WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta stability progress

  1. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract No. FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma- antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these codes predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamaks. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Structure of nuclei far from beta stability. Progress report, May 15, 1983-May 14, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research at UNISOR constitutes the major effort of this work on far from stability nuclei. The extensive data from the UNISOR studies on the neutron-deficient Tl, Hg, Au and Pt isotopes has not only established a new region of nuclear deformation but, after full analysis, will ultimately transform our present understanding of shape coexistence. Our experimental approach is to take great care to obtain accurate experimental information and then to take equally great care in its interpretation. Progress is reviewed

  3. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  4. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR ''supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded

  5. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  6. Recent progress in MHD stability calculations of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key issue for compact stellarators is the stability of beta-limiting MHD modes, such as external kink modes driven by bootstrap current and pressure gradient. We report here recent progress in MHD stability studies for low-aspect-ratio Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators (QAS) and Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators (QOS). We find that the N=0 periodicity-preserving vertical mode is significantly more stable in stellarators than in tokamaks because of the externally generated rotational transform. It is shown that both low-n external kink modes and high-n ballooning modes can be stabilized at high beta by appropriate 3D shaping without a conducting wall. The stabilization mechanism for external kink modes in QAS appears to be an enhancement of local magnetic shear due to 3D shaping. The stabilization of ballooning mode in QOS is related to a shortening of the normal curvature connection length. (author)

  7. The structure of nuclei far from beta stability: A progress report for the period May 15, 1987 to May 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research at UNISOR constitues the major effort of our work on far from stability nuclei. The extensive data from the UNISOR studies on the neutron-deficient Tl Hg, Au and Pt isotopes has not only established a new region of nuclear deformation and a new class of nuclear structure at closed shells; but, after full analysis, will ultimately transform our present understanding of shape coexistence. Our experimental approach is to take great care to obtain accurate experimental information and then to take equally great care in its interpretation. We have shown in the study of the odd-A Au isotopes that one can use the odd proton to probe the even-even Pt cores and thus expose the finer details of the coexisting structures in those cores. We have also shown that to utilize such an approach one must systematically track all states below about 1 MeV across isotopic or isotonic sequences; and that to accomplish such a tracking it is necessary to push the spectroscopic measurements to new limits in terms of quality and statistics. The major results of the recent work involve the developemnt of a unified description of intruder states and shape coexistence in nuclei

  8. Beta-limiting Instabilities and Global Mode Stabilization in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Steven

    2001-10-01

    Low aspect ratio and high edge q theoretically alter the plasma stability and mode structure compared to standard tokamak configurations. Below the no-wall limit, stability calculations with PEST, GATO, and DCON show the perturbed radial field is maximized near the center column and DCON and VALEN calculations show that mode stability is not greatly improved by a nearby conducting wall due to the short poloidal wavelength in this region. In contrast, as beta reaches and exceeds the no-wall limit, the mode becomes strongly ballooning with long poloidal wavelength at large major radius and is highly wall stabilized. In this way, wall stabilization is more effective at higher beta in low aspect ratio geometry. Research on the stability of spherical torus plasmas at and above the no-wall beta limit is being addressed on NSTX, which has produced low aspect ratio plasmas, R/a = 1.27 at plasma current up to 1.4 MA with high energy confinement (TauE/TauE-ITER89P = 2). Toroidal and normalized beta have reached 22%, and 4.3, respectively in q = 7 plasmas. The beta limit is observed to increase with increasing plasma internal inductance, li, and the stability factor betaN/li has reached 5.8, limited by sudden beta collapses at low li that was achieved by use of high-harmonic fast wave heating (HHFW). DCON stability analysis of equilibria reconstructed with EFIT using external magnetics show that the plasmas are below or at the no-wall beta limit for the n = 1 mode, which has characteristics of a current-driven kink. With more peaked current profiles (li greater than 0.7), core MHD instabilities are observed which saturate or slowly degrade beta. Sawteeth with large inversion radii can also cause substantial beta collapses, although current profile modification using HHFW, altered plasma growth, and increased toroidal field have each been successful in mitigating this effect.

  9. The complexation of lanthanides by azo-. beta. -diketones stability constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabra, A.M.; Ramadian, A.A.I.; El-Shetary, B.A.; Abdel-Moez, M.S.

    1982-03-01

    In the present investigation the overall stability constants of an interest tridentate organic ligands and tervalent lanthanide ions have been measured potentiometrically. The stability constants of the complexes between the trivalent lanthanide series of cations and series of azo-..beta..-diketone ligands are reported. The measurements were conducted at 30/sup 0/ at an ionic strength of zero, in 100% methanol. The relation between the overall stability constant (log ..beta../sub 2/) and atomic number of the lanthanide elements, shows a buffer zone at the gadolinium area. The relation between (log ..beta../sub 2/) and the basicity of the studied ligands (..sigma..pK's) are also, discussed. The overall stability values obtained reflected a great affinity of the organic ligands for chelation with lanthanide ions.

  10. Family studies of plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase thermal stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunnette, J; Weinshilboum, R

    1982-01-01

    There are large individual variations in the thermal stability of human plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). These variations are a characteristic of the DBH molecule itself. Individual subjects may be classified as those with thermolabile and those with thermostable plasma DBH. Of 362 randomly selected unrelated children, 8.01%, and of 238 randomly selected unrelated adult subjects, 5.46% had thermolabile plasma DBH. There was not a significant correlation of DBH thermolability with eithe...

  11. High resolution positron Q-value measurements and nuclear structure studies far from the stability line. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress in briefly described, and details are presented in the attached preprints and reprints: (1) precision mass differences in light rubidium and krypton isotopes utilizing beta endpoint measurements; (2) precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints; (3) Monte Carlo calculations predicting the response of intrinsic GE detectors to electrons and positrons; and (4) reactor antineutrino spectra and nuclear spectroscopy of isotopes far from beta stability

  12. Tokamak MHD Stability at High Beta and Low Plasma Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Reimerdes, H.; Lanctot, M. J.; Albrecht, J. T.; Okabayashi, M.; Solomon, W. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.

    2006-10-01

    Recent high-beta DIII-D experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable even with significant reductions in the neutral beam torque relative to pure co-injection. Previous DIII-D experiments showed a higher plasma rotation threshold (˜1-3%,A) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was used to lower the plasma rotation. We speculate that the previously observed rotation threshold corresponds to the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Previous and recent experimental data show a bifurcation taking place when the plasma rotation is reduced to half its unperturbed value, consistent with theory [1]. This hypothesis may have implications for both RWM stability and error field tolerances in ITER. 4pt[1] R. Fitzpatrick, Nucl. Fusion 33, 1049 (1993).

  13. Progress Toward the Analysis of the Kinetic Stabilizer Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R F; Byers, J A; Cohen, R H; Fowler, T K; Ryutov, D D; Tung, L S

    2005-02-08

    The Kinetic Stabilizer (K-S) concept [1] represents a means for stabilizing axisymmetric mirror and tandem-mirror (T-M) magnetic fusion systems against MHD interchange instability modes. Magnetic fusion research has given us examples of axisymmetric mirror confinement devices in which radial transport rates approach the classical ''Spitzer'' level, i.e. situations in which turbulence if present at all, is at too low a level to adversely affect the radial transport [2,3,4]. If such a low-turbulence condition could be achieved in a T-M system it could lead to a fusion power system that would be simpler, smaller, and easier to develop than one based on closed-field confinement, e.g., the tokamak, where the transport is known to be dominated by turbulence. However, since conventional axisymmetric mirror systems suffer from the MHD interchange instability, the key to exploiting this new opportunity is to find a practical way to stabilize this mode. The K-S represents one avenue to achieving this goal. The starting point for the K-S concept is a theoretical analysis by Ryutov [5]. He showed that a MHD-unstable plasma contained in an axisymmetric mirror cell can be MHD-stabilized by the presence of a low-density plasma on the expanding field lines outside the mirrors. If this plasma communicates well electrically with the plasma in the then this exterior plasma can stabilize the interior, confined, plasma. This stabilization technique was conclusively demonstrated in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) experiment [6] at Novosibirsk, Russia, at mirror-cell plasma beta values of 40 percent. The GDT operates in a high collisionality regime. Thus the effluent plasma leaking through the mirrors, though much lower in density than that of the confined plasma, is still high enough to satisfy the stabilization criterion. This would not, however, be the case in a fusion T-M with axisymmetric plug and central cell fields. In such a case the effluent plasma would be far

  14. Progress in molecular nuclear medicine imaging of pancreatic beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and frequently occurring disease which seriously threaten the health of human beings. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively results from being destroyed and insufficient beta-cell mass. The associated symptoms appear until 50%-60% decrease of beta-cell mass. Because pancreas is deeply located in the body, with few beta-cell mass, the current methods of clinical diagnosis are invasive and late. So diagnosis of metabolism disease of beta-cell early non-invasively becomes more and more popular, imaging diagnosis of diabetes mellitus becomes the focus of researches, but how to estimate the mass of beta-cell still an important subject in imaging technology. (authors)

  15. High-beta tokamak research. Annual progress report, 1 August 1982-1 August 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main research objectives during the past year fell into four areas: (1) detailed observations over a range of high-beta tokamak equilibria; (2) fabrication of an improved and more flexible high-beta tokamak based on our understanding of the present Torus II; (3) extension of the pulse length to 100 usec with power crowbar operation of the equilibrium field coil sets; and (4) comparison of our equilibrium and stability observations with computational models of MHD equilibrium and stability

  16. Hemoglobin Neapolis, beta 126(H4)Val----Gly: a novel beta-chain variant associated with a mild beta-thalassemia phenotype and displaying anomalous stability features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, L; Lacerra, G; Camardella, L; De Angioletti, M; Fioretti, G; Maglione, G; de Bonis, C; Guarino, E; Viola, A; Cutolo, R

    1991-12-01

    A novel beta-chain, beta 126(H4)Val----Gly, electrophoretically silent, was detected by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography in three unrelated families from Naples (Southern Italy) and accounted for about 30% of the total beta-chains. The amino acid substitution was detected by HPLC fingerprint. The eight heterozygous patients showed hematologic and biosynthetic alterations of mild beta-thalassemia type. The hemoglobin variant showed abnormal stability features. It was unstable in the heat stability and isopropanol precipitation tests, but did not cause a hemolytic syndrome in vivo and was stable in a time-course experiment of biosynthesis in vitro. DNA polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing of the mutated gene from 135 nt upstream of the cap site to 106 nt downstream of the polyadenylation site showed only the beta 126 GTG----GGG mutation, which was confirmed in the other patients by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. The mutation was found to be associated with a type II beta-globin framework and restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotype V. The novel variant was named hemoglobin Neapolis. PMID:1954392

  17. Beta-limiting instabilities and global mode stabilization in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the stability of spherical torus plasmas at and above the no-wall beta limit is being addressed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that has produced low aspect ratio plasmas, R/a∼1.27 at plasma current exceeding 1.4 MA with high energy confinement (TauE/TauEITER89P>2). Toroidal and normalized beta have exceeded 25% and 4.3, respectively, in q∼7 plasmas. The beta limit is observed to increase and then saturate with increasing li. The stability factor βN/li has reached 6, limited by sudden beta collapses. Increased pressure peaking leads to a decrease in βN. Ideal stability analysis of equilibria reconstructed with EFIT [L. L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] shows that the plasmas are at the no-wall beta limit for the n=1 kink/ballooning mode. Low aspect ratio and high edge q theoretically alter the plasma stability and mode structure compared to standard tokamak configurations. Below the no-wall limit, stability calculations show the perturbed radial field is maximized near the center column and mode stability is not highly effected by a nearby conducting wall due to the short poloidal wavelength in this region. In contrast, as beta reaches and exceeds the no-wall limit, the mode becomes strongly ballooning with long poloidal wavelength at large major radius and is highly wall stabilized. In this way, wall stabilization is more effective at higher beta in low aspect ratio geometry. The resistive wall mode has been observed in plasmas exceeding the ideal no-wall beta limit and leads to rapid toroidal rotation damping across the plasma core

  18. Electromagnetic stabilization of tokamak microturbulence in a high-$\\beta$ regime

    CERN Document Server

    Citrin, J; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Mantica, P; Told, D; Bourdelle, C; Hatch, D R; Hogeweij, G M D; Johnson, T; Pueschel, M J; Schneider, M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electromagnetic stabilization and flow shear stabilization on ITG turbulence is investigated. Analysis of a low-$\\beta$ JET L-mode discharge illustrates the relation between ITG stabilization, and proximity to the electromagnetic instability threshold. This threshold is reduced by suprathermal pressure gradients, highlighting the effectiveness of fast ions in ITG stabilization. Extensive linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are then carried out for the high-$\\beta$ JET hybrid discharge 75225, at two separate locations at inner and outer radii. It is found that at the inner radius, nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization is dominant, and is critical for achieving simulated heat fluxes in agreement with the experiment. The enhancement of this effect by suprathermal pressure also remains significant. It is also found that flow shear stabilization is not effective at the inner radii. However, at outer radii the situation is reversed. Electromagnetic stabilization is negligible while the flow...

  19. Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)

  20. Finite and Infinite Arithmetic Progressions Related to Beta-Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let 1<β<2 and ε(x,β be the β-expansion of x∈[0,1. Denote by Aβ(x the set of positions where the digit 1 appears in ε(x,β. We consider the sets of points x such that Aβ(x contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions and includes infinite arithmetic progressions, respectively. Their sizes are investigated from the topological, metric, and dimensional viewpoints.

  1. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenti, L; Lipari, M.; Lombardi, D; Zicari, A.; Dotta, A.; Pontieri, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl...

  2. The molecular organization of the beta-sheet region in Corneous beta-proteins (beta-keratins) of sauropsids explains its stability and polymerization into filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Eckhart, Leopold; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The hard corneous material of avian and reptilian scales, claws, beak and feathers is mainly derived from the presence of proteins formerly known as beta-keratins but now termed Corneous beta-proteins of sauropsids to distinguish them from keratins, which are members of the intermediate filament protein family. The modeling of the conserved 34 amino acid residues long central beta-sheet region of Corneous beta-proteins using an ab initio protein folding and structure prediction algorithm indicates that this region is formed by four antiparallel beta-sheets. Molecular dynamic simulations and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) analysis showed that the disposition of polar and apolar amino acids within the beta-region gives rise to an amphipathic core whose stability is further increased, especially in an aqueous environment, by the association into a dimer due to apolar interactions and specific amino-acid interactions. The dimers in turn polymerize into a 3nm thick linear beta-filament due to van der Waals and hydrogen-bond interactions. It is suggested that once this nuclear core of anti-parallel sheets evolved in the genome of a reptilian ancestor of the extant reptiles and birds about 300 millions years ago, new properties emerged in the corneous material forming scales, claws, beaks and feathers in these amniotes based on the tendency of these unique corneous proteins to form stable filaments different from keratin intermediate filaments or sterical structures formed by other corneous proteins so far known. PMID:26965557

  3. Progress report on the Los Alamos tritium beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements near the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay spectrum using a gaseous molecular tritium source yield an essentially model-independent upper limit of 27 eV on the /ovr ν//sub e/ mass at the 95% confidence level. Since demonstrating from this initial measurement the successful operation of a gaseous source based system, most of our effort has been concentrated towards the upgrade and optimization of the experimental apparatus. The emphasis of this work has been to eliminate or further reduce effects that generate systematic errors. Based on realistic projections from our initial measurement, an ultimate sensitivity to neutrino mass of 10 eV is expected. 12 refs., 1 fig

  4. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 regulates cell-cycle progression at the onset of mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, C W; Olsen, B B; Meek, D;

    2008-01-01

    Cell-cycle transition from the G(2) phase into mitosis is regulated by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) in complex with cyclin B. CDK1 activity is controlled by both inhibitory phosphorylation, catalysed by the Myt1 and Wee1 kinases, and activating dephosphorylation, mediated by the CDC...... interference results in delayed cell-cycle progression at the onset of mitosis. Knockdown of CK2beta causes stabilization of Wee1 and increased phosphorylation of CDK1 at the inhibitory Tyr15. PLK1-Wee1 association is an essential event in the degradation of Wee1 in unperturbed cell cycle. We have found that...... regulatory subunit, identifying it as a new component of signaling pathways that regulate cell-cycle progression at the entry of mitosis.Oncogene advance online publication, 12 May 2008; doi:10.1038/onc.2008.146....

  5. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, ...

  6. Properties of light nuclei very far from beta stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will be devoted to underlying the major developments which occurred in the study of light nuclei far from the valley of stability since the last International Nuclear Physics Conference in Harrogate (1986) where that field of research was already presented (1). A broader review will appear elsewhere (2). Therefore only some highlights are presented and discussed here. Probably the main development of the field in recent years has to do with a change in its aims and methods. The goal is no longer to search for individual hitherto unobserved nuclear species and to report their existence. It has become to study the major nuclear properties such as binding energy, half life, size, decay modes over broad ranges of neighbouring isotopes extending very far from stability in order to put to a test the current nuclear models based essentially on observations of nuclei near the stability line

  7. Effects of modified {beta}-cyclodextrin on thermal stability and conformation of lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Tadashi, E-mail: kamiyama@chem.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Satoh, Megumi; Tateishi, Takahiro; Nojiri, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Kimura, Takayoshi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of cyclodextrin on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD influences the hydrophobic interaction of lysozyme by the inclusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD relatively destabilized the folded state by stabilizing the unfolded state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The destabilization depends on the concentration and the substituent of CD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conformation of lysozyme was more spread at unfolded state by inclusion of CD. - Abstract: Effects of cyclic oligosaccharide cyclodextrin (CD) on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified thermodynamically and rheologically by DSC, viscosity, and circular dichroism measurements. The modified {beta}-CD relatively destabilized the folded state of lysozyme by stabilizing the unfolded state due to inclusion of hydrophobic part into the hydrophobic interior of CD. The order of higher destabilization effect was acetyl-{beta}-CD > methyl-{beta}-CD > hydroxypropyl-{beta}-CD. Apparent number of bound CD to unfolded state for methyl-, hydroxypropyl-, and acetyl-{beta}-CD is 6.7 {+-} 0.7, 4.2 {+-} 1.1, and 18.6 {+-} 4.3 and the binding constant is 5.5 {+-} 0.8, 6.7 {+-} 2.4, and 4.4 {+-} 1.2 L mol{sup -1}, respectively. The viscosity for unfolded state was increased with an increase in the each modified {beta}-CD concentration, suggesting that the inclusion of CD on a part of hydrophobic core at unfolded state leads to break the hydrophobic core, then lysozyme would be more spread structure. The substituent of CD can accelerate instability by directly breaking hydrogen bond and/or can restrain instability by increase in hydrophobic interaction. The fact that the each modified CDs has different destabilization effect shows a possibility to control the stability of protein by the substitution of CD.

  8. Wall stabilized operation in high beta NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, has demonstrated the advantages of low aspect ratio geometry in accessing high βt ≡ 2μ0/B02 and βN ≡ 108t>aB0/Ip. Experiments have reached βt = 39% through boundary and profile optimization and βN = 6.8 utilizing moderate current profile modification. High βN plasmas can exceed the ideal no-wall stability limit, βNno-wall, for periods much greater than the wall eddy current decay time. Resistive wall mode (RWM) physics is studied to understand mode stabilization in these plasmas. The toroidal mode spectrum of unstable RWMs has been measured with mode number n up to 3. The critical rotation frequency of Bondeson-Chu, Ωcrit = ωA/(4q2) describes well the RWM stability of NSTX plasmas when applied over the entire rotation profile and in conjunction with the ideal stability criterion. Rotation damping and global rotation collapse observed in plasmas exceeding βNno-wall contrasts the damping observed during tearing mode activity and can be described by drag due to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in the helically perturbed field of an ideal displacement. Resonant field amplification of an applied n = 1 field perturbation has been measured and increases with increasing βN. Equilibria are reconstructed including measured ion and electron pressure, toroidal rotation, and flux iso-surface constraint in plasmas with core rotation ωφ/ωA up to 0.48. Peak pressure shifts of 11% of the minor radius from the magnetic axis have been reconstructed. (author)

  9. Finite beta and compressibility effects on stability of resistive modes in toroidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboeuf, J.-N.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kurita, Gen-ichi

    1998-03-01

    Linear resistive stability results obtained from the toroidal magnetohydrodynamic codes FAR developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in United States of America and AEOLUS developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are compared for carefully constructed benchmark profiles and parameters. These are unstable to a tearing mode with toroidal mode number n=1. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions calculated with both codes are in close agreement and show that the effect of compressibility is weak for these modes. The effect of finite plasma beta is considered, and the eigenvalues calculated by the FAR and AEOLUS codes also show good agreement. It is shown that the finite beta has a stabilizing effect on the toroidal tearing mode, but that the compressibility also has little effect on finite beta tearing modes. (author)

  10. The Effect of Plasma Beta on High-n Ballooning Stability at Low Magnetic Shear

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, J. W.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    An explanation of the observed improvement in H-mode pedestal characteristics with increasing core plasma pressure or poloidal beta, as observed in MAST and JET, is sought in terms of the impact of the Shafranov shift, d', on ideal ballooning MHD stability.

  11. RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRAIT,EJ; BIALEK,J; BOGATU,N; CHANCE,M; CHU,MS; EDGELL,D; GAROFALO,AM; JACKSON,GL; JENSEN,TH; JOHNSON,LC; KIM,JS; LAHAYE,RJ; NAVRATIL,G; OKABAYASHI,M; REIMERDES,H; SCOVILLE,JT; TURNBULL,AD; WALKER,ML

    2002-09-01

    OAK A271 RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D. Recent DIII-D experiments show that ideal kink modes can be stabilized at high beta by a resistive wall, with sufficient plasma rotation. However, the resonant response by a marginally stable resistive wall mode to static magnetic field asymmetries can lead to strong damping of the rotation. Careful reduction of such asymmetries has allowed plasmas with beta well above the ideal MHD no-wall limit, and approaching the ideal-wall limit, to be sustained for durations exceeding one second. Feedback control can improve plasma stability by direct stabilization of the resistive wall mode or by reducing magnetic field asymmetry. Assisted by plasma rotation, direct feedback control of resistive wall modes with growth rates more than 5 times faster than the characteristic wall time has been observed. These results open a new regime of tokamak operation above the free-boundary stability limit, accessible by a combination of plasma rotation and feedback control.

  12. Simulation studies on the structural stability and properties of beta uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan-Rong; Gao, Tao; Sun, Guang-Ai; Liu, Ben-Qiong; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The structural stability of beta uranium ( β-U) is investigated by using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method based on the density function theory (DFT). Optimized lattice parameters are in agreement with other available data. Especially, the energy per atom and the phonon properties manifest that the model described by using space group No. 102 can be stabilized vibrationally and energetically. A reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the phonon entropy corresponding to the proper structure has been successfully achieved. Moreover, the thermodynamic functions are predicated at elevated temperatures.

  13. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation defect with detectable peroxisomes: a case with neonatal onset and progressive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, P G; Wanders, R J; Schutgens, R B; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E M; van Heemstra, D

    1990-07-01

    A progressive demyelinating cerebral disorder is described in a normally-appearing female infant with neonatal seizures, progressive psychomotor deterioration, deafness, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and loss of myelin observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. MRI also showed the absence of macroscopic neocortical dysplasia which is usually found in Zellweger syndrome (ZS). Adrenal cortical function was normal. The patient died at the age of 37 months. Extensive biochemical investigations of peroxisomal functions in the patient revealed an impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation resulting in elevated levels of very long (greater than C22) chain fatty acids in plasma and fibroblasts. Moreover, elevated plasma levels of intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis such as tri- and dihydroxycholestanoic acid were found. Other peroxisomal functions were normal. Immunoblotting of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme proteins in liver from the patient revealed normal responses with antisera against acyl-CoA oxidase, bifunctional protein and thiolase respectively. From these data we conclude that the patient had a deficiency of a single peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme at the level of either the bifunctional protein or peroxisomal thiolase with retained immunoreactivity against these enzymes. PMID:2209666

  14. Passive stabilization of MHD instabilities at high {beta}n in the HBT-EP Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    The HBT-EP Tokamak has been designed, built, and is now fully operational in the Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory. One of the primary purposes of this facility is to study the effects of a conducting wall on the MHD modes that lead up to plasma disruptions. Of particular interest are the types of instabilities that are driven by the kinetic pressure of the plasma, because these instabilities are believed to be responsible for the present limit to plasma {beta} with {beta} {proportional_to}

    /B{sup 2}, where the

    is the volume averaged pressure and B is the magnetic field. To this end, a movable conducting wall has been installed inside the HBT-EP vacuum chamber. The primary result of this thesis are the initial results from experiments that study the effect of this wall on plasma instabilities. The experiment shows that the conducting wall significantly reduces the growth rate of instabilities that precede a plasma disruption that occurs when the value of {beta} is near the Troyon limit. The location of the wall required for significant stabilization is b/a {approximately}1.2 where a is the minor radius of the plasma and b is the minor radial location of the wall. Moving the wall closer than b/a = 1.2 slightly degrades the stabilizing effect, which is consistent with recent theories.

  15. [Dietary plant phospholipids as stabilizers of oil solutions of beta-carotene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodina, Z V; Lupinovich, V L; Risnik, V V; Levachev, M M

    1995-01-01

    A study of stability of oil solutions beta-carotene to oxidizing damage is carried out. As stabilizers were used dietary plant phospholipids produced by Krasnodar's company ECOTECH in concentrations 5, 10, 20% in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Oxidizing changes in samples were evaluated by determination of peroxide level ('peroxidation number') and contents diene conjugates. Effect of these antioxidants was studied in experiments with accelerated oxidation at 60 C in darkness during 15 days. Phospholipids entered in a sample acted as antioxidants. Reverse correlation was found between quantity added phospholipids an level of accumulated primary peroxidation products. It was shown that during experimental oxidation together with oxidizing damage of oil the loss of beta-carotene was also occurred: without antioxidants on 68%, with alpha-tocopherol alone on 27%, with phospholipids and alpha-tocopherol on 34%. Phospholipids protect an oil from oxidizing damage not rendering of direct action on safety (-carotene being only as synergists in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Phospholipids increase thus antioxidant potentiation of a product lying as consider in the basis of antioxidant action of beta-carotene. PMID:7483481

  16. The effect of plasma beta on high-n ballooning stability at low magnetic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, J. W.; Ham, C. J.; Hastie, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    An explanation of the observed improvement in H-mode pedestal characteristics with increasing core plasma pressure or poloidal beta, {β\\text{pol}} , as observed in MAST and JET, is sought in terms of the impact of the Shafranov shift, {{Δ }\\prime} , on ideal ballooning MHD stability. To illustrate this succinctly, a self-consistent treatment of the low magnetic shear region of the ‘s-α ’ stability diagram is presented using the large aspect ratio Shafranov equilibrium, but enhancing both α and {{Δ }\\prime} so that they compete with each other. The method of averaging, valid at low s, is used to simplify the calculation and demonstrates how α , {{Δ }\\prime} , plasma shaping and ‘average favourable curvature’ all contribute to stability.

  17. Isolation and stabilization of dark red food dye from beta vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural highly coloured dark red pigment was isolated from Beta vulgaris. In paste and powdered form. Total colouring matter of the concentrated colour was 1.86% and 4.5%, respectively, for the paste and powdered forms, calculated as betanine. Sodium benzoate (0.01%) was used as the stabilizer for paste, while silicon dioxide (2%) was added in addition to sodium benzoate (0.01%) for storage of the red colour in powdered form. Other parameters that may influence the stability of the colour, such as pH temperature and relative humidity, were studied. Toxicity evaluation, and lead and arsenic levels were determined. The addition of stabilizers, like citric acid, ascorbic acid, EDTA and sodium chloride, were also investigated, none of which showed useful effect. (author)

  18. Soluble Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein Is Related to Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacker, Petra; Fang, Lubin; Kuhle, Jens; Petzold, Axel; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ludolph, Albert C.; Otto, Markus; Brettschneider, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) could support the identification of beneficial drugs in clinical trials. We aimed to test whether soluble fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and sAPPß) correlated with clinical subtypes of ALS and were of prognostic value. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross-sectional study including patients with ALS (N = 68) with clinical follow-up data over 6 months, Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 20), and age-matched controls (N = 40), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of sAPPα a, sAPPß and neurofilaments (NfHSMI35) were measured by multiplex assay, Progranulin by ELISA. CSF sAPPα and sAPPß levels were lower in ALS with a rapidly-progressive disease course (p = 0.03, and p = 0.02) and with longer disease duration (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). CSF NfHSMI35 was elevated in ALS compared to PD and controls, with highest concentrations found in patients with rapid disease progression (p<0.01). High CSF NfHSMI3 was linked to low CSF sAPPα and sAPPß (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007, respectively). The ratios CSF NfHSMI35/CSF sAPPα,-ß were elevated in patients with fast progression of disease (p = 0.002 each). CSF Progranulin decreased with ongoing disease (p = 0.04). Conclusions This study provides new CSF candidate markers associated with progression of disease in ALS. The data suggest that a deficiency of cellular neuroprotective mechanisms (decrease of sAPP) is linked to progressive neuro-axonal damage (increase of NfHSMI35) and to progression of disease. PMID:21858182

  19. Soluble beta-amyloid precursor protein is related to disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Steinacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS could support the identification of beneficial drugs in clinical trials. We aimed to test whether soluble fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and sAPPß correlated with clinical subtypes of ALS and were of prognostic value. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study including patients with ALS (N = 68 with clinical follow-up data over 6 months, Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 20, and age-matched controls (N = 40, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of sAPPα a, sAPPß and neurofilaments (NfH(SMI35 were measured by multiplex assay, Progranulin by ELISA. CSF sAPPα and sAPPß levels were lower in ALS with a rapidly-progressive disease course (p = 0.03, and p = 0.02 and with longer disease duration (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively. CSF NfH(SMI35 was elevated in ALS compared to PD and controls, with highest concentrations found in patients with rapid disease progression (p<0.01. High CSF NfH(SMI3 was linked to low CSF sAPPα and sAPPß (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007, respectively. The ratios CSF NfH(SMI35/CSF sAPPα,-ß were elevated in patients with fast progression of disease (p = 0.002 each. CSF Progranulin decreased with ongoing disease (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new CSF candidate markers associated with progression of disease in ALS. The data suggest that a deficiency of cellular neuroprotective mechanisms (decrease of sAPP is linked to progressive neuro-axonal damage (increase of NfH(SMI35 and to progression of disease.

  20. Approach to high stability beta limit and its control by fast wave current drive in reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the generation of steady state, dynamo-free RFP configuration by rf current driving scheme, it is necessary to find an optimum configuration into high stability beta limit against m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes and reducing nonlinearly turbulent level with less rf power. As first step to the optimization study, we are interested in partially relaxed state model (PRSM) RFP configuration, which is considered to be closer to a relaxed state at finite beta since it has force-free fields for poloidal direction with a relatively shorter characteristic length of relaxation and a relatively higher stability beta limit to m=1 resonant ideal MHD modes. The stability beta limit to m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes can be predicted to be relatively high among other RFP models and to be enhanced by the current density profile control using fast magnetosonic waves (FMW), which are accessible to high density region with strong absorption rate. (author)

  1. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O; Pinna, L A; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...... the loss of kinase activity, strongly suggesting a protective function for the beta subunit. Assaying different peptides for specificity toward the recombinant alpha subunit and the recombinant reconstituted enzyme, showed that the presence of the beta subunit could modify the specificity of the...... catalytic alpha subunit. Therefore, a dual function for the beta subunit is proposed which confers both specificity and stability to the catalytic alpha subunit within the CK-2 holoenzyme complex. The peptide DLEPDEELEDNPNQSDL, reproducing the highly acidic amino acid 55-71 segment of the human beta subunit...

  2. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  3. Epoetin beta pegol alleviates oxidative stress and exacerbation of renal damage from iron deposition, thereby delaying CKD progression in progressive glomerulonephritis rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Michinori; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half‐life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin‐25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urin...

  4. The study of the properties of nuclei far from the beta stability line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of setups for measuring the lifetime of excited states of nuclei by the method of delayed electron-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidences in the range 10-10-10-6s is presented. The methods allowing for a substantial increase in the accuracy and efficiency of obtaining experimental data are developed. The procedures of measuring and analysing the multicomponent beta spectra with taking into account the instrumental effect which distorts the measured spectra are developed. Results of investigating the positron decay and determining the mass difference Qsub(B)+ for nuclei with Tsub(1/2)>20 min by the method of measuring the positron end-point energy are presented. The nano- and subnanosecond isomers for short-lived isotopes far from the beta stability line have been investigated. Probabilities of the electromagnetic transitions which depopulate the low-lying excited states in 151Tb, 153Dy, 160Tm, sup(157,159,161)Er have been determined and analysed. (author)

  5. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with {beta}-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Moumita [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Kamalika [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sen, Souvik [Malda Town Divisional Railway Hospital, Malda 732102 (India); Lahiri, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added {beta}-emitting isotopes of {sup 61}Cu (3.3 h), {sup 62}Zn (9.2 h), {sup 90}Nb (14.60 h) and {sup 99}Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid.

  6. Stabilization of ideal modes by resistive walls in tokamaks with plasma rotation and its effect on the beta limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that pressure-driven, ideal external modes in tokamaks can be fully stabilized by resistive walls when the plasma rotates at some fraction of the sound speed. For wall stabilized plasmas, there are two types of potentially unstable external modes: those which are nearly locked to the wall and those which rotate with the plasma. For the modes rotating with the plasma, the stabilizing effect of the wall increases when the wall is brought closer to the plasma, while, for the wall-locked modes, the stabilization improves with increasing wall distance. When the plasma rotates at some fraction of the sound speed, there is a window of stability to both the wall-locked and the rotating mode. This window closes when beta exceeds a new limit which can be significantly higher than the wall-at-infinity limit. The stabilization depends principally on the toroidal coupling to sound waves and is affected by ion Landau damping. Two dimensional stability calculations are presented to evaluate the gains in beta limit resulting from this wall stabilization for different equilibria and rotation speeds. In particular, results are shown for advanced tokamak configurations with bootstrap fractions of ≅ 100%. (author) 14 figs., 25 refs

  7. Analytic high-beta tokamak equilibria with poloidal-sonic flow and their stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In magnetically confined plasmas, equilibrium flows may suppress instability and turbulent transport to give rise to the formation of transport barriers or pedestals. In axisymmetric toroidal systems like tokamaks, both of the poloidal and toroidal components of flow are important for these phenomena. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for equilibria with flow reduce to the so-called generalized Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation and the Bernoulli law with five free functions of the magnetic flux in axisymmetric systems. These systems of a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) and a nonlinear algebraic equation can be solved numerically by iteration schemes when the PDE is elliptic in the whole region. Recently, a new reduced set of equilibrium equations has been derived for high-beta tokamaks with flow in the order of the poloidal-sound velocity. This model includes the effect of poloidal flow on both the magnetic flux and the pressure in higher-order terms of asymptotic expansions in terms of the inverse aspect ratio. We have found analytical solutions for this reduced set of equations for linear profiles of the lowest order free functions and perform qualitative studies of equilibria with sub- and super-poloidal-sonic flow. Analytical representations of equilibria with flow may be useful for benchmarks and initial guesses of iteration as well as for qualitative studies of equilibrium flows and stability analyses. In this presentation, we will also discuss the stability of these analytical equilibria. Equilibrium flow brings non-Hermitian properties to linear perturbations. In contrast to the static equilibria, the variational formulation does not give necessary and sufficient conditions, and the growth and damping can be non-exponential where mode analysis does not work. Due to these reasons, stability analysis of equilibria with flow must be done more carefully than that of static equilibria. Based on the formalism of the reduced MHD

  8. Weak decays and double beta decay. Annual progress report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has continued in collaboration with experimenters from Yale, Brookhaven and Pittsburgh (Brookhaven experiment 702) to measure asymmetries in the decays of polarized Σ+'s into protons and neutral pions and of polarized Σ-'s into neutrons and negative pions. A short experiment was carried out in the Brookhaven AGS A2 test beam to measure the efficiency of a cylindrical shower counter essential for measuring the asymmetry parameter in the rare decay of polarized Σ+'s into protons and gammas. An electronic controller to stabilize the magnetic field of the superconducting, polarized target magnet was also designed and built at Mount Holyoke, and it functioned extremely well during a six week May to June run. Also, the design of an experiment to search for double beta decay in Molybdenum 100 is briefly described. A group consisting of five experimenters from LBL and two from Mount Holyoke hope to make a formal proposal in September to the LBL administration to begin work on this experiment late this year and during the next calendar year

  9. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1995 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies of stabilization of liquid films between bubbles were undertaken as part of an effort to model gas release in waste tanks at the Hanford nuclear reservation. Synthetic Hanford waste created here showed solids accumulation at bubble surfaces and some stabilization of bubbles in a froth upon sparging with nitrogen. Dilational interfacial rheological measurements indicate increasing hydrophobicity with increasing EDTA concentration in the wastes. There is greater dilational elasticity of the interface with solid particles present on the interface. Theoretical modeling of a 2D liquid film between bubbles containing one row of solid particles suggests that in 3D such a film would be unstable unless the solids all touch. This hints at a possible mechanism for bubble stabilization, if it can be argued that slowly evolving interfaces, as bubbles grow toward each other in the sludge, have solids closely packed, but that rapid expansion of gas during a rollover event forces the films to expand without additional solids

  10. Beta-Carotene chemical stability in nanoemulsions was improved by stabilized with Beta-Lactoglobulin-Catechin conjugates through free radical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-catechin conjugates were prepared by a free radical method and investigated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Covalent binding between BLG and cat...

  11. Fatigue crack growth behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huan; ZHAO Yongqing; ZENG Weidong; QIAN Li

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta Ti40 alloy. The FCG rotes were analyzed. The fracture surfaces and the side surfaces of the test samples were explored. The results show that frequency affects the cracking behaviors of Ti40 alloy. Temperature also plays an important role in Ti40 alloy cracking. At room temperature (25℃), when the frequency increases, the cracking rate changes a little in the range of low stress intensity factor (ΔK), while it changes significantly when ΔK is high. At 500℃, the cracking rate of Ti40 alloy changes significantly during all the course of clacking. The frequency also affects the microstructure patterns of Ti40 alloy. A number of secondary cracks appear in the area more than 200 μm from the main crack at a high ΔK when the fre-quency is 1 Hz, but only a few secondary cracks exist when the frequency is 10 Hz. Facet image is the main image of the fracture surfaces when the frequency is 1 Hz. While, ductile striation occupies most of the area of fracture surfaces when the frequency is 10 Hz.

  12. [Antibacterial activity and beta-lactamase stability of eleven oral cephalosporins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, A; Jungwirth, R; Schweighart, S; Theopold, M

    1990-01-01

    Oral cephalosporins (cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet, ceftibuten, cefpodoxime, loracarbef, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil and BAY 3522) were compared by their antibacterial profile including stability against new beta-lactamases. Both activity and antibacterial spectrum of compounds structurally related to third generation parenteral cephalosporins (of the oximino class) were superior to established compounds. Activity against staphylococci was found to be highest for cefdinir, cefprozil and BAY 3522. Cefetamet, ceftibuten and cefixime demonstrate no clinically meaningful antistaphylococcal activity while the other compounds investigated demonstrate intermediate activity. The antibacterial spectrum was broadest for cefdinir and cefpodoxime. New oral cephalosporins are equally inactive as established compounds against Enterobacter spp., Morganella, Listeria, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp., methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp., penicillin-resistant pneumococci and anaerobes. New extended broad-spectrum betalactamases (TEM-3, TEM-5, TEM-6, TEM-7, SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4, SHV-5, CMY-1, CMY-2, and CTX-M) are active against the majority of oral cephalosporins. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefixime and cefdinir were stable against some of these enzymes even to a higher extent than parenteral cephalosporins. New oral cephalosporins should improve the therapeutic perspectives of oral cephalosporins due to their higher activity against pathogens marginally susceptible to established compounds (higher multiplicity of maximum plasma concentrations over MICs of the pathogens) and furthermore by including in their spectrum organisms resistant to established absorbable cephalosporins (e.g. Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Citrobacter spp., and Serratia spp.). PMID:2079378

  13. Glucocorticoids Suppress Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression by Enhancing Na,K-ATPase Beta-1 Subunit Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thu P.; Barwe, Sonali P.; Lee, Seung J.; McSpadden, Ryan; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Grubbs, Stephen S.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used as palliative or chemotherapeutic clinical agents for treatment of a variety of cancers. Although steroid treatment is beneficial, the mechanisms by which steroids improve outcome in cancer patients are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit isoform 1 (NaK-β1) is a cell-cell adhesion molecule, and its expression is down-regulated in cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to mesenchymal-transition (EMT), a key event associated with cancer progression to metastatic disease. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to identify small molecules that could up-regulate NaK-β1 expression in cancer cells. Compounds related to the glucocorticoids were identified as drug candidates enhancing NaK-β1 expression. Of these compounds, triamcinolone, dexamethasone, and fluorometholone were validated to increase NaK-β1 expression at the cell surface, enhance cell-cell adhesion, attenuate motility and invasiveness and induce mesenchymal to epithelial like transition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro. Treatment of NaK-β1 knockdown cells with these drug candidates confirmed that these compounds mediate their effects through up-regulating NaK-β1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these compounds attenuate tumor growth in subcutaneous RCC xenografts and reduce local invasiveness in orthotopically-implanted tumors. Our results strongly indicate that the addition of glucocorticoids in the treatment of RCC may improve outcome for RCC patients by augmenting NaK-β1 cell-cell adhesion function. PMID:25836370

  14. Active Stability Control of a High-Beta Self-Organized Compact Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) has been proposed as an effective device for control of a high-beta self-organized compact torus of field-reversed configuration (FRC). The initial results demonstrate that the application of an MCPG suppresses the most prominent FRC instability of the centrifugally-driven interchange mode with toroidal mode number n = 2. This observation was made on the Nihon University Compact Torus Experiment (NUCTE), a flexible theta-pinch-based FRC facility. In the series of experiments, a MCPG generates a spheromak-like plasmoid which can then travel axially to merge with a pre-existing FRC. Since the MCPG is mounted on-axis and generates a significant helicity, it provides the FRC-relevant version of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) that has been applied in both spheromaks and spherical tokamaks. When CHI is applied, the onset of elliptical deformation of FRC cross-section is delayed until 45 - 50 μs from FRC formation compared to the onset time of 25 μs in the case without CHI. Besides delaying instability, MCPG application reduces the toroidal rotation frequency from 67 kHz to 41 kHz. Moreover, the flux decay time is extended from 57 to 67 μs. These changes have been made despite the quite modest flux content of the plasmoid: ∼0.05 mWb of poloidal and 0.01 mWb of toroidal flux, compared with the 0.4 mWb of poloidal flux in the pre-formed FRC. The observed global stabilization and confinement improvements suggest that the MCPG can actively control the rotational instability. This global instability can also be suppressed by externally applied static multipole fields. However, it has been known that nonaxisymmetric multipole fields have adverse effects on confinement. This indicates an advantage of MCPG in that it shows both improved confinement and stability. The conventional technique does not slow the toroidal rotation down. Therefore, MCPG introduces a different stabilization mechanism that may be the same as that

  15. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  16. Differential regulation of plastid mRNA stability. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    Our goal is to identify cis-acting sequences and transacting factors that function in plastid mRNA maturation, stabilization, and/or decay through an in vitro and in vivo analysis of mRNA:protein interactions. Our previous results emphasized the study of 3{prime}end inverted repeat sequences (IRs) that serve both as mRNA processing elements and stability determinants, and associate with plastid proteins that potentially play enzymatic, structural and/or regulatory roles. We seek to define, by single base and internal deletion mutagenesis, the sequence and structural requirements for protein binding to the 3{prime} IRs of petD and psbA mRNAs; to purify RNA-binding proteins that demonstrate gene- or sequence-specific binding, or that are implicated in RNA stabilization or decay; and to investigate the native form of mRNA in the plastid, by attempting to purify ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles from organelles. Our view of mRNA decay is that it is regulated by three interactive components: RNA structure, ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. We have used mutagenesis to study the role of RNA structure in regulating RNA decay rates, and to identify protein binding and endonuclease recognition sites. We have identified at least three endonuclease activities; one that cleaves psbA RNA; and two whose cleavage patterns with petD 3{prime} IR-RNA has been studied (endoC1 and endoC2). Additionally, we have continued to analyze the properties of the major RNA processing exoribonuclease. We have concentrated our efforts on three RNA-binding proteins. A 100 kd protein with properties suggestive of a mammalian RNP component has been purified. A protein of 55 kd that may also be an endonuclease has been partially purified. We have studied the interaction of a 29 kd protein with the petD stem/loop, and its role in RNA processing. Recently, we have used a novel gel shift/SDS-PAGE technique to identify new RNA-binding proteins.

  17. Continuous presence of phorbol ester is required for its IL-1 beta mRNA stabilizing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljander, P; Hurme, M

    1993-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) activating phorbol esters are known to prevent the decay of mRNA of several cytokines and proto-oncogenes. To examine whether the phorbol ester signal is continuously required for this stabilizing effect, THP-1 monocytic cells were stimulated either with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), which can be removed from the cells by washings, or with the more hydrophobic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both of these stimuli induced high levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA. When the cells were washed at the peak of the IL-1 beta mRNA expression, this mRNA decayed rapidly in the PDBu stimulated cells while in PMA stimulated cells the mRNA levels were not affected. Moreover, this mRNA degradation induced by the removal of PDBu could be inhibited by readdition of the phorbol ester. This restabilization could be prevented by pharmacologic inhibitors of PKC, but not by inhibiting protein or RNA synthesis. Thus these data suggest that the phorbol ester must be continuously present to exert its mRNA stabilizing effect and that its effect is PKC-mediated but does not require active protein or RNA synthesis. PMID:8416817

  18. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage.

  19. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994 -1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage

  20. K-isomers in Hf nuclei at and beyond the neutron-rich edge of beta-stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P; Seabury, E H; Walker, P M; Wheldon, C; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Hackman, G; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Nisius, D; Reiter, P

    1999-01-01

    New high-K isomers are populated in sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup , sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 sup , sup 1 sup 8 sup 2 Hf nuclei via inelastic excitation and transfer reactions, using pulsed sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U beams on Hf targets. The new data explore K-hindrances for different multipolarities and the role of residual spin-spin interactions for multi-quasiparticle (qp) configurations at the neutron-rich edge of the beta-stability line. The mapping of 4-qp K-isomers in the A approx 180 region is extended into neutron-rich territory.

  1. Comparative studies on the chemical and enzymatic stability of alpa-and beta-arbutin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha and beta arbutin are glycoside derivatives used as skin whitening agents. Both compounds interfere with tyrosinases activity in a fashion similar to their aglycone hydroquinone. Hydroquinone has been associated with ochronosis and possible carcinogenic effect. Due to their structural similarit...

  2. Long-Term Stability of Underground Operated CZT Detectors Based on the Analysis of Intrinsic $^{113}$Cd \\beta$^{-}$-Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, J; Gehre, D; Hagner, C; Heidrich, N; Klingenberg, R; Kroeninger, K; Nitsch, C; Oldorf, C; Quante, T; Rajek, S; Rebber, H; Rohatsch, K; Tebruegge, J; Temminghoff, R; Theinert, R; Timm, J; Wonsak, B; Zatschler, S; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The COBRA collaboration operates a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, located in Italy) to prove the technological capabilities of this concept for the search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. The setup consists of 64 $(1\\times\\!1\\times\\!1)$ cm$^{3}$ CZT detectors in CPG configuration. One purpose of this demonstrator is to test if reliable long-term operation of CZT-CPG detectors in such a setup is possible. The demonstrator has been operated under ultra low-background conditions since more than three years and collected data corresponding to an exposure of 218 kg$\\cdot$days. The presented study focuses on the long-term stability of CZT detectors by analyzing the intrinsic, fourfold forbidden non-unique $^{113}$Cd single beta-decay. It can be shown that CZT detectors can be operated stably for long periods of time and that the $^{113}$Cd single beta-decay can be used as an internal monitor of the detector performance during the runtime of the experimen...

  3. Analytical method development and preformulation stability studies of L-665,871 (a beta-agonist) in swine feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMontigny, P; Dave, K J

    1993-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of the beta-agonist L-665,871 by LC with fluorescence detection has been developed. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) with ion-pairing reagent hexanesulphonic acid sodium salt for the analysis of swine feed samples with 1 and 20 microgram g-1 L-665,871. Storage of feed samples at room temperature, however, indicated that the stability L-665,871 and its analogue L-674,239 were greatly compromised by the presence of moisture in the feed. Acidification with maleic acid and/or freezing the feeds were found to significantly improve drug stability. PMID:7905752

  4. Measurement of Resistive Wall Mode stability in rotating high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity can stabilize the resistive wall mode and extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional, ideal MHD no-wall limit up to the ideal MHD ideal wall limit. The stabilizing effect has been measured passively by measuring the critical plasma rotation required for stability and actively by probing the plasma with externally applied resonant magnetic fields. These measurements are compared to predictions of rotational stabilization of the sound wave damping and of the kinetic damping model using the MARS code. (author)

  5. Calcium Channel Blockers, Progression to Dementia, and Effects on Amyloid Beta Peptide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Mark A.; Erin Abner; Richard Kryscio; Liou Xu; Fister, Shuling X.; Lynn, Bert C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that antihypertensive drugs may be protective against cognitive decline. To determine if subjects enrolled in the University of Kentucky longitudinal aging study who used antihypertensive drugs showed diminished progression to dementia, we used a 3-parameter logistic regression model to compare the rate of progression to dementia for subjects who used any of the five common categories of antihypertensive drugs to those with similar demographic characteri...

  6. Thermal stability of beta''-alumina solid electrolyte under AMTEC operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the sodium beta''-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute. The major phase in this ceramic, sodium beta''-alumina shows no evidence of thermal decomposition in AMTEC environments including clean liquid sodium and low pressure sodium gas, at temperatures below 1173K, or in vacuum below 1273K. This paper presents additional results of ionic conductivity and exchange current studies in sodium exposure test cells (SETCs) to characterize the changes occurring in BASE below 1273K in low pressure sodium vapor. Also presented are additional annealing studies to characterize the kinetics of processes occurring in the BASE ceramic in the AMTEC operating regime

  7. Esmolol: A Unique Beta-Blocker in Maintaining Cardiovascular Stability Following Neurosurgical Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Samad EJ Golzari; Kamyar Ghabili; Mehdi Ghaffarlou; Mahmood Eydi; Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are prone to severe cardiac and or cerebral complications following emergence from general anesthesia and especially post-extubation phase. Administering beta blockers including esmolol is believed to be helpful in providing a stable hemodynamic at the end of the surgery and recovery stages and reducing recovery phase length. Methods: In a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial, 60 adult patients with ASA (American Socie...

  8. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) research program and progress towards high beta, long pulse operating scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major research goal of the National Spherical Torus Experiment is establishing long-pulse, high beta, high confinement operation and its physics basis. This research has been enabled by facility capabilities developed over the last two years, including neutral beam (up to 7 MW) and high harmonic fast wave heating (up to 6 MW), toroidal fields up to 6 kG, plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, flexible shape control, and wall preparation techniques. These capabilities have enabled the generation of plasmas with T> up to 35%. Normalized beta values often exceed the no wall limit, and studies suggest that passive wall mode stabilization is enabling this for broad pressure profiles characteristic of H mode plasmas. The viability of long, high bootstrap current fraction operations has been established for ELMing H mode plasmas with toroidal beta values in excess of 15% and sustained for several current relaxation times. Improvements in wall conditioning and fueling are likely contributing to a reduction in H mode power thresholds. Electron thermal conduction is the dominant thermal loss channel in auxiliary heated plasmas examined thus far. HHFW effectively heats electrons, and its acceleration of fast beam ions has been observed. Evidence for HHFW current drive is by comparing of the loop voltage evolution in plasmas with matched density and temperature profiles but varying phases of launched HHFW waves. A peak heat flux of 10 MW/m2 has been measured in the H mode, with large asymmetries in the power deposition being observed between the inner and outer strike points. Noninductive plasma startup studies have focused on coaxial helicity injection. With this technique, toroidal currents up to 400 kA have been driven, and studies to assess flux closure and coupling to other current drive techniques have begun. (author)

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of the FLR stabilization in the high-beta-stellarator - equilibrium and stability of MHD-configurations with zero rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. The influence of a finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of unstable MHD modes has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experiments on the high-beta stellarator (HBS) ISAR T1-B with an extremely large helical amplitude (delta1 approximately equal to 3) showed stabilization for the m=2, k approximately 0 mode as long as rsub(L)/a approximately >0.14. This critical ratio was smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than that given by sharp-boundary calculations and insensitive to ωsub(L)tausub(ii) which varied from 2 to 10 at the critical limit. Theoretically, the initial-value problem of the MHD-equations including gyro-viscosity was solved in cylindrical and helical symmetry with diffuse profiles. Numerically, an implicit method was used for the gyro-viscosity term. Eigenfunctions and growth rates of m=2 modes could be determined at different rsub(L)/a. B. Equilibrium and stability of toroidal finite-β MHD-configurations with a plane magnetic axis and zero rotational transform are investigated. A new sufficient stability criterion is used which, for this case, coincides with Mercier's necessary stability criterion in the neighbourhood of the magnetic axis. Critical β values, βsub(c), are computed from the position of the separatrix of the self-consistent third-order (in the distance from the magnetic axis) equilibrium solution. Optimization of βsub(c) with respect to all prescribable functions yields a monotonically increasing βsub(c) as a function of the number of periods around the torus. In contrast to the data in the existing literature, rather low values of βsub(c) are obtained, e.g. about 10% for 100 periods. (author)

  10. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  11. Chapter 3: MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions [Progress in the ITER Physics Basis (PIPB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the area of MHD stability and disruptions, since the publication of the 1999 ITER Physics Basis document (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2137-2664), is reviewed. Recent theoretical and experimental research has made important advances in both understanding and control of MHD stability in tokamak plasmas. Sawteeth are anticipated in the ITER baseline ELMy H-mode scenario, but the tools exist to avoid or control them through localized current drive or fast ion generation. Active control of other MHD instabilities will most likely be also required in ITER. Extrapolation from existing experiments indicates that stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by highly localized feedback-controlled current drive should be possible in ITER. Resistive wall modes are a key issue for advanced scenarios, but again, existing experiments indicate that these modes can be stabilized by a combination of plasma rotation and direct feedback control with non-axisymmetric coils. Reduction of error fields is a requirement for avoiding non-rotating magnetic island formation and for maintaining plasma rotation to help stabilize resistive wall modes. Recent experiments have shown the feasibility of reducing error fields to an acceptable level by means of non-axisymmetric coils, possibly controlled by feedback. The MHD stability limits associated with advanced scenarios are becoming well understood theoretically, and can be extended by tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles as well as by other techniques mentioned here. There have been significant advances also in the control of disruptions, most notably by injection of massive quantities of gas, leading to reduced halo current fractions and a larger fraction of the total thermal and magnetic energy dissipated by radiation. These advances in disruption control are supported by the development of means to predict impending disruption, most notably using neural networks. In addition to these advances in means to control or

  12. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented

  13. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, J. M.; TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  14. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, J. M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in {sup 106}Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  15. High-beta tokamak research. Annual progress report, August 1, 1983-July 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our main research objectives during the past year fell into four areas: (1) construction and initial operation of the new tokamak, HBT; (2) further numerical modeling of the Torus II experimental equilibria using the PPPL equilibrium and stability codes; (3) diagnostic development; and (4) ICRF antenna coupling calculation in 2D and rf current drive

  16. Mechanism of inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by beta-lactams. 2. Stability, reactivation kinetics, and products of beta-lactam-derived E-I complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G; Chabin, R; Mills, S; Underwood, D J; Shah, S K; Kuo, D; Gale, P; Maycock, A L; Liesch, J; Burgey, C S

    1995-11-01

    The monocyclic beta-lactams reported by Knight et al. [Knight, W. B., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 8160; Chabin, R., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8970] as inhibitors of human leucocyte elastase (HLE) produce stable HLE-inhibitor complexes that slowly reactivate with half-lives ranging from less than 1 to 15 h at 37 degrees C. The complexes produced between PPE and two C-3 dimethyl-substituted beta-lactams are less stable than those produced between HLE and analogous C-3 diethyl-substituted lactams. The stability of the HLE-I complexes is governed primarily by the structure of the substituted urea portion of the inhibitors and not by the identity or presence of a leaving group at C-4 of the lactam ring. In some cases substitutions on the urea portion of the inhibitors yielded complexes that displayed biphasic reactivation kinetics. This suggests the presence of at least two different complexes. The stereochemistry of the leaving group at C-4 has a small effect on the stability of the final complex (1.3-2-fold); therefore, the identity of the final complex is dependent upon the initial stereochemistry at that position. The stability of the complexes was relatively insensitive to hydroxylamine, which suggests that the acyl-enzymes are protected from nucleophilic "rescue". The rate of reactivation of the complex derived from L-680,833,[S-R*,S*)]-4-[(1-(((1-(4- methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-oxo-4-azetidinyl)ben zeneacetic acid, was pH independent, while the L-684,481, (R)-(1-(((1-(4-methylphenyl)butyl)amino)carbonyl)-3,3-diethyl-2-azeti din one generated complex displayed a pH-dependent reactivation rate. In the latter case, the increase in reactivation rate with pH displayed a pKa of 7.2. This is consistent with the requirement for base catalysis by the active site histidine to regenerate enzymatic activity. Reactivation of the L-680,833-derived complex produced different products as a function of pH, suggesting two different pH-dependent routes

  17. Simultaneous stimulation of GABA and beta adrenergic receptors stabilizes isotypes of activated adenylyl cyclase heterocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robichon Alain

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated how the synthesis of cAMP, stimulated by isoproterenol acting through β-adrenoreceptors and Gs, is strongly amplified by simultaneous incubation with baclofen. Baclofen is an agonist of δ-aminobutyric acid type B receptors [GABAB], known to inhibit adenylyl cyclase via Gi. Because these agents have opposite effects on cAMP levels, the unexpected increase in cAMP synthesis when they are applied simultaneously has been intensively investigated. From previous reports, it appears that cyclase type II contributes most significantly to this phenomenon. Results We found that simultaneous application of isoproterenol and baclofen specifically influences the association/dissociation of molecules involved in the induction and termination of cyclase activity. Beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi has a higher affinity for adenylyl cyclase isoform(s when these isoforms are co-associated with Gs. Our data also suggest that, when beta/gamma and Gαs are associated with adenylyl cyclase isoform(s, beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi retards the GTPase activity of Gαs from adrenergic receptor. These reciprocal regulations of subunits of the adenylyl cyclase complex might be responsible for the drastic increase of cAMP synthesis in response to the simultaneous signals. Conclusions Simultaneous signals arriving at a particular synapse converge on molecular detectors of coincidence and trigger specific biochemical events. We hypothesize that this phenomenon comes from the complex molecular architectures involved, including scaffolding proteins that make reciprocal interactions between associated molecules possible. The biochemistry of simultaneous signaling is addressed as a key to synaptic function.

  18. Epoetin beta pegol alleviates oxidative stress and exacerbation of renal damage from iron deposition, thereby delaying CKD progression in progressive glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Michinori; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Endo, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A single dose of CERA given on day 1, but not on day 16, alleviated increasing uTP and UN, thereby delaying ESKD. In the initial disease phase, CERA significantly suppressed urinary 8-OHdG and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a tubular damage marker. CERA also inhibited elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels and alleviated subsequent iron accumulation in kidneys in association with elevated urinary iron excretion and resulted in alleviation of growth of Ki67-positive tubular and glomerular cells. In addition, at day 28 when the exacerbation of uTP occurs, a significant correlation was observed between iron deposition in the kidney and urinary L-FABP. In our study, CERA mitigated increasing kidney damage, thereby delaying CKD progression in this glomerulonephritis rat model. Alleviation by CERA of the exacerbation of kidney damage could be attributable to mitigation of tubular damage that might occur with lowered iron deposition in tubules. PMID:26634903

  19. Influence of a vacuum region on the stability of a high-beta screw pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ascertain the influence of a vacuum region on the stability of a high-β screw pinch, the stability properties of two confinement configurations are compared. Both configurations involve diffuse equilibrium profiles and a rigid, perfectly conducting cylindrical shell. In the first problem, perfectly conducting plasma extends to the rigid conducting wall; the plasma is extremely tenuous in the outer region of the pinch, however. In the second case, profiles identical to those of the first problem are chosen for the central portion of the pinch, but the outer tenuous plasma is replaced by a perfectly insulating vacuum region. The two configruations are found to be unstable for the same range of external parameter values; different modes are unstable in the two cases, however. Thus, the presence of a vacuum region does not affect the stability boundary of the pinch, but it does affect the nature of the unstable modes

  20. Separation and study of nuclides far from beta stability and search for new regimes of nuclear stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiochemical separations progress has been made in developing both discontinuous and continuous separation techniques. Outstanding examples of fast, discontinuous separations have been reported from the University of Mainz where chemical separations are performed on a subsecond time scale. However, when experiments have to be performed repeatedly, a continuous separation process delivering a steady source of short-lived species is more appropriate. Such separations are accomplished in the on-line operating solvent extraction system SISAK. The combination of this separation technique with a Gas Jet Recoil Transport (GJRT) system makes it possible to adapt the separation system to different irradiation facilities. The performance of SISAK has been illustrated through the study of short-lived rare-earth isotopes, using conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy. Following some initial test experiments at a 14 MeV neutron generator in Gothenburg the SISAK system was installed at a Philips PW 5320 neutron generator situated in the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Univ. of Oslo in 1972. In the following two years the main effort was devoted to the development of the experimental separation technique although some physics results were obtained in this period. In 1974 the SISAK system was combined with a GJRT arrangement and installed at the Mainz TRIGA reactor. (JIW)

  1. Double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual progress report, January 1, 1985-December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is continuing on a collaborative experiment with experimenters from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in molybdenum 100. Currently testing a stack of 16 silicon hybrid lithium drift-surface barrier and 6 high purity silicon detectors in a second generation titanium cryostat at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Low Level Counting Facility. Preliminary data indicates that the system background rate in the vicinity of 3.033 MeV energy release molybdenum 100 is about 3 events/(year)(kg of Si)(keV), a factor of 10 improvement over our earlier run in August 1984 with 5 detectors, and about a factor of 10 lower than the reported background rate of 33 events/(year)(kg of Ge)(keV) taken with a germanium detector above ground by Avignone et al. in their clean cryostat under similar conditions. Approximately 50 additional lithium drift silicon detectors are under construction and silicon for another 50 detectors is on order. Development work is also continuing on high purity silicon detectors. It now looks like .5 mm thick large area (about 45 cm2) detectors are within our fabrication capabilities. Cost reduced on readout electronics significantly by combining commercial and homemade circuits, and had no significant technical problems increasing the number of detectors in the array from 5 to 22

  2. Tumor associated macrophages protect colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through IL-1beta-dependent stabilization of Snail in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kaler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported that colon tumor cells stimulate macrophages to release IL-1beta, which in turn inactivates GSK3beta and enhances Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells, generating a self-amplifying loop that promotes the growth of tumor cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe that macrophages protect HCT116 and Hke-3 colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of IL-1beta by neutralizing IL-1beta antibody, or silencing of IL-1beta in macrophages inhibited their ability to counter TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, IL-1beta was sufficient to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL-induced collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi and activation of caspases were prevented by macrophages or by recombinant IL-1beta. Pharmacological inhibition of IL-1beta release from macrophages by vitamin D(3, a potent chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer, restored the ability of TRAIL to induce apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with macrophages. Macrophages and IL-1beta failed to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells expressing dnIkappaB, dnAKT or dnTCF4, confirming that they oppose TRAIL-induced cell death through induction of Wnt signaling in tumor cells. We showed that macrophages and IL-1beta stabilized Snail in tumor cells in an NF-kappaB/Wnt dependent manner and that Snail deficient tumor cells were not protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis by macrophages or by IL-1beta, demonstrating a crucial role of Snail in the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL. SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a positive feedback loop between tumor cells and macrophages that propagates the growth and promotes the survival of colon cancer cells: tumor cells stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1beta, which in turn, promotes Wnt signaling and stabilizes Snail in tumor cells, conferring resistance to TRAIL. Vitamin D(3 halts this amplifying loop by interfering with the release of IL-1beta from macrophages

  3. The thermal stability of sodium beta'-Alumina solid electrolyte ceramic in AMTEC cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the beta'-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute. The temperature and environmental conditions under which BASE remains stable control operational parameters of AMTEC devices. We have used mass loss experiments in vacuum to 1573K to characterize the kinetics of BASE decomposition, and conductivity and exchange current measurements in sodium vapor filled exposure cells to 1223K to investigate changes in the BASE which affect its ionic conductivity. There is no clear evidence of direct thermal decomposition of BASE below 1273K, although limited soda loss may occur. Reactive metals such as Mn or Cr can react with BASE at temperatures at least as low as 1223K

  4. Phase Stability and Stress-Induced Transformations in Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, R. Prakash; Joost, William J.; Ankem, Sreeramamurthy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we provide a brief review of the recent developments related to the relationship between phase stability and stress-induced transformations in metastable body-centered-cubic β-phase titanium alloys. Stress-induced transformations occur during tensile, compressive, and creep loading and influence the mechanical response. These transformations are not fully understood and increased understanding of these mechanisms will permit future development of improved alloys for aerospace, biomedical, and energy applications. In the first part of this article, we review phase stability and discuss a few recent developments. In the second section, we discuss the current status of understanding stress-induced transformations and several areas that require further study. We also provide our perspective on the direction of future research efforts. Additionally, we address the occurrence of the hcp ω-phase and the orthorhombic α″-martensite phase stress-induced transformations.

  5. Ab initio study of interacting lattice vibrations and stabilization of the beta phase in Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souvatzis, P.; Legut, Dominik; Eriksson, M.; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 9 (2010), 092201/1-092201/4. ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi * ab initio * phonon * anharmonicity * stabilization of beta phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  6. Esmolol: A Unique Beta-Blocker in Maintaining Cardiovascular Stability Following Neurosurgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP are prone to severe cardiac and or cerebral complications following emergence from general anesthesia and especially post-extubation phase. Administering beta blockers including esmolol is believed to be helpful in providing a stable hemodynamic at the end of the surgery and recovery stages and reducing recovery phase length. Methods: In a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial, 60 adult patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist class of I-II scheduled to undergo elective neurosurgery operations were randomly divided into two groups receiving esmolol (n=30 and placebo (n=30 as IV infusion within four minutes prior to extubation continued by an IV infusion for 10 minutes after extubation. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups regarding the changes of systolic blood pressure and heart rate at all studied stages after extubation (P≤0.05. However, no significant difference existed between esmolol and control groups regarding recovery and extubation times emphasizing the fact that esmolol is of excellent early recovery and extubation profiles. Conclusion: Esmolol is advised to be used in preventing hyperdynamic status throughout extubation phase without extending recovery phase length.

  7. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Vargas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time.

  8. Stability and control of resistive wall modes in high beta, low rotation DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent high-β DIII-D (Luxon J.L. 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 64) experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable when the plasma rotation is lowered to a fraction of a per cent of the Alfven frequency by reducing the injection of angular momentum in discharges with minimized magnetic field errors. Previous DIII-D experiments yielded a high plasma rotation threshold (of order a few per cent of the Alfven frequency) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was applied to lower the plasma rotation. We propose that the previously observed rotation threshold can be explained as the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Resonant braking can also occur naturally in a plasma subject to magnetic instabilities with a zero frequency component, such as edge localized modes. In DIII-D, robust RWM stabilization can be achieved using simultaneous feedback control of the two sets of non-axisymmetric coils. Slow feedback control of the external coils is used for dynamic error field correction; fast feedback control of the internal non-axisymmetric coils provides RWM stabilization during transient periods of low rotation. This method of active control of the n = 1 RWM has opened access to new regimes of high performance in DIII-D. Very high plasma pressure combined with elevated qmin for high bootstrap current fraction, and internal transport barriers for high energy confinement, are sustained for almost 2 s, or 10 energy confinement times, suggesting a possible path to high fusion performance, steady-state tokamak scenarios

  9. Can Specific Protein-Lipid Interactions Stabilize an Active State of the Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Herce, Henry D; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E

    2015-10-20

    G-protein-coupled receptors are eukaryotic membrane proteins with broad biological and pharmacological relevance. Like all membrane-embedded proteins, their location and orientation are influenced by lipids, which can also impact protein function via specific interactions. Extensive simulations totaling 0.25 ms reveal a process in which phospholipids from the membrane's cytosolic leaflet enter the empty G-protein binding site of an activated β2 adrenergic receptor and form salt-bridge interactions that inhibit ionic lock formation and prolong active-state residency. Simulations of the receptor embedded in an anionic membrane show increased lipid binding, providing a molecular mechanism for the experimental observation that anionic lipids can enhance receptor activity. Conservation of the arginine component of the ionic lock among Rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors suggests that intracellular lipid ingression between receptor helices H6 and H7 may be a general mechanism for active-state stabilization. PMID:26488656

  10. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.

    1978-03-01

    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  11. The progression and topographic distribution of interleukin-1beta expression after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C A; Loddick, S A; Toulmond, S; Stroemer, R P; Hunt, J; Rothwell, N J

    1999-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the exacerbation of ischemic damage in the brains of rodents. This study has ascertained the cellular localization and chronologic and topographic distribution of pro/mature interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) protein 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after ischemia by subjecting rats to permanent unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Interleukin-1beta was localized immunocytochemically in vibratome sections of perfusion-fixed brains. The cells that expressed IL-1beta had the morphologic features of microglia and macrophages. Interleukin-1beta was first detected 1 hour after occlusion in ipsilateral meningeal macrophage-like cells. By 6 hours, pro/mature IL-1beta-immunoreactive (IL-1(beta)ir) putative microglia were present in the ischemic cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, caudoputamen, and surrounding tissue. By 24 and 48 hours after ischemia, the number and spread of IL-1(beta)ir cells increased greatly, including those resembling activated microglia and macrophages, as the core of the infarct became infiltrated. Interleukin-1(beta)ir cells also were present in apparently undamaged tissue, adjacent to the lesion ipsilaterally, and contralaterally in the cerebral cortex, dorsal corpus callosum, dorsal caudoputamen, and hippocampus. These results support the functional role of IL-1 in ischemic brain damage and reveal a distinct temporal and spatial expression of IL-1beta protein in cells believed to be microglia and macrophages. PMID:9886359

  12. Progression towards endemic stability to bovine babesiosis in cattle introduced onto a game ranch : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa Regassa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to study progression toward endemic stability to Babesia bigemina arose when cattle were reintroduced onto a game ranch in 1999 after an absence of three years. The study was conducted between August 2000 and June 2001. The unvaccinated breeding cows were sampled only once. Calves born during October 1999 were initially vaccinated against B. bigemina and Babesia bovis at the age of 4 months and were then bled at 10, 17 and 20 months of age. Calves born during 2000 were bled at 7 and 8 months of age. Sera were collected from all the cattle sampled and later tested for antibodies against B. bigemina and B. bovis using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test. Although endemic stability to B. bigemina had not been achieved at Nooitgedacht 2 years after resumption of cattle ranching, the high seroprevalence in the unvaccinated 8- month-old calves suggested that the situation was approaching stability and that calf vaccination against bovine babesiosis was not required. Tick control should therefore be restricted to prevent excessive tick worry. Only vaccinated cattle were positive to B. bovis and it was concluded that the parasite was absent from the ranch.

  13. Conformational stability of fibrillar amyloid-beta oligomers via protofilament pair formation - a systematic computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kahler

    Full Text Available Amyloid-[Formula: see text] (A[Formula: see text] oligomers play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease due to their neurotoxic aggregation properties. Fibrillar A[Formula: see text] oligomerization can lead to protofilaments and protofilament pairs via oligomer elongation and oligomer association, respectively. Small fibrillar oligomers adopt the protofilament topology, whereas fibrils contain at least protofilament pairs. To date, the underlying growth mechanism from oligomers to the mature fibril still remains to be elucidated. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent on single layer-like protofilaments and fibril-like protofilament pairs of different size ranging from the tetramer to the 48-mer. We found that the initial U-shaped topology per monomer is maintained over time in all oligomers. The observed deviations of protofilaments from the starting structure increase significantly with size due to the twisting of the in-register parallel [Formula: see text]-sheets. This twist causes long protofilaments to be unstable and leads to a breakage. Protofilament pairs, which are stabilized by a hydrophobic interface, exhibit more fibril-like properties such as the overall structure and the twist angle. Thus, they can act as stable conformational templates for further fibril growth. Key properties like the twist angle, shape complementarity, and energetics show a size-dependent behavior so that small oligomers favor the protofilament topology, whereas large oligomers favor the protofilament pair topology. The region for this conformational transition is at the size of approximately twelve A[Formula: see text] monomers. From that, we propose the following growth mechanism from A[Formula: see text] oligomers to fibrils: (1 elongation of short protofilaments; (2 breakage of large protofilaments; (3 formation of short protofilament pairs; and (4 elongation of protofilament pairs.

  14. Progress in the study of plasma heating, stability, and confinement on HANBIT mirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANBIT is a magnetic mirror confinement device, which consists of a simple mirror-type central cell, an anchor, a plug, and two end tanks. HANBIT started its physics experimental campaign in 2001, following the development phase of basic heating and diagnostic systems over 1996 to 2000. Initial physics experiments were concentrated on the basic physics studies of RF-heating, stability, and confinement in a simple mirror configuration of the central-cell, trying to identify the discharge characteristics and stable plasma operation modes. A main result from this initial study was that a stable, high-density plasma mode exists in the slow wave regime of ω ≤ Ωci in HANBIT, unlike the results from other mirror devices where the stable modes were mostly observed in the fast wave regime of ω > Ωci, where ω is the RF frequency and Ωci is the ion cyclotron frequency at the mid-plane of central cell. Since the last IAEA conference, a significant effort has been made to clarify the physics origin of this new stable mode. Also, an attempt has been made to produce the high-density mode in the fast wave regime of ω > Ωci , as observed in the other mirror devices. In addition, an intensive study is on the way to increase the plasma beta and ion temperature, mainly through the beach wave heating by the DHT antenna system. (author)

  15. Analysis of beta-catenin, Ki-ras, and microsatellite stability in azoxymethane-induced colon tumors of BDIX/Orl Ico rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Møller; Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Bonne, Anita;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to investigate whether the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer rat model mimics the human situation with regard to microsatellite stability, changes in expression of beta-catenin, and/or changes in the sequence of the proto-oncogene Ki-ras. Colon cancer...... result is in accordance with those of similar studies in other rat models and with most human colorectal cancers. Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin did not reveal loss of gene activity, nor did the sequencing of Ki-ras reveal mutations. These results are in contrast to most findings in...... comparable rat studies. The deviations may be due to differences in exposure to the carcinogen or difference in strain and/or age. The lack of beta-catenin and Ki-ras alterations in this colon cancer model is unlike human sporadic colorectal cancers where these genetic changes are common findings....

  16. Recent results on HBTX I: confinement and stability of high-beta plasma in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical and experimental study of the RFP is described. The experiments are mostly carried out on HBTX I (R/a=100/6.5 cm, peak I=40-200 kA rising in some microseconds, Tsub(max)=10-110 eV) in which a driven reversed field is applied and the configuration is controlled by fast programming. Theoretically, for stable RFP-distributions of the type observed, the toroidal correction to classical diffusion is less than 10% and trapped-particle effects can be unimportant. A new 2D-code (MINTOK) is described. A comparison has been made between observations and the predictions of resistive MHD theory, now including viscosity and ion thermal conduction, computed for experimental distributions. Theory shows that stability is possible with β approximately 30% for all S with conducting walls not too far removed from the position for ideal MHD-stability; viscosity and ion thermal conduction damp both ideal and resistive modes at low S, while finite-Larmor-radius effects are important at high S (S is the magnetic Reynolds number). Viscous damping can explain the absence of modes at low currents which are observed at high currents, and localized modes of the MHD Suydam type are not found experimentally or theoretically. The resistive-tearing (kink) mode has been identified experimentally and suppressed by reducing the compression ratio in accord with theory. Experimentally, at low currents, the plasma decays without instability in about 35 μs and its behaviour during the setting-up and decay phases is classical. At high currents, instabilities are observed which are believed to be pressure-driven resistive modes because βsub(theta) greater than or approximately equal to 0.6 is too high for stability. This instability leads to substantial cooling but does not destroy the plasma and at later times the plasma tends to become quiescent and βsub(theta) rises again. Detailed studies on HBTX I and Zeta show that the plasma by itself (without programming) generates an RFP

  17. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of beta-hairpin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2009-06-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain (residues 46-61), [IG(46-61)] of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG (46-61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from both the C- and the N-terminus. To determine the structure and stability of two resulting 12- and 14-amino acid-residue peptides, IG(48-59) and IG(47-60), respectively, we carried out circular dichroism, NMR, and calorimetric studies of these peptides in pure water. Our results show that IG(48-59) possesses organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50-Phe57 and Trp48-Val59) at T = 283 and 305 K. At T = 313 K, the structure breaks down because of increased chain entropy, but the turn region is preserved in the same position observed for the structure of the whole protein. The breakdown of structure occurs near the melting temperature of this peptide (T(m) = 310 K) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The melting temperature of IG(47-60) determined by DSC is T(m) = 330 K and its structure is similar to that of the native beta-hairpin at all (lower) temperatures examined (283-313 K). Both of these truncated sequences are conserved in all known amino acid sequences of the B domains of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from bacteria. Thus, this study contributes to an understanding of the mechanism of folding of this whole family of proteins, and provides information about the mechanism of formation and stabilization of a beta-hairpin structural element. PMID:19089955

  18. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Junhu; Chin Y Eugene; Zhang Hongquan; Zhan Jun; Li Shuai; Ma Ji; Xu Weizhi; Liu Chang; Xue Xiaowei; Xie Yuping; Fang Weigang

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 ( EZH2 ) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethyla-tion of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associat-ed factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decreases EZH2 phosphorylation at T345 and T487 and increases EZH2 stability without disrupting the formation of polycomb repressive complex 2 ( PRC2 ) . Functionally, EZH2 K348 acetylation enhances its capacity in suppression of the target genes and promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Further, elevated EZH2 K348 acetylation in lung adenocarcinoma patients pre-dicts a poor prognosis. Our findings define a new mechanism underlying EZH2 modulation by linking EZH2 acety-lation to its phosphorylation that stabilizes EZH2 and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression.

  19. Progressive taxation as a tool for providing the budget system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A. Vakhtina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the alternative additional sources of income of the state budget in the framework of the action plan of the Russian government to provide socioeconomic stability of the country in 2016. Methods comparative and dynamic analysis classification and typology description and measurements including using the tools of institutional Economics the data were interpreted using tables. Results it is shown that due to the lack of financial resources the government has to make unpopular decisions that reduce the level of social support of the population for the near future. The adopted laws stipulating the principles of address character and needs when providing regional measures of social support increase the risks of poverty and inequality. The analysis has been made of the ranking position of Russia and member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in terms of GDP per capita human development index and quality of life index. The article grounds the need for institutional change to facilitate transition to progressive taxation and redistribution of the tax burden from the poor and middle classes to the super rich. The flat personal income tax rate has not led to the desired results of growing tax revenues in the budget. Russia is still among the top ten states with the largest tax evasion losses. The weak redistributive mechanisms including a flat scale of personal income tax regressive social security contributions and low property taxes lead to stagnation inequality underfunding of education and health. Scientific novelty the article proves the conclusion about need of institutional transformations associated with changing the current tax policy priorities. The transition to a progressive scale of income and wealth taxation promotes the transfer of tax burden from the middle and poor to the rich. These measures can provide a double economic effect. On the one hand the principle of effective taxation

  20. Double beta decay of molybdenum 100: Annual progress report for period January 1, 1987-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is continuing on a collaborative experiment with experimenters from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to search for neutrinoless and two neutrino double beta decays in 100Mo. Backgrounds in a detector stack consisting of 40 lithium-drifted, surface-barrier silicon detectors within a titanium cryostat shielded by 10 inches of lead, 2-4 inches of borated polyethylene, and 2 feet of wax 4000 feet underground have been studied with no 100Mo foils inserted, and, under these conditions, no background events simulating double beta decay candidates have survived cuts in an energy region extending from 2.55 to 3.5 MeV in approximately 1600 hours of running. In addition, using 20 100Mo foils from a second batch of 100Mo obtained from Oak Ridge comprising a total of approximately 1/6 mole (1.04 x 1023 atoms) of 100Mo, we have very recently obtained in only 400 hours of running a very preliminary one sigma lower limit on the lifetime estimate for zero neutrino double beta decay, based on one count, of greater than 2 x 1021 years (approximately 2 x 1022 years Ge equivalent) and an equally preliminary one sigma lower limit on the lifetime estimate for two neutrino double beta decay, based on excess counts in the 100Mo spectrum over the empty detector spectrum, of greater than 2 x 1019 years (approximately 1.5 x 1021 years Ge equivalent). In 400 hours, we have no candidates for majoron double beta decay. 2 figs

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies and renal dehydropeptidase stability of the new beta-lactamase inhibitor BRL 42715 in animals.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, K.; Griffin, D. R.; Upshon, P A

    1991-01-01

    BRL 42715 is a novel, highly potent beta-lactamase inhibitor with good activity against a broad range of beta-lactamases, including the class I enzymes of Enterobacter and Citrobacter spp. (K. Coleman, D.R.J. Griffin, J.W.J. Page, and P.A. Upshon, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1580-1587, 1989). The pharmacokinetics of BRL 42715 were studied following oral and parenteral administration in mice, rats, rabbits, beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of BRL 42715...

  2. Evidence for the Importance of Trapped Particle Resonances for Resistive Wall Mode Stability in High Beta Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active measurements of the plasma stability in tokamak plasmas reveal the importance of kinetic resonances for resistive wall mode stability. The rotation dependence of the magnetic plasma response to externally applied quasistatic n=1 magnetic fields clearly shows the signatures of an interaction between the resistive wall mode and the precession and bounce motions of trapped thermal ions, as predicted by a perturbative model of plasma stability including kinetic effects. The identification of the stabilization mechanism is an essential step towards quantitative predictions for the prospects of ''passive'' resistive wall mode stabilization, i.e., without the use of an ''active'' feedback system, in fusion-alpha heated plasmas.

  3. In-vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of methicillin, isoxazolyl penicillins and cephalothin against coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Rosdahl, V T; Mortensen, I;

    1988-01-01

    the isoxazolyl penicillins showed a high degree of uniformity. However more strains were resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin than to dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin. Only a weak correlation was found between beta-lactamase production, and resistance to the six antibiotics. Methicillin was the most...

  4. The physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in oil-in- water sodium caseinate emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC), the most important dietary source of provitamin A, is necessary for optimum human health. BC is insoluble or only slightly soluble in most liquids but its bioavailability improves when ingested with fat. Therefore lipid emulsions are ideal matrices for BC delivery. BC (0.1%) in ...

  5. Leading QCD-induced four-loop contributions to the $\\beta$-function of the Higgs self-coupling in the SM and vacuum stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, K G

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical results for the leading top-Yukawa and QCD contribution to the $\\beta$-function for the Higgs self-coupling $\\lambda$ of the Standard Model at four-loop level, namely the part $\\propto y_t^4 g_s^6$. We also give the contribution $\\propto y_t^2 g_s^6$ of the anomalous dimension of the Higgs field as well as the terms $\\propto y_t g_s^8$ to the top-Yukawa $\\beta$-function which can also be derived from the anomalous dimension of the top quark mass. Together with the recently computed top-Yukawa and QCD contributions to $\\beta_{g_s}$ these constitute the leading four-loop contributions to the evolution of the Higgs self-coupling. A numerical estimate of these terms at the scale of the top-quark mass is presented as well as an analysis of the impact on the evolution of $\\lambda$ up to the Planck scale and the vacuum stability problem.

  6. Equilibrium and stability aspects of a screw-pinch based on the sharp-boundary model of a high-beta tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sharp-boundary model of a high-beta tokamak surrounded by force-free currents (FFC) should yield a good description of the magnetohydroynamic stability of a screw-pinch: a tokamak with uniform q-profile. To arrive at the relationship between the equilibrium parameters giving rise to such a q-profile in the FFC region the poloidal field outside the plasma (with a prescribed cross-section) must be determined. An analytical solution has been derived for this field from which the desired relationship can be obtained by numerical means. From the results of a number of cross-sections it is evident that an approximation can be made that leads to this relationship more readily. Based on the latter the stability of a screw-pinch with a number of different cross-sections has been analyzed

  7. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability: Beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the astrophysical site of the rapid neutron capture (r-) process which is believed to be responsible for the production of the heavy elements in the universe has been a problem in astrophysics for more than two decades. The solution of this problem is not only dependent on the development of realistic astrophysical supernova models, i.e. correct treatment of the hydrodynamics of gravitational collapse and supernova explosion and the equation of state of hot and dense matter, but is shown in this paper to be very sensitive also to 'standard' nuclear physics properties of nuclei far from stability such as beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. For both of the latter, strongly oversimplifying assumptions, not applying the development in nuclear physics during the last decade, have been made in almost all r-process calculations performed up to now. A critical discussion of the state of the art of such calculations seems therefore to be indicated. In this paper procedures are described which allow one to obtain: 1) β-decay properties (decay rates, β-delayed neutron emissions and fission rates); 2) neutron capture rates for neutron-rich nuclei considerably improved over what has been used up to now. The beta strength functions are calculated for approx. equal to6000 nuclei between beta stability line and neutron drip line. By hydrodynamical supernova explosion calculations using realistic stellar models it is shown that as a consequence of the improved β-rates explosive He burning is a convincing alternative site to the 'classical' r-process whose existence still is questionable. The new β-rates will be important also for the investigation of further astrophysical sites producing heavy elements such as the r(n)-processes in explosive C or Ne burning. (orig.)

  8. Serum S100B in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta-1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller David H

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract S100B belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins implicated in intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities. This study of serum S100B in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS is based on data obtained from a randomized, controlled trial of Interferon β-1a in subjects with PPMS. The key questions were whether S100B levels were associated with either disability or MRI findings in primary progressive MS and whether Interferon β-1a has an effect on their S100B levels. Serial serum S100B levels were measured using an ELISA method. The results demonstrated that serum S100B is not related to either disease progression or MRI findings in subjects with primary progressive MS given Interferon β-1a. Furthermore there is no correlation between S100B levels and the primary and secondary outcome measures.

  9. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, P.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0*) of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a lowbackground environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the Demonstrator are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 counts tonne -1 year-1 in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of 0; and performing a direct search for lightWIMPs (3-10 GeV/c2).

  10. CRL4Cdt2: Master coordinator of cell cycle progression and genome stability

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Tarek; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Polyubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins plays an essential role in various physiological processes including cell cycle progression, transcription and DNA replication and repair. Increasing evidence supports a vital role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase cullin-4, in conjunction with the substrate recognition factor Cdt2 (CRL4Cdt2), for the degradation of multiple cell cycle-regulated proteins to prevent genomic instability. In addition, it is critical for normal cell cycle progression by en...

  11. Stabilization of the beta-hairpin in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein- a critical step for infectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obr, M.; Hadravová, Romana; Doležal, Michal; Křížová, Ivana; Papoušková, V.; Žídek, L.; Hrabal, R.; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 30 (2014), 94/1-94/14. ISSN 1742-4690 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S; GA MŠk LO1302 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union(XE) FP7-261863 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : retrovirus * assembly * M-PMV * capsid protein * maturation * beta-hairpin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.185, year: 2014 http://www.retrovirology.com/content/11/1/94

  12. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.; Chytil, A.; Forrester, E.; Nørgaard, Peter Henrik; Teoh, N.; Law, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV...... development of therapeutic approaches to block the stromal desmoplastic reaction that likely plays an important role in the progression of multiple types of human tumors...

  13. Subbarrier heavy ion fusion enhanced by nucleon transfer and subbarrier fusion of nuclei far from the line of $\\beta$-stability

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a model for the description of subbarrier fusion of heavy ions which takes into account the coupling to the low-energy surface vibrational states and to the few-nucleon transfer with arbitrary reaction Q-value. The fusion reactions ^{28,30}Si+^{58,62,64}Ni, ^{40}Ca+^{90,96}Zr, ^{28}S+^{94,100}Mo, ^{16,18,20,22,24}O+^{58}Ni and ^{28}Si+^{124,126,128,130,132}Sn are analyzed in detail. The model describes rather well the experimental fusion cross section and mean angular momentum for reactions between nuclei near the \\beta-stability line. It is shown that these quantities are significantly enhanced by few-nucleon transfer with large positive Q-value. A shape independent parameterization of the heavy ion potential at distances smaller then the touching point is proposed.

  14. Application of stability theory to laminar flow control - Progress and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Malik, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Paper briefly summarizes the current status of linear stability theory as applied to laminar flow control for aerodynamics. Results indicate that the conventional 'N factor' method of correlating stability theory and transition has a broad application range, including low- and high-speeds, two- and three-dimensional mean flow and TS, Gortler and crossflow disturbance modes. Linear theory is particularly applicable to the laminar flow control problem as, for system efficiency, control must be exercised and disturbances maintained in the linear regime. Current areas of concern for LFC, which require further stability theory research, include TS-crossflow interaction, combined disturbance fields (roughness, waviness, noise) and suction-induced disturbances. Some results on wave-interactions are presented.

  15. Progression of dopamine transporter decline in patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocker, Michael; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    We characterized the progression of dopamine transporter (DAT) decline in the striatum and extrastriatal regions including the midbrain and pons of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and compared longitudinally collected SPECT results with those in a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight patients with MSA-P (age 60.4 {+-} 7.7 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 39.7 {+-} 4.7), and 11 patients with PD (age 61.2 {+-} 6.4 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1.1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 18.9 {+-} 7.6) underwent a baseline and follow-up [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT investigation within a time period of 1.3 years. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a repetitive ANOVA design were used to objectively localize the decline in DAT availability without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to its location. SPM localized significant reductions in [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake in the dorsal brainstem of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients (p < 0.001) at baseline. Additional reductions in the DAT signal were localized in the caudate and anterior putamen of patients with MSA-P patients compared to PD patients at the follow-up examination (p < 0.001). Relative decline in tracer binding was evident in the caudate and anterior putamen of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients in the longitudinal analysis (p < 0.05), whereas no significant relative signal alteration was observed in the brainstem. In contrast to PD, the relatively higher rate of signal reduction in the caudate and anterior putamen is consistent with the faster disease progression reported in MSA-P. At baseline, the tracer uptake in the brainstem was already at very low levels in the MSA-P patients compared to that in healthy control subjects and did not progress any further, suggesting that the degeneration of monoaminergic neurons is almost complete early in the disease course. (orig.)

  16. Progress in growth of large {beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlov, D.; Livneh, S.; Czechowicz, P.; Goldgirsh, A.; Loiacono, D. [Advanced Crystal Group, Coherent Inc., 31 Farinella Drive, East Hanover, NJ 07936 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Growth of large {beta}-barium borate (BBO) crystals of high optical quality has been challenging, even 25 years past its discovery. The best results in terms of size and quality have been demonstrated by means of TSSG (Top Seeded Solution Growth). Nevertheless, the maximum available size of nonlinear optical elements lags behind laser industry requirements. Due to increased size and availability, BBO finally started attracting attention for its favorable Q-switch properties. Yet, two or sometimes three crystals aligned together are still necessary to achieve the lengths often required for these applications. Material quality, in terms of optical perfection and optical absorption, is still questionable in many instances. Limited boule size still dictates relatively high material cost as well. Thorough analysis of the growth behavior of BBO helped us to develop production processes for large boules utilizing TSSG with pulling. High quality nonlinear optical crystal devices and Q-switches up to 40 mm in the z-direction have been enabled. We believe that the above size and quality are currently industry leading. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Progress or Stability? An Historical Approach to a Central Question for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to problematise and shed some new light on the idea that moral education should be oriented toward constant progress. Looking to uncover the philosophical foundations of this idea, the article examines its first historical appearance and its initial historical development, which took place in eighteenth-century British and French…

  18. Ab-initio simulation and experimental validation of beta-titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.; Sander, B.; Friák, M.; Ma, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this progress report we present a new approach to the ab-initio guided bottom up design of beta-Ti alloys for biomedical applications using a quantum mechanical simulation method in conjunction with experiments. Parameter-free density functional theory calculations are used to provide theoretical guidance in selecting and optimizing Ti-based alloys with respect to three constraints: (i) the use of non-toxic alloy elements; (ii) the stabilization of the body centered cubic beta phase at roo...

  19. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface.

  20. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface. PMID:26856760

  1. Progress in stabilization of plutonium and residues since DNFSB recommendation 94-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are approximately 100 metric tons of residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site containing approximately 3 metric tons of plutonium. The residues are byproducts of past plutonium operations incinerator ash; pyrochemical salts; graphite; sand, slag, and crucible; and miscellaneous forms of combustibles, glass, metal, and sludges. In September 1993, a report was released (Reference 1) which identified concerns with the chemical stability of the residues and with the integrity of packaging. In May 1997, the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board published recommendation 94-1 citing a concern for the residue stability and requiring that the possibly unstable residues be processed within 3 years and all others within 5 years. A risk categorization scheme was developed which assigned a numerical risk to each residue type based on the probability and consequence of occurrence of failures associated with the hazards identified. The residues were ranked for priority of stabilization actions. Urgent concerns were resolved. All residue drums were vented to eliminate the potential for hydrogen and other explosive gas accumulation. Leaded rubber gloves and ion exchange resins were washed to eliminate the explosion potential. An aggressive characterization program was implemented to search for any additional safety or environmental concerns and to gain more definitive information concerning the choice of processes for stabilization and disposition of the residues. This paper provides background on the safety issues and summarizes recent characterization data. The residue processing and disposition plans, including schedule and cost, are also summarized in the paper. Finally, the paper addresses initiatives undertaken by Safe Sites of Colorado to accelerate the residue program

  2. Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jin-Xing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078, and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL. However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD. Methods A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Results Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression. Conclusion IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  3. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  4. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  5. Recent progress in LHD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady progress has been made in the first four years of LHD experiment. Several encouraging results have emerged. The most significant finding is that MHD stability and good transport are compatible in the inward shifted configuration. The observed energy confinement is consistent with ISS95 scaling with an enhancement factor of 1.5. This enhancement is attributed to high edge temperature. We find that plasma with average of 3 % beta is stable in this configuration even though the Mercier stability condition is violated. Copyright (2002) Australian National University- Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering

  6. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  7. Excitotoxic brain damage in the rat induces interleukin-1beta protein in microglia and astrocytes: correlation with the progression of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V L; Rothwell, N J; Toulmond, S

    1999-02-15

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) has been proposed as a mediator of several forms of brain damage, including that induced by excitotoxins. In vitro studies suggest that glial cells are the effector cells of IL-1beta-mediated neurodegeneration. We have investigated the expression of IL-1beta protein by glial cells in vivo in response to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in the rat parietal cortex and striatum. Expression of IL-1beta by glial cells was investigated using immunocytochemistry 30 min to 7 days after infusion of the NMDA agonist cis-2,4-methanoglutamate (MGlu; 10 nmol) into the cortex. Early expression (1-4 h) of IL-1beta by microglia was directly related to lesion development. Later expression by microglia (up to 24 h), and by astrocytes (2-7 days), was widespread compared to the area involved in excitotoxic cell death and co-localised with areas of reactive gliosis. Infusion of MGlu into the striatum induced a similar temporal pattern of IL-1beta expression by microglia and astrocytes. However, IL-1beta-expressing glial cells were localised strictly to the area of striatal cell death. Infusion of PBS or a subtoxic dose of MGlu into the cortex or striatum induced only limited neuronal death and negligible glial IL-1beta expression. These studies reveal that IL-1beta is expressed specifically by microglia during the early response to excitotoxicity in the adult rat cortex and striatum. However, the widespread and delayed IL-1beta expression by astrocytes suggests diverse roles for IL-1beta in response to excitotoxicity. PMID:10028914

  8. Once-weekly 22microg subcutaneous IFN-beta-1a in secondary progressive MS: a 3-year follow-up study on brain MRI measurements and serum MMP-9 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, X; Kuusisto, H; Dastidar, P;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of weekly injected subcutaneous interferon (IFN)-beta-1a 22 microg on the extent of brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the level of serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). SUBJECTS AND...... METHODS: All the 28 Finnish patients participating in the Nordic multicentre trial on the clinical efficacy of weekly IFN-beta-1a (Rebif) 22 microg in SPMS were studied neurologically and by volumetric MRI during a 3-year follow-up. The levels of MMP-9 in serum were measured over the 3-year study. RESULTS......: There was no obvious effect on the number of contrast medium-enhancing lesions, the volume of T1 or T2 lesions or level of serum MMP-9, nor was any effect detected on the relapse rate and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Brain atrophy progression was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION...

  9. High beta multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta

  10. Minimum additive waste stabilization using vitreous ceramics. Progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy's environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs2O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms

  11. Increased Stability and DNA Site Discrimination of Single Chain Variants of the Dimeric beta-Barrel DNA Binding Domain of the Human Papillomavirus E2 Transcriptional Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellarole,M.; Sanchez, I.; Freire, E.; de Prat-Gay, G.

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus infects millions of people worldwide and is a causal agent of cervical cancer in women. The HPV E2 protein controls the expression of all viral genes through binding of its dimeric C-terminal domain (E2C) to its target DNA site. We engineered monomeric versions of the HPV16 E2C, in order to probe the link of the dimeric {beta}-barrel fold to stability, dimerization, and DNA binding. Two single-chain variants, with 6 and 12 residue linkers (scE2C-6 and scE2C-12), were purified and characterized. Spectroscopy and crystallography show that the native structure is unperturbed in scE2C-12. The single chain variants are stabilized with respect to E2C, with effective concentrations of 0.6 to 6 mM. The early folding events of the E2C dimer and scE2C-12 are very similar and include formation of a compact species in the submillisecond time scale and a non-native monomeric intermediate with a half-life of 25 ms. However, monomerization changes the unfolding mechanism of the linked species from two-state to three-state, with a high-energy intermediate. Binding to the specific target site is up to 5-fold tighter in the single chain variants. Nonspecific DNA binding is up to 7-fold weaker in the single chain variants, leading to an overall 10-fold increased site discrimination capacity, the largest described so far for linked DNA binding domains. Titration calorimetric binding analysis, however, shows almost identical behavior for dimer and single-chain species, suggesting very subtle changes behind the increased specificity. Global analysis of the mechanisms probed suggests that the dynamics of the E2C domain, rather than the structure, are responsible for the differential properties. Thus, the plastic and dimeric nature of the domain did not evolve for a maximum affinity, specificity, and stability of the quaternary structure, likely because of regulatory reasons and for roles other than DNA binding played by partly folded dimeric or monomeric conformers.

  12. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. [small beta]-Turn mimetic-based stabilizers of protein-protein interactions for the study of the non-canonical roles of leucyl-tRNA synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Chanwoo; Jung, Jinjoo; Thanh Tung, Truong;

    2016-01-01

    For the systematic perturbation of protein-protein interactions, we designed and synthesized tetra-substituted hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazine-4,7(6H)-diones as [small beta]-turn mimetics. We then devised a new synthetic route to obtain [small beta]-turn mimetic scaffolds via tandem N...

  14. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  15. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  16. Low-temperature formation of cubic beta-PbF(2): precursor-based synthesis and first-principles phase stability study

    OpenAIRE

    Erk, Christoph; Hammerschmidt, Lukas; Andrae, Dirk; Paulus, Beate; Schlecht, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    A precursor-based approach to the cubic beta-phase of PbF(2) was developed and allowed the preparation of this high-temperature phase well below the temperature for transition from the orthorhombic alpha- to the cubic beta-phase. The formation of beta-PbF(2) from the molecular precursors Pb[Se(C(6)H(2)(CF(3))(3))](2) and Pb(C(6)H(2)(CF(3))(3))(2) is facilitated by the presence of several short Pb center dot center dot center dot F contacts in these molecules. The cubic form of PbF(2) was obta...

  17. Drosophila insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR pathways regulate GSK3 beta activity to control Myc stability and determine Myc expression in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisi Federica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster reveal an important role for Myc in controlling growth. Similar studies have also shown how components of the insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR pathways are key regulators of growth. Despite a few suggestions that Myc transcriptional activity lies downstream of these pathways, a molecular mechanism linking these signaling pathways to Myc has not been clearly described. Using biochemical and genetic approaches we tried to identify novel mechanisms that control Myc activity upon activation of insulin and TOR signaling pathways. Results Our biochemical studies show that insulin induces Myc protein accumulation in Drosophila S2 cells, which correlates with a decrease in the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β a kinase that is responsible for Myc protein degradation. Induction of Myc by insulin is inhibited by the presence of the TOR inhibitor rapamycin, suggesting that insulin-induced Myc protein accumulation depends on the activation of TOR complex 1. Treatment with amino acids that directly activate the TOR pathway results in Myc protein accumulation, which also depends on the ability of S6K kinase to inhibit GSK3β activity. Myc upregulation by insulin and TOR pathways is a mechanism conserved in cells from the wing imaginal disc, where expression of Dp110 and Rheb also induces Myc protein accumulation, while inhibition of insulin and TOR pathways result in the opposite effect. Our functional analysis, aimed at quantifying the relative contribution of Myc to ommatidial growth downstream of insulin and TOR pathways, revealed that Myc activity is necessary to sustain the proliferation of cells from the ommatidia upon Dp110 expression, while its contribution downstream of TOR is significant to control the size of the ommatidia. Conclusions Our study presents novel evidence that Myc activity acts downstream of insulin and TOR pathways to control growth in Drosophila. At

  18. The tumor suppressor SirT2 regulates cell cycle progression and genome stability by modulating the mitotic deposition of H4K20 methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of the epigenetic mark H4K20me1 (monomethylation of H4K20) by PR-Set7 during G2/M directly impacts S-phase progression and genome stability. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this event are not well understood. Here we show that SirT2 regulates H4K20me1 depositi...

  19. Reseaech progress on the application of beta blockers in cancer%β受体阻滞剂在癌症中应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房晶雪; 程刚

    2015-01-01

    Beta blockers were the first-line drugs for the treatment of hypertension. In recent years,studies had shown that beta blockers was benefit for the survival of cancer patients,but there is a controversial. This article reviewed the uses of beta blockers in cancer in preclinical studies and clinical researches over the last three years, in order to study the role of beta blockers in cancer.%β受体阻滞剂是治疗高血压的一线药物. 近年研究表明,β受体阻滞剂的使用对癌症患者的生存有益,但存在一定的争议性. 本文回顾了近3年来β受体阻滞剂在癌症中应用的临床前研究和临床研究进展,为更好地研究β受体阻滞剂在癌症中的作用提供帮助.

  20. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Finnerty, P; Amman, M; Avignone., F T; Barabash, A S; Barton, P J; Beene, J R; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Chan, Y -D; Christofferson, C D; Collar, J I; Combs, D C; Cooper, R J; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gehman, V M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Guiseppe, V E; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Horton, M; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Knecht, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; Luke, P N; MacMullin, S; Marino, M G; Martin, R D; Merriman, J H; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Perumpilly, G; Phillips., D G; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Steele, D; Strain, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Varner, R L; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F; Yakushev, E; Yaver, H; Young, A R; Yumatov., C-H Yu and V

    2012-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The DEMONSTRATOR is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the DEMONSTRATOR are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 t$^{-1}$ y$^{-1}$ in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay [H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus and I. V. Krivosheina, Mod. Ph...

  1. Structural and electronic properties of hetero-transition-metal Keggin anions: a DFT Study of alpha/beta-[XW12O40]n- (X = CrVI, VV, TiIV, FeIII, CoIII, NiIII, CoII, and ZnII) relative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Wu, Hai-Shun; Jiao, Haijun

    2007-01-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the electronic structures and the alpha/beta relative stability of Keggin-typed [XW(12)O(40)]n- anions with transition metal as heteroatom X (X = Cr(VI), V(V), Ti(IV), Fe(III), Co(III), Ni(III), Co(II) and Zn(II)). Nice agreement in geometries between computation and experiment has been obtained, and the higher stability of the alpha isomer over the beta one has been confirmed. Structural parameter analysis reveals that the {M(3)O(13)} triads in both alpha and beta isomers contract considerably with the increase of the negative anionic charge, while the overall size of both isomers shrinks only slightly. Fragment molecular orbital analysis shows that except alpha/beta-[TiW(12)O(40)]4-, the electronic structures of Keggin anions can be described by the insertion of the e and/or t2 orbital of XO4n- into the frontier orbitals of W(12)O(36) cage, and this leads to the specific redox property, which is different from that of the Keggin anions with main-group elements as heteroatoms. Energy decomposition analysis shows that the enhanced intrinsic stability of the alpha isomer in Td arrangement of W(12)O(36) shell and the larger deformation of the alpha over the beta isomer are two dominating factors and contribute oppositely to the alpha/beta relative stability. PMID:17201398

  2. Formation and stability of .beta.-structure in biodegradable ultra-high-molecular-weight poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by infrared, Raman, and quantum chemical calculation studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Murakami, R.; Sato, H.; Dybal, Jiří; Iwata, T.; Ozaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 9 (2007), s. 2672-2680. ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0425 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (JP) 18750107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ultra-high-molecular-weight poly(hydroxybutyrate) * .beta.-form * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2007

  3. Cefotetan, a new cephamycin: comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity with other cephems, beta-lactamase stability, and preliminary recommendations for disk diffusion testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, L W; Jones, R N; Barry, A. L.; Thornsberry, C; Fuchs, P C; Gavan, T L; Gerlach, E H; Sommers, H M

    1982-01-01

    Cefotetan is a new, potent, 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporin (cephamycin). The in vitro activity of cefotetan tested in a multiphasic, collaborative study against 12,260 consecutive clinical isolates and 448 selected isolates showed 93% of Enterobacteriaceae, 90% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (broth dilution), 83% of Bacteroides fragilis, and 72% of non-enterococcal streptococci to be inhibited by less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. Beta-Lactamase-producing and -nonproducin...

  4. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area Nevada Nuclear Waste site investigation (NNWSI). Progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks. This report summarizes the geologic and seismotectonic studies conducted at Yucca Mountain during the contract period including Quaternary tectonics, an evaluation of mineral resource potential of the area, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic activity at and near the site. A report of basinal studies conducted during the contract period is also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area Nevada Nuclear Waste site investigation (NNWSI). Progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks. This report summarizes the geologic and seismotectonic studies conducted at Yucca Mountain during the contract period including Quaternary tectonics, an evaluation of mineral resource potential of the area, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic activity at and near the site. A report of basinal studies conducted during the contract period is also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Conditionally parametric fits for CAPM betas

    OpenAIRE

    Abberger, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The CAPM model assumes stock returns to be a linear function of the market return. However, there is considerable evidence that the beta stability assumption commonly used when estimating the model is invalid. Nonparametric regression methods are used to examine the stability of beta coefficients in German stock returns. Since local polynomial regression is used for estimation, known methods for testing the stability and for bandwidth choice can be used. For some returns the test indicates ti...

  7. Stability criteria for T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations based on geometric progression delay partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhong, Shouming; Li, Min; Liu, Xingwen; Adu-Gyamfi, Fehrs

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a novel delay partitioning method is proposed by introducing the theory of geometric progression for the stability analysis of T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on the common ratio α, the delay interval is unequally separated into multiple subintervals. A newly modified Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established which includes triple-integral terms and augmented factors with respect to the length of every related proportional subintervals. In addition, a recently developed free-matrix-based integral inequality is employed to avoid the overabundance of the enlargement when dealing with the derivative of the LKF. This innovative development can dramatically enhance the efficiency of obtaining the maximum upper bound of the time delay. Finally, much less conservative stability criteria are presented. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the significant improvements of this proposed approach. PMID:27138648

  8. Recent progress report on DNA B-Z transition modulated by rare earth-amino acid complex and Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth dements have unique physical, magnetic, luminescent and catalytic properties. They have been successfully used as medicine and probes in luminescent resonance energy transfer (LRET) for bioassays, as well as reagents for diagnosis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this progress report, we will focus on recent progress on how rare earth amino complexes bind to DNA and change DNA structure, especially on DNA B-Z transition induced by rare earth amino acid complex and its potential impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  9. A reaction–diffusion mechanism influences cell lineage progression as a basis for formation, regeneration, and stability of intestinal crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon crypts, a single sheet of epithelia cells, consist of a periodic pattern of stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated cells that constantly renew and turnover. Experimental evidence suggests that Wnt signaling promotes and regulates stem cell division, differentiation, and possible cell migrations while intestinal BMP signaling inhibits stem cell self-renewal and repression in crypt formation. As more molecular details on Wnt and BMP in crypts are being discovered, little is still known about how complex interactions among Wnt, BMP, and different types of cells, and surrounding environments may lead to de novo formation of multiple crypts or how such interactions affect regeneration and stability of crypts. Results We present a mathematical model that contains Wnt and BMP, a cell lineage, and their feedback regulations to study formation, regeneration, and stability of multiple crypts. The computational explorations and linear stability analysis of the model suggest a reaction–diffusion mechanism, which exhibits a short-range activation of Wnt plus a long-range inhibition with modulation of BMP signals in a growing tissue of cell lineage, can account for spontaneous formation of multiple crypts with the spatial and temporal pattern observed in experiments. Through this mechanism, the model can recapitulate some distinctive and important experimental findings such as crypt regeneration and crypt multiplication. BMP is important in maintaining stability of crypts and loss of BMP usually leads to crypt multiplication with a fingering pattern. Conclusions The study provides a mechanism for de novo formation of multiple intestinal crypts and demonstrates a synergetic role of Wnt and BMP in regeneration and stability of intestinal crypts. The proposed model presents a robust framework for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of cell lineages in growing tissues driven by multiple signaling

  10. Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β Is a Muscle Biomarker of Disease Progression in ALS and Correlates with Smad Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Si

    Full Text Available We recently identified Smads1, 5 and 8 as muscle biomarkers in human ALS. In the ALS mouse, these markers are elevated and track disease progression. Smads are signal transducers and become activated upon receptor engagement of ligands from the TGF-β superfamily. Here, we sought to characterize ligands linked to activation of Smads in ALS muscle and their role as biomarkers of disease progression. RNA sequencing data of ALS muscle samples were mined for TGF-β superfamily ligands. Candidate targets were validated by qRT-PCR in a large cohort of human ALS muscle biopsy samples and in the G93A SOD1 mouse. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. C2C12 muscle cells were used to assess Smad activation and induction. TGF-β1, 2 and 3 mRNAs were increased in ALS muscle samples compared to controls and correlated with muscle strength and Smads1, 2, 5 and 8. In the G93A SOD1 mouse, the temporal pattern of TGF-β expression paralleled the Smads and increased with disease progression. TGF-β1 immunoreactivity was detected in mononuclear cells surrounding muscle fibers in ALS samples. In muscle cells, TGF-β ligands were capable of activating Smads. In conclusion, TGF-β1, 2 and 3 are novel biomarkers of ALS in skeletal muscle. Their correlation with weakness in human ALS and their progressive increase with advancing disease in the ALS mouse suggest that they, as with the Smads, can track disease progression. These ligands are capable of upregulating and activating Smads and thus may contribute to the Smad signaling pathway in ALS muscle.

  11. Role of LncRNA-activated by transforming growth factor beta in the progression of hepatitis C virus-related liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Na; Niu, Xuemin; Wang, Yang; Du, Huijuan; Wang, Baoyu; Du, Jinghua; Li, Ya; Wang, Rongqi; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhao, Suxian; Sun, Dianxing; Qiao, Liang; Nan, Yuemin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA)-activated by transforming growth factor-beta (LncRNA-ATB) is a key regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and is positively correlated with the development of liver cirrhosis and vascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of LncRNA-ATB in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. In the present study, we confirmed a high expression level of LncRNA-ATB in the liver tissues and plasma samples of patients with HCV-related hepatic fibrosis, and the plasma level of LncRNA-ATB was significantly correlated with liver fibrosis stages. Furthermore, increased expression level of LncRNA-ATB was also present in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and knockdown of LncRNA-ATB inhibited the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and alpha-1 type I collagen (Col1A1). LncRNA-ATB was found to share the common miRNA responsive element of miR-425-5p with TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII) and SMAD2. Ectopic expression of LncRNA-ATB in HSCs could upregulate the protein expression of TGF-βRII and SMAD2 by inhibiting the endogenous miR-425-5p. Moreover, overexpression of miR-425-5p could partly abrogate the expression of TGF-βRII and SMAD2 induced by LncRNA-ATB. Hence, we conclude that LncRNA-ATB promotes HCV-induced liver fibrogenesis by activating HSCs and increasing collagen I production through competitively binding to miR-425-5p. LncRNA-ATB may be a novel diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HCV-related hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27585228

  12. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Progress report for fiscal years 2005-2009: H22 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report (H22 Report) documents progress made during JAEA 1st Midterm Plan (FY 2005 - 2009) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. For the current 5-year R and D programme, three major goals have been defined as follows: 1) development and systematization of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, 2) development, application and verification of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and 3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. For investigation techniques, an extracting technique of active faults with weak surface expressions by LiDAR, an integrated approach combining geophysical and geochemical methods for detecting crustal magma storage and an estimating method for uplift rates in an inland area using relative heights of fluvial terraces have been made. A numerical simulation code for predicting landform evolution in the next 100,000 years, and incorporating models of geophysical processes directly into probabilistic assessments for renewed volcanism using Bayesian inference (multiple inference model) have been prepared for prediction models. Improvement of AMS system for 14C dating was conducted in order to precisely determine isotopic compositions. (U-Th)/He and K-Ar dating systems were also installed at Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) for determining the production age of fault gouge and precipitated within open fractures. In this paper, the current status of R and D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized. (author)

  13. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  14. Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO2-eq. (a.k.a. 'scenario of type I') recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2 deg. C

  15. β受体阻滞剂在慢性心力衰竭治疗中的进展%Research Progress of Beta Receptor Blocker in Treating Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗苏敏

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system in the patients with chronic heart failure has strong activity, with the development of disease may cause cardiovascular dysfunction, which has a high mortality. Beta receptor blockers is a potent negative inotropic drugs, was been banned for clinical treatment of chronic heart failure for a long time. But large clinical trials proved that, beta receptor blockers can inhibit nerve endocrine activity in patients with chronic heart failure, so as to prevent the progression of the disease, the curative effect on chronic heart failure is undeniable. In China, many scholars also follow the international pace of research, carried out a large number of clinical researches. The objective of this paper is to explore and analysis beta receptor blockers in treating chronic heart failure..%慢性心力衰竭患者的交感神经系统具有较强的活性,随着病情的发展可引起心血管功能失常,具有较高的死亡率。β受体阻滞剂是一种强效、负性的肌力药,有很长一段时间被禁止用于慢性心力衰竭的临床治疗。但经大量的临床试验证明,β受体阻滞剂能够抑制神经内分泌活性以防止慢性心力衰竭患者的病情发展,对慢性心力衰竭的疗效是不可否认的。在我国,很多学者也紧随国际研究的步伐,开展了大量临床研究,本文针对β受体阻滞剂在慢性心力衰竭治疗的进展问题进行探讨性分析。

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibition reduces progression of early choroidal neovascularization lesions in rats: P17 and P144 peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zarranz-Ventura

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144 on early laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LI-CNV lesions in rats, two weeks after laser CNV induction. Seventy-one Long Evans rats underwent diode laser application in an established LI-CNV model. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA was performed 14 days following laser procedure, and treatments were administered 16 days post-laser application via different administration routes. Intravenous groups included control (IV-Control, P17 (IV-17, and P144 (IV-144 groups, whereas intravitreal groups included P17 (IVT-17, P144 (IVT-144, and a mixture of both peptides (IVT-17+144 (with fellow eyes receiving vehicle alone. CNV evolution was assessed using FA performed weekly for four weeks after treatment. Following sacrifice, VEGF, TGF-β, COX-2, IGF-1, PAI-1, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. VEGF and p-SMAD2 protein levels were also assessed by western-blot, while MMP-2 activity was assessed with gelatin zymography. Regarding the FA analysis, the mean CNV area was lower from the 3(rd week in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups, and also from the 2(nd week in IVT-17+144. Biochemical analysis revealed that gene expression was lower for VEGF and COX-2 genes in IV-17 and IV-144 groups, VEGF gene in IVT-17+144 group and MMP-2 gene in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. VEGF protein expression was also decreased in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144, whereas pSMAD-2 levels were lower in IV-17, IV-144 and IVT-17+144 groups. Zymogram analysis revealed decreased MMP-2 activity in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. These data suggest that the use of TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144 decrease the development of early CNV lesions by targeting different mediators than those typically affected using current anti-angiogenic therapies. Its potential role in the treatment of early CNV appears promising

  17. Translation and stability of an Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase mRNA expressed under the control of pyruvate kinase sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, I J; Loughlin, L; Bettany, A J; Brown, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmids were assembled in which the coding region of the pyruvate kinase (PYK) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was replaced by that of the B-galactosidase (LacZ) gene from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the resultant, chimaeric transcripts from low copy number, centromeric plasmids indicated that this substitution caused a dramatic reduction in the steady-state level of the messenger RNA (mRNA). This fluctuation cannot be wholly accounted for by the 2-fold decrease in mRNA stability observed...

  18. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  19. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

  20. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NOx emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed

  1. Stabilizing mutation of CTNNB1/beta-catenin and protein accumulation analyzed in a large series of parathyroid tumors of Swedish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åkerström Göran

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant accumulation of β-catenin plays an important role in a variety of human neoplasms. We recently reported accumulation of β-catenin in parathyroid adenomas from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. In CTNNB1 exon 3, we detected a stabilizing mutation (S37A in 3 out of 20 analyzed adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and zygosity of mutations in CTNNB1 exon 3, and β-catenin accumulation in a large series of parathyroid adenomas of Swedish patients. Results The mutation S37A (TCT > GCT was detected by direct DNA sequencing of PCR fragments in 6 out of 104 sporadic parathyroid adenomas (5.8%. Taking our previous study into account, a total of 9 out of 124 (7.3% adenomas displayed the same mutation. The mutations were homozygous by DNA sequencing, restriction enzyme cleavage, and gene copy number determination using the GeneChip 500 K Mapping Array Set. All tumors analyzed by immunohistochemistry, including those with mutation, displayed aberrant β-catenin accumulation. Western blotting revealed a slightly higher expression level of β-catenin and nonphosphorylated active β-catenin in tumors with mutation compared to those without. Presence of the mutation was not related to distinct clinical characteristics. Conclusion Aberrant accumulation of β-catenin is very common in parathyroid tumors, and is caused by stabilizing homozygous mutation in 7.3% of Swedish pHPT patients.

  2. Influence of the tannic and gallic acids on stability of betacyanins from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. crude extract. INFLUÊNCIA DOS ÁCIDOS TÂNICO E GÁLICO NA ESTABILIDADE DE BETACIANINAS DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE BETERRABA VERMELHA (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. DRUNKLER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of e natural colorants in the food industry is limited because to its low stability under preparation, processing and storage conditions. Techniques for natural colorant’s stabilization, such as copigmentation, have been used frequently in scientific researches. The betacyanins that belong to the groups of the betalain presents in the red beetroot and are used as colorant in food. Tannic and gallic acids were used in this study as a copigment of betacyanin crude extract from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.. Betacyanin stability was investigated with and without tannic and gallic acid under different storage conditions in 70% ethanol extract: concentrations of 0.925g/100mL and 0.462g/100mL, pH values 5.00±0.05 and 6.80±0.05 at temperature of 25±1ºC, in the dark and in the presence of oxygen. Results revealed that pH and tannic and gallic acid addition (p<0.05 increased significantly the betacyanins half-life time. The tannic and gallic acids provided significant increase in stability of the betacyanins pigments at both concentrations evaluated, at pH value of 5.00 ± 0.05, tannic acid being more effective.

    O uso dos corantes naturais na indústria alimentícia é limitado em função de sua baixa estabilidade frente às condições de preparação, processamento e estocagem. Técnicas de estabilização de corantes naturais, tais como a copigmentação, vem encontrando destaque em pesquisas científicas. As betacianinas (coloração vermelha violeta, pertencentes ao grupo de pigmentos naturais denominados betalaínas, são as que predominam na beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris L., sendo utilizadas como corante em alimentos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade de betacianinas em extrato de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L. etanólico a 70% adicionadas dos ácidos orgânicos tânico e gálico, nas

  3. Dual myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 and I-123-{beta}-methyl-i-pentadecanoic acid in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Katsuya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) using {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and {sup 201}thallium (Tl)-chloride for myocardial perfusion. The left ventricle was divided into 9 segments, and accumulation of the radiotracers was assessed visually for each segment to calculate defect score for each tracer. There was some degree of decrease in myocardial accumulation of both tracers in all DMD patients. Reduced accumulation was most common at the apex (BMIPP: 67%, Tl: 63%), followed by the posterior wall, lateral wall, and anterior wall. On the other hand, reduced accumulation was less common at the septum. BMIPP showed a higher accumulation than Tl in all segments but the septum. When BMIPP defect score was larger than Tl defect score, BMIPP defect score tended to increase during 4 years follow-up (p<0.042). However, when Tl defect score was larger than BMIPP defect score, an increase in Tl defect score was slight. A significant negative correlation was found between the sum of the BMIPP and Tl defect scores and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.66, p<0.0001). According to the histo-pathological study of two autopsied hearts, severe myocardial fibrosis was seen in segments with fixed perfusion defect. In addition, the mismatched segments of BMIPP defect score > Tl defect score revealed a slight fibrosis or normal myocardium. It can be concluded that the dual SPECT myocardial scintigraphy using BMIPP and Tl provides accurate information about disease progression of the heart in patients with DMD by detecting abnormalities of the myocardial metabolism of each substance, thereby enabling the assessment of left ventricular function. (author)

  4. A guide to 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J; Jakob, F J

    2001-01-22

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSD) are pivotal in controlling the biological potency of steroid hormones by catalyzing oxidation or reduction at position 17. Several 17beta-HSDs may as well metabolize further substrates including alcohols, bile acids, fatty acids and retinols. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of 17beta-HSD research provides an update of nomenclature. PMID:11165003

  5. Milk composition and lactation of beta-casein-deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Clarke, A R; Hooper, M L; Horne, D S; Law, A J; Leaver, J; Springbett, A; Stevenson, E.; Simons, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    beta-Casein is a major protein component of milk and, in conjunction with the other caseins, it is assembled into micelles. The casein micelles determine many of the physical characteristics of milk, which are important for stability during storage and for milk-processing properties. There is evidence that suggests that beta-casein may also possess other, nonnutritional functions. To address the function of beta-casein, the mouse beta-casein gene was disrupted by gene targeting in embryonic s...

  6. The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L.F. Ho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of DNA replication and cell division is essential for tissue growth and maintenance of genomic integrity and is particularly important in tissues that undergo continuous regeneration such as mammary glands. We have previously shown that disruption of the KRAB-domain zinc finger protein Roma/Zfp157 results in hyperproliferation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs during pregnancy. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which Roma engenders this phenotype. Ablation of Roma in MECs leads to unscheduled proliferation, replication stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs depleted for Roma exhibit downregulation of p21Cip1 and geminin and have accelerated replication fork velocities, which is accompanied by a high rate of mitotic errors and polyploidy. In contrast, overexpression of Roma in MECs halts cell-cycle progression, whereas siRNA-mediated p21Cip1 knockdown ameliorates, in part, this phenotype. Thus, Roma is an essential regulator of the cell cycle and is required to maintain genomic stability.

  7. Recent progress on ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATF experiment will test improvements to high-beta, steady-state toroidal confinement using external helical fields. The device design has been optimized to (1) provide direct access to the high-beta second-stability regime, (2) have sufficient flexibility to study a large range of toroidal configurations both with and without plasma current, (3) test the reduction of low-collisionality transport by EXB drifts induced by the self-consistent radial electric field, and (4) permit steady-state, high-beta operation without disruptions. Continued physics studied at ORNL and recent results from foreign stellarator experiments have increased confidence in ATF performance

  8. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  9. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Mezzetto, M; Monrabal, F; Sorel, M

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has evolved from being almost a marginal activity in neutrino physics to one of the highest priorities for understanding neutrinos and the origin of mass. There are two main reasons for this paradigm shift: the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which clearly established the existence of massive neutrinos; and the existence of an unconfirmed, but not refuted, claim of evidence for neutrinoless double decay in 76Ge. As a consequence, a new generation of experiments, employing different detection techniques and {\\beta}{\\beta} isotopes, is being actively promoted by experimental groups across the world. In addition, nuclear theorists are making remarkable progress in the calculation of the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements, thus eliminating a substantial part of the theoretical uncertainties affecting the particle physics interpretation of this process. In this report, we review the main aspects of the double beta decay pro...

  10. Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakov, Petr V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter fields theories. These theories has two free parameters $\\beta_1$ and $\\beta_4$. By using dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for stability of Minkowski space in expanding Universe it is need condition $\\beta_4-\\frac{1}{3}\\beta_4$ which is need to avoid tachyon-like instability.

  11. Experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators to study simulated toroidal effects and Alfven-wave heating: [Annual] progress report No. 1, February 16, 1987-November 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators. Experiments considered are: formation of linear high beta heliac plasma configurations; Alfven wave heating in a straight tube and in a linear high beat stellarator; shifted hardcore heliac studies; a system for measuring the timing of high-current switches in a pulsed high voltage fusion experiment; HBQM general refurbishment; and proposed experiment on excitation of the m = 1 tilt mode in field-reversed configurations

  12. Adult Pancreatic Alpha-Cells: A New Source of Cells for Beta-Cell Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Cheng-Ho; Levine, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Beta-cell deficit is the major pathological feature in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, and plays a key role in disease progression. In principle, beta-cell regeneration can occur by replication of pre-existing beta-cells, or by beta-cell neogenesis from stem/progenitors. Unfortunately, beta-cell replication is limited by the almost complete absence of beta-cells in patients with type 1 diabetes, and the increasing recognition that the beta-cell replicative capacity declines severely with...

  13. Background capabilities of pixel detectors for double beta decay measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.cermak@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Stekl, Ivan; Bocarov, Viktor; Jose, Joshy M.; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Fiederle, Michael; Fauler, Alex [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Loaiza, Pia [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, 73500 Modane (France); Shitov, Yuriy [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the possible use of a progressive detection technique based on pixel detectors for the study of double beta decay ({beta}{beta}) processes. A series of background measurements in various environments (surface laboratory, underground laboratory, with and without Pb shielding) was performed using the TimePix silicon hybrid pixel device. The pixel detector response to the natural background and intrinsic background properties measured by a low-background HPGe detector are presented.

  14. Bootstrap transition to high beta equilibrium in helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown theoretically and computationally that helical magnetic field, produced by continuous winding helical coils and without the toroidal coil, can sustain MHD stable high beta plasma. Pressure driven toroidal current (bootstrap current) cancels the external magnetic field and reduces the MHD potential energy, depending on the plasma beta values. Ramp-up of heating power input induces bootstrap transition to higher beta plasmas with flat-top pressure profiles. Helical pitch parameter dependence of MHD stability is analyzed. (author)

  15. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with DCBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project called DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer) is in progress at KEK in order to search for the events of neutrinoless double beta decay. For investigating technical problems, a test apparatus called DCBA-T has been constructed. The preliminary results of its engineering run are described together with the simulation studies of backgrounds originating from 214Bi and 208Tl

  16. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  17. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return of the...

  18. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  19. Lepton nonconservation and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of double beta decay as a test of lepton number conservation. Present limits on the mass of a Majorana neutrino are in the range of 10 to 50 eV. Experiments now in progress should substantially improve these limits

  20. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. B.; Wang, C.; Sorensen, K.;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRN...

  1. Progress in Simulating Turbulent Electron Thermal Transport in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, Walter; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); Peterson, J. L.; Nevins, W. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2013-07-17

    Nonlinear simulations based on multiple NSTX discharge scenarios have progressed to help differentiate unique instability mechanisms and to validate with experimental turbulence and transport data. First nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing (MT) turbulence in a high-beta NSTX H-mode discharge predict experimental levels of electron thermal transport that are dominated by magnetic flutter and increase with collisionality, roughly consistent with energy confinement times in dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments. Electron temperature gradient (ETG) simulations predict significant electron thermal transport in some low and high beta discharges when ion scales are suppressed by E x B shear. Although the predicted transport in H-modes is insensitive to variation in collisionality (inconsistent with confinement scaling), it is sensitive to variations in other parameters, particularly density gradient stabilization. In reversed shear (RS) Lmode discharges that exhibit electron internal transport barriers, ETG transport has also been shown to be suppressed nonlinearly by strong negative magnetic shear, s<<0. In many high beta plasmas, instabilities which exhibit a stiff beta dependence characteristic of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) are sometimes found in the core region. However, they do not have a distinct finite beta threshold, instead transitioning gradually to a trapped electron mode (TEM) as beta is reduced to zero. Nonlinear simulations of this "hybrid" TEM/KBM predict significant transport in all channels, with substantial contributions from compressional magnetic perturbations. As multiple instabilities are often unstable simultaneously in the same plasma discharge, even on the same flux surface, unique parametric dependencies are discussed which may be useful for distinguishing the different mechanisms experimentally.

  2. Progress in simulating turbulent electron thermal transport in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear simulations based on multiple NSTX discharge scenarios have progressed to help differentiate unique instability mechanisms and to validate with experimental turbulence and transport data. First nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in a high-beta NSTX H-mode discharge predict experimental levels of electron thermal transport that are dominated by magnetic flutter and increase with collisionality, roughly consistent with energy confinement times in dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments. Electron temperature gradient (ETG) simulations predict significant electron thermal transport in some low- and high-beta discharges when ion scales are suppressed by E × B shear. Although the predicted transport in H-modes is insensitive to variation in collisionality (inconsistent with confinement scaling), it is sensitive to variations in other parameters, particularly density gradient stabilization. In reversed shear L-mode discharges that exhibit electron internal transport barriers, ETG transport has also been shown to be suppressed nonlinearly by strong negative magnetic shear, s ≪ 0. In many high-beta plasmas, instabilities which exhibit a stiff beta dependence characteristic of kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) are sometimes found in the core region. However, they do not have a distinct finite beta threshold, instead transitioning gradually to a trapped electron mode (TEM) as beta is reduced to zero. Nonlinear simulations of this hybrid’ TEM/KBM predict significant transport in all channels, with substantial contributions from compressional magnetic perturbations. As multiple instabilities are often unstable simultaneously in the same plasma discharge, even on the same flux surface, unique parametric dependencies are discussed which may be useful for distinguishing the different mechanisms experimentally. (paper)

  3. Stability of transgene integration and expression in subsequent generations of doubled haploid oilseed rape transformed with chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes in a double-gene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander, Margareta; Kamnert, Iréne; Happstadius, Ingrid; Liljeroth, Erland; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2006-09-01

    A double-gene construct with one chitinase and one beta-1,3-glucanase gene from barley, both driven by enhanced 35S promoters, was transformed into oilseed rape. From six primary transformants expressing both transgenes 10 doubled haploid lines were produced and studied for five generations. The number of inserted copies for both the genes was determined by Southern blotting and real-time PCR with full agreement between the two methods. When copy numbers were analysed in different generations, discrepancies were found, indicating that at least part of the inserted sequences were lost in one of the alleles of some doubled haploids. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase expression was analysed by Western blotting in all five doubled haploid generations. Despite that both the genes were present on the same T-DNA and directed by the same promoter their expression pattern between generations was different. The beta-1,3-glucanase was expressed at high and stable levels in all generations, while the chitinase displayed lower expression that varied between generations. The transgenic plants did not show any major impact on fungal resistance when assayed in greenhouse, although purified beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase caused retardment of fungal growth in vitro. PMID:16565860

  4. Prediction of the Long Term Stability of Polyester-Based Recording Media. First Annual Report, June 1982; Second Annual Report, August 1983; Progress Report, December 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel W.; And Others

    This document comprises three progress reports for a 5-year environmental aging study aimed at establishing the lifetimes of magnetic tapes and the poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) base of photographic and electronic film under archival storage conditions. The first annual report (1982) introduces the rationale for the project, provides…

  5. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with 125I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of 125iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype

  6. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  7. Einstein universes stabilized

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Erhard

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that gravitational self-binding energy may be the source for the vacuum energy term of cosmology is studied in a Newtonian Ansatz. For spherical spaces the attractive force of gravitation and the negative pressure of the vacuum energy term form a self stabilizing system under very reasonable restrictions for the parameters, among them a characteristic coefficient \\beta of self energy. In the Weyl geometric approach to cosmological redshift, Einstein-Weyl universes with observational restrictions of the curvature parameters are dynamically stable, if \\beta is about 40 % smaller than in the exact Newton Ansatz or if the space geometry is elliptical.

  8. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  9. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  10. On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, Seth J; Branje, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12-20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status) decreased, whereas the representation of the high-commitment statuses (2 variants of a [fore]closed identity: "early closure" and "closure," and achievement) increased. We also found support for the individual difference perspective: 63% of the adolescents remained in the same identity status across the 5 waves. Identity progression was characterized by 7 transitions: diffusion→moratorium, diffusion→early closure, moratorium→closure, moratorium→achievement, searching moratorium→closure, searching moratorium→achievement, and early closure→achievement. PMID:20840241

  11. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-31

    Although there are many publications pertaining to gas hydrates, their formation and stability in various geological conditions are poorly known. Therefore, for the same reasons and because of the very broad scope of our research, limited amount and extremely dispersed information, the study regions are very large. Moreover, almost without exception the geological environments controlling gas hydrates formation and stability of the studied regions are very complex. The regions studied (completed and partially completed - total 17 locations) during the reporting period, particularly the Gulf of Mexico and the Middle America Trench, are the most important in this entire research project. In the past, both of these regions have been extensively studied, the presence of gas hydrates confirmed and samples recovered. In our investigation it was necessary not only to review all previous data and interpretations, but to do a thorough analysis of the basins, and a critical evaluation of an previously reported and publicly available but not published information.

  12. Growth arrest- and DNA-damage-inducible 45beta gene inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and decreases IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Claus Morten; Døssing, M G; Papa, S;

    2006-01-01

    IL-1beta is a candidate mediator of apoptotic beta cell destruction, a process that leads to type 1 diabetes and progression of type 2 diabetes. IL-1beta activates beta cell c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, all of which are members of the mitogen......-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Inhibition of JNK prevents IL-1beta-mediated beta cell destruction. In mouse embryo fibroblasts and 3DO T cells, overexpression of the gene encoding growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45beta (Gadd45b) downregulates pro-apoptotic JNK signalling. The aim of this study...

  13. 胰岛β细胞放射性核素分子显像研究进展%Research progress of radionuclide molecular imaging in pancreatic beta cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 张一帆

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a common disease that poses great threat to human health. At present, insulin replacement therapy remains the main treatment. In recent years, pancreatic beta cell transplantation has demonstrated potential prospect in treatment of type 1 diabetes, however, it is an important issue in clinical application on the non-invasive monitoring of in vivo pancreatic beta cell transplantation. Radionuclide molecular imaging technology, which has been developing rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity, has been widely applied in monitoring pancreatic beta cell transplantation, and has demonstrated favorable prospect in application.%糖尿病是严重威胁人类健康的常见病和多发病,胰岛素替代治疗是其主要的治疗手段.近年来,胰岛β细胞移植治疗1型糖尿病展示出潜在的应用前景,但如何在活体条件下无创地进行胰岛β细胞移植的监测,是目前临床应用所面临的重要问题.放射性核素分子显像技术近年来得到了快速发展,具有灵敏度高、特异性强等特点,在胰岛β细胞移植监测方面得到了广泛应用,展示了良好的应用前景.

  14. 增加椎弓根螺钉稳定性的方法与技术研究进展%Research progress in stability of pedicle screw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子红; 程立; 殷渠东

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pedicle screw which passes through the three columns and has three-dimensional correction function, which has quickly become the standard posterior spinal internal fixation But loss of correction and screw loosening often occurs in patients with osteoporosis, or screw has less stability in revision surgery and re-adjust of screw position.OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the stability of pedicle screw, to introduce the methods of improving the stability of pedicle screw and its clinical applications.METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed database, CNKI database, VIP database was performed for related articles published between 1990 and 2010 with key words "bone nails, osteoporosis, revision, pedicle screw, stability" in English and Chinese.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The focus on increasing stability of pedicle screw is to increase screw withdrawal resistance Screw augmented with bone cement or replaced with thicker, longer screws or special screws (hollow screw and expandable screw hole) can lead to increase in the absolute value of screw stability Screws in the upper and the lower, the left and the right side with different connectors, different directions of placement will affect the stability of the entire device of pedicle screw, which is the change in the relative value of screw stability Other methods are those such as improving structure of fixator, and adding with bone in screw-path, etc Various methods have advantages and disadvantages, clinical application should be based on different situations to choose specific methods In general for Osteoporosis below grade n (Jikei grade), using thicker and longer screws,horizontal connection device and screws with stiff connection with rod At the same time, screws in left and right, upper and down side placed with larger angle to increase the stability of pedicle screw is a safe and convenient way, for Osteoporosis grade Ⅱ or more , more reliable screw augmented method with bone cement or

  15. Linear MHD Stability Analysis of the SSPX Spheromak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R.; Cohen, B. I.; Hooper, E. B.; Lodestro, L. L.; McLean, H. S.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Wood, R.; Turnbull, A. D.; Sovinec, C.

    2007-11-01

    Good correlation between the toroidal mode numbers of measured magnetic fluctuations in high temperature SSPX plasmas and presence of low-order rational surfaces in the reconstructed q profiles, suggests that the quality of magnetic surfaces in SSPX is sufficiently good for applying standard linear MHD stability analyses. Previously we have reported on benchmarking the code NIMROD against GATO, with good agreement in growth rates for ideal-MHD internal kinks and an external kinks with no current on open field lines (for equilibria imported from the code Corsica). Recent stability analyses also show that presence of low order rational surfaces causes internal modes to become unstable. We will report on the progress in applying these tools for assessing beta limits in SSPX, using NIMROD analyses including current on open field lines and for comparison with experiments.

  16. Double beta decay experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  17. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  18. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  19. Interferon beta-1a in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: case report Interferon beta en polineuropatía crónica inflamatoria desmienlinizante: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Maria Villa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an acquired immune-mediated neuropathy. It presents with a course of progression which may be slow and steady or step-wise or relapsing. Sensory ataxic polyneuropathy may be the only clinical manifestation of this disease. Treatment with interferon beta1a (INF beta1a has been tried with different results in patients who were refractory to other, more conventional, immunomodulatory therapies. Here we report on a patient who had a relapsing form of pure sensory ataxic CIDP and who failed to respond to intravenous human immunoglobulin. He was put on INF beta1a for 3 years. During this period he suffered no relapses while his condition stabilized.La polineuropatía crónica inflamatoria desmielinizante (PCID es una neuropatía inmuno-mediada, que presenta un curso clínico primariamente progresivo o en forma de recaídas. Las manifestaciones sensoriales pueden ser su unica forma de expresión clínica. El tratamiento con interferon beta 1a (IFN beta1a ha sido ensayado en varias oportunidades, con diferentes respuestas terapéuticas, en pacientes refractarios a las terapias inmunomoduladoras convencionales. Nosotros comunicamos un paciente con una forma ataxica recurrente de PCID, que no respondió al tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa. Posteriormente fue tratado con IFN beta 1 a por tres años. Durante el período de seguimiento no mostró nuevas recaídas y su cuadro neurológico se estabilizó.

  20. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF DYNAMIC STABILITY OF HELICOPTER ROTOR/AIRFRAME%直升机旋翼/机体动稳定性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺天鹏; 李书; 李小龙

    2013-01-01

    This paper first briefly reviews the types of the dynamic instability of helicopter rotor/airframe,including the isolated blade dynamic instabilities such as the rotor flap-pitch coupling,pitch-lag instability,the coupled flap-lag aeroelastic instability,the flap-lag-pitch coupled instability,and the coupled rotor/airframe instabilities,such as the ground resonance and the air resonance.The related studies are reviewed from 3 aspects,the aerodynamic and structural numerical models with high precisions,the numerical methods of dynamic stability,and the model testing.The major fields of the analytical technology for dynamic stability of helicopter rotor/airframe are discussed,including the rotor aeroelastic stability analysis using the coupled computational fluid dynamics/computational structural dynamics,the dynamic stability analysis of composite rotor with consideration of material uncertainty,the dynamic stability analysis of coupled rotor/airframe with lag damper,and helicopters with advanced configurations.In the end,the future development of dynamic stability of helicopter rotor/airframe is commented.%首先对直升机旋翼/机体动不稳定性问题的种类进行了简要概述,包括旋翼挥舞/变距、变距/摆振、挥舞/摆振和挥舞/摆振/变距耦合等孤立旋翼动不稳定性问题,以及直升机地面共振和空中共振等旋翼/机体耦合动不稳定性问题,然后分别从气动力与结构的高精度数值模型、动稳定性的计算分析方法和实验模型测试3个方面详细介绍了直升机旋翼/机体动不稳定性问题的研究现状,并着重讨论了直升机旋翼/机体动稳定性分析技术最近的主要研究方向:耦合CFD(computational fluid dynamics)/CSD(computational structural dynamics)的直升机旋翼气弹动稳定性分析、复合材料旋翼动稳定性分析及其材料不确定性影响、带减摆器的旋翼/机体动稳定性分析和先进直升机构型的旋翼/机体动稳定性

  1. Studies of nuclei far from stability in the A approx. mass region. Progress report, 1 August 1982-30 June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following topics: a study of the energy level structure of 82Sr; studies of 80Sr and 84Zr; measurement of g-factors in 68Ge; Coulomb excitation studies of high spin states in 248Cm; a study of the E0, E2, E4, and E6 multipole densities of 180Hf by electron scattering; a portable CAMAC data acquisition system; design and construction of a multiplicity detector for fast neutrons; development and testing of a spectrum analysis program; statistics of FSU LINAC operation; and development of a gamma-ray counting station for the new FSU LINAC

  2. Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste disposal. Hydrothermal stability of zircons: Progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K.; Student, J.; Essex, R.

    1991-12-31

    The long-term stability of nuclear waste forms or barriers is related to changes in physical properties of the material induced through radiation damage and subsequent changes in solubility. Investigations conducted by us on natural zircons (ZrSiO{sub 4}) supports a positive correlation between level of alpha damage and fluid composition to enhanced levels of corrosion. New data are presented on the nature and rate of the solution process. We also present data on our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize both pure ZrSiO{sub 4} and doped with U, Th, Hf, Dy and P.

  3. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  4. Structure and dynamics of parallel beta-sheets, hydrophobic core, and loops in Alzheimer's A beta fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel; Hummer, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    We explore the relative contributions of different structural elements to the stability of Abeta fibrils by molecular-dynamics simulations performed over a broad range of temperatures (298 K to 398 K). Our fibril structures are based on solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments of Abeta(1-40) peptides, with sheets of parallel beta-strands connected by loops and stabilized by interior salt bridges. We consider models with different interpeptide interfaces, and different staggering of the N- and C-terminal beta-strands along the fibril axis. Multiple 10-20 ns molecular-dynamics simulations show that fibril segments with 12 peptides are stable at ambient temperature. The different models converge toward an interdigitated side-chain packing, and present water channels solvating the interior D23/K28 salt bridges. At elevated temperatures, we observe the early phases of fibril dissociation as a loss of order in the hydrophilic loops connecting the two beta-strands, and in the solvent-exposed N-terminal beta-sheets. As the most dramatic structural change, we observe collective sliding of the N- and C-terminal beta-sheets on top of each other. The interior C-terminal beta-sheets in the hydrophobic core remain largely intact, indicating that their formation and stability is crucial to the dissociation/elongation and stability of Abeta fibrils. PMID:17293399

  5. Progress in use of beta-blockers for cardiovascular diseases%β受体阻滞剂在心血管疾病中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆芝

    2005-01-01

    β受体阻滞剂(beta-blocker)过去多作为抗心律失常药应用于临床,近年来其应用范围逐渐扩大,现已应用于抗高血压、纠正心肌缺血、改善心功能,品种及剂型也日新月异,其作用机制是多方面的,至今尚未完全清楚,不同制剂作用机制亦有差别,其核心作用是预防儿茶酚胺的心脏毒性作用。

  6. The classification , clinical usage and its progress of beta-blocker%β-受体阻滞药的分类、临床应用及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万车; 方立梅; 胡少红; 谷雨; 张冬梅; 刑春阳

    2009-01-01

    The application of beta-blocker is unfailing for more than forty years, furthermore its indica-tion is magnified continually, which make it play very important role in the treatment of caxdiovascular diseases. In order to master the elassfication , clinical application and the recent research better, we write this overview by summarizeing articles at home and abroad.%β-受体阻滞药的应用40多年来久用不衰,而且适应证不断拓宽,使其在心血管疾病的治疗中起着十分重要的作用,为更好地掌握其分类、临床应用及其进展,本文结合国内外文献作一综述.

  7. Einstein universes stabilized

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Erhard

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that gravitational self-binding energy may be the source for the vacuum energy term of cosmology is studied in a Newtonian Ansatz. For spherical spaces the attractive force of gravitation and the negative pressure of the vacuum energy term form a self stabilizing system under very reasonable restrictions for the parameters, among them a characteristic coefficient \\beta of self energy. In the Weyl geometric approach to cosmological redshift, Einstein-Weyl universes with observat...

  8. Bcl3-dependent stabilization of CtBP1 is crucial for the inhibition of apoptosis and tumor progression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → CtBP1 as a new binding partner of Bcl3. → Bcl3 stabilizes CtBP1 by inhibiting ubiquitination of CtBP1. → Bcl3 antagonizes CtBP1-mediated apoptotic responses. → Positive correlation between increased Bcl3 and CtBP1 protein levels in breast cancer tissues. -- Abstract: B-cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) is a proto-oncogene upregulated in a wide range of cancers, including breast cancer. Although Bcl3 is known to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the proto-oncogenic function of Bcl3 have not been completely elucidated. To gain insight into the oncogenic role of Bcl3, we applied a proteomic approach, which led to the identification of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) as a binding partner of Bcl3. A PXDLS/R motif embedded in Bcl3 was found to mediate the interaction between Bcl3 and CtBP1, which caused the stabilization of CtBP1 by blocking proteasome-dependent degradation. Apoptotic stimuli-induced degradation of CtBP1 was significantly abolished by the upregulation of Bcl3, leading to the sustained repression of pro-apoptotic gene expression and subsequent inhibition of apoptosis. Intriguingly, a strong positive correlation between the protein levels of Bcl3 and CtBP1 was detected in breast cancer patient samples. Our study reveals a novel combinatorial role for Bcl3 and CtBP1, providing an explanation for the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, which is a major requirement for cancer development.

  9. Chronology of endocrine differentiation and beta-cell neogenesis [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi

    2016-03-31

    Diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease, which results from absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells, which are the only type of cell that expresses insulin, is considered to be a potential target for the cure of diabetes. Although the findings regarding beta-cell neogenesis during pancreas development have been exploited to induce insulin-producing cells from non-beta cells, there are still many hurdles towards generating fully functional beta cells that can produce high levels of insulin and respond to physiological signals. To overcome these problems, a solid understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation is required, and several mouse models have been developed to reveal the unique features of each endocrine cell type at distinct developmental time points. Here I review our understanding of pancreas development and endocrine differentiation focusing on recent progresses in improving temporal cell labeling in vivo. PMID:26615757

  10. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given. (author)

  12. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  13. Indications of progressive desiccation of the Transvaal Lowveld over the past 100 years, and implications for the water stabilization programme in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. De V. Pienaar

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available All available rainfall statistics recorded for the Kruger National Park area since 1907, coupled with an analysis of all the historical climatological data on hand, appear to confirm the quasi-twenty-year rainfall oscillation in precipitation pattern for the summer rainfall area. This was first pointed out by Tyson & Dyer (1975. The dendrochronological data obtained by Hall (1976 from a study of growth rings of a very old yellowwood tree (Podocarpus falcatus in Natal, also appear to indicate a superimposed, long-term (80-100 years pattern of alternate below- average and above-average rainfall periods. The historical data relating to climate in the park, during the past century or two, seem to bear out such a pattern. If this can be confirmed, it will be an enormous aid not only in wildlife-management planning, but also to agriculturists, demographic planners and others. It would appear that the long, relatively dry rainfall period of 1860-1970, with its concomitant progressive desiccation of the @ area in question, has passed over into the next aboveverage rainfall era. This does not mean that there will be no further cataclysmic droughts during future rainfall trough periods. It is therefore wise to plan ahead to meet such contingencies. The present water distribution pattern in the park (natural plus artificial water is conspicuously still well below that which pertained, during dry seasons, at the turn of the century, when the Sabi and Shingwedzi game reserves were proclaimed. It is the declared policy of the National Parks Board of Trustees to simulate natural regulating mechanisms as closely as possible. In consequence the artificial water-for-game program is a long way from completion. The large numbers of game animals in the park (including dominant species such as elephant Loxodonta africana and buffalo Syncerus coffer can no longer migrate out of the area to escape natural catastrophes (such as the crippling droughts of 1911-1917, the

  14. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuguo Shen; Ying Zhang; Chao Jin; Ying Cao; Wei Gao; Lishan Cui

    2011-07-01

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster nucleation rate. Furthermore, the emulsion system could stabilize the beta product and retarded its further transformation to ZSM-5 even under the high crystallization temperature at 453 K. Additionally, the beta particle size could be tuned by the adoption of different lengths of alkyl chain in the surfactant and cosurfactant. Control experiments showed each emulsion component played a crucial role in the zeolite beta growth. The approach proposed in this paper might be extended to apply for the syntheses of other types of zeolites with particle size under control.

  15. Autoregressive conditional beta

    OpenAIRE

    Yunmi Kim

    2012-01-01

    The capital asset pricing model provides various predictions about equilibrium expected returns on risky assets. One key prediction is that the risk premium on a risky asset is proportional to the nondiversifiable market risk measured by the asset's beta coefficient. This paper proposes a new method for estimating and drawing inferences from a time-varying capital asset pricing model. The proposed method, which can be considered a vector autoregressive model for multiple beta coefficients, is...

  16. Precision beta gauge using a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Madden, N.W.; Wiegand, C.E. (Lawrence Berkely Lab., CA (USA))

    1983-09-01

    We describe the use of a plastic scintillator photomultiplier detector combination in applications involving the precision beta-gauge measurements of small mass deposits of thin substrates. The requisite precision (+- 2 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/) places stringent requirements on the beta-particle counter and associated electronics. The scintillator based system is shown to be equivalent if not superior to previously employed semiconductor detectors with respect to long-term counting stability.

  17. The Effect of Progressively Increasing Lithium Coatings on Plasma Discharge Characteristics, Transport, Edge Profiles, and ELM Stability in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Boyle, D. P. [Princeton University; Canik, John [ORNL; Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gray, Travis K [ORNL; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kugel, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2012-01-01

    Lithium wall coatings have been shown to reduce recycling, suppress edge localized modes (ELMs), and improve energy confinement in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Here we document the effect of gradually increasing lithium wall coatings on the discharge characteristics, with the reference ELMy discharges obtained in boronized, i.e. non-lithiated, conditions. We observed a continuous but not quite monotonic reduction in recycling and improvement in energy confinement, a gradual alteration of edge plasma profiles, and slowly increasing periods of ELM quiescence. The measured edge plasma profiles during the lithium coating scan were simulated with the SOLPS code, which quantified the reduction in divertor recycling coefficient from ~98% to ~90%. The reduction in recycling and core fueling, coupled with a drop in the edge particle transport rate, reduced the average edge density profile gradient, and shifted it radially inward from the separatrix location. In contrast, the edge electron temperature (Te) profile was unaffected in the H-mode pedestal steep gradient region within the last 5% of normalized poloidal flux, N; however, the region of steep Te gradients extended radially inward from the top of the H-mode pedestal for 0.8< N <0.94 with lithium coatings. The peak pressure gradients were comparable during ELMy and ELM-free phases, but were shifted away from the separatrix in the ELM-free discharges, which is stabilizing to the current driven instabilities thought to be responsible for ELMs in NSTX.

  18. The effect of progressively increasing lithium coatings on plasma discharge characteristics, transport, edge profiles and ELM stability in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Boyle, D. P. [Princeton University; Canik, John [ORNL; Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gray, Travis K [ORNL; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Le Blanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics; Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2012-01-01

    Lithium wall coatings have been shown to reduce recycling, suppress edge-localized modes (ELMs), and improve energy confinement in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Here we document the effect of gradually increasing lithium wall coatings on the discharge characteristics, with the reference ELMy discharges obtained in boronized, i.e. non-lithiated conditions. We observed a continuous but not quite monotonic reduction in recycling and improvement in energy confinement, a gradual alteration of edge plasma profiles, and slowly increasing periods of ELM quiescence. The measured edge plasma profiles during the lithium-coating scan were simulated with the SOLPS code, which quantified the reduction in divertor recycling coefficient from similar to 98% to similar to 90%. The reduction in recycling and fuelling, coupled with a drop in the edge particle transport rate, reduced the average edge density profile gradient, and shifted it radially inwards from the separatrix location. In contrast, the edge electron temperature (T-e) profile was unaffected in the H-mode pedestal steep gradient region within the last 5% of normalized poloidal flux, psi(N); however, the T-e gradient became steeper at the top of the H-mode pedestal for 0.8 < psi(N) < 0.94 with lithium coatings. The peak pressure gradients were comparable during ELMy and ELM-free phases, but were shifted away from the separatrix in the ELM-free discharges, which is stabilizing to the current-driven instabilities thought to be responsible for ELMs in NSTX.

  19. Research progress of beta-blockers in the treatment of infantile hemangioma%β-受体阻滞剂治疗婴幼儿血管瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠达; 彭智

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common tumors of infancy, with a prevalence of approxi-mately 4~10%of infants. Although the natural history of IH is to spontaneously involute, a significant minority of IH re-quire therapy with the aim to prevent disfigurement, functional impairment, or ulceration. In 2008, propranolol, a non-se-lective beta (β)-blocker, was reported to be highly effective in treating IH. Since that time there have been more than 200 articles published regarding the efficacy and potential toxicity ofβ-blockers, both systemic and topical, for the treatment of IH. Based on these findings,β-blockers appear to be highly effective in treating IH and are well tolerated, though side effects have been reported. When therapy is appropriately monitored,β-blockers have been proven to be a safer and su-perior alternative to systemic steroids. This paper mainly reviews the treatment of IH through beta-blockers in recent years involving the mechanism, side effects, usage and dosage.%婴幼儿血管瘤(IH)是一种最常见的良性肿瘤,在婴幼儿中患病率为4%~10%,虽然有部分IH存在自然消退过程,但少数IH仍需要有效治疗,以防止其对皮肤的损害,导致肢体功能障碍以及发生局部溃疡.自2008年,普萘洛尔,一种非选择性β-受体阻滞剂被报道能高效治疗婴幼儿血管瘤之后,目前有约200篇文献报道β-受体阻滞剂对IH治疗存在全身性、局部性疗效及潜在毒性.基于以上发现,β-受体阻滞剂在治疗IH中产生非常高的疗效并得到了认可.与类固醇比较,即使β-受体阻滞剂在使用过程中产生一定的副作用,如果在治疗过程中得到适当监测,其更加安全与优质.本文主要对近几年来β-受体阻滞剂治疗IH作用机制,不良反应,用法、用量做一综述.

  20. Beta delayed alpha emission from the neutron deficient rare earth isotopes 152Tm and 150Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of beta-delayed proton emission is a well known method to aid the determination of the beta strength distribution in nuclei far from the stability line. At the neutron deficient side of the nuclear chart the process of proton or alpha emission from excited states is energetically allowed when one goes far enough from stability. However, beta-delayed alphas have seldom been measured for nuclei heavier than A = 20. Here we present a study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission from 152Tm and 150Ho and their importance in the full B(GT) distribution.

  1. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high β plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high β systems; Formation of high β plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gassen, G.; De Jonghe, C.; Nishimura, M.; G. Yu; Kuhn, S; St George-Hyslop, P.; van Broeckhoven, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the in...

  3. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  4. 多尺度研究油水乳状液稳定性的技术进展%Technical progress of multiscale study on oil-water emulsion stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 王旭慧; 陆丽君; 刘佳; 彭开铭

    2016-01-01

    油水乳状液在石油化工、食品、医药等领域有广泛的应用,其中乳状液的稳定性一直是人们研究的热点。本文回顾了近年来乳状液稳定性的研究方法,从宏观相分离、介观液滴粒度及微观界面膜稳定性3个不同尺度对油水乳状液稳定性研究技术的进展进行综述,并简要比较了同尺度不同研究方法的优劣。宏观尺度上,稳定性分析仪和低场核磁共振的引入使得乳状液相分离过程的表征更加准确便捷;介观尺度上,通过对分散相表征结果的拟合计算实现对乳状液液滴粒度的原位表征;微观尺度上,微量吸液管技术、显微观测等表征技术的发展和引入使得界面膜的机械强度、厚度及形态结构三方面的研究更加深入,从而更加直接准确地表征界面膜的稳定性。此外,本文还重点对综合运用不同尺度研究方法全面深入探究乳状液稳定机制进行了论述,并指出原位表征技术是乳状液稳定性研究方法的重要发展方向。%Oil-water emulsions have wide range of applications in the field of petrochemicals,food, medicine and others. The stability of emulsion has been a research hotspot. This paper reviewed research methods of emulsion stability in recent years,summarized the progress of research techniques from three aspects and made brief comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of the same scale. On the macro-scale,emulsion stability analyzers and low-field NMR are used to characterize the phase separation process,which simplifies the test operation and renders a more accurate result. On mesoscopic scale,thein situ characterization of emulsion droplet size can be achieved by fitting calculation of the optical and NMR results. On the micro-scale,the accurate characterization of interfacial film stability is realized by the development and introduction of micropipette,microscopic observation technologies

  5. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  6. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  7. COLLAGEN STRUCTURE AND STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shoulders, Matthew D.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals. This fibrous, structural protein comprises a right-handed bundle of three parallel, left-handed polyproline II-type helices. Much progress has been made in elucidating the structure of collagen triple helices and the physicochemical basis for their stability. New evidence demonstrates that stereoelectronic effects and preorganization play a key role in that stability. The fibrillar structure of type I collagen–the prototypical collagen fibril–...

  8. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  9. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  10. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  11. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author)

  12. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  13. Testing Stability of Capital Assets Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Víšek

    2000-01-01

    In the paper we study the stability of parameters of Capital Assets Pricing Model on the Czech stock market. We estimate beta coefficients of selected shares by least squares and least absolute deviation methods. Then we apply clasical and Ll-methods to test the stability of the estimated regression model over time.

  14. Progress report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1979 the synchrocyclotron 3He and alpha beam intensities have been improved and a stochastic beam stretcher for alpha and deuteron beams has been installed. The PDP-11 memory has been enlarged and a terminal for the PDP-15 installed at the cyclotron control desk. The angular correlation facility for on-line γ-spectrographic studies has been completed, and a microprocessor-controlled tape transport system integrated into the helium jet transport facilities. The main research interests continued to be the properties of nuclei far from beta stability, complex nuclear reactions, the fission mechanism, and positron tomography. (LL)

  15. Beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, P.; Hender, T.C.; Huysmans, G.; Marcus, F.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Alper, B.; Balet, B.; Bures, M.; Deliyanakis, N.; Esch, H. de; Fshpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Jones, T.T.C.; Ketner, W.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.; Lomas, P.; O`Brien, D.; Sadler, G.; Stok, D.; Stubberfield, P.; Thomas, P.; Thomen, K.; Wesson, J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    In Hot-ion H- and VH-modes, the highest achieved beta was about 10% below the Troyon value in the best case of discharge 26087. The operational space of the high beta discharges obtained before March 1992 has been explored as function of the parameters H{sub ITER89P}, {beta}{sub n}, q{sub 95}, I{sub p}. Also, a limiting envelope on the fusion reactivity as a function of the average plasma pressure and beta has been observed with R{sub DD} related to {beta}{sub {phi}}{sup 2}.B{sub {phi}}{sup 4}. MHD stability analysis shows that the JET VH modes at the edge are in the second region for ballooning mode stability. The dependence of ballooning stability and the n=1 external kink on the edge current density is analyzed. (authors). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  16. Mass-spectrometric investigation of boron derivatives of fluorinated. beta. -diketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozinskii, M.O.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, V.S.; Rasshinina, T.A.

    1986-07-01

    A series of complexes of fluorinated ..beta..-diketones with boron difluoride were synthesized. Paths of their fragmentation and stability during an electron impact were established. For the complexes studied in the gaseous phase, a specific decomposition of perfluorinated and adamantyl groups with the formation of new ..beta..-diketonate ions with a linear or cyclic structure is characteristic. The possibility of capture of hydrogen atoms by the ..beta..-diketonate ions in the gaseous phase has been discovered.

  17. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  18. Low-beta structures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vretenar(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    'Low-beta' radio-frequency accelerating structures are used in the sections of a linear accelerator where the velocity of the particle beam increases with energy. The requirement for space periodicity to match the increasing particle velocity led to the development of a large variety of structures, both normal and superconducting, which are described in this lecture.

  19. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  20. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  1. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  2. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  4. The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta inhomeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary-Helen

    2006-01-13

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine that plays a critical role in numerous pathways regulating cellular and tissue homeostasis. TGF-beta is regulated by hormones and is a primary mediator of hormone response in uterus, prostate and mammary gland. This review will address the role of TGF-beta in regulating hormone dependent proliferation and morphogenesis. The subversion of TGF-beta regulation during the processes of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on its effects on genetic stability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), will also be examined. An understanding of the multiple and complex mechanisms of TGF-beta regulation of epithelial function, and the ultimate loss of TGF-beta function during carcinogenesis, will be critical in the design of novel therapeutic interventions for endocrine-related cancers.

  5. Beta gets better with age

    OpenAIRE

    Tomunen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of my thesis is to study the cause for the low beta anomaly, which is an observation that the high beta stocks perform poorly relative to the low beta stocks. Based on earlier findings, I hypothesize that if a stock has high investor attention, its price overreacts to market-wide shocks, which results in a positive measurement error in its beta. Simultaneously, high attention causes overpricing, because the stock overreacts more often to positive shocks than to negat...

  6. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  7. Recent insights into Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Masahiro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Oda, Masataka; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Takehara, Masaya; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2015-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is a key mediator of necrotizing enterocolitis and enterotoxemia. It is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that exerts cytotoxic effect. Experimental investigation using piglet and rabbit intestinal loop models and a mouse infection model apparently showed that beta-toxin is the important pathogenic factor of the organisms. The toxin caused the swelling and disruption of HL-60 cells and formed a functional pore in the lipid raft microdomains of sensitive cells. These findings represent significant progress in the characterization of the toxin with knowledge on its biological features, mechanism of action and structure-function having been accumulated. Our aims here are to review the current progresses in our comprehension of the virulence of C. perfringens type C and the character, biological feature and structure-function of beta-toxin. PMID:25654787

  8. Recent Insights into Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nagahama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is a key mediator of necrotizing enterocolitis and enterotoxemia. It is a pore-forming toxin (PFT that exerts cytotoxic effect. Experimental investigation using piglet and rabbit intestinal loop models and a mouse infection model apparently showed that beta-toxin is the important pathogenic factor of the organisms. The toxin caused the swelling and disruption of HL-60 cells and formed a functional pore in the lipid raft microdomains of sensitive cells. These findings represent significant progress in the characterization of the toxin with knowledge on its biological features, mechanism of action and structure-function having been accumulated. Our aims here are to review the current progresses in our comprehension of the virulence of C. perfringens type C and the character, biological feature and structure-function of beta-toxin.

  9. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  10. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  11. MHD stable high beta spheromak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of a pressure driven mode in CTX indicate that its performance is being limited by the low beta stability requirements typical of conventional spheromak designs. Improved designs with higher beat limits therefore have the potential to dramatically increase the temperature and lifetime of CTX and other spheromak experiments. This paper describes the results of an optimization study examining radically different geometries, but all with minimum energy current profiles which can easily be created experimentally and should be automatically stable to all ideal and resistive current drive modes. 2 refs., 3 figs

  12. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  13. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  14. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this...... approach it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  15. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  16. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  17. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  18. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  19. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.;

    2010-01-01

    AM373, pMBB1 or pEF418 were not detected. Furthermore, 61% of the strains contained the axe-txe (n=42) or/and the omega-epsilon-zeta (n=18) plasmid stabilization loci. Sequence analyses divided the omega-epsilon-zeta operon into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The present typing scheme accounted for......A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, p...... about 60% of the total number of plasmids detected by S1 nuclease analyses, which revealed zero to seven plasmids (10 kb to > 200 kb) per isolate. Interestingly, strains belonging to the clinically important clonal complex 17 (CC17) yielded a significantly higher number of plasmids (3.1) and p...

  20. Nuclear decay studies far-from-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decay studies far-from-stability are performed not merely to characterize new isotopes, but to establish an experimental footing for improving our theoretical understanding of nuclear structure and decay. Although progress has been made in explaining low-lying level structure for a broad range of nuclei, transition probabilities are not yet quantitatively understood. The ability to understand nuclei far-from-stability is important to astrophysics for extending r- and s-process calculations to unknown nuclei, and to nuclear engineering for decay-heat calculations. Finally, by studying nuclei far-from-stability, we probe extremes of both decay energy and proton-neutron ratios where unforeseen and important new nuclear properties may be exhibited. The decays of nearly 100 isotopes and isomers have been studied with the OASIS mass-separation facility on-line at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC. These studies have concentrated on neutron-deficient nuclei with 55≤Z≤71 up to A=157 and neutron-rich nuclei with 166≤A≤174. The results of these experiments are combined in this paper with those from many other laboratories to provide insight into systematic trends of beta- and γ-ray transition probabilities near N=82. It is hoped that the smooth systematic trends in these transition probabilities will provide clues towards interpreting the underlying nuclear structure. Nuclei near N=82 and Z=64 are expected to be spherical and should be described by simple Shell Model considerations. Away from the shell closures, deformation sets in which should exhibit itself in the transition probabilities. The Z=64 shell closure is expected to disappear near N=78. The qualitative nature of these phenomena will be discussed

  1. Experimental Study on the Milling of a Ti Beta 21S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ti Beta 21S (Ti-15Mo-2.7Nb-3Al-0.2Si) was devel op ed by TIMET in 1989. It is a metastable beta titanium alloy that offers subs tantial weight reductions over other engineering materials. Compared with common beta Ti alloys, it offers the high specific strength, good cold formability, im proved oxidation resistance, elevated temperature strength, creep resistance, an d thermal stability. Besides the common characters of titanium alloy, such as po or heat diffusivity, low elastic modulus, Ti Beta 21S has ...

  2. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  3. Thermal behaviour of beta-uranophane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-uranophane from Perus, SP, Brazil- has been heated progressively up to 1.3500C, and its thermal behaviour has been investigated thoroughly by several methods: thermo-gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, optical measurements, infra-red spectroscopy, and X-Ray diffraction. The mineral seems to be stable up to a temperature of 2000C, confirmed by the several experimental procedures. The differential thermal analysis gives a sharper point of transformation at 1650C, which should be ascribed to water evaporation (zeolitic water). The crystal structure of the mineral could be transformed into a random layer structure, due probably to loss of the structural water. This kind of crystal disorder induces, as a rule, in the X-ray powder diagrams, absences of the hkl reflections. This could explain the small number of observed lines in the powder photographs of the material heated above 2000C. A new phase transformation is reported in the temperature interval of 700 to 8000C. This transformation should be related to the beta-uranophane chemical breakdown into two or more new crystalline phases. The chemical composition of such products is discussed in the paper. As the temperature rises to a higher level, a phase transformation takes place between 1000 and 12000C and yet another one in the range of 1200 to 13500C. The latter transition could be ascribed to the formation of an alloy between the platinum holder and the breakdown products of beta-uranophane

  4. The neutrino factory and beta beam experiments and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, C.; Barger, V.; Beacom, J.F.; Berg, J.S.; Black, E.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.; Brice, S.; Caspi, S.; Chou, W.; Cummings, M.; Fernow, R.; Finley, D.; Gallardo,; Geer, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.; Harris, D.; Huber, Patrick; Jansson, A.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Brookhaven /IIT, Chicago /Geneva U.

    2004-11-01

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here.

  5. Stability Scores: Measuring Coalitional Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Michal; Meir, Reshef; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a measure for the level of stability against coalitional deviations, called \\emph{stability scores}, which generalizes widely used notions of stability in non-cooperative games. We use the proposed measure to compare various Nash equilibria in congestion games, and to quantify the effect of game parameters on coalitional stability. For our main results, we apply stability scores to analyze and compare the Generalized Second Price (GSP) and Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) ad auctions....

  6. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  7. Observation of finite-. beta. MHD phenomena in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K.M.

    1984-09-01

    Stable high-beta plasmas are required for the tokamak to attain an economical fusion reactor. Recently, intense neutral beam heating experiments in tokamaks have shown new effects on plasma stability and confinement associated with high beta plasmas. The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations at high beta is clearly dominated by the n = 1 mode when the q = 1 surface is in the plasma. The m/n = 1/1 mode drives other n = 1 modes through toroidal coupling and n > 1 modes through nonlinear coupling. On PDX, with near perpendicular injection, a resonant interaction between the n = 1 internal kink and the trapped fast ions results in loss of beam particles and heating power. Key parameters in the theory are the value of q/sub 0/ and the injection angle. High frequency broadband magnetic fluctuations have been observed on ISX-B and D-III and a correlation with the deterioration of plasma confinement was reported. During enhanced confinement (H-mode) discharges in divertor plasmas, two new edge instabilities were observed, both localized radially near the separatrix. By assembling results from the different tokamak experiments, it is found that the simple theoretical ideal MHD beta limit has not been exceeded. Whether this represents an ultimate tokamak limit or if beta optimized configurations (Dee- or bean-shaped plasmas) can exceed this limit and perhaps enter a second regime of stability remains to be clarified.

  8. Target plasma achievements for unity beta operation in ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.

    2003-10-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (t_pulse0.3V, B=0.25T) is now in a critical stage of research to exceed the conventional beta limit. The latest program is aiming for 10s long plasma discharges at unity peak beta by means of 2^d harmonic ICRF heating and current profile control. A stable computational MHD high beta path has been found for ET high aspect ratio configuration leading from the Troyon limit to unity beta using an in-house equilibrium code and the DCON stability code. This critical path involves high power ICRF injection (5MW) for targeted plasma heating and ballooning/kink modes stabilization by poloidal rotation. Another major component is high plasma density using core and edge fueling relying on kinetic neutral beam and inboard/outboard gas puff. At this regime current profile control using fast wave current drive, with bootstrap current optimization, will be possible. A magnetic well should develop, leading to high beta plasmas with omnigenous properties. To achieve these goals, a tight feedback system between power and particle injections and plasma diagnostics is mandatory.

  9. Confinement of a self-stabilized tokamak under average magnetic well conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the average favorable magnetic curvature of a tokamak is stabilizing with respect to pressure-driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities at low beta and that self-stabilization occurs at finite beta in the so-called second stability regime. Here we self-consistently investigate how these two effects, viz., the mean magnetic well and the self-stabilization, influence the energy confinement time in a tokamak, using the ballooning mode transport model

  10. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  11. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known as...... conditional beta series during the financial crises.......We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which is...

  12. Rare-earth doped (alpha'/beta')-sialon ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Gajum, N R

    2001-01-01

    combination of light and heavy rare-earth (Yb-Nd and Gd-Nd), and then pressureless sintered and compared with the single cation materials. Materials in the as sintered state were composed of a high alpha' sialon content with a minor amount of beta' sialon and 12H A1N polytype indicating that the heavy rare-earth (which is the principal alpha' stabilizer) has a dominant effect although EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of both cations (light and heavy) within the alpha' structure. The research also compared, and developed an understanding of, the thermal stability of alpha'-sialon using single Yb or mixed cations. The Yb single cation alpha'/beta' materials exhibited excellent stability over a range of temperature (1200 - 1600 deg C) and for different periods of time up to 168 hrs. The heat treatments result in the crystallisation of the residual phase as a Yb garnet phase which formed at approx 1300 deg C. The mixed cation alpha'/beta' materials showed some alpha'-beta' transformation. The transformation w...

  13. Ideal Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterenko, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    We define and explore the concept of ideal stabilization. The program is ideally stabilizing if its every state is legitimate. Ideal stabilization allows the specification designer to prescribe with arbitrary degree of precision not only the fault-free program behavior but also its recovery operation. Specifications may or may not mention all possible states. We identify approaches to designing ideal stabilization to both kinds of specifications. For the first kind, we state the necessary condition for an ideally stabilizing solution. On the basis of this condition we prove that there is no ideally stabilizing solution to the leader election problem. We illustrate the utility of the concept by providing examples of well-known programs and proving them ideally stabilizing. Specifically, we prove ideal stabilization of the conflict manager, the alternator, the propagation of information with feedback and the alternating bit protocol.

  14. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  15. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  16. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  17. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  18. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta emitters have not received consideration as large sources of radiation power because in the past, the radiation processes of interest have been based on particles with high penetration power; hence the great emphasis on gammas and artificially accelerated electrons. About four years ago, it became apparent that a broad field of potential applications involving surface radiation treatment was developing, e. g. surface modification of formed plastics by graft copolymerization and surface pasteurization of food. For these applications, penetration in depth is wasteful and potentially harmful. Also there are two other areas for which machine electrons were not well suited: radiation-induced chemical syntheses in pressure vessels, and certain types of free radical chain reactions for which the production rate per kilowatt decreases with the square root of the dose rate. Broad area beta sources showed obvious potential advantages in all these categories and, since they are available in good yield from the fission process, merited a careful re-appraisal. On the basics of these considerations an AEC sponsored study of the applications and technology of fission product beta sources was performed. The results indicate the following: 1. There are promising areas for commercial application of fission product beta emitters in the radiation processing field, particularly in the graft copolymerization modification of formed plastic surfaces and textiles. 2. Massive, rugged, inert, safe, inexpensive beta sources may be fabricated by suitable extensions of existing techniques. Source-bearing glass formulations show particular promise. 3. Beta absorption calculations indicate that extended sources can be designed with power utilization efficiencies as high as 20 per cent. Equations and curves describing dosage and beta utilization efficiency as a function of the geometry and composition of various source-target systems were developed. An experimental program is in progress to

  19. Design of a neutrino source based on beta beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, E.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Stora, T.; Mendonca, T. Melo; Vlachoudis, V.; Bouquerel, E.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophime, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Chancé, A.; Payet, J.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Mezzetto, M.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Hass, M.; Berkovits, D.; Stahl, A.; Schaumann, M.; Wehner, J.

    2014-07-01

    "Beta beams" produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a racetrack shaped storage ring of 7 km circumference, the decay ring. EUROnu beta beams are based on CERN infrastructures and existing machines. Using existing machines may be an advantage for the cost evaluation, but will also constrain the physics performance. The isotope pair of choice for the beta beam is He6 and Ne18. However, before the EUROnu studies one of the required isotopes, Ne18, could not be produced in rates that satisfy the needs for physics of the beta beam. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, Li8 and B8, with properties interesting for a beta beam have been proposed and have been studied within EUROnu. These alternative isotopes could be produced by using a small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the Li8 and B8 isotopes. This production ring, the injection linac and the target system have been evaluated. Measurements of the cross section of the reactions to produce the beta beam isotopes show interesting results. A device to collect the produced isotopes from the target has been developed and tested. However, the yields of Li8 and B8, using the production ring for production of Li8 and B8, is not yet, according to simulations, giving the rates of isotopes that would be needed. Therefore, a new method of producing the Ne18 isotope has been developed and tested giving good production rates. A 60 GHz ECRIS prototype, the first in the world, was developed and tested for ion production with contributions from EUROnu. The decay ring lattices for the Li8 and B8 have been developed and the lattice for He6 and Ne18 has been optimized to ensure the high intensity ion beam stability.

  20. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  1. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  2. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  5. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  6. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  7. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  8. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  9. Preparation and characterization of albendazole beta-cyclodextrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J A; Palomo-Canales, J; Garcia, J J; Lastres, J L; Bolas, F; Torrado, J J

    1999-12-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), mebendazole (MBZ), and ricobendazole (RBZ) are low-soluble anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate drugs. To increase their aqueous solubility, three different types of beta-cyclodextrins (CyDs): beta-cyclodextrin (CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) were used. Solubility depended on the type of CyDs. Increased solubility was obtained when the more substituted CyDs (HPCD or MCD) were used instead of nonsubstituted CD. Stability constants were calculated assuming a 1:1 stoichiometry. Calculated stability constant values depended on initial solubility of drug and pH of the medium. Solid ABZ complexes were prepared by coprecipitation and freeze-drying methods. These products were compared with physical mixtures of ABZ and CyDs. The characterization of these products was made by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and drug release studies. True inclusion complexes were obtained only by the freeze-drying method. Drug release studies showed that the freeze-dried inclusion complexes increased the solubility rate of ABZ, although a supersaturation effect was observed when drug release studies were performed in nonsink conditions. A bioavailability study on mice was done with a formulation of ABZ:HPCD complex and was compared to a conventional ABZ suspension. A significantly (p < .05) shorter Tmax of absorption was obtained by using the complex formulation. Greater and significant (p < .05) differences for AUC and Cmax were observed. PMID:10612019

  10. Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Dynamics of Beta Cell Loss in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    John Virostko; Armandla Radhika; Greg Poffenberger; Dula, Adrienne N.; Moore, Daniel J.; Alvin C Powers

    2013-01-01

    We generated a mouse model (MIP-Luc-VU-NOD) that enables non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of beta cell loss during the progression of autoimmune diabetes and determined the relationship between BLI and disease progression. MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice displayed insulitis and a decline in bioluminescence with age which correlated with beta cell mass, plasma insulin, and pancreatic insulin content. Bioluminescence declined gradually in female MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice, reaching less than 50% of the ...

  11. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfützner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.;

    2012-01-01

    , and their relative probabilities. When approaching limits of nuclear stability, new decay modes set in. First, beta decays are accompanied by emission of nucleons from highly excited states of daughter nuclei. Second, when the nucleon separation energy becomes negative, nucleons start being emitted from the ground...

  13. Extremely fast vertical displacement event induced by a plasma {beta}{sub p} collapse in high {beta}{sub p} tokamak disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Yoshino, Ryuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Pomphrey, N.; Jardin, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    In a vertically elongated ({kappa} {approx} 1.5), high {beta}{sub p}({beta}{sub p} {approx} 1.7) tokamak with a resistive shell, extremely fast vertical displacement events (VDE`s) induced by a model of strong {beta}{sub p} collapse were found through computer simulations using the Tokamak Simulation Code. Although the plasma current quench, which had been shown to be the prime cause of VDE`s in a relatively low {beta}{sub p} tokamak ({beta}{sub p} {approx} 0.2), was not observed during the VDE evolution, the observed growth rate of VDE`s was almost five times ({gamma} {approx} 655 sec{sup -1}) faster than the growth rate of the usual positional instability ({gamma} {approx} 149 sec{sup -1}). The essential mechanism of the {beta}{sub p} collapse-induced VDE was clarified to be the significant destabilization of positional instability due to a large and sudden degradation of the decay n-index in addition to a reduction of the stability index n{sub s}. It is pointed out that the shell-geometry characterizes the VDE dynamics, and that the VDE rate depends strongly both on the magnitude of the {beta}{sub p} collapse and the n-index of the equilibria just before the {beta}{sub p} collapse occurs. A new guide line for designing the fusion reactor is proposed with considering the impact of disruptions. (author).

  14. Preparation and characterization of beta-carotene nanodispersions prepared by solvent displacement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Boon-Seang; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Kanafusa, Sumiyo; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2007-08-01

    This work demonstrated the preparation of protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions using the solvent displacement technique. The emulsifying performance of sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, 18% degree of hydrolysis) was compared in terms of particle size and zeta-potential of the nanodispersions. SC-stabilized nanodispersions exhibited a bimodal particle size distribution: large particles (stabilized by casein micelles) with a mean particle size of 171 nm and small particles (stabilized by casein submicelles) of 13 nm. This was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Most of the beta-carotene precipitated (87.6%) was stabilized in the small particles. On the other hand, the nanodispersions stabilized by the whey proteins were polydispersed with larger mean particle sizes. The mean particle size of WPC and WPI was 1730 and 201 nm, respectively. The SC-stabilized nanodispersion was expected to be more stable as indicated by its higher absolute zeta-potential value (-31 mV) compared to that of WPC (-15 mV) and WPI (-16 mV). Partially hydrolyzed whey protein possessed improved emulsifying properties as shown by WPH-stabilized samples. It was interesting to note that increasing the SC concentration from 0.05 to 0.5 wt % increased the particle size of beta-carotene stabilized by casein micelles, while the reverse was true for those stabilized by SC submicelles. Microfluidization at 100 MPa of SC solution dissociated the casein micelles, resulting in a decrease in mean particle size of the casein micelle-stabilized particles when the SC solution was used to prepare nanodispersions. The results from this work showed that protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions could be prepared using the solvent displacement technique. PMID:17630759

  15. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  16. Presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis VII (beta-glucuronidase deficiency) in infancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyme, H E; Jones, K L; Higginbottom, M C; O'Brien, J S

    1981-01-01

    A child is presented with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (beta-glucuronidase deficiency), bringing to six the number of reported patients with the infantile onset form of this disorder. This patient exhibited the following features, previously unrecognised as part of this syndrome: presentation in the neonatal period, progressive joint contractures, and hydrocephalus. This child's course and data from published reports indicate that mucopolysaccharidosis VII, unlike the other known mucopolysacchar...

  17. The role of Estrogen Receptor Beta in Prostate Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of prostate gland, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is involved contributive in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. Nowadays, ERß is a promising target as an anticancer therapy and prevention for prostate cancer....

  18. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  19. The Age of Beta Pic

    OpenAIRE

    Navascues, D. Barrado y; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.; Caillault, J-P.

    1999-01-01

    We have reanalyzed data for the proposed moving group associated with beta Pic in order to determine if the group (or part of it) is real, and, if so, to derive an improved age estimate for beta Pic. By using new, more accurate proper motions from PPM and Hipparcos and a few new radial velocities, we conclude that on kinematic grounds, two M dwarfs have space motions that coincide with that of beta Pic to within 1 km/s with small error bars. Based on a CM diagram derived from accurate photome...

  20. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...... only superior to the common capitalization weighted index but also to their smart beta benchmark, even after cost for value, size, and low volatility funds. We encourage investors to increase the use of smart beta as benchmarks while still obtaining extra performance through active management—a concept...

  1. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  2. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  3. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Arazi; Hadi Rohani; Ahmad Ghiasi; Nasrin Abdi Keikanloo

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated i...

  4. Exchange effects in double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade there has been very impressive progress in the laboratory study of double beta decay with very precise limits on 0-neutrino decay in /sup 76/Ge, the imminent prospect of the observation of 2-neutrino decay in /sup 100/Mo and the first laboratory observation of 2-neutrino decay in /sup 82/Se. For the last case, the laboratory rate is in essential agreement with geochemical results and in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on a full shell model calculation. The motivation underlying the resurgence of interest in double beta decay is the hope that the observation of, or limits on the 0-neutrino mode will provide information about the nature of the neutrino. This clearly requires confidence in the nuclear matrix elements involved in the transition. The shell model calculations do not agree well with the geochemical values for /sup 130/Te, which has led to a spate of papers offering specific fixes for the problem. In this contribution we shall not comment on any of the specific nuclear calculations, rather we make some remarks which should be relevant to any model calculation. 11 refs., 1 tab

  5. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  6. Semiconductor detectors and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical physicists have devoted great effort to developing an adequate theory for linking the weak, electromagnetic, and strong forces of nature. Recent theoretical studies and observations of the stability of galaxies have strongly indicated the presence of large amounts of invisible mass. One element in the uncertainty associated with missing mass is the question of whether the neutrino has rest mass. A better understanding of the neutrino, explored in this paper by the possibility of double beta decay in the germanium 76 isotope, could perhaps provide some answers. Nuclear transitions are only energetically possible where the final nucleus is more tightly bound than its parent. The decay of germanium 76 to arsenic 76 is not energetically possible because the arsenic isotope is about 0.9 MeV less tightly bound than the germanium. The selenium 76 isotope, on the other hand, is about 2 MeV more tightly bound; therefore, a transition involving emission of two electrons by a germanium 76 nucleus to form a selenium 76 nucleus is energetically possible. The total energy release in kinetic energy of the beta particles and corresponding neutrinos from the excited daughter product is determined by the energy difference. This energetically possible event, if observed, will provide a breakthrough in understanding the universe. This paper discusses the underlying theory and a germanium detector experiment which could make such a contribution to the resolution of this question

  7. First principles theory of disordered alloys and alloy phase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocks, G.M.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; Shelton, W.A. [and others

    1993-06-05

    These lecture notes review the LDA-KKR-CPA method for treating the electronic structure and energetics of random alloys and the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability built on the LDA- KKR-CPA description of the disordered phase. Section 2 lays out the basic LDA-KKR-CPA theory of random alloys and some applications. Section 3 reviews the progress made in understanding specific ordering phenomena in binary solid solutions base on the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability. Examples are Fermi surface nesting, band filling, off diagonal randomness, charge transfer, size difference or local strain fluctuations, magnetic effects; in each case, an attempt is made to link the ordering and the underlying electronic structure of the disordered phase. Section 4 reviews calculations of electronic structure of {beta}-phase Ni{sub c}Al{sub 1-c} alloys using a version of the LDA-KKR-CPA codes generalized to complex lattices.

  8. Study of PIN diode based pocket dosimeter for gamma and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pocket dosimeter, based on PN junction Si Semiconductor detector earlier was developed for the measurement of dose equivalent in the field of gamma and beta radiation. This dosemeter was insensitive to beta radiation which is primary requirement as a legal personal dosemeter from IEE standards. This dosemeter works on a high power 3V Li battery along with a micro power DC-DC converter to get 3.3V needed to power the circuit. It has a 6 digit LCD digital display along with battery low indication. It measures the dose range of 1- 99999 μSv. The photon energy dependence of the dosimeter from 60 keV to 1.2 MeV is ± 30% for gamma radiation and ± 40% for beta. Further work is in progress to bring beta response within acceptable limit and to display beta and gamma response separately as Hp (0.07) and Hp (10). (author)

  9. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for beta-cell mass assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wael A. Eter; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total beta-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Altern...

  10. Neutrino factory and beta beam: accelerator options for future neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2012-06-03

    Two accelerator options for producing intense neutrino beams a Neutrino Factory based on stored muon beams and a Beta Beam facility based on stored beams of beta unstable ions are described. Technical challenges for each are described and current R&D efforts aimed at mitigating these challenges are indicated. Progress is being made in the design of both types of facility, each of which would extend the state-of-the-art in accelerator science.

  11. Influence of beta adrenergic blockade on effects of physical training in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Vanhees; Fagard, R.; Amery, A

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in heart rate during submaximal exercise is often used to judge the progress of patients with ischaemic heart disease in the course of a physical training programme. Some patients, however, are treated with beta adrenergic blocking drugs and it remains controversial if chronic beta blockade influences the effects of training and if heart rate remains a useful guide in the evaluation of the state of training of these patients. Male postinfarction patients, 15 treated with and 15 with...

  12. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs

  13. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  14. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  15. Design and production of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos F.L. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Silva, Abilio P. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Lopes, Luis [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Pires, Ines [Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica - Lisboa (IDMEC Lisboa/IST/UTL), Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Ilidio J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The characteristics of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds produced by 3D printing were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression tests and cytotoxicity tests, using human osteoblast cells. The results reported include details of the {beta}-TCP scaffolds' porosity, density, phase stability, mechanical behavior and cytotoxic profile. Collectively, these properties are fundamental for the future application of these scaffolds as bone substitutes for individualized therapy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) 3D scaffolds were produced by rapid prototyping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffold properties were assessed by SEM, FTIR, XRD and by mechanical tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds was characterized by in vitro assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds have good properties for its application as bone substitutes for individualized therapy.

  16. Recent double beta decay results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balysh, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Beck, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Belyaev, S.T. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Bensch, F.; Bockholt, J. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Demehin, A.; Gurov, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Heusser, G.; Hirsch, M.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Kondratenko, I.; Lebedev, V.I. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Maier, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Mueller, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare LNGS, 67010 Assergi (Italy)); Petry, F.; Piepke, A.; Strecker, H.; Voellinger, M.; Zuber, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-02-01

    The status and recent results of second generation [beta][beta]-experiments using isotopically enriched source materials are described. These experiments are at present the most sensitive tools to distinguish Dirac from Majorana neutrinos. The at present most advanced experimental techniques, namely the use of high-resolution calorimetric detectors and of time projection chambers are compared. New limits on the Majorana neutrino mass as well as for the Majoron-neutrino coupling are presented.

  17. Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L.-I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the G-actin sequestering polypeptide thymosin beta4 frequently is overexpressed in cancers and that such overexpression correlates to malignant progression. However, the localization of thymosin beta4 in human cancers has not been determined. We now demonstrate th...... cell types within the tumor microenvironment produce thymosin beta4 and that such expression varies from tumor to tumor. Such heterogeneity of expression should be taken into account when the role of thymosin beta4 in tumor biology is assessed....

  18. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  19. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  20. Against Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Mac Ginty

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a polemic against the concept and practice of stabilization as practiced by leading states from the global north in peace support interventions. It is not an argument against stability. Instead, it depicts stabilization as an essentially conservative doctrine that runs counter to its stated aims of enhancing local participation and legitimacy. It is an agenda of control that privileges notions of assimilation with international (western standards and mainstreams the military into peace-support operations. As a result, the value of peace is undercut.

  1. Progress in stellarator/heliotron research, 1981-1986: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial progress in plasma parameters, physics understanding, and stellarators/heliotron concept improvement has been made in the five years since a previous assessment of the field. This includes substantial achievements in higher plasma parameters and currentless plasma operation; new theoretical results with respect to higher beta limits, second stability region, effect of a helical axis, effect of electric fields on transport, and reduction of secondary currents; and improvements to the reactor concept. The key issues have been further refined, and the short-term direction of the program is clear; a number of new facilities that were designed to resolve these issues are about to come into operation or are in the final design stages. Details of the design of the next-generation experiments will follow from the results of the near-term experiments

  2. Production and maintenance of high poloidal beta tokamak plasmas by means of rf current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, S.C.; Chen, K.; Coda, S.; Kesner, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Lane, B.; Porkolab, M.; Squire, J.

    1989-03-27

    It is shown that in tokamak plasmas sustained by rf current drive, the contribution of the suprathermal rf-driven electron population to the poloidal beta (..beta../sub p/) can be substantial if the total current is comparable to the Alfven critical current, I/sub A/ = (4..pi..mcv/..mu../sub 0/ec)..gamma... Equilibria with values of epsilon..beta../sub p/ up to approximately 1.3 were obtained, and no equilibrium or gross stability limits were observed.

  3. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan M Jankovic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Slobodan M JankovicPharmacology Department, Medical Faculty, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, SerbiaAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease with either a progressive (10%–15% or relapsing-remitting (85%–90% course. The pathological hallmarks of MS are lesions of both white and grey matter in the central nervous system. The onset of the disease is usually around 30 years of age. The patients experience an acute focal neurologic dysfunction which is not characteristic, followed by partial or complete recovery. Acute episodes of neurologic dysfunction with diverse signs and symptoms will then recur throughout the life of a patient, with periods of partial or complete remission and clinical stability in between. Currently, there are several therapeutic options for MS with disease-modifying properties. Immunomodulatory therapy with interferon beta-1b (IFN-β1b or -1a, glatiramer and natalizumab shows similar efficacy; in a resistant or intolerant patient, the most recently approved therapeutic option is mitoxantrone. IFN-β1b in patients with MS binds to specific receptors on surface of immune cells, changing the expression of several genes and leading to a decrease in quantity of cell-associated adhesion molecules, inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and reduction in inflammatory cells migration into the central nervous system. After 2 years of treatment, IFN-β1b reduces the risk of development of clinically defined MS from 45% (with placebo to 28% (with IFN-β1b. It also reduces relapses for 34% (1.31 exacerbations annually with placebo and 0.9 with higher dose of IFN-β1b and makes 31% more patients relapse-free. In secondary-progressive disease annual rate of progression is 3% lower with IFN-β1b. In recommended doses IFN-β1b causes the following frequent adverse effects: injection site reactions (redness, discoloration, inflammation, pain, necrosis and non

  4. Interchange stability of noncircular reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interchange (Mercier) stability of toroidal reversed-field-pinch plasmas with noncircular cross-section is evaluated numerically. Marginally stable pressure profiles and beta values are produced. Most shapes, such as indented or vertically elongated, reduce stability by making the net magnetic curvature of the poloidal-field-dominated plasmas yet worse than that of the circle. Horizontally elongated plasmas slightly enhance stability beyond that of the circle as a result of increased shear produced by toroidicity. Such shear enhancement by the toroidal shift of magnetic surfaces might be exploited for future, more comprehensive studies

  5. Current stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current stabilizer for supplying magnetic lens of β-monochromator at the electron energy up to 1 MeV is described. Stabilization method with use of reference high-stabilized source of direct voltage with switching-in loading (monochromator coil) to circuit of negative feedback of direct-current amplifier with high gain is chosen for stabilization of direct current. The range of current regulation is 0.5 A at available power up to 15 W. Current instability during 10 hour continuous work does not exceed 10-4% that makes it possible to provide instability of electron energy at the monochromator exit using 90Sr+90Y β-nucleide of not more than 10 -4% and number of electrons 2.5x10-4% respectively

  6. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  7. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Suppression of neoclassical tearing modes towards stationary high-beta plasmas in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in JT-60U are described. NTM stabilization and confinement improvement have been demonstrated by employing a real-time NTM stabilization system, where the identification of the location of an NTM and the optimization of the injection angle of electron cyclotron wave are performed in real time. Also, a high-beta plasma with the normalized beta of 3 has been sustained by suppressing NTM by applying electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) before the onset ('preemptive ECCD'). In addition, a simulation code for analysis of NTM evolution has been developed by combining the modified Rutherford equation with the transport code TOPICS. It is found that the simulation well reproduces NTM behavior in JT-60U. The simulation also shows that ECCD width is also important for NTM stabilization, and that EC wave power for complete stabilization can be reduced by narrowing the ECCD profile. (author)

  9. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration

  10. Absence of second stability in ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, N.; Lynch, V.E.

    1995-07-01

    Ideal Mercier and ballooning modes for three-dimensional (3-D) equilibria of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) are studied in detail. These modes are found to introduce instability limits at modest beta values for pressure profiles for which previous results, based on a two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium approximation, predicted the existence of a second stability region. This absence of second stability is in agreement with an analysis by Cooper et al. who used a simplified model for the ATF plasma boundary. The increased instability is found to result from the 3-D feature of the Pfirsch-Schlueter current. Furthermore, a strong quadrupole field is found to decrease the beta limit of these modes, contrary to the results obtained using the 2-D equilibria. Although direct comparison with measured beta values is not possible owing to the absence of profile data for ATF plasmas, pressure profiles used previously to model ATF data as well as in the 2-D analysis are used to obtain the results. The details of the pressure profiles and the plasma configurations strongly influence the stability limits on average beta which remains below 3%.

  11. Tumor-produced, active Interleukin-1 {beta} regulates gene expression in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Jozsef, E-mail: Jozsef.Dudas@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fullar, Alexandra, E-mail: fullarsz@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); 1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Bitsche, Mario, E-mail: Mario.Bitsche@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schartinger, Volker, E-mail: Volker.Schartinger@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kovalszky, Ilona, E-mail: koval@korb1.sote.hu [1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Sprinzl, Georg Mathias, E-mail: Georg.Sprinzl@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Riechelmann, Herbert, E-mail: Herbert.Riechelmann@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-09-10

    Recently we described a co-culture model of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and SCC-25 lingual squamous carcinoma cells, which resulted in conversion of normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of SCC-25 cells. We have found a constitutive high interleukin-1{beta} (IL1-{beta}) expression in SCC-25 cells in normal and in co-cultured conditions. In our hypothesis a constitutive IL1-{beta} expression in SCC-25 regulates gene expression in fibroblasts during co-culture. Co-cultures were performed between PDL fibroblasts and SCC-25 cells with and without dexamethasone (DEX) treatment; IL1-{beta} processing was investigated in SCC-25 cells, tumor cells and PDL fibroblasts were treated with IL1-{beta}. IL1-{beta} signaling was investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry. IL1-{beta}-regulated genes were analyzed by real-time qPCR. SCC-25 cells produced 16 kD active IL1-{beta}, its receptor was upregulated in PDL fibroblasts during co-culture, which induced phosphorylation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), and nuclear translocalization of NF{kappa}B{alpha}. Several genes, including interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) were induced in CAFs during co-culture. The most enhanced induction was found for IL-6 and COX-2. Treatment of PDL fibroblasts with IL1-{beta} reproduced a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of IL1-receptor, IL-6 and COX-2. A further proof was achieved by DEX inhibition for IL1-{beta}-stimulated IL-6 and COX-2 gene expression. Constitutive expression of IL1-{beta} in the tumor cells leads to IL1-{beta}-stimulated gene expression changes in tumor-associated fibroblasts, which are involved in tumor progression. -- Graphical abstract: SCC-25 cells produce active, processed IL1-{beta}. PDL fibroblasts possess receptor for IL1-{beta}, and its expression is increased 4.56-times in the

  12. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era

  13. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  14. Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption and release in {beta}-titanium alloys; Kinetik und Thermodynamik der Wasserstoffaufnahme und -abgabe von {beta}-Titanlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, M.; Christ, H.J. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work reported was intended to yield results allowing to describe as completely as possible the processes of interaction of {beta}-titanium and hydrogen. Three alloys have been selected for the experiments which suitably differ in stability of the {beta} phase. The characterisation of the hydrogen/metal interactions is primarily based on gravimetric measurements. A method was found to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen, which is a significant variable for quantitative characterisation of the hydrogen absorption rate. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der Arbeit wird eine moeglichst vollstaendige Beschreibung der Wechselwirkung von {beta}-Titanlegierungen mit Wasserstoff angestrebt. Hierfuer wird mit drei Legierungen gearbeitet, die sich hinsichtlich der Stabilitaet der {beta}-Phase in sinnvoll abgestufter Weise unterscheiden. Fuer die Charakterisierung der Wasserstoff/Metall-Wechselwirkung wurden insbesondere gravimetrische Messungen eingesetzt. Weiterhin wurde die fuer eine quantitative Beschreibung der Wasserstoffaufnahmegeschwindigkeit wichtige Groesse des Diffusionskoeffizienten von Wasserstoff mit einem Verfahren bestimmt. (orig./MM)

  15. Joe Doupe lecture: emerging strategies for the preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function in early type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes is the inability to prevent the ongoing deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function over time that underlies the chronic progressive nature of this condition. Importantly, beta-cell dysfunction has both reversible and irreversible components. Furthermore, the amelioration of reversible beta-cell dysfunction through the early institution of short-term insulin-based therapy has emerged as a strategy that can yield temporary remission of type 2 diabetes. In this context, we have forwarded a novel therapeutic paradigm consisting of initial induction therapy to improve beta-cell function early in the course of diabetes followed by maintenance therapy aimed at preserving this beneficial beta-cell effect. Ultimately, this approach may yield an optimized therapeutic strategy for the durable preservation of beta-cell function and consequent modification of the natural history of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25618275

  16. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  17. Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a [3H]ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle

  18. Physiological studies of the regulation of beta-lactamase expression in Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, S; Mett, H

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of beta-lactamase induction in Pseudomonas maltophilia IID1275/873 were investigated. Upon induction with beta-lactam antibiotics, a correlation was seen between the increase in specific beta-lactamase activity and the generation time, as well as the concentration of inducer in the medium. The specific beta-lactamase activity increased slowly within the first 0.5 generation and then more rapidly; it decreased regularly after about 2 generations of growth in the presence of inducer. This decrease could presumably be attributed to the continuous breakdown of inducer by beta-lactamases in the culture medium. In a chemostat culture with continuous supply of fresh inducer-containing medium, the specific beta-lactamase activity could be stabilized at a high level over several generations. Removal of the beta-lactam after a certain induction time showed that a short exposure of the bacteria to inducer caused induction kinetics comparable to those resulting from continuous exposure of the cells to inducer. The two beta-lactamases of P. maltophilia, L1 and L2, were induced simultaneously under various experimental conditions. PMID:2783690

  19. Stability of reversed shear discharges in J T-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeji, Satoru; Tokuda, Shinji; Fujita, Takaaki; Isayama, Akihiko; Ishii, Yasutomo; Kamada, Yutaka; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshino, Ryuji; Ide, Shunsuke; Ozeki, Takahisa; Kramer, Gerrit J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-06-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability has been studied in discharges with negative central magnetic shear, i.e., reversed shear, configuration in J T-60 U. The disruptive upper limit of the normalized beta, {beta}{sub N} {beta}(I{sub p}/aB){sup -1} [%mT/MA], is {beta}{sub N} < or approx. 2 at q{sub min} {approx} 2 (q{sub min} : the minimum safety factor) in discharges with the L-mode edge and is close to the stability limit against an ideal n = 1 (n : toroidal mode number) kink mode with the free boundary condition. Resistive MHD instabilities give rise to major collapses at the lower {beta}{sub N} regime than the ideal stability limit. Linear stability analysis with a two-dimensional marginal stability analysis code, MARG2D, showed that a double tearing mode can be unstable at the q = 3 surface in the experimental situation, and the numerical result is not in contradiction to the experimental one. Major collapses often occur when the safety factor at the plasma surface is close to integer values, suggesting that an external kink mode is related to the causal mechanism for major collapses. The numerical analysis revealed that a stable external kink mode with the free boundary condition can destabilize resistive MHD modes in the reversed shear configuration. (author)

  20. 50 years forward: beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halban, Philippe A

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of beta cell development and function has increased substantially these past 50 years but much remains to be learned before this knowledge can be put to clinical use. A comprehensive business plan will be necessary to develop a detailed molecular and functional blueprint of the beta cell in health and disease based on an integrated approach involving all necessary research disciplines. This blueprint will provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of both major forms of diabetes, foremost among them beta cell replacement therapy. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:25957776

  1. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Valle, J W F; Moral, A V; Ma, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  2. PARALLEL STABILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.LIONS

    1999-01-01

    A new algorithm for the stabilization of (possibly turbulent, chaotic) distributed systems, governed by linear or non linear systems of equations is presented. The SPA (Stabilization Parallel Algorithm) is based on a systematic parallel decomposition of the problem (related to arbitrarily overlapping decomposition of domains) and on a penalty argument. SPA is presented here for the case of linear parabolic equations: with distrjbuted or boundary control. It extends to practically all linear and non linear evolution equations, as it will be presented in several other publications.

  3. Interaction between bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a) and {beta}-cyclodextrin: A structural and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lula, Ivana; De Sousa, Frederico B. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Denadai, Angelo M.L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, CEFET-MG, Campus VII, 35.183-006, Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Ferreira de Lima, Guilherme; Duarte, Helio Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mares Guia, Thiago R. dos [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Faljoni-Alario, Adelaide [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santoro, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Camargo, Antonio C.M. de [Center for Applied Toxinology CAT-CEPID, Laboratorio Especial de Toxicologia Aplicada, Instituto Butantan, 05503-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Robson A.S. dos [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the physical and chemical characterizations of the supramolecular complex formed between {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}CD) and bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a), an endogenous toxin found in Bothrops jararaca. Circular dichroism results indicate a conformational change in the BPP9a secondary structure upon its complexation with {beta}CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance results, mainly from NOESY experiments, and theoretical calculations showed a favorable interaction between the tryptophan residue of BPP9a and the {beta}CD cavity. Thermodynamic inclusion parameters were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry, demonstrating that {beta}CD/BPP9a complex formation is an exothermic process that results in a reduction in entropy. Additionally, in vitro degradation study of BPP9a against trypsin (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7.2) showed higher stability of peptide in presence of {beta}CD. This {beta}CD/BPP9a complex, which presents new chemical properties arising from the peptide inclusion process, may be useful as an antihypertensive drug in oral pharmaceutical formulations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd and NMR showed evidences for the existence of more than one structure in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexation with {beta}CD reduces the conformational rigidity of the peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}CD cavity recognize Trp and/or Pro segments of BPP9a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions involving disaggregation of BPP9a assemblies and binding with {beta}CD.

  4. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  5. Against Research Progress of Beta Amyloid Protein in the Role of Alzheimer Disease and Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy by Multiple Targets%β-淀粉样蛋白在阿尔茨海默病中的作用及中药多靶点对抗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海燕

    2012-01-01

    阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)是以认知功能障碍和记忆损害为主要临床特征的神经退行性疾病,其病理变化之一是患者脑内的神经炎性斑(老年斑),主要成分为细胞外β-淀粉样蛋白(amyloid protein β,Aβ)的沉积,而Aβ又由淀粉样前体蛋白(amyloid precursor protein,APP)经序列水解而来.研究表明,Aβ可能是各种原因诱发AD的共同通路,是AD形成和发展的关键因素,因此本文以Aβ为靶标,对其产生、神经毒性及中药多靶点抗AD作用的研究进展进行综述.%AlzheimerS disease ( Alzheimer's disease, AD) is cognitive impairment and memory impairment as the main clinical features of neurodegenerative diseases. One of pathological changes was the brain in patients with neuritic plaques (senile plaques). The main component was extracellular amyloid beta protein (amyloid protein A beta,Ap) dep-osition, while the amyloid precursor protein (amyloid precursor protein, APP) is hydrolyzed to the A beta by sequence. Research shows that A beta may be various reasons induced AD common pathway and the key to AD formation and development, therefore, this paper, based on A beta as a target reviewed its generation, neurotoxicity and multiple targets of anti AD effects by traditional Chinese medicine therapy.

  6. Progress in Cyclic Thermal Stability and Compatibility with Containers of Phase Change Materials%相变储能材料循环热稳定性及与容器相容性研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 李月锋; 李明广; 张东

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the research situation of the cyclic thermal stability and compatibility with containers of phase change materials. It introduces the cyclic thermal stability and compatibility of different kinds of phase change materials, and presents the methods of characterization of cyclic thermal stability and compatibility with containers,and discusses and prospects the importance and the challenge of the phase change materials applied in the solar power generation.%综述了相变储能材料的循环热稳定性以及与容器相容性的研究进展;介绍了各类相变材料的循环热稳定性和太阳能相变储能材料与金属容器的相容性,以及相变材料循环热稳定性、容器腐蚀程度的表征方法;展望了太阳能相变储能技术的重要意义,并提出了相变材料特别是中高温相变材料在热性能及与容器相客性所面临的挑战和解决方向.

  7. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  8. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  9. *608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 608440 FIELD TI 608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB ;;MITOCHONDRIAL RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L56; MR ... Chen et al. (2008) recorded weight, fat mass, and lean ... mass for Lpl heterozygous null mice, Lactb transge ... ifferent from those of controls, with the fat mass/lean ... mass ratio difference generally increasing over ti ...

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Amyloid Beta Dimer Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Urbanc, B; Ding, F; Sammond, D; Khare, S; Buldyrev, S V; Stanley, H E; Dokholyan, N V

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments with amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide suggest that formation of toxic oligomers may be an important contribution to the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The toxicity of Abeta oligomers depends on their structure, which is governed by assembly dynamics. Due to limitations of current experimental techniques, a detailed knowledge of oligomer structure at the atomic level is missing. We introduce a molecular dynamics approach to study Abeta dimer formation: (1) we use discrete molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model to identify a variety of dimer conformations, and (2) we employ all-atom molecular mechanics simulations to estimate the thermodynamic stability of all dimer conformations. Our simulations of a coarse-grained Abeta peptide model predicts ten different planar beta-strand dimer conformations. We then estimate the free energies of all dimer conformations in all-atom molecular mechanics simulations with explicit water. We compare the free energies of Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(1-40...

  11. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  12. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  13. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  14. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  15. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  16. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  17. Beta adrenergic receptors in pigmented ciliary processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Trope, G. E.; Clark, B.

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors from membrane fragments of pigmented sheep eyes were studied and characterised by ligand binding techniques after the removal of melanin. In a representative experiment the beta max (total number of beta receptors) was 394.9 fmol/mg protein. The receptor affinity (Ka) was 440 pM. The potency series of drugs to displace 125I-HYP from the receptors was timolol = (-) propranolol greater than (+) propranolol greater than salbutamol greater than practolol. beta 1 Recepto...

  18. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  19. [Beta-blockers usage in cardio-vascular diseases co-existing with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Dorota; Kowal, Aneta; Jankowska, Renata

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most frequent chronic diseases. Slightly reversable and progressive decrease in airflow through the airways is characteristic for the disease. It has been brought up last years that COPD course influences not only pulmonary system status but also many co-existing diseases in the eldery, especially cardio-vascular diseases, such as: ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, heart arrythmias, heart infarction. Wide usage and established position in the treatment of cardio-vascular diseases have the antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-blockers). The aim of this work was the combination of the studies results quoted in the literature about the usage of beta-blockers in cardiovascular diseases co-existing with COPD. Conclusions. Nowadays there are no unambiguous recommendations for the usage of beta-blocker in patients with COPD and the decision about including them into treatment depends on the individually estimated risk of complications. PMID:23437704

  20. Is Transforming Stem Cells to Pancreatic Beta Cells Still the Holy Grail for Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sevim; Okawa, Erin R; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a progressive disease affecting millions of people worldwide. There are several medications and treatment options to improve the life quality of people with diabetes. One of the strategies for the treatment of diabetes could be the use of human pluripotent stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. The recent advances in differentiation of stem cells into insulin-secreting beta-like cells in vitro make the transplantation of the stem cell-derived beta-like cells an attractive approach for treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While stem cell-derived beta-like cells provide an unlimited cell source for beta cell replacement therapies, these cells can also be used as a platform for drug screening or modeling diseases. PMID:27313072

  1. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. 1985. Progress annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore Supra construction has been vigorously continued. The whole cryogenic system has been entirely delivered. On TFR priority has been given to electron cyclotron resonance heating; but also neutral heating mechanisms, pellet injection, plasma-wall interaction in the presence of pumped limiter, impurity transport and plasma turbulence have been studied and progress on diagnostics have been made. On Petula, with lower hybrid wave, the numerous results on ion heating, current drive, plasma stability in the presence of non-inductive current and on Tore Supra technical problems are important. At last, theoretical and numerical results are concerned with plasma equilibrium macroscopic evolution of plasma, RF heating, plasma instabilities, magnetic islands, turbulence, transport coefficients and spectroscopy

  3. Theory of high-beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical researches on high beta tokamak are reviewed. The ballooning mode instability is thought to be the most serious problem for the high beta tokamaks, and the theoretical results on the ballooning mode instability are discussed in detail. The experimental results in high beta belt pinch devices are also discussed. (author)

  4. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in patients ... Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection comes as a powder in vials to be mixed into a solution for injection. Interferon beta-1a intramuscular ...

  5. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Frequency stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František

    Bratislava: Department of Radio and Electronics, FEI STU, 2006 - (Píš, P.; Krajčušková, Z.), I.1-I.9 ISBN 80-227-2388-6. [ Radio elektronika 2006. Conference proceedings. Bratislava (SK), 25.04.2006-26.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0852 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : noise * frequency stability * frequency control Subject RIV: JW - Navigation, Links, Detection ; Counter-Measures

  7. Preliminary Study of Ideal Operational MHD Beta Limit in HL-2A Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Dong, Jiaqi; He, Hongda; D. Turnbull, A.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) n = 1 kink mode with n the toroidal mode number is studied and the operational beta limit, constrained by the mode, is calculated for the equilibrium of HL-2A by using the GATO code. Approximately the same beta limit is obtained for configurations with a value of the axial safety factor q0 both larger and less than 1. Without the stabilization of the conducting wall, the beta limit is found to be 0.821% corresponding to a normalized beta value of βcN = 2.56 for a typical HL-2A discharge with a plasma current Ip = 0.245 MA, and the scaling of βcN ~constant is confirmed.

  8. Preliminary Study of Ideal Operational MHD Beta Limit in HL-2A Tokamak Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yong; DONG Jiaqi; HE Hongda; A. D. TURNBULL

    2009-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) n=1 kink mode with n the toroidal mode number is studied and the operational beta limit, constrained by the mode, is calculated for the equilibrium of HL-2A by using the GATO code. Approximately the same beta limit is obtained for configurations with a value of the axial safety factor q0 both larger and less than 1. Without the stabilization of the conducting wall, the beta limit is found to be 0.821% corresponding to a normalized beta value of βcN=2.56 for a typical HL-2A discharge with a plasma current Ip=0.245 MA, and the scaling of βcN~constant is confirmed.

  9. Inhibition of AmpC beta-lactamase through a destabilizing interaction in the active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trehan, I.; Beadle, B.M.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-Lactamases hydrolyze {beta}-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins; these enzymes are the most widespread resistance mechanism to these drugs and pose a growing threat to public health. {beta}-Lactams that contain a bulky 6(7){alpha} substituent, such as imipenem and moxalactam, actually inhibit serine {beta}-lactamases and are widely used for this reason. Although mutant serine {beta}-lactamases have arisen that hydrolyze {beta}-lactamase resistant {beta}-lactams (e.g., ceftazidime) or avoid mechanism-based inhibitors (e.g., clavulanate), mutant serine {beta}-lactamases have not yet arisen in the clinic with imipenemase or moxalactamase activity. Structural and thermodynamic studies suggest that the 6(7){alpha} substituents of these inhibitors form destabilizing contacts within the covalent adduct with the conserved Asn152 in class C {beta}-lactamases (Asn132 in class A {beta}-lactamases). This unfavorable interaction may be crucial to inhibition. To test this destabilization hypothesis, we replaced Asn152 with Ala in the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC from Escherichia coli and examined the mutant enzyme's thermodynamic stability in complex with imipenem and moxalactam. Consistent with the hypothesis, the Asn152 {yields} Ala substitution relieved 0.44 and 1.10 kcal/mol of strain introduced by imipenem and moxalactam, respectively, relative to the wild-type complexes. However, the kinetic efficiency of AmpC N152A was reduced by 6300-fold relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. To further investigate the inhibitor's interaction with the mutant enzyme, the X-ray crystal structure of moxalactam in complex with N152A was determined to a resolution of 1.83 {angstrom}. Moxalactam in the mutant complex is significantly displaced from its orientation in the wild-type complex; however, moxalactam does not adopt an orientation that would restore competence for hydrolysis. Although Asn152 forces {beta}-lactams with 6(7){alpha

  10. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  11. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma.At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process,and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler)that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S T-M. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values.The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma.Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging.Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution.In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions of the K-S T-M

  12. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process, and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler) that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S TM. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values. The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma. Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging. Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S-T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution. In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions of the K

  13. The function of the human interferon-beta 1a glycan determined in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Meldgaard, Michael; Højrup, Peter; Finsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    counterpart, due to a protein stabilization/solubilization effect of the glycan. It is interesting to note that the terminating sialic acids were essential for these effects. Conclusively, the structure/bioactivity relationship of rhIFN-beta1a was determined in vivo, and it provided a novel insight into the...

  14. Shell structure of nuclei far from stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grave, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lewitowicz, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    2001-03-01

    The experimental status of shell structure studies in medium-heavy nuclei far off the line of {beta}-stability is reviewed. Experimental techniques, signatures for shell closure and expectations for future investigations are discussed for the key regions around {sup 48,56}Ni, {sup 100}Sn for proton rich nuclei and neutron-rich N=20 isotones, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes. (authors)

  15. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  16. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  17. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  18. MHD equilibrium and stability of the spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1979-08-01

    The MHD stability of spheromak type equilibria from the classical spheromak configuration to the diffuse pinch limit are analyzed numerically. It is found that oblate configurations of ellipticity 0.5 have the optimum stability properties with regard to internal MHD modes and can be stabilized up to an engineering ..beta.. of 15% (defined with respect to the applied external field strength for equilibrium). Stability to global modes requires that a conducting shell surround the plasma. The location of the shell is dependent on geometry and the current profile, but realistic configurations that are stable to all ideal MHD modes have been found with the shell located at approx. 1.2 minor radii.

  19. Stabilizing the Higgs potential with a Z′

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Keus, Venus, E-mail: venus.keus@helsinki.fi; Lebedev, Oleg

    2015-05-11

    Current data point toward metastability of the electroweak vacuum within the Standard Model. We study the possibility of stabilizing the Higgs potential in U(1) extensions thereof. A generic Z′ boson improves stability of the scalar potential in two ways: it increases the Higgs self-coupling, due to a positive contribution to the beta-function of the latter, and it decreases the top quark Yukawa coupling, which again has a stabilizing effect. We determine the range of U(1) charges which leads to a stable electroweak vacuum. In certain classes of models, such stabilization is possible even if the Z′ does not couple to the Higgs and is due entirely to the reduction of the top Yukawa coupling. We also study the effect of the kinetic mixing between the extra U(1) and hypercharge gauge fields.

  20. Stabilizing the Higgs potential with a Z′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Chiara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current data point toward metastability of the electroweak vacuum within the Standard Model. We study the possibility of stabilizing the Higgs potential in U(1 extensions thereof. A generic Z′ boson improves stability of the scalar potential in two ways: it increases the Higgs self-coupling, due to a positive contribution to the beta-function of the latter, and it decreases the top quark Yukawa coupling, which again has a stabilizing effect. We determine the range of U(1 charges which leads to a stable electroweak vacuum. In certain classes of models, such stabilization is possible even if the Z′ does not couple to the Higgs and is due entirely to the reduction of the top Yukawa coupling. We also study the effect of the kinetic mixing between the extra U(1 and hypercharge gauge fields.

  1. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...... to SMALLTALK, BETA is a language in the ALGOL 60 ([ALGOL]) family. SIMULA 67 is a system description and a programming language. The DELTA language ([DELTA]) is a system description language only, allowing description of full concurrency, continuous change and component interaction, developed from a SIMULA...

  2. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  3. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  4. Electrolytic hydrogen in beta titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permeation of electrolytic hydrogen through beta titanium foils with palladium coated surfaces was studied using Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn. Ion bombardment etching followed by thin film vapor deposition of palladium were used to produce oxide-free titanium specimens for electrochemical hydrogen permeation and embrittlement studies. A thin metallic foil is cathodically charged with hydrogen on one side while the other side is maintained at a sufficiently anodic potential so that all the diffusing hydrogen is oxidized and turned into an equivalent current. The current is analyzed to determine diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction was also used to determine the effects of hydrogen on the lattice parameter. Permeation experiments conducted with basic cyanide solutions exhibited simple diffusion behavior. The diffusivity at 210C for hydrogen through the beta alloy was 5.60 (+-1.92) x 10-7 cm2/s. Anomalous permeation occurred with hydrogen chemical potentials in acidic and basic solutions without cyanide during the later stages of the approach to steady state in the charging. This behavior is consistent with the trapping model of hydrogen in metals of McNabb and Foster. Plastic deformation and spontaneous cracking at the wetted portion of the specimen were observed under extreme conditions during this anomalous behavior. Part of the deformation is found to be reversible. In the mandrel bend experiments on the embrittlement phenomenon, the transgranular cleavage mode of fracture occurred. Interstitially dissolved hydrogen expanded the bcc lattice of the beta titanium with accompanying diffraction line broadening. The lattice contracted upon removal of the hydrogen. The satisfactory performance of the beta alloy Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn, in moderate electrochemical environments results principally from the protective oxide film

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taki...

  6. Lipid rafts participate in aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Chun Yang; Yufeng Liu; Peng Li; Huiying Yang; Jingxing Dai; Rongmei Qu; Lin Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are found in Alzhei-mer’s disease. The generation and deposition of amyloid-beta is one of the crucial factors for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Lipid rafts are glycolipid-rich liquid domains of the plasma membrane, where certain types of protein tend to aggregate and intercalate. Lipid rafts are involved in the generation of amyloid-beta oligomers and the formation of amyloid-beta peptides. In this paper, we review the mechanism by which lipid rafts disturb the aberrant deg-radative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta, which plays an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, we describe this mechanism from the view of the Two-system Theory of fasciology and thus, suggest that lipid rafts may be a new target of Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

  7. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  8. Amyloid beta, mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic damage: implications for cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Beal, M. Flint

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of postmortem brains from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and transgenic AD mice suggest that oxidative damage, induced by amyloid beta, is associated with mitochondria early in AD progression. Amyloid beta and amyloid precursor protein are known to localize to mitochondrial membranes, block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins, disrupt the electron transport chain, increase reactive oxygen species produ...

  9. Recommendations on reintroduction of agalsidase Beta for patients with fabry disease in europe, following a period of shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linthorst, Gabor E; Burlina, Alessandro P; Cecchi, Franco; Cox, Timothy M; Fletcher, Janice M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Giugliani, Roberto; Hollak, Carla E M; Houge, Gunnar; Hughes, Derralynn; Kantola, Iikka; Lachmann, Robin; Lopez, Monica; Ortiz, Alberto; Parini, Rossella; Rivera, Alberto; Rolfs, Arndt; Ramaswami, Uma; Svarstad, Einar; Tondel, Camilla; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Vujkovac, Bojan; Waldek, Steven; West, Michael; Weidemann, F; Mehta, Atul

    2012-01-01

    concept that the 1.0 mg/kg EOW dose of agalsidase beta is more effective than agalsidase alfa at 0.2 mg/kg EOW, while others believe that at recommended dose, the preparations are equivalent. In light of these difficulties and the uncertainties with respect to supply of agalsidase beta, recommendations...... were agreed upon by a subgroup of physicians. These current recommendations focus on prioritization of criteria indicative of disease progression....

  10. Inhibition of GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin via phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs of Wnt coreceptor LRP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Wu

    Full Text Available The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, and deregulated beta-catenin protein levels lead to many types of human cancers. On activation by Wnt, the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor related protein 6 (LRP6 is phosphorylated at multiple conserved intracellular PPPSPXS motifs by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 and casein kinase 1 (CK1, resulting in recruitment of the scaffolding protein Axin to LRP6. As a result, beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is inhibited and beta-catenin protein is stabilized. However, how LRP6 phosphorylation and the ensuing LRP6-Axin interaction lead to the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is not fully understood. In this study, we reconstituted Axin-dependent beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 and CK1 in vitro using recombinant proteins, and found that the phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptides directly inhibit beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 in a sequence and phosphorylation-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs is direct and specific for GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 but not for CK1 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser45, and is independent of Axin function. We also show that a phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptide is able to activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos, presumably by inhibition of GSK3 in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose a working model that Axin recruitment to the phosphorylated LRP6 places GSK3 in the vicinity of multiple phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs, which directly inhibit GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. This model provides a possible mechanism to account, in part, for inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by Wnt-activated LRP6.

  11. Thailand: Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment (FSSA) on Thailand. The assessment reveals that the soundness of Thailand’s financial system has been strengthened since the financial crisis of the late 1990s. Substantial progress has been made in upgrading the regulatory and supervisory system and improving macroeconomic management. Banking fundamentals have strengthened, with most Thai banks reporting high levels of capital and solid profitability. Private co...

  12. Progress report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the activities of the CENBG for the 1999 and 2000 years. The activities are arranged into 7 topics: 1) astro-particles, 2) high spins and big deformations, 3) fundamental interactions, 4) exotic nuclei, 5) the down end of the nuclear fuel cycle and ADS (accelerator driven system), 6) theoretical physics and 7) at the interface between physics and biology. Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the investigation of 2 new modes of decay: the bound internal conversion and the Pauli forbidden bound internal conversion, -) the progress made on the Nemo-3 experiment whose purpose is the possibility of detecting the neutrinoless double beta decay from the kinematics specificities of the 2 electrons released, -) the first observation of the doubly-magic nucleus Ni48, -) the beta delayed proton and gamma -ray spectroscopy of Mg21 and Si25 nuclei, -) the identification of the fundamental state of Li10, -) the measurement of the masses of nuclei close to N = Z line in the region A = 80, -) the measurement of the beta decay of Ga62 (T = 116 ms), and concerning ADS technology: -) the neutron capture cross-section of Th232 has been measured in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV, -) the determination of neutron induced fission cross-section of Pa233 in the fast neutron energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV, and -) the measurement of isotopic distributions for all residual elements from Ti to Pb produced in the reaction 1 A.GeV Pb208 on proton. (A.C.)

  13. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N2, all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  14. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  15. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H2O2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H2O2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced TXNIP expression

  16. Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%

  17. Effects of monopropanediamino-beta-cyclodextrin on the denaturation process of the hybrid protein BlaPChBD.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevenne, Marylène; GASPARD, Genevieve; Belgsir, E. M.; Ramnath, M.; Cenatiempo, Y; Delneuville, Delphine; Dumoulin, Mireille; Frère, Jean-Marie; Matagne, André; Galleni, Moreno; Filee, P.

    2011-01-01

    Irreversible accumulation of protein aggregates represents an important problem both in vivo and in vitro. The aggregation of proteins is of critical importance in a wide variety of biomedical situations, ranging from diseases (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) to the production (e.g. inclusion bodies), stability, storage and delivery of protein drugs. beta-Cyclodextrin (beta-CD) is a circular heptasaccharide characterized by a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior ring ...

  18. Stabilization of external modes in tokamaks by resistive walls and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that low-n pressure driven external modes in tokamaks can be fully stabilized by resistive walls in combination with sonic rotation of the plasma. The stabilization depends on the excitation of sound waves by the toroidal coupling to Alfven waves and is affected by ion Landau damping. Two-dimensional stability calculations are presented to show the gains in the beta limit resulting from this wall stabilization. (author) 4 figs., 13 refs

  19. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 blocks adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated nuclear export and degradation of beta-catenin. Regulation by histone deacetylase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Beric R; Galea, Melanie; Schuechner, Stefan; Leung, Louie

    2002-07-01

    The oncogenic protein beta-catenin is overexpressed in many cancers, frequently accumulating in nuclei where it forms active complexes with lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1)/T-cell transcription factors, inducing genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1. In normal cells, nuclear beta-catenin levels are controlled by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein through nuclear export and cytoplasmic degradation. Transient expression of LEF-1 is known to increase nuclear beta-catenin levels by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that APC and LEF-1 compete for nuclear beta-catenin with opposing consequences. APC can export nuclear beta-catenin to the cytoplasm for degradation. In contrast, LEF-1 anchors beta-catenin in the nucleus by blocking APC-mediated nuclear export. LEF-1 also prevented the APC/CRM1-independent nuclear export of beta-catenin as revealed by in vitro assays. Importantly, LEF-1-bound beta-catenin was protected from degradation by APC and axin in SW480 colon cancer cells. The ability of LEF-1 to trap beta-catenin in the nucleus was down-regulated by histone deacetylase 1, and this correlated with a decrease in LEF1 transcription activity. Our findings identify LEF-1 as key regulator of beta-catenin nuclear localization and stability and suggest that overexpression of LEF-1 in colon cancer and melanoma cells may contribute to the accumulation of oncogenic beta-catenin in the nucleus. PMID:11986304

  20. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  1. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... and physics. This edition includes a new chapter on the useful effects of fast vibrations and many new exercise problems. Written for: Students in mechanical or structural engineering. Keywords: Nonlinear Vibrations, Bifurcations, Chaotic Vibrations, Vibrations and Stability....

  2. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  3. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  4. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  5. Synthesis of molecular imprinted beta cyclodextrins oligomers in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Donghong; Nielsen, Anne Louise; Bach, Lone; Woldum, Henriette Sie; Bauw, Guy; Poulsen, Kristian Raaby; Wimmer, Reinhard; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2003-01-01

    hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solution, however, with limited selectivity. Templated synthesis of Cyclodextrin polymers was introduced by Komiyama. By use of simple templates, such as cholesterol, polymers with improved selectivity for the template molecules were achieved. In most of these...... studies the synthesis was performed in non-aqueous solvents. Since water plays a major role in the formation and stabilization of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and a large number of guest molecules, the formation and stability of inclusion complexes, biosensor applications aim at detecting...... compounds in aqueous solution and, therefore, molecular imprinting of cyclodextrins polymers in aqueous solution is of great interest. In this paper, molecular imprinting of beta cyclodextrins has been performed in water by use of diiodobenzene as template and epichlorohydrin as a crosslinker. Inclusion...

  6. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il-Rae [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Moon, Jeong [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Whan [Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Horio, Yoshiyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Oh, Sangtaek [Department of Advanced Fermentation Fusion Science and Technology, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of {beta}-catenin and its transcriptional activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of {beta}-catenin expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin is not required for GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 but for proteosome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of {beta}-catenin, we postulated that {beta}-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target {beta}-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses {beta}-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of {beta}-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced {beta}-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of {beta}-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored {beta}-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 stabilizes {beta}-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished {beta}-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1

  7. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first 8 months of this project we have made substantial progress toward the goals set out in our original proposal. Our plan to access new regimes of operation at high values of var-epsilon βp using low current discharges in TFTR has worked extremely well and a new regime of operation has indeed been found in the course of our execution of TFTR Experimental Proposal 146 which involved our operation of TFTR on 9 November 1989, 19--20 January 1990 and 1--2 February 1990. The status of our high var-epsilon βp work on TFTR is given and is extracted from our paper submitted for presentation to the 1990 EPS meeting in Amsterdam. We have also performed an analysis of the energetic particle stabilization requirements for TFTR Supershots, and developed methods for analysis and a theory of perturbative transport measurements in TFTR

  8. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  9. 齐大山铁矿排土场增高扩容稳定性分析%Stability Analysis of Capacity Increase and Heightening Progress of Qidashan Waste Dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传林; 王永增; 王瑞

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase of open-pit exploration and shortage of land resources,the firms have to increase capacity in old dumps,that induced the security problem increasingly prominent. Taking a waste dump of Qidashan Iron Mine as a case, the feasibility for the capacity increase and heightening of the dump was analyzed. With the use of mechanical parameters ob-tained from the indoor experiments,slope model of waste dump was established based on the engineering geological investiga-tion. The limit equilibrium method was adopted to calculate the slope safety factor of a dump without ground water or under low water,high water level in Qidashan Iron Mine, which is located on bedrock or clay layer, and obtain the influencing law of groundwater on mine slope safety. Especially when the dump is located in the clay layer,the slope safety factor falls rapidly as the underground water level raises,which seriously influences the slope safety. Through analyzing the slope stability at dump height of from 180 m to 230 m,it is shown that,within the range of from 180 m to 220 m,the dump safety coefficient is de-clined from 1. 122 to 1. 116,and at 230 m,the safety factor is increased to 1. 142. The law of the slope stability under the chan-ges of the water level and slope height provides a powerful basis for the slope safety evaluation and the determination of the reg-ulation scheme.%由于露天矿开采量的增大和土地资源的紧缺,迫使企业在老排土场上进行增高扩容,由此引起的安全问题日益突出。以齐大山铁矿某排土场为例,分析验算该排土场增高扩容方案的可行性。通过室内实验取得的边坡散体力学参数,根据工程地质勘察成果建立排土场边坡模型,利用极限平衡法计算排土场分别坐落于基岩、黏土层之上,边坡体内无地下水,低水位、高水位情况下的边坡安全系数,获得了地下水对于排土场边坡安全的影响规律;尤其是当排土场坐落于黏土层之

  10. Reexamining Alzheimer's disease: evidence for a protective role for amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Rudy J; Lee, Hyoung-gon; Siedlak, Sandra L; Nunomura, Akihiko; Hayashi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Masao; Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cognitive decline and pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-beta-containing senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. A great deal of attention has focused, focused on amyloid-beta as the major pathogenic mechanism with the ultimate goal of using amyloid-beta lowering therapies as an avenue of treatment. Unfortunately, nearly a quarter century later, no tangible progress has been offered, whereas spectacular failure tends to be the most compelling. We have long contended, as has substantial literature, that proteinaceous accumulations are simply downstream and, often, endstage manifestations of disease. Their overall poor correlation with the level of dementia, and their presence in the cognitively intact is evidence that is often ignored as an inconvenient truth. Current research examining amyloid oligomers, therefore, will add copious details to what is, in essence, a reductionist distraction from upstream pleiotrophic processes such as oxidative stress, cell cycle dysfunction, and inflammation. It is now long overdue that the neuroscientists avoid the pitfall of perseverating on "proteinopathies'' and recognize that the continued targeting of end stage lesions in the face of repeated failure, or worse, is a losing proposition. PMID:19584435

  11. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  12. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  13. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  14. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  15. Beta1 integrin expression by podocytes is required to maintain glomerular structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Ambra; Jarad, George; Moeckel, Gilbert W; Coffa, Sergio; Zhang, Xi; Gewin, Leslie; Eremina, Vera; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Harris, Raymond C; Holzman, Lawrence B; Phillips, Carrie L; Fassler, Reinhard; Quaggin, Susan E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Zent, Roy

    2008-04-15

    Integrins are transmembrane heteromeric receptors that mediate interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). beta1, the most abundantly expressed integrin subunit, binds at least 12 alpha subunits. beta1 containing integrins are highly expressed in the glomerulus of the kidney; however their role in glomerular morphogenesis and maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier integrity is poorly understood. To study these questions we selectively deleted beta1 integrin in the podocyte by crossing beta1(flox/flox) mice with podocyte specific podocin-cre mice (pod-Cre), which express cre at the time of glomerular capillary formation. We demonstrate that podocyte abnormalities are visualized during glomerulogenesis of the pod-Cre;beta1(flox/flox) mice and proteinuria is present at birth, despite a grossly normal glomerular basement membrane. Following the advent of glomerular filtration there is progressive podocyte loss and the mice develop capillary loop and mesangium degeneration with little evidence of glomerulosclerosis. By 3 weeks of age the mice develop severe end stage renal failure characterized by both tubulointerstitial and glomerular pathology. Thus, expression of beta1 containing integrins by the podocyte is critical for maintaining the structural integrity of the glomerulus. PMID:18328474

  16. Elastin fragments induce IL-1beta upregulation via NF-kappaB pathway in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, Romain; Le Naour, Richard R; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Deshorgue, Aurelie; Hornebeck, William G; Guenounou, Moncef; Bernard, Philippe; Antonicelli, Frank D

    2006-08-01

    In a previous work, we reported the influence of elastin fragments (EFs) on matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -14 expression and activation in melanoma cells in vitro. We hypothesized that EFs might also modulate expression of other mediators involved during melanoma progression. Therefore we investigated the contribution of EFs on IL-1beta expression, a cytokine playing a key role in melanoma cells activation. Our results evidenced that high tumorigenic melanoma cells (M3Da cells) treated with EFs led to IL-1beta mRNA and protein upregulation. The effects of EFs on M3Da cells were found to be mediated by receptor (spliced galactosidase) occupancy, as being suppressed by lactose and reproduced by cell stimulation with the VGVAPG peptide. Binding of EFs to their receptor induced a rapid activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, these pathways were not associated with IL-1beta mRNA upregulation by EFs. Concomitantly, we demonstrated that EFs stimulation induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and DNA binding on IL-1beta promoter region whereas inhibition of NF-kappaB with the specific chemical inhibitor SN-50 or by overexpression of IkappaB, the endogenous inhibitor of NF-kappaB pathway, totally abolished EFs-mediated IL-1beta mRNA overexpression. These results demonstrate that EFs induce NF-kappaB activation, leading to IL-1beta upregulation in invasive melanoma cells. PMID:16675961

  17. The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rasoolijazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA, an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40 was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40 can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus.

  18. Experiments on double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially (ββ)0ν mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 104 in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  19. Stability of 188Re Labeled antibody for radioimmunotherapy and the effect of stabilizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free 188Re from 188W/ 188Re generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of 188Re labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of 188Re labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several stabilizers. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with 188Re by incubating with generator-eluted 188Re-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography. Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies (2%). Stability of 188Re-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of ascorbic acid, ethanol, or Tween 80 as stabilizing agents. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4% (n=12). Specific activities of 1.25 ∼4.77 MBq/μg were obtained. If stored after purging with N2, all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, stability decreased in the presence of air. Perrhenate and 188Re-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation. Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of ascorbic acid stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity 188Re labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of ascorbic acid increased the stability

  20. Is heart rate reduction more important than target dose in chronic heart failure therapy with a beta-blocker?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Fang Guo; Yi An

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionBeta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (beta-blockers) are now well established as cornerstone therapy in patients with systolic chronic heart failure (CHF).[1] Clinical data have overwhelmingly proven the beneficial effects of beta-blocker therapy in terms of improving patient prognosis,decreasing requirements for hospitalization,and postponing disease progression.[2-4] However,it remains unclear what the optimal efficacious and safe dose for an individual patient with CHF is,and whether this can simply be inferred from the target dose for each beta-blocking agent as used in the major clinical trials.Beta-blockers are a heterogeneous class of drugs,and due to the polymorphisms of beta-adrenoceptor gene expression,there is marked individual variation in responsiveness to specific agents.[5] If pharmacodynamic markers of responsiveness to beta-blockade (such as heart rate (HR) reduction) are more important than the achievement of a target dose,could they become another potential therapeutic target in beta-blocker therapy? We provide a discussion of the question in this article.

  1. MST1: a promising therapeutic target to restore functional beta cell mass in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Amin; Maedler, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    The loss of insulin-producing beta cells by apoptosis is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes mellitus. Strategies to prevent beta cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed to restore the insulin-producing cells and to prevent severe diabetes progression. We recently identified the serine/threonine kinase known as mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta cell death and dysfunction. MST1 activates several apoptotic signalling pathways, which further stimulate its own cleavage, leading to a vicious cycle of cell death. This led us to hypothesise that MST1 signalling is central to the initiation of beta cell death in diabetes. We found that MST1 is strongly activated in a diabetic beta cell and induces not only its death but also directly impairs insulin secretion through promoting proteasomal degradation of key beta cell transcription factor, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), which is critical for insulin production.Pre-clinical studies in various animal models of diabetes have reported that MST1 deficiency remarkably restores normoglycaemia and beta cell function and prevents the development of diabetes. Importantly, MST1 deficiency can revert fully diabetic beta cells to a non-diabetic state. MST1 may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes that trigger the cause of the disease, namely, the destruction of the beta cells. The major current focus of our investigation is to identify and test the efficacy of potent inhibitors of this death signalling pathway to protect beta cells against the effects of autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes and to preserve beta cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Heiko Lickert and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3949-9 , and by Harry

  2. How Ionic Strength Affects the Conformational Behavior of Human and Rat Beta Amyloids - A Computational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kriz Z.; Klusak J.; Kristofikova Z.; Koca J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive cerebral deposition of amyloid beta occurs in Alzheimeŕs disease and during the aging of certain mammals (human, monkey, dog, bear, cow, cat) but not others (rat, mouse). It is possibly due to different amino acid sequences at positions 5, 10 and 13. To address this issue, we performed series of 100 ns long trajectories (each trajectory was run twice with different initial velocity distribution) on amyloid beta (1–42) with the human and rat amino acid sequence in three different e...

  3. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  4. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  5. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  6. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

  7. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J+ → J- or J- → J+ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references

  8. The Benchmark Beta, CAPM, and Pricing Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheol S. Eun

    1994-01-01

    Recognizing that a part of the unobservable market portfolio is certainly observable, the author first reformulate the capital asset pricing model so that asset returns can be related to the 'benchmark' beta computed against a set of observable assets as well as the 'latent' beta computed against the remaining unobservable assets, and then shows that when the pricing effect of the latent beta is ignored, assets would appear to be systematically mispriced even if the capital asset pricing mode...

  9. C3 polymorphism in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germenis, A; Kalantzi, M; Karamerou, A; Politi, C; Fertakis, A

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of phenotypes and gene frequencies of the third component of complement (C3) were studied in 106 beta-thalassemic patients and in 112 carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. A statistically significant association was found between the C3F gene and homozygous beta-thalassemia. It can be suggested that this association may be related with the high incidence of infections encountered in these patients. PMID:6419525

  10. Stabilization mechanism of water-in-oil emulsions and progress of demulsification technology of heavy oil%油水乳状液的稳定机理及其化学破乳技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 赵亚溥; 胡斌; 任嗣利

    2013-01-01

    Dewatering or demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion is an important process in refinery. Recent advances in demulsification of heavy oil or solvent-diluted bitumen emulsion are reviewed. Structures of the natural surface-active substances in oil and their functions in stabilizing the water-in-oil emulsion are summarized. Design and synthesis of novel demulsifies have attracted much attention in recent years. For example, application of environmental friendly biodegradable polymer in dewatering of water-in-oil emulsion has been extensively studied. Relevant latest research findings are introduced. Advanced technologies, such as micropipette technology and atomic force microscope (AFM) used to study the mechanism of demulsification are also described.%油/水乳状液的破乳是重油生产和加工过程的重要环节,破乳剂的研发一直是油田化学中重要的研究内容.本文综述了国内外化学破乳剂研发的现状与趋势,阐述了重油中以沥青质为主的天然乳化剂的结构特点,深入分析了沥青质在油水乳状液的形成与稳定的过程中所起到的关键性作用,揭示了油水乳状液的形成与稳定性机理.进一步论述了具有普适性强、无毒、可生物降解且价格低廉的天然高分子破乳剂的破乳作用及其最新研究结果.重点介绍了微吸液管技术和原子力显微镜技术等现代分析手段在油水乳状液破乳过程中对相关微观机理研究的重要应用.

  11. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  12. Ferromagnetic and resistive wall effects on beta limit in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnetic and resistive wall effect on beta limit in a tokamak is investigated. It is shown that the beta limit is reduced to 90% of that without ferromagnetic effect for high aspect ratio tokamak, if the ferromagnetic wall of relative permeability of 2 is used. The effect of toroidal plasma flow is also investigated, and the flow velocity of 0.03vta, vta is toroidal Alfven velocity, is sufficient for the resistive wall to have stability effect of ideal wall. Both the resistive wall and ideal kink modes are destabilized by the ferromagnetic wall effects. (author)

  13. Empirical description of beta-delayed fission partial half-lives

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Lars; Andreyev, A.N.; Antalic, S; Huyse, Mark; Van Duppen, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Background: The process of beta-delayed fission (bDF) provides a versatile tool to study low-energy fission in nuclei far away from the beta-stability line, especially for nuclei which do not fission spontaneously. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate systematic trends in bDF partial half-lives. Method: A semi-phenomenological framework was developed to systematically account for the behavior of bDF partial half-lives. Results: The bDF partial half-life appears to exponentially de...

  14. Protein profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pauline Y; Mactier, Swetlana; Armacki, Natalie; Giles Best, O; Belov, Larissa; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Pascovici, Dana; Mulligan, Stephen P; Christopherson, Richard I

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a stable chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) double their blood lymphocyte count in >5 years, but may develop progressive disease with lymphocytes doubling in selected reaction monitoring) using extracts of purified CD19(+) CLL cells from patients (n = 50). Hierarchical clustering of these protein profiles showed two clusters of patients that correlated with progressive and stable CLL, providing signatures that should be useful for triaging patients. Some of the proteins in the progressive cluster have not been linked with CLL, for example, glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and transcription intermediary factor 1-beta. PMID:26422656

  15. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  16. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. $\\beta$-decay study of $^{77}$Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Patronis, N; Górska, M; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Pauwels, D; Van de Vel, K; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thomas, J-C; Franchoo, S; Cederkäll, J; Fedosseev, V; Fynbo, H; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Materna, T; Mathieu, L; Serot, O; Weissman, L; Müller, W F; Mishin, V I; Fedorov, D

    2009-01-01

    A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

  18. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  19. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  20. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  1. Incore stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an incore stabilizer for preventing collision of neutron guide tubes with each other or with other equipments in a BWR-type reactor even if oscillations in one identical phase such as earthquakes are exerted. Namely, a first connection member connected to a reactor core shroud is inserted between a tuning fork-like branched second connecting members connected to a neutron instrumentation guide tube. A pin is pierced to the second connecting member from above through a pin hole, to connect both of the connection members by a nut disposed below. In this case, double eccentric sleeves are fitted to the first connection member and it is inserted to the second connection members, and they are connected by using pins and nuts. With such a constitution, even if the pin hole of the second connection member is eccentrically deviated, the eccentricity can easily be absorbed by rotating the double eccentric sleeves. As a result, pins can be attached easily. In addition, abrasion resistance of the inner surface of the pin hole is enhanced by using a material of high abrasion resistance for the eccentric sleeves. (I.S.)

  2. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm2, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  3. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  4. Pion beta decay at PILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal to build PILAC presents the possibility of making an improved measurement of the pion beta decay rate. The rate for the decay π+ → π0e+νe is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π+ → π0e+νe) = 0.3999 ± 0.0005 s-1. The best experimental number, from LAMPF Experiment 32, using in-flight decays, is R(π+ → π0e+νe) = 0.394 ± 0.0015 s-1. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Thus an experiment at the 0. 2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  6. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  7. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert A Martens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A panel of 332 conserved beta cell biomarker genes was found to discriminate both isolated and laser capture microdissected beta cells from all other examined cell types. Of all conserved beta cell-markers, 15% were strongly beta cell-selective and functionally associated to hormone processing, 15% were shared with neuronal cells and associated to regulated synaptic vesicle transport and 30% with immune plus gut mucosal tissues reflecting active protein synthesis. Fasting specifically down-regulated the latter cluster, but preserved the neuronal and strongly beta cell-selective traits, indicating preserved differentiated state. Analysis of consensus binding site enrichment indicated major roles of CREB/ATF and various nutrient- or redox-regulated transcription factors in maintenance of differentiated beta cell phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Conserved beta cell marker genes contain major gene clusters defined by their beta cell selectivity or by their additional abundance in either neural cells or in immune plus gut mucosal cells. This panel can be used as a template to identify changes in the differentiated state of beta cells.

  8. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  9. An imidazoline compound completely counteracts interleukin-1[beta] toxic effects to rat pancreatic islet [beta] cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Pisanti, Francesco A; Galdieri, Michela; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-1beta decreases insulin and DNA contents in pancreatic islet beta cells, causing structural damage, that it is toxic to cultured human islet beta cells and that it is able to induce apoptosis in these cells....

  10. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  11. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  12. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  13. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Confinement and heating of high beta plasmas with emphasis on compact toroids: Task 2, Stellarator and heliac research: Annual report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress over the past year has enabled us to complete the comprehensive experimental investigation of the equilibrium and stability of the linear heliac and the linear l = 1 stellarator configration. In the case of the heliac work, we discoverd axisymmetric hot plasma near the axial conductor (''hardcore'') in amounts which are comparable to the helically symmetric hot plasma centered on the magnetic axis. From this result came the motivation for an extended investigation which concentrates on the details of high-beta heliac formation. Important first results of the formation study have been obtained. In the case of the stellarator work, we have observed the flute-like m = 1 instability foe a specific set of experimental parameters and, for a different set, we have observed the mode stabilized by the combined effects of a finite ion Larmor radius and a nearby conducting wall. The single-discharge CV ion-temperature diagnostic system has been debugged and has yielded a heliac temperature measurement of (90 +- 10)eV. The plasma density diagnostic system based on cross-tube interferometry has been modified from its previous design for use with the somewhat wrinkly helical discharge tube

  16. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  17. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  18. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani; Bruss, Matthew D; Granier, Sébastien; Wang, Yvonne L; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Horner, Kathleen; Wang, Ping; Lei, Tao; Patterson, Andrew J; Kobilka, Brian; Conti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  19. Global marginal stability of TAEs in the presence of fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global stability of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) in the presence of fast ions in realistic tokamak fusion-grade plasmas is analyzed with a global, perturbative approach. Volume averaged fast particle betas for marginal stability are obtained and analyzed for a wide range of plasma parameters such as the fast ion radial density profile width, the ratio of birth velocity to the Alfven velocity on axis and the bulk plasma beta. The different stability behaviour of two types of TAEs ('internal' or 'external') is evidenced. (author) 19 figs., 22 refs

  20. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood litt...

  1. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  2. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...

  3. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  4. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  5. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  6. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  7. Anti-TGF-beta strategies for the treatment of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Katja; Haas, Stephan; Wiercinska, Eliza; Singer, Manfred V; Dooley, Steven

    2005-11-01

    Permanent alcohol abuse may lead to chronic liver injury with deleterious sequelae such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mechanisms of fibrogenesis encompass recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of injury and cytokine mediated activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) with accumulation of interstitial collagens. HSC transdifferentiation and accompanying apoptosis result in destruction of liver architecture and are therefore key steps of disease progression. TGF-beta represents the main profibrogenic cytokine in liver fibrosis and other fibroproliferative disorders by inducing extracellular matrix deposition as part of the wound healing response. In parallel, TGF-beta triggers hepatocytes that are strongly responsive for this cytokine, to undergo apoptosis, thereby providing space for HSC proliferation and generation of a collagenous matrix. Anti TGF-beta approaches were established and successfully utilized for the treatment of experimental fibrogenesis. Dominant negative TGF-beta receptors (TbetaR), generated by fusing the Fc domain of human IgG and the N-terminal (extracellular) fragment of TbetaRII (Fc:TbetaRII) were applied to suppress fibrosis. Similarly TGF-beta binding proteins like decorin, antagonistic cytokines such as bone morphogenetic protein-7, hepatocyte growth factor, IL-10, or IFN-gamma were as efficient as camostat mesilate, a protease inhibitor that possibly abrogated proteolytic activation of TGF-beta. Further, our group recently overexpressed Smad7 in bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis and achieved efficient inhibition of intracellular TGF-beta signaling, thereby counteracting profibrogenic effects in cultured HSC and in vivo. A direct link between the effect of alcohol and TGF-beta exists through reactive oxygen species that are generated in liver cells by alcohol metabolism and represent activators of TGF-beta signaling. Thus, soluble TbetaRII expression reduced experimental fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo

  8. Conformational preferences of heterochiral peptides. Crystal structures of heterochiral peptides Boc-(D) Val-(D) Ala-Leu-Ala-OMe and Boc-Val-Ala-Leu-(D) Ala-OMe--enhanced stability of beta-sheet through C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiola, G F; Bobde, V; Damodharan, L; Pattabhi, V; Durani, S

    2001-02-01

    The crystal structures of Boc-(D) Val-(D) Ala-Leu-Ala-OMe (vaLA) and Boc-Val-Ala-Leu-(D) Ala-OMe (VALa) have been determined. vaLA crystallises in space group P2(1),2(1),2(1), with a = 9.401 (4), b = 17.253 (5), c = 36.276 (9)A. V = 5,884 (3) A3, Z = 8, R = 0.086. VALa crystallises in space group P2(1) with a = 9.683 (9), b = 17.355 (7), c = 18.187 (9) A, beta = 95.84 (8) degrees , V = 3,040(4) A3, Z = 4, R = 0.125. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit in antiparallel beta-sheet arrangement in both the structures. Several of the Calpha hydrogens are in hydrogen bonding contact with the carbonyl oxygen in the adjacent strand. An analysis of the observed conformational feature of D-chiral amino acid residues in oligopeptides, using coordinates of 123 crystal structures selected from the 1998 release of CSD has been carried out. This shows that all the residues except D-isoleucine prefer both extended and alphaL conformation though the frequence of occurence may not be equal. In addition to this, D-leucine, valine, proline and phenylalanine have assumed alphaR conformations in solid state. D-leucine has a strong preference for helical conformation in linear peptides whereas they prefer an extended conformation in cyclic peptides. PMID:11245253

  9. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana; Clemmentsen, I; Schumacher, H; Høiby, N

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... response was studied with serum samples collected in 1992 from 56 CF patients in a cross-sectional study and with serum samples from 18 CF patients in a longitudinal study. Anti-beta-lactamase immunoglobulin G antibodies were present in all of the serum samples from the patients with chronic...... bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infection (CF + P) but in none of the CF patients with no or intermittent P. aeruginosa infection. Anti-beta-lactamase antibodies were present in serum from CF + P patients after six antipseudomonal courses (median) and correlated with infection with a beta-lactam-resistant strain of...

  10. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  11. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hatta, Mitsutoki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamagata, Kazuya, E-mail: k-yamaga@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  12. Complexes of V(3) with alpha-, beta- and gamma-picolines in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systems of V(3) with alpha, beta and gamma-picolines in ethyl alcohol solutions were investigated by spectroscopic, conductometric and magnetic methods. VCl3 reacts with picolines in low concentrations of V(3) to produce 1:1 electrolytic, monomeric red-violet complexes of the type [VL4Cl2]+ (L=beta and gamma-pic.) and the brown complex of the type [V(alpha- pic)2Cl]-. Stability constants of the monomeric complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. At higher concentrations of V(3) the dimeric, 1:1 electrolytic, deep-violet complexes of the type [L3Cl2V-Cl-VCl2L3]+ (L=beta and gamma-pic.) are formed most probably. The V(3) complex with alpha-picoline is rather a monomer. (author)

  13. Localization and Structure of the Ankyrin-binding Site on [beta] [subscript 2]-Spectrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lydia; Abdi, Khadar; Machius, Mischa; Brautigam, Chad; Tomchick, Diana R.; Bennett, Vann; Michaely, Peter; (HHMI); (UTSMC)

    2009-06-08

    Spectrins are tetrameric actin-cross-linking proteins that form an elastic network, termed the membrane skeleton, on the cytoplasmic surface of cellular membranes. At the plasma membrane, the membrane skeleton provides essential support, preventing loss of membrane material to environmental shear stresses. The skeleton also controls the location, abundance, and activity of membrane proteins that are critical to cell and tissue function. The ability of the skeleton to modulate membrane stability and function requires adaptor proteins that bind the skeleton to membranes. The principal adaptors are the ankyrin proteins, which bind to the {beta}-subunit of spectrin and to the cytoplasmic domains of numerous integral membrane proteins. Here, we present the crystal structure of the ankyrin-binding domain of human {beta}{sub 2}-spectrin at 1.95 {angstrom} resolution together with mutagenesis data identifying the binding surface for ankyrins on {beta}{sub 2}-spectrin.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  15. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  16. Stability of Tokamaks with respect to slip motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the energy principle in Tokamaks we investigate a class of perturbations which, if unstable, cannot be stabilized by the toroidal main field. On the assumptions of usual Tokamak ordering and in the limit of infinite aspect ratio, these perturbations are shown to be minimizing among all axisymmetric perturbations. In the case of finite aspect ratio, a detailed stability analysis is carried out using a constant pressure surface current model with elliptic, triangular or rectangular plasma cross-section. Definite stabilization by toroidal effects and by beta poloidal is demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  18. Changes in beta-lactoglobulin conformation at the oil/water interface of emulsions studied by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Miles, Andrew J; Pattenden, Leonard Keith; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Augustin, Mary Ann; Wallace, B A; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Wooster, Tim J

    2010-08-01

    The structure of proteins at interfaces is a key factor determining the stability as well as organoleptic properties of food emulsions. While it is widely believed that proteins undergo conformational changes at interfaces, the measurement of these structural changes remains a significant challenge. In this study, the conformational changes of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) upon adsorption to the interface of hexadecane oil-in-water emulsions were investigated using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. Far-UV SRCD spectra showed that adsorption of beta-Lg to the O/W interface caused a significant increase in non-native alpha-helix structure, accompanied by a concomitant loss of beta-sheet structure. Near-UV SRCD spectra revealed that a considerable disruption of beta-Lg tertiary structure occurred upon adsorption. Moreover, heat-induced changes to the non-native beta-Lg conformation at the oil/water interface were very small compared to the dramatic loss of beta-Lg secondary structure that occurred during heating in solution, suggesting that the interface has a stabilizing effect on the structure of non-native beta-Lg. Overall, our findings provide insight into the conformational behavior of proteins at oil/water interfaces and demonstrate the applicability of SRCD spectroscopy for measuring the conformation of adsorbed proteins in optically turbid emulsions. PMID:20690721

  19. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  20. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopjani, Mentor [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Lam, Rebecca S. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Koutsouki, Evgenia [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jakupi, Muharrem [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Foeller, Michael [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  1. Effects of internal and external hydrogen on mechanical properties of beta III titanium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation of Ti-base--Mo--Zr--Sn (Beta III alloy), Ti-base--Mo--Cr--Al (VT-15 alloy), and Ti-base-V-Cr-Al (Beta I alloy) show that in the β condition, Beta III is less susceptible to hydrogen elongation (HE) than the other β alloys Beta I and VT 15, similarly H-charged during solution treatment (ST). Not only He, but also H softening can occur in the alloy H charged during various heat treatments. The α-stabilizing effects of cold working (CW) and of previously absorbed O compete with the high temperature β-stabilization by H, decrease H softening and favor HE. The influence of stress state on H effects and the need for sensitive enough tests are again evidenced. A new criterion is proposed to select materials to be stressed in an H environment. H dragging by dislocations plays an important role in HE. This points out the influence of strain rate testing. Furthermore it becomes critically important when environmental degradation depends on film rupture and repassivation. The disk pressure tests are more sensitive than tensile tests and present the adequate sensitivity and versatility to meet the requirements of the complex H effects situation in Ti alloys. With a single set up, using only one specimen geometry, tests can be run at rates ranging from low to high, then the inhomogeneous biaxial stresses involved make them to approach the kind of data usually supplied by impact tests

  2. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. SOX4 Mediates TGF-beta-Induced Expression of Mesenchymal Markers during Mammary Cell Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Stephin J.; Lourenco, Ana Rita; van Boxtel, Ruben; Coffer, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial to mensenchymal transition program regulates various aspects of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, but aberrant activation of this pathway in cancer contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. TGF-beta potently induces an epithelial to mensenchymal transition in cancer

  4. Nuclear transparency and double beta decay of molybdenum 100. Annual report, February 1, 1995 - January 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in data analysis for a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of molybdenum 100 and related work, Brookhaven National Laboratory's Experiment 850 on color transparency, and work on Brookhaven's EVA detector and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's B factory experiment. 6 refs

  5. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Beta Serum Concentrations during First-Line Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, Sabrina; Graeser, Monika Karla; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Woelber, Linn; Trillsch, Fabian; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mueller, Volkmar; Milde-Langosch, Karin; Mahner, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Angiogenesis plays an important role in ovarian cancer. The interaction of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-P) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the process of angiogenesis may represent an essential feature in the progression of the disease. Methods: P

  6. CTNNB1 mutations and overexpression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes in WT1-mutant Wilms' tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Ming; Kim, Connie E; Margolin, Adam A; Guo, Meirong; Zhu, Jimmy; Mason, Jacqueline M; Hensle, Terrence W; Murty, Vundavalli V V S; Grundy, Paul E; Fearon, Eric R; D'Agati, Vivette; Licht, Jonathan D; Tycko, Benjamin

    2004-12-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in exon 3 of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) are specific for Wilms' tumors that have lost WT1, but 50% of WT1-mutant cases lack such "hot spot" mutations. To ask whether stabilization of beta-catenin might be essential after WT1 loss, and to identify downstream target genes, we compared expression profiles in WT1-mutant versus WT1 wild-type Wilms' tumors. Supervised and nonsupervised hierarchical clustering of the expression data separated these two classes of Wilms' tumor. The WT1-mutant tumors overexpressed genes encoding myogenic and other transcription factors (MOX2, LBX1, SIM2), signaling molecules (TGFB2, FST, BMP2A), extracellular Wnt inhibitors (WIF1, SFRP4), and known beta-catenin/TCF targets (FST, CSPG2, CMYC). Beta-Catenin/TCF target genes were overexpressed in the WT1-mutant tumors even in the absence of CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations, and complete sequencing revealed gain-of-function mutations elsewhere in the CTNNB1 gene in some of these tumors, increasing the overall mutation frequency to 75%. Lastly, we identified and validated a novel direct beta-catenin target gene, GAD1, among the WT1-mutant signature genes. These data highlight two molecular classes of Wilms' tumor, and indicate strong selection for stabilization of beta-catenin in the WT1-mutant class. Beta-Catenin stabilization can initiate tumorigenesis in other systems, and this mechanism is likely critical in tumor formation after loss of WT1. PMID:15579438

  7. New features in the stability and fission decay of superheavy Thorium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Satpathy, L.; Patra, S. K.; Choudhury, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    Superheavy isotopes are highly neutron rich nuclei in the vicinity of neutron drip-line, stabilized by shell effect against the instability due to repulsive component of nuclear force, analogous to superheavy elements similarly stabilized against Coulomb instability. Here we discuss the stability and fission decay properties of such nuclei in the $^{254}$Th region and show that they are stable against $\\alpha$ and fission decay and have $\\beta$-decay life time of several tens of seconds. In p...

  8. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  9. T cells cooperate with palmitic acid in induction of beta cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Djordje

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is characterized by progressive failure of insulin producing beta cells. It is well known that both saturated fatty acids and various products of immune cells can contribute to the reduction of beta cell viability and functionality during diabetes pathogenesis. However, their joint action on beta cells has not been investigated, so far. Therefore, we explored the possibility that leukocytes and saturated fatty acids cooperate in beta cell destruction. Results Rat pancreatic islets or insulinoma cells (RIN were co-cultivated with concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated rat lymph node cells (LNC, or they were treated with cell-free supernatants (Sn obtained from ConA-stimulated spleen cells or from activated CD3+ cells, in the absence or presence of palmitic acid (PA. ConA-stimulated LNC or Sn and PA cooperated in inducing caspase-3-dependent RIN cell apoptosis. The observed effect of PA and Sn on RIN cell viability was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-signaling and was achieved through auto-destructive nitric oxide (NO production. The cooperative effect of Sn was mimicked with the combination of interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis.

  10. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  11. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.Y. [University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Guatelli, S [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Oborn, B [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Allen, B [University of Western Sydney, Liverpool, NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes ({sup 211}At, {sup 213}Bi, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac) and 6 beta emitters ({sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development.

  12. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes (211At, 213Bi, 223Ra and 225Ac) and 6 beta emitters (32P, 33P, 67Cu, 90Y, 131I and 177Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development

  13. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.;

    2004-01-01

    (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray techniques. Absorption spectra of a beta,beta'-DH6T spin-cast film indicate the planar conformation of the aromatic backbone. SEM and AFM reveal the formation of an ordered lamellar phase. As a single-crystal X-ray study shows, beta,beta'-DH6T exhibits......Improved synthesis, charge carrier mobility, conformation, crystalline structure, and molecular packing of the regiochemically pure 4',3""-dihexyl-2,2';5',2";5",2 "';5"',2"";5"",2""'-sexithiophene (beta,beta'-DH6T) are reported. The sum of charge carrier mobilities of beta,beta'-DH6T measured...... by the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) technique was found to be Sigmamu(min) = 3.9 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1), which is comparable with the PR-TRMC mobility found for alpha,omega-DH6T. The field-effect mobility (FEM) of beta,beta'-DH6T was found to be on the order of 10(-5) cm(2...

  14. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  15. Mechanical design and analysis for a low beta squeezed half-wave resonator

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shoubo; Zhang, Shenghu; Yue, Weiming; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Ruoxu; Xu, Mengxin; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Jiang, Tiancai; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shengxue; Zhao, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting half-wave resonator (HWR) of frequency=162.5 MHz and {\\beta}=0.09 has been developed at Institute of Modern Physics. Mechanical stability of the low beta HWR cavity is a big challenge in cavity design and optimization. The mechanical deformations of a radio frequency superconducting cavity could be a source of instability, both in continues wave(CW) operation or in pulsed mode. Generally, the lower beta cavities have stronger Lorentz force detuning than that of the higher beta cavities. In this paper, a basic design consideration in the stiffening structure for the detuning effect caused by helium pressure and Lorentz force has been presented. The mechanical modal analysis has been investigated with finite element method(FEM). Based on these considerations, a new stiffening structure has been promoted for the HWR cavity. The computation results concerning the frequency shift show that the low beta HWR cavity with new stiffening structure has low frequency sensitivity coefficient, Lorentz for...

  16. Pseudosubstrate regulation of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase by hnRNP-U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Matti; Hatzubai, Ada; Andersen, Jens S; Ben-Shushan, Etti; Fisher, Gregory Zvi; Yaron, Avraham; Bauskin, Asne; Mercurio, Frank; Mann, Matthias; Ben-Neriah, Yinon

    2002-01-01

    beta-TrCP/E3RS (E3RS) is the F-box protein that functions as the receptor subunit of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase (E3). Surprisingly, although its two recognized substrates, IkappaB(alpha) and beta-catenin, are present in the cytoplasm, we have found that E3RS is located predominantly in the...... competition with a pIkappaB(alpha) peptide, or by a specific point mutation in the E3RS WD region, indicating an E3-substrate-type interaction. However, unlike pI(kappa)Balpha, which is targeted by SCF(beta-TrCP) for degradation, the E3-bound hnRNP-U is stable and is, therefore, a pseudosubstrate....... Consequently, hnRNP-U engages a highly neddylated active SCF(beta-TrCP), which dissociates in the presence of a high-affinity substrate, resulting in ubiquitination of the latter. Our study points to a novel regulatory mechanism, which secures the localization, stability, substrate binding threshold, and...

  17. Status of the GERDA experiment aimed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge

    OpenAIRE

    Smolnikov, Anatoly A.; Collaboration, for the GERDA

    2008-01-01

    The progress in the development of the new international Gerda (GErmanium Detector Array) experiment is presented. Main purpose of the experiment is to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The experimental set up is under construction in the underground laboratory of LNGS. Gerda will operate with bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76Ge) situated in liquid argon. In the Phase I the existing enriched detectors from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX exper...

  18. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Murhekar Kanchan; Anuratha Jayaram; Majhi Urmila; Rajkumar Thangarajan

    2009-01-01

    Context: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG), a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas. Its role in disease progression remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor. Setting and Design: A hospital-based, immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty formali...

  19. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study of 20 patients with advanced squamous carcinoma of the mouth was to monitor the dose modifying effect of supplemental dietary beta-carotene on the progression of the oral mucosal reaction and treatment outcome during an intensive course of synchronous radiation and chemotherapy. Tumour response and long term normal tissue changes have been carefully recorded. Results and freedom from toxic side effects suggest further studies. (author)

  20. Measurement of the energy dependent beta asymmetry in the decay of 8Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on a new measurement of the beta decay asymmetry in 8Li. Polarized 8Li is produced via the reaction 7Li(d,p)8Li using vector polarized deuterons from a crossed beam polarized source. Plastic scintillation electron counters are used to measure asymmetry, tensor polarization correlation and to monitor beam current. Results are graphed and systematic error sources are discussed. 4 refs