. Factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1: estructura, función y mecanismos de regulación en cáncer Transforming growth factor beta-1: structure, function and regulation mechanisms in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza; A. Lagunas-Martínez; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2001-01-01

    El factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1 (TGF-beta1) es sintetizado por muchas estirpes celulares como linfocitos, macrófagos y células dendríticas, y su expresión regula de manera autócrina o parácrina la diferenciación, proliferación y el estado de activación de éstas y muchas otras células. En general, el TGF-beta1 tiene propiedades pleiotrópicas en el contexto de la respuesta inmune durante el desarrollo de infecciones y procesos neoplásicos; sin embargo, los mecanismos de acción y r...