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Sample records for beta reference radiations

  1. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: Measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldo, S R; Benavente, J A; Da Silva, T A

    2016-11-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (BSS 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, the reliability of the CDTN BSS2 system was verified through measurements in the (90)Sr/(90)Y and (85)Kr beta radiation fields. Absorbed dose rates and their angular variation were measured with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. The feasibility of using both methods was analyzed.

  2. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  4. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...

  5. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  6. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  7. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  8. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...

  9. Supersymmetric radiative corrections at large tan {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, H.E.

    2001-02-20

    In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), fermion masses and Yukawa couplings receive radiative corrections at one loop from diagrams involving the supersymmetric particles. The corrections to the relation between down-type fermion masses and Yukawa couplings are enhanced by tan {beta}, which makes them potentially very significant at large tan {beta}. These corrections affect a wide range of processes in the MSSM, including neutral and charged Higgs phenomenology, rare B meson decays, and renormalization of the CKM matrix. We give a pedagogical review of the sources and phenomenological effects of these corrections.

  10. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Dale M. (Richland, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Froelich, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Carter, Gregory L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws.

  11. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shortkroff, S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Barnes, C.L. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Spitzer, A.I. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sledge, C.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm{sup 2}/MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide`s therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Role for DNA polymerase beta in response to ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Cramers, P.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a role of DNA polymerase beta in determining radiosensitivity is conflicting. In vitro assays show an involvement of DNA polymerase beta in single strand break repair and base excision repair of oxidative damages, both products of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless the lack of DNA polymer

  13. Interaction between {beta}-Lapachone and Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Shin, Seong Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heon Joo [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    2006-07-01

    {beta}-Lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2Hnaphtho[ 1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione)({beta}-lap) was originally isolated from the bark of the Lapacho tree growing in South America (1). This drug has attracted considerable interest in recent years because of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines through a mechanism that works independent of the cell cycle of p53 status. Interestingly, {beta}-lap has been reported to react synergistically with Taxol, mitomycin C, genistein, and ionizing radiation (IR) (2-3) in vitro against cultured cancer cells. It has also been reported that {beta}-lap inhibits the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage by converting repairable single-stranded DNA breaks into repair-resistant, double-stranded DNA breaks. Thus {beta}- lap has been thought to act as a radiation sensitizer by inhibiting DNA damage repair. In the present study, we observed that IR sensitizes cancer cells to {beta}-lap. It thus appeared that the synergistic interaction of IR and {beta}-lap in killing cancer cells was due to an increase in cellular susceptibility to {beta}-lap, probably in addition to {beta}-lap. induced radiosensitization.

  14. Application of the Böhm chamber for reference beta dose measurements and the calibration of personal dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubacz Krystian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs currently used in personal and area dosimetry are often utilized to measure doses of ionizing radiation in fields with a more complex structure and therefore they should be calibrated in relation to different radiation types. The results of such calibration presented for UD-813 TLDs allowed for evaluation of their capability in relation to different radiation types like the beta and photon radiation of different energies and neutron radiation generated by the 241Am-Be source. The detector response for 60 keV photons was 10% higher than for the 662 keV gamma radiation of 137Cs. There were also response differences in relation to photon and beta radiation between detectors with an enhanced concentration of lithium 6Li and boron 10B and detectors containing a natural level of these isotopes. Measurements of the reference beta doses were performed with the help of the Böhm chamber. This method is relatively more complicated compared to determining the reference photon and neutron doses and is described thoroughly in this paper. The corrected current measured by the Böhm chamber for the chosen parameters was a linear function for an entire available range of the chamber depths. The percentage of errors related to the evaluated reference beta doses were below 2% despite a rather large number of corrections that should be taken into account. The calibration distances varied from 11 cm to 50 cm. For this range and beta particle energy, the absorption of radiation in the air was negligible and their attenuation had a predominantly geometric character.

  15. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J J

    1993-06-01

    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a disorder that affects many parts ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  18. Synthesis of {beta}-haloacids by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia

    1995-10-01

    Hydrogen halides add to alkenes yielding the corresponding haloalkane. The addition of HX ordinally follows the course of Markownikoff`s rule. In this paper we analyze the HBr addition reaction to unsaturated carboxylic acids. The course of the addition is anti-Markownikoff. This implies that the reaction goes through free radical mechanism and the haloacid formed is in the {beta}-position. The acids under study are fumaric, itaconic, citraconic acids and the methyl ester of fumaric acid. The {beta}-haloacids formed are easily purified from the bulk solutions. (author).

  19. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  20. Response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeter to beta radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Munish; Gupta, Anil; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative estimate of the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters (DRDs) to various beta sources was performed. It has been established that the ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters do not respond to beta particles having energy (Emax)1 MeV, the DRDs exhibit measureable response and the values are ~8%, ~14% and ~27% per mSv for natural uranium, (90)Sr/(90)Y and (106)Ru/(106)Rh beta sources respectively. As the energy of the beta particles increases, the response also increases. The response of DRDs to beta particles having energy>1 MeV arises due to the fact that the thickness of the chamber walls is less than the maximum range of beta particles. This may also be one of the reasons for disparity between doses measured with passive/legal dosimeters (TLDs) and DRDs in those situations in which radiation workers are exposed to mixed field of gamma photons and beta particles especially at uranium processing plants, nuclear (power and research) reactors, waste management facilities and fuel reprocessing plants etc. The paper provides the reason (technical) for disparity between the doses recorded by TLDs and DRDs in mixed field of photons and beta particles.

  1. WAVS radiation shielding references and assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-07

    At ITER, the confluence of a high radiation environment and the requirement for high performance imaging for plasma and plasma-facing surface diagnosis will necessitate extensive application of radiation shielding. Recommended here is a dual-layer shield design composed of lead for gamma attenuation, surrounded by a fire-resistant polyehtylene doped with a thermal neutron absorber for neutron shielding.

  2. [beta-Radiation exposure with (188)Re-labelled pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeff, M; Wunderlich, G; Behge, K; Schönmuth, Th; Kotzerke, J

    2005-01-01

    The number of therapies with radiopharmaceuticals labelled with (188)Re is increasing requiring the documentation of the beta radiation exposure Hp(0.07) of the staff at all working and production sites and during the application and follow-up of the patient according to the new German Radiation Protection Law (StrlSchV). However, data for beta-radiation exposure are rare. Therefore, we determined the personal dose Hp(0.07) of the skin of the hands handling (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals to identify steps of high radiation exposure and to optimize working conditions. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100) were fixed to the fingertips of the radiochemist, the physician and the nurse and compared to official ring dosimeters. In addition, to monitor radiation exposure continuously readable electronic beta- and gamma dosimeters EPD (Siemens) were used. At eight days in which therapies were performed these readings were evaluated. Considering one therapy with a (188)Re-labelled radiopharmaceutical the middle finger of the radiochemist (production) and the physician (application) showed a radiation burden of 894 and 664 muSv/GBq, respectively. The cumulative dose of the fingertips after eight days of therapy was 249 and 110 mSv for the radiochemist and physician, respectively. A cumulative finger dose after eight days of therapy of 17 and 38 muSv/GBq was found for physician and nurse leading to a Hp(0.07) of 3 and 6 mSv, respectively. Preparing the radiopharmaceutical labelled with 20GBq of (188)Re the reading of the personal electronic dosimeter of the radiochemist showed a gamma-dose rate Hp(10) of 55 muSv/h and a beta-dose rate Hp(0.07) of 663 muSv/h which are obviously not representative for the true radiation dose to the skin of the fingertips. During therapy with (188)Re-labelled radiopharmaceuticals the true radiation dose to the skin of the finger tips exceeds by far the readings of the official ring dosimeters as well as the continuously readable beta- and gamma

  3. Beta radiation shielding with lead and plastic: effect on bremsstrahlung radiation when switching the shielding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, Wesley R; Drzyzga, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Lead and plastic are commonly used to shield beta radiation. Radiation protection literature is ubiquitous in advising the placement of plastic first to absorb all the beta particles before any lead shielding is used. This advice is based on the well established theory that radiative losses (bremsstrahlung production) are more prevalent in higher atomic number (Z) materials than in low Z materials. Using 32P beta radiation, we measured bremsstrahlung photons transmitted through lead and plastic (Lucite) shielding in different test configurations to determine the relative efficacy of lead alone, plastic alone, and the positional order of lead and plastic. With the source (32P) and detector held at a constant separation distance, we inserted lead and/or plastic absorbers and measured the reduction in bremsstrahlung radiation level measured by the detector. With these test conditions, analysis of measured bremsstrahlung radiation in various thicknesses and configurations of lead and plastic shielding shows the following: placing plastic first vs. lead first reduces the transmitted radiation level only marginally (10% to 40%); 2 mm of additional lead is sufficient to correct the "mistake" of placing the lead first; and for equal thicknesses or weights of lead and plastic, lead is a more efficient radiation shield than plastic.

  4. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  5. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Rosewll, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  6. TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  7. TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  8. Mechanism of radiation graft of methyl-. cap alpha. -fluoroacrylate and. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. beta. -trifluorostyrene on perfluorinated copolymer. [Cobalt 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, A.N.; Tevlina, A.S.; Zagorets, P.A. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-04-01

    The kinetics of radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl-..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate and ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..beta..-trifluorostyrene to perfluorinated copolymer of hexafluoropropylene with tetrafluoroethylene has been studied. The orders of the grafting reaction towards the monomer and dose rate as well as the values of rate constants of radiation-induced grafting at various temperatures were determined, the effective activation energy of grafting (20.6 kJ/mol) was calculated. The kinetic scheme of elementary acts of radiation-induced graft copolymerization is discussed.

  9. TGF-beta, radiation-induced pulmonary Injury and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Groen, HJM

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether changes in TGF-beta plasma levels during radiation therapy may be useful in predicting radiation-induced pulmonary injury and tumour response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Plasma TGF-beta was investigated in 27 patients with stag

  10. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J.M. E-mail: arcos@ciemat.es; Bailador, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Gorostiza, C.; Ortiz, F.; Sanchez, E.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a research team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  11. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Arcos JM; Bailador; Gonzalez; Gonzalez; Gorostiza; Ortiz; Sanchez; Shaw; Williart

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a reasearch team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  12. Manufacture of Single 60Co Source Irradiation Facility and the Measurement of Reference Radiation Filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; WANG; Hong-yu; NI; Ning; ZHANG; Li; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2012-01-01

    <正>Reference radiation filed produced by isotope source is necessary for calibration of radiation dose meter. 60Co single source radiation facility is an important method to produce reference radiation. Collimation design of the facility is good for characteristics of the field, but there are scattered photon influences however. Scattered radiation is mainly come from collimation, source shield, floor, walls and

  13. Fundamental research on a cerenkov radiation sensor based on optical glass for detecting beta-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Seok; Jang, Kyoung Won; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Lee, Bongsoo; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Byung Gi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a Cerenkov radiation sensor for detecting low-energy beta-particles was fabricated using various Cerenkov radiators such as an aerogel and CaF2-, SiO2-, and Al2O3-based optical glasses. Because the Cerenkov threshold energy (CTE) is determined by the refractive index of the Cerenkov radiator, the intensity of Cerenkov radiation varies according to the refractive indices of the Cerenkov radiators. Therefore, we measured the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta-particles generated from a radioactive isotope as a function of the refractive indices of the Cerenkov radiators. Also, the electron fluxes were calculated for various Cerenkov radiators by using a Monte Carlo N-Particle extended transport code (MCNPX) to determine the relationship between the intensities of the Cerenkov radiation and the electron fluxes.

  14. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  15. Reference intervals for glucose, beta-cell polypeptides, and counterregulatory factors during prolonged fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wildner-Christensen, M; Eshøj, O

    2001-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for the pancreatic beta-cell response and the counterregulatory hormone response to prolonged fasting, we studied 33 healthy subjects (16 males, 17 females) during a 72-h fast. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels decreased (P ... of counterregulatory factors increased during the fast [P fasting (P ... decreased from the second to third day of fasting (P = 0.03). Males had higher glucose and glucagon levels and lower FFA levels during the fast (P

  16. alpha/beta radiation detector using wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel two-layer radiation detector for alpha/beta simultaneous counting for dust radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants. For alpha/beta discrimination, wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination techniques were newly developed. To establish the wavelength discrimination, we adopted a two-layer scintillator consisting of the plastic scintillator (NE-111A) and Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) whose emission spectra are quite different. To reject the mixed beta signal in the alpha detection layer, we used the delayed fluorescence characteristics of Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) in the signal processing. We manufactured the detector and tested its feasibility and the detection performance for dust radiation monitoring. Finally, we concluded that the performance of this new alpha/beta detector using the new discrimination methods is suitable for dust radiation monitoring.

  17. Outcome from balloon induced coronary artery dissection after intracoronary beta radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. Kay (Ian Patrick); S.G. Carlier (Stephan); V.L.M.A. Coen (Veronique); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M. Sabaté (Manel); G.J.J. van Langenhove (Glenn); M.A. Costa (Marco); A.J. Wardeh (Alexander); A.L. Gijzel (Anthonie); N.V. Deshpande (Niteen Vijay); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.C. Levendag (Peter); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the healing of balloon induced coronary artery dissection in individuals who have received beta radiation treatment and to propose a new intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) dissection score to facilitate the comparison of dissection through time.

  18. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...

  19. Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi-Bellouati, A.; Razet, A.; Bastie, J.; Himbert, M. E.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    The parametric down conversion of photons generated in a non-linear crystal gives rise to two correlated photons. When associated with a system of coincidence counting, this phenomenon allows one to measure the quantum efficiencies of detectors working at a normal rate of photon counting, without the need for reference sources or detectors. At the Institut National de Métrologie (INM) (France), this method was implemented with the aim of developing a new standard detector for the absolute measurement of very weak radiation. The validation of this method is presented from an international comparison between the laboratories of the INM (France) and the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris (IENGF) (Italy) and from a comparison of methods at INM using the French national standard detector, the cryogenic radiometer.

  20. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF beta-1-recept

  2. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  4. Manufacture of polystyrene phantoms for beta radiation dosimetry; Confeccao de objetos simuladores em poliestireno para dosimetria da radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br; lcaldas@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y beta radiation sources should be specified in terms of absorbed dose rate to water, following recent international recommendations. Due to the high dose gradients near source surfaces, the accurate determination of the distances involved in calibration procedures is extremely important, since the calibration of these sources is performed at 1 mm from their surfaces, in their central symmetry axis. To guarantee the adequate and reproducible positioning between the source during the calibration procedure and the radiation detector, the use of solid phantoms is convenient. Recent papers show that the most appropriate material as water substitute for beta radiation is the polystyrene. In this work, polystyrene phantoms were manufactured for thermoluminescent samples of LiF, CaF{sub 2}:Dy and CaF{sub 2}:Mn. A {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y plane applicator was utilized to irradiate the samples. The maximum sample response variation was equal to: 4.9% for LiF; 3.7% for CaF{sub 2}:Dy; and 3.3% for CaF{sub 2}:Mn. The obtained results show the feasibility of the use of polystyrene phantoms in beta radiation dosimetry. The low cost phantoms guaranteed the reproducible positioning between the {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y source and the samples, as desired. (author)

  5. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao e filmes radiocromicos para verificacao da coerencia metrologica entre campos padroes de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-07-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta

  6. The radiation damage of crystalline silicon PN diode in tritium beta-voltaic battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yisong; Yang, Yuqing; Liu, Yebing; Li, Hao; Wang, Guanquan; Hu, Rui; Xiong, Xiaoling; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-08-01

    A tritium beta-voltaic battery using a crystalline silicon convertor composed of (100)Si/SiO2/Si3N4 film degrades remarkably with radiation from a high intensity titanium tritide film. Simulation and experiments were carried out to investigate the main factor causing the degradation. The radiation damages mainly comes from the x-ray emitted from the titanium tritide film and beta particle can relieve the damages. The x-ray radiation induced positive charges in the SiO2 film destroying the output property of the PN diode with the induction of an electric field.

  7. Beta-radiation exposure at the finger tips during the radionuclide synovectomy; Beta-Ortsdosimetrie der Fingerkuppen bei der Radiosynoviorthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K.; Andreeff, M.; Wunderlich, G.; Kropp, J.; Kotzerke, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, TU Dresden (Germany); Mielcarek, J.; Barth, I. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Aim: The radiation synovectomy is a widespread therapeutic option in rheumatoid arthritis. However, data for the {beta}-radiation exposure are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(0.07) of the skin of the hands. Methods: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were attached at all fingertips of the therapist, the radiochemist and the nurse. In summary, the measurement of {beta}-exposure occurred in 155 joints at 6 days with different radionuclides ({sup 169}Er, {sup 186}Re, {sup 90}Y). Results: The greatest beta exposure were show at the forefinger (L-Ff) and thumb (L-Th) of the left hand, with which the therapist (right hander) fixed the injection needle. In 52 treated finger-joints (1204 MBq {sup 169}Er), 29 treated large joints (2405 MBq {sup 186}Re) and 15 treated knees (3100 MBq {sup 90}Y) we found a cumulative beta exposure over all radionuclides of 190 mSv at L-Ff and 48 mSv at L-Th. The specific beta exposure for the individual radionuclides showed beta exposures of 0,56 {mu}Sv/MBq for {sup 169}Er and 1,52 {mu}Sv/MBq for {sup 186}Re-186 at the L-Ff. With using a manipulator the {beta}-exposure ({sup 90}Y) could reduced from 22,09 to 0,42 {mu}Sv/MBq at the L-Ff. The greatest beta exposures for the radiochemist was 119 mSv at the L-Ff for all radionuclides. Conclusion: In usual techniques of radiation synovectomy the {sup 90}Y produced the greatest part of radiation exposure. Especially at the L-Ff it might exceed the German limit for the official dosimetry service at the skin (paragraph 55 Strl-SchV). Using a holding forceps we can keep the legal rules and can reduce considerably the beta exposure. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Der Anstieg der Therapiezahlen bei der Radiosynoviorthese (RSO) und die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung (StrSchV) erfordern, die {beta}-Strahlenbelastung, H{sub p}(0,07), des Personals bei der RSO zu dokumentieren. Methode: Da die amtlichen Teilkoerperdosimeter (TLD-Fingerringdosimeter) die {beta

  8. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  9. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films; Caracterizacao de campos de radiacao beta utilizando filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, Jhonny A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: jabc@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reynaldo, Sibele R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is ...

  11. Effect of Ionizing Beta Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(ethylene under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found in this study, that ionizing beta radiation has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of poly(ethylene. In recent years, there have been increasing requirements for quality and cost effectiveness of manufactured products in all areas of industrial production. These requirements are best met with the polymeric materials, which have many advantages in comparison to traditional materials. The main advantages of polymer materials are especially in their ease of processability, availability, and price of the raw materials. Radiation crosslinking is one of the ways to give the conventional plastics mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of expensive and highly resistant construction polymers. Several types of ionizing radiation are used for crosslinking of polymers. Each of them has special characteristics. Electron beta and photon gamma radiation are used the most frequently. The great advantage is that the crosslinking occurs after the manufacturing process at normal temperature and pressure. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the effect of ionizing beta radiation on the tensile modulus, strength and elongation of low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 99 kGy were compared and on the test temperature. Radiation cross-linking of LDPE and HDPE results in increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased of elongation. The measured results indicate that ionizing beta radiation treatment is effective tool for improvement of mechanical properties of LDPE and HDPE under thermal stress.

  12. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  13. Micro-Hardness of PBT Influenced by Beta Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linking is a process in which polymer chains are associated through chemical bonds. Radiation, which penetrated through specimens and reacted with the cross-linking agent, gradually formed cross-linking (3D net, first in the surface layer and then in the total volume, which resulted in considerable changes in specimen behaviour. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated PBT on the micro-indentation test. Radiation doses of 66, 132 and 198 kGy were used for unfilled PBT with the 5% crosslinking agent (triallyl isocyanurate. Individual radiation doses caused structural and micro-mechanical changes which have a significant effect on the final properties of the PBT tested. The highest values of micro-mechanical properties were reached radiation dose of 132 kGy, when the micro-mechanical values increased by about 30%.

  14. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  15. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  16. Conjunctival Autograft Alone or Combined With Adjuvant Beta-Radiation? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Carrara Fonseca, Ellen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melani Rocha, Eduardo [Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of postoperative low single-dose of beta-irradiation ({beta}-RT) in pterygium comparing conjunctival autograft (CAG) surgery with CAG plus adjuvant {beta}-RT in a randomized clinical trial. Methods: This trial was designed as a prospective, randomized, single-center study. Surgery was performed in all cases according to the CAG technique. One hundred and eight pterygia were postoperatively randomized to CAG + {beta}-RT or CAG alone. In the case of {beta}-RT, a (90) Sr eye applicator was used to deliver 10 Gy to the sclera surface at a dose rate of between 200 and 250 cGy/min. After treatment, both an ophthalmologist and a radiation oncologist performed the follow-up examinations. The accumulated data were analyzed using a group sequential test. Results: Between February 2008 and September 2008, 116 eyes with primary pterygium were operated on according to the trial protocol. Adjuvant treatment was performed within 24 h postoperatively. Eight patients were lost to follow-up, resulting in 108 patients who could be analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-33), in the 54 eyes randomized to receive CAG + {beta}-RT, 5 relapses occurred compared with 12 recurrences in the 54 eyes in CAG, for a crude control rate of 90.8 % vs. 78%; p = 0.032, respectively. The treatment complications as hyperemia, total dehiscence of the autograft and dellen were significantly more frequent in the CAG (p < 0.05). The arm of {beta}-RT resulted in better cosmetic results and improves of symptoms than CAG. Conclusions: A low single-dose of {beta}-RT of 10 Gy after CAG surgery was a simple, effective, and safe treatment that reduced the risk of primary pterygium recurrence, improved symptoms after surgery, resulting in a better cosmetic effect than only CAG.

  17. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... was accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...... services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discusses in detail...

  18. Rossby wave radiation by an eddy on the polar beta-plane

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Results from the laboratory experiments on the evolution of vortices (eddies) generated in a rotating tank with topographic beta-effect are presented. The surface elevation and velocity fields are measured by the Altimetric Imaging Velocimetry. The experiments are supplemented by shallow water numerical simulations as well as a linear theory which describes the Rossby wave radiation by travelling vortices. The cyclonic vortices observed in the experiments travel to the northwest and continuously radiate Rossby waves. Measurements show that initially axisymmetric vortices develop a dipolar component which enables them to perform translational motion. A pattern of alternating zonal jets to the west of the vortex is created by Rossby waves with approximately zonal crests. Energy spectra of the flows in the wavenumber space indicate that a wavenumber similar to that introduced by Rhines for turbulent flows on the beta-plane can be introduced here. The wavenumber is based on the translational speed of a vortex rat...

  19. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  20. An experimental apparatus for study of direct {\\beta}-radiation conversion for energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Haim, Y; deBotton, G

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the development and testing of an experimental apparatus for characterization of a direct charging nuclear battery. The battery consists of a parallel-plates capacitor which is charged in a vacuum by the current of {\\beta}-radiation particles (electrons) emitted from a radioisotope. A 63Ni radioisotope with an activity of 15mCi that produces a 20pA current was selected as the radiation source. The apparatus is unique in its design, having ultra-low leakage current and a few options for charge measurements. Preliminary results of a few tests are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus.

  1. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  2. Cell cycle phase dependent role of DNA polymerase beta in DNA repair and survival after ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of DNA polymerase beta in repair and response after ionizing radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Synchronized cells deficient and proficient in DNA polymerase beta were irradiated in different pha

  3. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate

  4. Seasonal variation of radiation interception and radiation use efficiency in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sohail parsa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A high correlation existes between crop growth and the rate of radiation intercepted. The efficiency of radiation interception and absorption is dependent on leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency. In order to study mentioned coefficients a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted during 2005 for different sugar beet cultivars (7233, 7112, 436, 276 and Rasoul at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad experimental farm station. The cultivars were cultivated in eight rows with 50 centimeters distance in plots with 12 meter length and optimum condition of nutrients and irrigation. In addition to measuring the radiation above and under the canopy, the plots were sampled 9 times during growing season and leaf area index, total dry matter and finally light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency were measured. Mean maximum leaf area index was 3.51. The final yield of total dry matter for different genotypes varied from 15670 to 25920 kilogram per hectare. There were no significant differences among genotypes in light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency and their mean values were about 0.56 and 1.23 g.Mj-1 , respectively. Seasonal variation of radiation use efficiency was similar to leaf area index changes during the crop growth cycle and maximum radiation use efficiency was located before the reaching of maximum green leaf area index. Sugar content was increased proportional with total and root dry matter in most of crop growth cycle. Considering the importance of light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency in crop growth models and also their spatio-temporal variability under different management, it is necessary to perform more experiments in different years and locations with various treatments, to obtain a range of these coefficients for modeling studies.

  5. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R;

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express ...... in tumor cells may promote the development of innovative molecular-targeted therapeutic antitumor strategies.......Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...... signaling-incompetent beta1B variants. Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, beta1-integrin-IgG or poly-l-lysine were exposed to 0-6 Gy X-rays in presence or depletion of growth factors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin). In order to test the relevance...

  6. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta

  7. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  8. Radiation-induced polymerization and grafting of {beta}(-)pinene on silica surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco [Lupi Chemical Research Institute, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: cdcata@flashnet.it; Ursini, Ornella; Lilla, Edo; Angelini, Giancarlo [CNR, Institute of Chemical Metodologies, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Poly-{beta}-pinene (pBp) was obtained on silica surface by {gamma} radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(-)pinene in presence of silica gel with a specific surface area of 300 m{sup 2}/g. Different radiation doses were employed in the range 50-332 kGy. The pBp-silica hybrid samples obtained have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and the amount of pBp on silica surface has been determined both by gravimetric and TGA measurements. The fraction of pBp chemically grafted on silica surface has been determined by the extraction of the pBp-silica hybrid with boiling toluene and was found to be 10-20% of the total pBp formed on silica surface. The optical activity of pBp extracted from the hybrid was studied by polarimetric measurements and found slightly lower than the typical specific optical rotation of pBp polymerized in bulk with radiation. The thermal stability of the pBp-silica hybrid materials was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The results show lower thermal stability for the pBp-silica hybrid in comparison to pure pBp. Evidently, silica catalyzes the thermal decomposition of pBp at lower temperatures. Use of the pBp-silica hybrid as stationary phase for liquid chromatography for chiral separations has been proposed.

  9. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  10. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  11. Development of Radiation-hard Bandgap Reference and Temperature Sensor in CMOS 130 nm Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuczynska, Marika; Bugiel, Szymon; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Idzik, Marek; Michelis, Stefano; Moron, Jakub; Przyborowski, Dominik; Swientek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    A stable reference voltage (or current) source is a standard component of today's microelectronics systems. In particle physics experiments such reference is needed in spite of harsh ionizing radiation conditions, i.e. doses exceeding 100 Mrads and fluences above 1e15 n/cm2. After such radiation load a bandgap reference using standard p-n junction of bipolar transistor does not work properly. Instead of using standard p-n junctions, two enclosed layout transistor (ELTMOS) structures are used to create radiation-hard diodes: the ELT bulk diode and the diode obtained using the ELTMOS as dynamic threshold transistor (DTMOS). In this paper we have described several sub-1V references based on ELTMOS bulk diode and DTMOS based diode, using CMOS 130 nm process. Voltage references the structures with additional PTAT (Proportional To Absolute Temperature) output for temperature measurements were also designed. We present and compare post-layout simulations of the developed bandgap references and temperature sensors, w...

  12. Application of radiation physics in the design of the Harshaw 8828 beta-gamma TLD badge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, W.J. [Health Physics Department, Ontario Power Generation, Whitby, Ont., L1N 9E3 (Canada)], E-mail: john.chase@opg.com; Hirning, C.R. [Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge has been developed to measure beta and gamma doses for routine personal dosimetry. The badge uses a card with four elements of LiF:Mg,Ti enriched in {sup 7}Li and sandwiched between layers of Teflon{sup TM}. The Element 1 filter is 1000mgcm{sup -2} of low-Z material, the Element 2 filter is 464mgcm{sup -2} of tin plus 536mgcm{sup -2} of low-Z material, the Element 3 filter is a 5-7mgcm{sup -2} Mylar window, and the Element 4 filter is 64mgcm{sup -2} of low-Z material. The filters for Elements 2 and 4 were optimized by testing and by application of radiation physics principles and calculation. Elements 1 and 2 are used to measure the response to photons, and from these results, H{sub p}(10), H{sub p}(0.07) for photons, and the photon contribution to the signals for Elements 3 and 4 are obtained. The photon contribution to the signals from Elements 3 and 4 is subtracted from their total signals to obtain two signals due to betas. These are used to derive a corrected value for H{sub p}(0.07) for betas. The badge has been in use since early 1999, and provides accurate results in a nuclear power station environment.

  13. Xerostomia: prevalence and pharmacotherapy. With special reference to beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederfors, T

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence of subjectively perceived dry mouth, xerostomia, in a representative general adult population, and the possible co-morbidity between xerostomia and on-going pharmacotherapy. Further, to evaluate the effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on saliva flow rate and composition. The prevalence of xerostomia was evaluated by means of a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 4.200 adult subjects living in the southern part of the province of Halland, Sweden. Three hundred men and equally many women aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years were selected from the national census register. From 3311 (81%) evaluable questionnaires was concluded that, in the studied population, 21.3% of the men and 27.3% of the women reported xerostomia. The difference between the sexes was statistically significant, women reporting higher prevalence of dry mouth than men. It was also found that xerostomia was significantly age-related. Further, it was demonstrated that there was a strong co-morbidity between reported prevalence of dry mouth and on-going pharmacotherapy. Generally, no specific drug or drug-group proved to be especially xerogenic, rather, polypharmacy was strongly correlated to reported symptoms of dry mouth, and it was also a significant correlation between increasing xerostomia and the number of medications taken. The effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on saliva flow rate and composition were evaluated both in healthy volunteers and in hypertensive patients. The effects of one week of treatment with the non-selective (propranolol) and the beta 1-selective (atenolol) adrenoceptor antagonists were compared with that of placebo in three different clinical trials, including 38, 11 and 19 healthy volunteers, respectively. Two of these studies were focused on the effects on whole saliva secretion rate and composition and the third study on the secretions from the parotid and the submandibular

  14. Böhm extrapolation chamber: Study of its behavior in beta radiation fields at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Xavier, Marcos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is going to establish a Böhm extrapolation chamber as a primary standard system for the dosimetry and calibration of beta radiation sources and detectors. This chamber was already tested in beta radiation beams with an aluminized Mylar entrance window, and now, it was characterized with an original Hostaphan entrance window. A comparison between the results of the extrapolation chamber with the two entrance windows was performed. The results showed that this extrapolation chamber presents the same effectiveness in beta radiation fields as a primary standard system with both entrance windows, showing that any one of them may be utilized.

  15. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... materials and detector/filter geometry. Improvements in the energy and angular response of dosemeters for the measurements of doses from beta and low energy photon radiation can be achieved essentially through two different approaches: either by using thin detectors or multi-element dosemeters...

  16. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities.

  17. Evaluation and applicability of transfinite element formulations with particular reference to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation and applicability of hybrid transfinite element formulations are described for transient nonlinear thermal models with particular reference to account for radiation effects. The formulations are developed from basic concepts and evaluated for both one- and two-dimensional thermal models. The methodology presented is a hybrid approach as it combines finite elements, classical Galerkin schemes, and transform methods. Basic features of the hybrid formulations and the associated solution scheme used are first described. Therein, numerical test models are presented to evaluate the applicability for predicting the nonlinear transient response in one- and two-dimensional thermal models influenced due to radiation effects.

  18. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist--developing a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth A; Rangarajan, Sriram S; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Langford, J Scott; Sur, Roger L

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  19. Occupational Hazard: Radiation Exposure for the Urologist – Developing a Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A. Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and Methods We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE, 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE, and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE. Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs, 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs, 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs, 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs, 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2. Conclusions Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem. Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  20. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  1. STUDY OF URINARY ISOLATES WITH REFERENCE TO EXTENDE D SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASES DETECTION AND ANTIBIOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta lactamases continue to be ma jor problem in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are associated with significant morbidity and morta lity. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases encountered in the clinical practice. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria, have emerged as a major problem in hospitalized as well as community based pat ients. ESBLs producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disc diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of the micro-organisms isolated from cases of UTI and to detect ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria. METHODS: Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases (both i n patients and out patients attending the, Kesarsal Me dical College and Hospital Ahmadabad were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrob ial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method gram negative i solates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods. RESULTS: Number of urinary isolates from patients with symptomatic UTI was 350 o ver a study period of one year. E.coli was the predominant isolate (57.7% both in IPD and OPD patients. A total of 171 gram negative isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods- Modified Double Disc Synergy Test (CLSI P henotypic Confirmatory Test (PCT. ESBL production was seen in 36 (21.05% isolates. Maximum ESBL production was seen in K. pneumoniae (22.41% isolates followed by E.coli (13.26%. CONCLUSION: This study showed E.coli to be the predominant urinary pathogen isolate d from UTI cases. Overall incidence of ESBL producing microorganisms was 21.05%.

  2. Variance reduction technique in a beta radiation beam using an extrapolation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Ivón Oramas; Souza Santos, William; de Lara Antonio, Patrícia; Caldas, Linda V E

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to show how the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" improves the statistical error and reduces uncertainties in the determination of the absorbed dose rate in tissue using an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation. The results show that the use of this technique can increase the number of events in the chamber cavity leading to a closer approximation of simulation result with the physical problem. There was a good agreement among the experimental measurements, the certificate of manufacture and the simulation results of the absorbed dose rate values and uncertainties. The absorbed dose rate variation coefficient using the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" was 2.85%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First Ex-Vivo Validation of a Radioguided Surgery Technique with beta- Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Bocci, V; Carollo, A; Chiodi, G; Colandrea, M; Collamati, F; Cremonesi, M; Donnarumma, R; Ferrari, M E; Ferroli, P; Ghielmetti, F; Grana, C M; Marafini, M; Morganti, S; Terracciano, C Mancini; Patanè, M; Pedroli, G; Pollo, B; Recchia, L; Russomando, A; Toppi, M; Traini, G; Faccini, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A radio-guided surgery technique with beta- -emitting radio-tracers was suggested to overcome the effect of the large penetration of gamma radiation. The feasibility studies in the case of brain tumors and abdominal neuro-endocrine tumors were based on simulations starting from PET images with several underlying assumptions. This paper reports, as proof-of-principle of this technique, an ex-vivo test on a meningioma patient. This test allowed to validate the whole chain, from the evaluation of the SUV of the tumor, to the assumptions on the bio-distribution and the signal detection. Methods: A patient affected by meningioma was administered 300 MBq of 90Y-DOTATOC. Several samples extracted from the meningioma and the nearby Dura Mater were analyzed with a beta- probe designed specifically for this radio-guided surgery technique. The observed signals were compared both with the evaluation from the histology and with the Monte Carlo simulation. Results: we obtained a large signal on the bulk tumor (105...

  4. Beta radiation effects in sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted pollucite

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, N J; Conradson, S D; Weber, W J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-energy beta radiation on the long-range and local structure of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted CsAlSi sub 2 O sub 6 (pollucite) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques at the Cs K-edge. Analysis of the XRD pattern of pollucite with an absorbed dose of 10 sup 1 sup 8 beta decays/g using Rietveld analysis indicates a 0.5-1% volume expansion of the tetrahedral structure as measured at 50 K and a minor displacement of the Cs cation toward the face of one of the six-membered rings. Analysis of the real-space pair-distribution function obtained from Fourier transformation of the diffraction pattern indicates significant correlated movement of the (Si,Al)-O pairs and large static disorder between Cs-O pairs. Analysis of the Cs K-edge XAS revealed substantial contributions from the Cs atomic X-ray absorption. This likely results from the exceedingly long Cs-O bond distances in the pollucite structure, which diminish the fine structure of the XAS os...

  5. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  6. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Additional knowledge on the impact of various kinds of ionizing radiation in plants on individual, biochemical and molecular level is needed to unravel and compare the toxic mode of action. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied both in lab and field studies to derive the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. However, environmental relevant studies on chronic low-dose gamma exposures are scarce. The radio-ecologically relevant radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is a pure beta emitting isotope and originates from nuclear activities and accidents. Although this radionuclide is not essential for plant metabolism, it bears a chemical analogy with the essential plant macro-nutrient Ca{sup 2+} thereby taking advantage of Ca{sup 2+} transport systems to contaminate plant organs and tissues. Ones plants are exposed to radiation stress, ionization events can cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce damage to biological material like DNA, lipids and structural proteins. The following work aimed at evaluating individual, biochemical and molecular endpoints to understand and to compare the mode of action of gamma- and beta radiation stress in plants. Having an equal relative biological effectiveness to non-human biota, it is still not clear in how plants differ or overlap in sensing and interpreting highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with short-range particle radiation. The floating plant Lemna minor was chosen as model system. Following the OECD guidelines Lemna plants were being exposed separately to an external gamma radiation source or to a {sup 90}Sr-contaminated growth medium to obtain single-dose response curves for each type of radiation. In order to acquire accurate dose rate quantifications for beta radiation exposures, {sup 90}Sr uptake and accumulation of root and

  7. [Beta blockers in heart failure therapy with special reference to the COPERNICUS Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Franz; Katus, Hugo A

    2002-08-01

    During the past 15 years, the pathophysiological concept of heart failure as a neurohormonal disease has influenced heart failure therapy substantially. ACE-inhibitors have become the mainstay of heart failure therapy. In addition, beta blocker evolved to be effective in improving survival in this disease. Recently, the COPERNICUS study established the efficacy of carvedilol in severe heart failure and extended the benefits of this drug first observed in patients with mild and moderate symptoms to those with advanced disease. In this study, carvedilol resulted in a significant reduction of all-cause mortality and combined mortality and hospitalization, the frequency of hospitalizations, the risk of repeated hospitalizations, the number of days in hospital, the average duration of each admission and the utilization of treatments and procedures for heart failure. Carvedilol was well tolerated, improved the sense of well-being, was associated with a lower risk of a serious adverse event, particularly one related to the progression of heart failure and fewer patients requiring withdrawal of treatment for an adverse event. These favourable results were equally seen in all subgroups. Carvedilol treatment was even cost-effective in severe disease. Therefore, this new therapeutic option should be available to all patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure.

  8. IM-1662 Attenuates Radiation-Induced Fibroblast Differentiation through Restoration of TGF-beta type III Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyoung; Lim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Loom; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Although pulmonary fibrosis occurs 5-20% of lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy, clinically standard treatment for fibrotic disease has not been developed yet. Among fibrosis mediating factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), interleukin-13 (IL-13), IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), TGF-beta is considered as a critical mediator in normal wound healing as well as pathological fibrogenic processes. The TGF-beta transmits signals either directly or indirectly through types I, II and III (TbetaRI, II, and III) receptor complexes and activates downstream Smad signaling. The type III TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRIII or betaglycan) is a transmembrane proteoglycan without a functional kinase domain, and is regarded as a co-receptor to increase the affinity of ligand binding to TbetaRII. In addition, TbetaRIII act as a regulator in cell migration, invasion and cell growth in cancer models. However, in contrast to a great number of studies about TGF-beta ligand and TbetaRII signaling, the relationship between TGF-beta and TbetaRIII (or betaglycan) remains largely unknown. In this study, we searched for a new compound which inhibited TGF-beta responses using cell-based chemical screening and investigated the effects of the novel compound on radiation induced myofibroblast differentiation. We suggest that a novel small molecule, pyrazolopyrimidine compound IM-1662, can act as an anti-fibrotic agent through inhibiting expression of TGF-beta receptor type I and type II whereas, preserving the levels of TbetaRIII which seems to act as a negative regulator in TGF-beta signaling

  9. Radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-. gamma. -radiation and formation of L(+)-. beta. -methylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loester, Heinz; Strack, Erich; Seim, Hermann

    1986-06-01

    The radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-radiation was examined to obtain optically active ..beta..-methylcholine. It was found that the radiolysis leads to a number of trimethylammonium bases but to no other betaines. (+)-..beta..-Methylcholine and acetonyltrimethylammonium could be identified by means of common analytical methods. The amounts of methylamines formed by irradiation were very small. Racemization of the D(+)-carnitine did not occur during irradiation, L(-)-carnitine was not found when an enzymatical determination method was used. The fact that (+)-..beta..-methylcholine was formed from D(+)-carnitine is pharmacologically important, because acetyl-L(+)-..beta..-methylcholine has a strong interaction with muscarinic receptors.

  10. Field tests of a portable tissue equivalent survey meter for monitoring mixed beta/gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Rich, B.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Daniel, S.H. III

    1986-05-01

    A portable radiation survey meter that provides a tissue equivalent response to photons and beta particles has been designed and field tested. The detector is a very thin plastic scintillator that closely simulates the actual geometry and scattering properties of the relevant skin tissues. The meter reads out the D(0.07) dose rate directly, and indicates the tissue dose rates at other depths with the use of tissue equivalent filters of appropriate thicknesses. Data are presented which compare the D(0.07) and D(10) dose rates recorded by the Tissue Equivalent (TE) survey meter with dose rates recorded by two commercial ion chamber meters for a number of laboratory and field sources. Most commercial ion chamber meters fail to respond adequately to the extreme off-axis beta particles from extended beta sources, and hence require the application of large beta correction factors to change the instrument reading to the true D(0.07) dose rate. The tissue equivalent survey meter exhibits an angular response to beta particles that is very similar to the angular response of an extrapolation chamber. Consequently, there is close agreement between the TE meter and extrapolation chamber readings for a wide variety of beta and mixed beta-gamma rdiation fields. D(0.07), D(3), and D(10) dose rates, measured with the INEL TE meter at a number of typical work stations, are presented.

  11. Beta Androstenediol Mitigates the Damage of 1 GeV/n Fe Ion Particle Radiation to the Hematopoietic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loria R.; Guida P.; Loria, R.; Beckman, M.; Contaifer, D.; Tamariz, F.; Gibb, D.; Thompson, L.; Guida, P.

    2010-09-07

    Space exploration is associated with exposure to 1-3 Gy solar particle radiation and galactic cosmic radiation that could increase cancer rates. Effective nontoxic countermeasures to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure are highly desirable but currently not available. The aim was to determine whether a single subcutaneous injection of androstenediol ({Delta}(5) androsten-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol [AED]) could mitigate and restore the mouse hematopoetic system from the radiation-mediated injury of 3 Gy whole-body high LET (56)Fe(26+) exposure. The findings show that postradiation AED treatment has an overall positive and significant beneficial effect to restore the levels of hematopoeitic elements (p < 0.001). Androstenediol treatment significantly increased monocyte levels at days 4, 7, and 14 and, similarly, increased red blood cell, hemoglobin, and platelet counts. Flow cytometry analysis 14 days after radiation and AED treatment demonstrated an increase (p < 0.05) in bone marrow cells counts. Ex vivo osteoclastogenesis studies show that AED treatment is necessary and advantageous for the development and restoration of osteoclastogenesis after radiation exposure. These findings clearly show that androstenediol functions as a countermeasure to remedy hematopoeitic injury mediated by high LET iron ion radiation. Presently, no other agent has been shown to have such properties.

  12. Efficacy of beta radiation in prevention of post-angioplasty restenosis : An interim report from the beta energy restenosis trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Meerkin; R. Bonan (Raoul); I.R. Crocker; A. Arsenault (André); P. Chougule; V.L.M.A. Coen (Veronique); D.O. Williams (David); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); S.B. King 3rd (Spencer)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRestenosis remains a major limitation of coronary angioplasty in spite of major advances in techniques and technology. Recent studies have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may limit the degree of this problem. Gamma radiation has been shown to be effective in reducing in stent resten

  13. 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol Promotes Recovery of Immature Hematopoietic Cells Following Myelosuppressive Radiation and Synergizes With Thrombopoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts-Kaya, Fatima S.F.; Visser, Trudi P.; Arshad, Shazia [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Frincke, James; Stickney, Dwight R.; Reading, Chris L. [Harbor Therapeutics, Inc, San Diego, California (United States); Wagemaker, Gerard, E-mail: g.wagemaker@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol (5-AED) stimulates recovery of hematopoiesis after exposure to radiation. To elucidate its cellular targets, the effects of 5-AED alone and in combination with (pegylated) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and thrombopoietin (TPO) on immature hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated following total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were exposed to radiation delivered as a single or as a fractionated dose, and recovery of bone marrow progenitors and peripheral blood parameters was assessed. Results: BALB/c mice treated with 5-AED displayed accelerated multilineage blood cell recovery and elevated bone marrow (BM) cellularity and numbers of progenitor cells. The spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) assay, representing the life-saving short-term repopulating cells in BM of irradiated donor mice revealed that combined treatment with 5-AED plus TPO resulted in a 20.1-fold increase in CFU-S relative to that of placebo controls, and a 3.7 and 3.1-fold increase in comparison to 5-AED and TPO, whereas no effect was seen of Peg-G-CSF with or without 5-AED. Contrary to TPO, 5-AED also stimulated reconstitution of the more immature marrow repopulating (MRA) cells. Conclusions: 5-AED potently counteracts the hematopoietic effects of radiation-induced myelosuppression and promotes multilineage reconstitution by stimulating immature bone marrow cells in a pattern distinct from, but synergistic with TPO.

  14. Perception of radiation exposure and risk among patients, medical students, and referring physicians at a tertiary care community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Michelle L; Baerlocher, Mark O; Asch, Murray R; Myers, Andy

    2013-08-01

    It is important for physicians to be aware of the radiation doses as well as the risks associated with diagnostic imaging procedures that they are ordering. A survey was administered to patients, medical students, and referring physicians from a number of specialties to determine background knowledge regarding radiation exposure and risk associated with commonly ordered medical imaging tests. A total of 127 patients, 32 referring physicians, and 30 medical students completed the survey. The majority of patients (92%) were not informed of the radiation risks associated with tests that they were scheduled to receive and had false perceptions about the use of radiation and its associated risks. Physicians and medical students had misconceptions about the use of ionizing radiation in a number of radiologic examinations; for example, 25% and 43% of physicians and medical students, respectively, were unaware that interventional procedures used ionizing radiation, and 28% of physicians were unaware that mammography used ionizing radiation. Computed tomographies and barium studies were thought to be associated with the least ionizing radiation among physicians. There is a need for educating the public, medical students, and referring physicians about radiation exposure and associated risk so that (1) patients receiving multiple medical imaging tests are aware of the radiation that they are receiving and (2) physicians and future physicians will make informed decisions when ordering such tests to limit the amount of radiation that patients receive and to promote informed consent among patients. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852 (United States); Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Williams, Jonathan L [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E [Departments of Nuclear and Radiological and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-01-21

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms-those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR(TM). NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros(TM). The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference

  16. The influence of radiation sterilisation on some {beta}-blockers in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniec, B. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Gruwaldzka Str., 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Ogrodowczyk, M., E-mail: mogrodo@ump.edu.pl [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Gruwaldzka Str., 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Czajka, B.; Hofman, M. [Department of Cooridinational Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Six {beta}-blockers (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol) in solid phase were exposed to the ionising radiation by e-beam in doses from 25 to 400 kGy. {yields} To establish the effects of irradiation on their physico-chemical properties, the compounds were then analysed by DSC, SEM, XRD and FT-IR. {yields} For alprenolol, propranolol and metoprolol linear relations were found between the irradiation dose and the decrease in the melting point (r = 0.9446-0.9864). {yields} No changes were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the SEM images of the compounds studied. - Abstract: Six derivatives of aryloxyalkylaminopropanol of known {beta}-adrenolytic activity (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol) in solid phase were exposed to the ionising radiation generated by e-beam of high-energy electrons from an accelerator ({approx}10 MeV) in doses from 25 to 400 kGy. To establish the effects of irradiation on their physico-chemical properties, the compounds were then analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectrometry. The standard sterilisation dose (25 kGy) was found to cause no changes in only one derivative - acebutolol, whereas in the other derivatives the irradiation caused colour changes, differences in X-ray diffraction patterns and in the character of DSC curves, including a decrease in the melting point. For each derivative one clear peak corresponding to the process of melting was observed and its position shifted towards lower temperatures with increasing dose of irradiation. For all compounds studied the value of the shift was between 0.1 and 1.0 {sup o}C. For alprenolol, propranolol and metoprolol linear relations were found between the irradiation dose and the decrease in the melting point, described by the correlation coefficient (between 0.9446 and 0.9864). No changes were observed in

  17. Precision measurement of the radiative $\\beta$ decay of the free neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, M J; Bass, C D; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Byrne, J; Chupp, T E; Coakley, K J; Cooper, R L; Dewey, M S; Gardner, S; Gentile, T R; He, D; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; O'Neill, B; Thompson, A K; Wietfeldt, F E

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that, in addition to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino, a continuous spectrum of photons is emitted in the $\\beta$ decay of the free neutron. We report on the RDK II experiment which measured the photon spectrum using two different detector arrays. An annular array of bismuth germanium oxide scintillators detected photons from 14~keV to 782~keV. The spectral shape was consistent with theory, and we determined a branching ratio of 0.00335 $\\pm$ 0.00005 [stat] $\\pm$ 0.00015 [syst]. A second detector array of large area avalanche photodiodes directly detected photons from 0.4~keV to 14~keV. For this array, the spectral shape was consistent with theory, and the branching ratio was determined to be 0.00582 $\\pm$ 0.00023 [stat] $\\pm$ 0.00062 [syst]. We report the first precision test of the shape of the photon energy spectrum from neutron radiative decay and a substantially improved determination of the branching ratio over a broad range of photon energies.

  18. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  19. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... are outlined. The subjects dealt with compromise: the quantity to be measured, the required accuracy of measurement, calibration procedures, and dosemeter design including the main parameters influencing the energy and angular response of the dosemeter, such as detector thickness, filter thickness, dosemeter...

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  1. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  2. Meta-analysis of beta radiation augmentation for trabeculectomy - results in distinct ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Issa de Fendi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis on the efficacy of trabeculectomy (TREC followed by beta irradiation (BRT/TREC compared to TREC alone for glaucoma in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP control and adverse effects of treatment in different ethnic groups. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing adjunct BRT treatment for glaucoma with standard TREC after 12 months. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases and recent studies of relevant journals were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed relevant reports and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,350 citations, eight studies (five cohorts, three randomized were identified and only 3 RCT were included in this meta-analysis. Higher IOP reductions were verified in the BRT arm compared to the control arm (mean difference=1.68 mmHg, 95% CI= 0.61-2.68, P=0.002. Uncontrolled postoperative IOP (>21 mmHg was less frequent when BRT was used (BRT/ TREC arm compared to the control arm (38/218=17.4% versus 9/239=3.8%; OR=6.7; 95% CI 3.2-14.3, P<0.0001. Although better IOP control was observed in all patients treated with adjuvant BRT, only Black patients displayed a significant difference (P=0.005. There were no significant differences between the BRT and control arms regarding loss of visual acuity, postoperative complications and necessity of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Adjunct BRT increases the success rate of TREC, with better results in non Caucasian patients, and does not influence the occurrence of postoperative complications.

  3. Cephalosporin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with special reference to the proposed trapping of antibiotics by beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, D M; Williams, J D; Davy, K W

    1985-02-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to newer cephalosporins is often associated with stable derepression of synthesis of the chromosomal beta-lactamase. Similar resistance is developed by enzyme inducible (i.e. normal) strains in response to beta-lactamase inducers. By comparing the responses of otherwise isogenic P. aeruginosa beta-lactamase inducibility mutants to antipseudomonal cephalosporins alone or in combination with potent beta-lactamase inducers we confirmed that resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime and latamoxef was caused by beta-lactamase action. The low-level resistance to carbenicillin and cefsulodin which was exhibited by some fully beta-lactamase derepressed strains was not confirmed to be beta-lactamase determined and may have reflected concurrent target or permeability changes. The mechanism whereby the enzyme protected the cell against cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was also investigated. These agents are reportedly stable to the enzyme and some workers have suggested that resistance entails their being trapped rather than hydrolysed. However, the use of a novel model of cellular beta-lactamase function indicated that a hydrolytic resistance mechanism remained likely.

  4. Vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in Chinese adults assessed by stable isotope dilution and reference techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Spirulina is a high-protein food supplement that contains carotenoids. Objective: The study aimed at determining the vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in humans. Design: Spirulina was grown in a 23 atom% 2H2O cultural solution. Spirulina beta-carotene showed the highest ab...

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of new phosphors of Zn O exposed to beta radiation; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de nuevos fosforos de ZnO expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Barboza F, M.; Bernal, R. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence dosimetry of a new Zn O phosphor obtained by annealing of Zn S powder precipitated when Zn S films were grown by employing a CBD method. The collected Zn S powder was pressed in a die to form pellets which were subjected to different thermal treatments under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of Zn S to Zn O. The phosphors thus obtained were exposed to high doses of beta radiation and their thermoluminescent dosimetry show that these new phosphors are materials suitable to be used in high dose thermoluminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  6. APMP supplementary comparison report of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (BIPM KCDB: APMP.RI(I)-S2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.; Kadni, T. B.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, B. C.; Yi, C.-Y.; Pungkun, V.; Chu, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison of absorbed dose rate in tissue for beta radiation (APMP.RI(I)-S2) was performed with five national metrology institutes in 2013 and 2014. Two commercial thin window ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. Two of the NMIs measured the calibration coefficients of the chambers in reference fields produced from Pm-147, Kr-85 and Sr-90/Y-90, while the other three measured those only in Sr-90/Y-90 beta-particle field. The degree of equivalence for the participants was determined and this comparison verifies the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. In addition, most of the results of this comparison are consistent with another international comparison (EUROMET.RI(I)-S2) reported before this work. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. A Polymorphism Within the Promoter of the TGF{beta}1 Gene Is Associated With Radiation Sensitivity Using an Objective Radiologic Endpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Jackson, Lauren [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Langdon, Scott [Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Owzar, Kouros [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hubbs, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) gene are associated with radiation sensitivity using an objective radiologic endpoint. Methods and Materials: Preradiation therapy and serial postradiation therapy single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion scans were obtained in patients undergoing treatment for lung cancer. Serial blood samples were obtained to measure circulating levels of TGF{beta}1. Changes in regional perfusion were related to regional radiation dose yielding a patient-specific dose-response curve, reflecting the patient's inherent sensitivity to radiation therapy. Six TGF{beta}1 SNPs (-988, -800, -509, 869, 941, and 1655) were assessed using high-resolution melting assays and DNA sequencing. The association between genotype and slope of the dose-response curve, and genotype and TGF{beta}1 ratio (4-week/preradiation therapy), was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: 39 white patients with preradiation therapy and {>=}6-month postradiation therapy SPECT scans and blood samples were identified. Increasing slope of the dose-response curve was associated with the C(-509)T SNP (p = 0.035), but not the other analyzed SNPs. This SNP was also associated with higher TGF{beta}1 ratios. Conclusions: This study suggests that a polymorphism within the promoter of the TGF{beta}1 gene is associated with increased radiation sensitivity (defined objectively by dose-dependent changes in SPECT lung perfusion).

  8. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  9. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  10. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  11. A reference radiation facility for dosimetry at flight altitude and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    A reference facility for the intercomparison of active and passive detectors in high-energy neutron fields is available at CERN since 1993. A positive charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction are filtered by a shielding of either 80 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shielding, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the concrete shielding, the neutron spectrum has a pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. The facility is used for a variety of investigations with active and passive neutron dosimeters. Its use for measurements related to the space programme is discussed. (21 refs).

  12. Interactions of the integrin subunit beta1A with protein kinase B/Akt, p130Cas and paxillin contribute to regulation of radiation survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidler, Julia; Durzok, Rita; Brakebusch, Cord;

    2005-01-01

    in presence or absence of growth factors or inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), i.e. Ly294002 and wortmannin. In addition to colony formation, protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) kinase activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas, paxillin and c-Jun N2-terminal kinase (JNK) expression...... and phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot technique. RESULTS: Adhesion of GD25beta1A cells to extracellular matrix proteins or beta1-IgG resulted in growth factor-independent radiation survival. In contrast, serum starved GD25beta1B cells showed a significant (P...25beta1B cells, which express mutant beta1B-integrins, were compared in terms of radiation survival and beta1-integrin signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, laminin, vitronectin, anti-beta1-integrin-IgG (beta1-IgG) or poly-l-lysine were irradiated with 0-6Gy...

  13. Modification of polyethylene films by radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and immobilization of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava-Ortiz, C.A.B. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto polyethylene films using a preirradiation method with {gamma} rays. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were verified by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. {beta}-Cyclodextrin was immobilized onto polypropylene modified with glycidyl methacrylate, and the ability of the cavities of {beta}-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes was demonstrated using the typically organic compound approach with m-toluic acid (3-MBA) as a probe.

  14. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); Patron Nacional para la realizacion de la unidad de la rapidez de dosis absorbida en aire para radiacion beta. (Metodo: Ionometrico, cavidad de Bragg-Gray implementada en una camara de extrapolacion con electrodos de separacion variable, expuesta a un campo de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-01-15

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Ophthalmic applicators {sup 9}0{sup S}r/{sup 90}Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  15. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  16. Optically stimulated luminescence response to Al2O3 to beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akselrod, A.; Akselrod, M.S.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity dosemeters based on Al2O3:C have been prepared and tested for use as beta dosemeters using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Two types of sample were prepared and tested, namely unpolished thick, single crystal chips and thin powder layers on aluminium substrates...

  17. Radiation processes in crystal solid solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gladyshev, Gennadi

    2012-01-01

    This is a monograph explaining processes occurring in two classes of crystal solids (metal alloys and doped alkali halide) under irradiation by various types of radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, X-radiations, ions). This e-book is a useful reference for advanced readers interested in the physics of radiation and solid state physics.

  18. Organ dose conversion coefficients for pediatric reference computational phantoms in external photon radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A.

    In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to estimate the organ doses to those exposed. In general, it is difficult to measure organ dose directly in the field and therefore dose conversion coefficients (DCC) are needed to convert measurable values such as air kerma to organ dose. Previous work on these coefficients has been conducted mainly for adults with a focus on radiation protection workers. Hence, there is a large gap in the literature for pediatric values. This study coupled a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with International Council of Radiological Protection (ICRP)-adopted University of Florida and National Cancer Institute pediatric reference phantoms to calculate a comprehensive list of dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) to convert air-kerma to organ dose. Parameters included ten phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year old male and female), 28 organs over 33 energies between 0.01 and 20 MeV in six (6) irradiation geometries relevant to a child who might be exposed to a radiological release: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral (RLAT), left-lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). Dose conversion coefficients to the red bone marrow over 36 skeletal sites were also calculated. It was hypothesized that the pediatric organ dose conversion coefficients would follow similar trends to the published adult values as dictated by human anatomy, but be of a higher magnitude. It was found that while the pediatric coefficients did yield similar patterns to that of the adult coefficients, depending on the organ and irradiation geometry, the pediatric values could be lower or higher than that of the adult coefficients.

  19. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br, e-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2003-07-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  20. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Rajon, Didier A; Patton, Phillip W; Jokisch, Derek W; Bolch, Wesley E

    2005-05-01

    Current methods of skeletal dose assessment in both medical physics (radionuclide therapy) and health physics (dose reconstruction and risk assessment) rely heavily on a single set of bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions in which particle energy deposition is tracked within an infinite extent of trabecular spongiosa, with no allowance for particle escape to cortical bone. In the present study, we introduce a paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model which provides a more realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry for particle transport in the skeletal site at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of its histology. Ex vivo CT scans were acquired of the pelvis, cranial cap, and individual ribs excised from a 66-year male cadaver (BMI of 22.7 kg m(-2)). For the three skeletal sites, regions of trabecular spongiosa and cortical bone were identified and segmented. Physical sections of interior spongiosa were taken and subjected to microCT imaging. Voxels within the resulting microCT images were then segmented and labeled as regions of bone trabeculae, endosteum, active marrow, and inactive marrow through application of image processing algorithms. The PIRT methodology was then implemented within the EGSNRC radiation transport code whereby electrons of various initial energies are simultaneously tracked within both the ex vivo CT macroimage and the CT microimage of the skeletal site. At initial electron energies greater than 50-200 keV, a divergence in absorbed fractions to active marrow are noted between PIRT model simulations and those estimated under existing techniques of infinite spongiosa transport. Calculations of radionuclide S values under both methodologies imply that current chord-based models may overestimate the absorbed dose to active bone marrow in these skeletal sites by 0% to 27% for low-energy beta emitters (33P, 169Er, and 177Lu), by approximately 4% to 49% for intermediate-energy beta emitters (153Sm, 186Re, and 89Sr), and by

  1. Angular dependence of TL and OSL responses of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors in standard beta radiation beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The luminescent response of radiation detectors was evaluated by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) phenomena, for verification of its application in radiation dosimetry. An angular dependence study was performed in this work, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors, which were exposed to the radiation beams of a {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y source from a beta radiation secondary standard system. The detectors were irradiated with an angle variation from -60° to +60°, and the results obtained using the TL and OSL techniques were within the international recommendation limits. (author)

  2. Can {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cariology; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-31

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and no {beta}-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and 6 mg {beta}-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author).

  3. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis.

  4. Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  6. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  7. Biological response to ionizing radiation in mouse embryo fibroblasts with a targeted disruption of the DNA polymerase beta gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, M; Watanabe, H; Okochi, K; Sasaki, T; Shibuya, H

    2000-06-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is carried out by two distinct pathways in mammalian cells, one dependent on DNA polymerase beta (Polb) and the other on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna). We studied whether the Polb-dependent pathway plays an important role in BER in vivo after exposure to ionizing radiation. For this purpose, we used mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from wild-type and Polb gene knockout littermates. Both cell lines had essentially the same clonogenic cell survival and low levels of apoptosis as determined by a colony formation assay and by a change in mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. No significant cleavage of protein kinase C delta (Pkcd) in vivo, which is a substrate for caspase 3, was detected, and intact Pkcd was retained in both cell lines for at least 72 h after irradiation. Similar significant increases in caspase 3-like activities as measured by Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) cleaving activity in vitro were observed in both cell lines after irradiation. Radiation induced cell cycle arrest in the form of a G(2)-phase block, and G(2)/M-phase fractions reached a peak approximately 10 h after irradiation and decreased thereafter with a similar time course in both cell lines. Similar levels of chromatin-bound Pcna were observed immediately after irradiation in non-S-phase cells of both cell lines and disappeared by 4 h after irradiation. We conclude that the deficiency in Polb does not have a significant influence on the radiation responses of these cells. Together with evidence accumulated in vitro, these results strongly support the idea that the Pcna-dependent pathway predominantly acts in BER of radiation-induced DNA damage in vivo.

  8. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of new ZnO nano phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of ZnO nano phosphors obtained by thermal annealing of ZnS powders synthesized by precipitation in a chemical bath deposition reaction. To obtain nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnS pellet-shaped samples were subjected to a sintering process at 700 C during 24 under air atmosphere. Some samples were exposed to beta particles in the 0.15-10.15 kGy dose range and the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose increased as dose increased, with no saturation clue for the tested doses. Computerized glow-curve deconvolution of the experimental TL curves in individual peaks revealed a second order kinetics. In order to test the BOSL (Blue Optically Stimulated Luminescence) response, samples were beta irradiated with doses up to 600 Gy, showing an increasing OSL intensity as dose increases. From the experimental results that we have obtained, we conclude that the new ZnO phosphors under investigation are good candidates to be used as dosimetric materials. (Author)

  9. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  10. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is utilized as a model system for studying dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the DNA of the epidermis, including strand breaks and thymine dimers, are measured and compared to the temporal and dose related aspects of tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molecular lesions are compared to split dose recovery as modified by sensitizers and type of radition of oncogenic damage.

  11. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  12. Comparative Sero-Prevalence Investigation of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients, Referred to Taleghani Center, Gorgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat Mofidi SM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP syndrome is acommon disorder, especially in children with beta thalassemia major. Thesepatients are predisposed to heart diseases which are caused byhemochromatosis (Iron overload, resulting in sudden death. Because of therole of Helico bacter pylori in causing abdominal pain and peptic ulcer, and inincreasing the risk or exacerbating of heart diseases, it can be important in betathalassemia major. This study aimed at determining the frequency of anti-H.pylori class IgA in patients suffered from beta thalassemia major.Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic Study, 132 betathalassemia major Patients and 135 healthy cases were matched by age, sexand ethnic as a control group. The sera were separated from clot in firstSeroepidemiology and along with the filled questionnaires sent toImmunology-hematology Laboratory of paramedical school, in which thesamples were tested by ELISA method with Diagnostic kit for anti-H.pyloriIgA and IgG classes detection. We analyzed the Data by chi square andIndependent T and Fisher tests.Results: the results show that the difference between the anti-H.pylori classIgA in case (22.7% and control group (17.8% is not significant (P=0.6, Butit is significant between anti-H.pylori IgG class, 81.8% for cases and 54.8%for controls (P<0.001.Conclusion: Based on the results, the rate of anti-H.P IgA class in case is1.131 times more than control group, which is not significant. On the otherhand , the rate of anti-H.P IgG is 1.478 times more than control group which issignificant.Key words: Thalassemia, Helicobacter pylori, Gorgan, Sero epidemiology

  13. Generation of a reference radiation pattern of string instruments using automatic excitation and acoustic centering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Noam R; Behler, Gottfried; Vorländer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Radiation patterns of musical instruments are important for the understanding of music perception in concert halls, and may be used to improve the plausibility of virtual acoustic systems. Many attempts have been performed to measure the spatial response of musical instruments using surrounding spherical microphone arrays with a limited number of microphones. This work presents a high-resolution spatial sampling of the radiation pattern of an electrically excited violin, and addresses technical problems that arise due to mechanical reasons of the excitation apparatus using acoustic centering.

  14. LTE Radiated Data Throughput Measurements, Adopting MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del;

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) requires Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems. Consequently a new over-the-air (OTA) test methodology need to be created to make proper assessment of LTE devices radiated performance. The antenna specific parameters i.e. total antenna efficiency, gain im...... performance, ruling out the LTE devices unknown MIMO 2x2 antenna performance....

  15. Thermoluminescent characterization of thin films of aluminium oxide submitted to beta and gamma radiation; Caracterizacion termoluminiscente de peliculas delgadas de oxido de aluminio sometidas a radiacion beta y gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagran, E.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Martinez A, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    By mean of the laser ablation technique, thin films of aluminium oxide have been deposited on kapton substrates. These films present thermoluminescent response (Tl) when they are exposed to beta and gamma radiation. The brilliance curves show two peaks between 112 C and 180 C. A dose-response relationship study was realized and the Tl kinetic parameters were determined using the computerized deconvolution of the brilliance curve (CGCD). The thin films of aluminium oxide have potential applications as ultra.thin radiation dosemeters. (Author)

  16. Utility of Normal Tissue-to-Tumor {alpha}/{beta} Ratio When Evaluating Isodoses of Isoeffective Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve a better understanding of the effect of the number of fractions on normal tissue sparing for equivalent tumor control in radiation therapy plans by using equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) isoeffect calculations. Methods and Materials: The simple linear quadratic (LQ) model was assumed to be valid up to 10 Gy per fraction. Using the model, we formulated a well-known mathematical equality for the tumor prescription dose and probed and solved a second mathematical problem for normal tissue isoeffect. That is, for a given arbitrary relative isodose distribution (treatment plan in percentages), 2 isoeffective tumor treatment regimens (N fractions of the dose D and n fractions of the dose d) were denoted, which resulted in the same BED (corresponding to 100% prescription isodose). Given these situations, the LQ model was further exploited to mathematically establish a unique relative isodose level, z (%), for the same arbitrary treatment plan, where the BED to normal tissues was also isoeffective for both fractionation regimens. Results: For the previously stated problem, the relative isodose level z (%), where the BEDs to the normal tissue were also equal, was defined by the normal tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratio divided by the tumor {alpha}/{beta} times 100%. Fewer fractions offers a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue located outside the isodose surface, z, whereas more fractions offer a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue within the isodose surface, z. Conclusions: Relative isodose-based treatment plan evaluations may be useful for comparing isoeffective tumor regimens in terms of normal tissue effects. Regions of tissues that would benefit from hypofractionation or standard fractionation can be identified.

  17. Structure of the inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin with 1,12-dodecanedioic acid using synchrotron radiation data; a detailed dimeric beta-cyclodextrin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonopoulou; Mavridis

    2000-04-01

    A detailed crystal structure study of the dimeric inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) with 1,12-dodecanedioic acid is presented [IUPAC name: beta-cyclodextrin-1,12-dodecanedioic acid (2/1)]. The structure was solved with synchrotron high-resolution data (0.65 A) at 100 K [crystal data: P1, Z= 1, a = 18.153 (7), b = 15.456 (8), c = 15.251 (4) A, alpha = 102.81 (2), beta = 113.13 (2), gamma = 99.90 (3)degrees, V = 3,673 (3) A3, R = 0.0474 for 25,134 unique reflections with I > 2sigma(I)]. Moreover, the room-temperature structure is used for comparison [crystal data: P1, Z = 1, a = 18.220 (3), b = 15.488 (3), c = 15.409 (3) A, alpha = 102.903 (6), beta = 113.122 (5), gamma = 99.708 (5)degrees, V = 3735.2 (12) A3, R = 0.0828 for 8,235 unique reflections with I > 2sigma(I)]. Combining the high-resolution data and the low-temperature made possible the location of the disordered guest molecule, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid, inside the wide cavity of the macrocycle formed by two betaCD monomers. Moreover, almost all the H atoms of the betaCD macrocycle and many of the water molecules have been located in the low-temperature structure. Thus, for the first time, it has been possible to show in detail, up to now only given by neutron diffraction data, that two betaCD monomers self-assemble through O3...O3 intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the betaCD dimer, as well as describe the hydrogen-bonding scheme between the dimer's hydroxyl groups among themselves and with water molecules in the lattice. The long guest threads through two host molecules forming a [3]pseudorotaxane. Its polar carboxyl groups, fully hydrated at the primary faces of the betaCD dimers, influence their packing so that those faces are exposed to the solvent. This is in contrast to the packing of the beta-cyclodextrin complexes of the corresponding aliphatic monoacids, where the dimeric complexes form channels in order to isolate the terminal methyl group from the water environment of the lattice.

  18. “UROPATHOGENS”: PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXTEN DED SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was performed on culture and sensitivit y of 6,951 urine samples, received in the Department of Microbiology, Christia n Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana from out patients and in patients having urinary tra ct infection (UTI .A total of 2,276 samples were found out to be culture positive, out of which 1,727 samples yielded gram negative organisms. Various isolates included 1,237 Escheric hia coli (E. coli, 262 Klebsiella pneumoniae,47 Acinetobacter lwoffi, 39 Proteus mirab ilis,39 Enterobacter aerogenes and 03 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extended spectrum beta lacta mase (ESBL production was studied in multidrug resistant E. coli. And Klebsiella pneumoni ae, out of which 28.29% E.coli and 30.53% Klebsiella pneumoniae yielded positive results. Our r esults suggest that the physician should be aware of high prevalence of ESBL producing E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia which are the two common uropathogens, and should plan their therapy re gime accordingly. However, Acinetobacter species were mainly associate d with nosocomial UTI whereas Enterobacter species were isolated mostly from out pa tients. Various uropathogens causing community acquired as well as nosocomial UTI showed poor response to cephalexin whereas resistant strains from both types of UTI exhibited g ood susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactum combination.

  19. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilseia Aparecida Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    heterogeneous eye model, indicating that the homogeneous water eye model is a reasonable one. The determined isodose curves give a good visualization of dose distributions inside the eye structures, pointing out their most exposed volume....................................................Cite this article as:Barbosa NA, da Rosa LAR, de Menezes AF, Reis JP, Facure A, Braz D. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(3:02038. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0203.8

  20. European reference standards on radiation protection training; Estandares de referencia europeos en formacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente Herranz, C.; Marco Arboli, M.; Coeck, M.

    2011-07-01

    The PR is a very important challenge in applications of ionizing radiation (IR) in both industrial and medical and research. In Europe today we face a declining trend in the number of experts in PR for various reasons that may impact on maintaining a high level of competition in PR. This is essential to ensure future safe use of the Rl and the development of new technologies.

  1. Properties of para-terphenyl as detector for alpha, beta and gamma radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Bellini, F; Bocci, V; Collamati, F; De Lucia, E; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Marafini, M; Materazzo, D; Mattei, I; Morganti, S; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pillon, M; Recchia, L; Russomando, A; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Voena, C

    2013-01-01

    Organic scintillators are often chosen as radiation detectors for their fast decay time and their low Z, while inorganic ones are used when high light ields are required. In this paper we show that a para-terphenyl based detector has a blend of properties of the two categories that can be optimal for energy and position measurements of low energy charged particles. On 0.1% diphenylbutadiene doped para-terphenyl samples we measure a light yield 3.5+-0.2 times larger than a typical organic scintillator (EJ-200), and a rejection power for 660 keV photons, with respect to electrons of the same energy, ranging between 3-11%, depending on the signal threshold. We also measure a light attenuation length = 4.73+-0.06 mm and we demonstrate that, with the measurements performed in this paper, a simulation based on FLUKA can properly reproduce the measured spectra.

  2. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Langhe, Sofie, E-mail: Sofie.DeLanghe@UGent.be [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Werbrouck, Joke [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  4. Extremity dosimeters characterization and calibration for beta radiation fields to evaluate the personal dose equivalent; Caracterizacao e calibracao de dosimetros de extremidade para feixes de radiacao beta em termos do equivalente de dose pessoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, Emiliane Advincula; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: emilianea@hotmail.com; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br

    2002-07-01

    Two extremity personal dosimeters were type tested and calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent, H{rho}(d), at 0.07 mm depth, at beta particle fields from a {sup 90} Sr+{sup 90} Y radiation source. One dosimeter is a graphite mixed CaSO{sub 4}:Dy thermoluminescent (TL) detector in the Harshaw /Bicron Ext-Rad ring; the other is a LiF:Mg,Ti TL detector in a velcro ring. Type tests were carried out to verify the detection limit, linearity, and the angular dependence of both dosimeters. Dosimeters were used to evaluate the personal dose equivalent of operators who deal with {sup 90} Sr+{sup 90} Y ophthalmic and dermatologic applicators at a beta therapy service. Results suggest that the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosimeter is more reliable and adequate for measurements at beta radiation fields than the LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeter which shows a trend to subestimate the values of H{rho}(0.07). Two extremity personal dosimeters were type tested. (author)

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  6. TL and LOE dosimetric evaluation of diamond films exposed to beta and ultraviolet radiation; Evaluacion dosimetrica TL y LOE de peliculas de diamante expuestas a radiacion beta y ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado F, S.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 13 y A.P. 5-088, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Schreck, M. [Universitaet Augsburg, Institut fuer Physik D-86135 (Germany); Cruz Z, E. [ICN, UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The diamond possesses a privileged position regarding other materials of great technological importance. Their applications go from the optics, microelectronics, metals industry, medicine and of course as dosemeter, in the registration and detection of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. In this work the results of TL/LOE obtained in two samples of diamond of 10 {mu}m thickness grown by the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) assisted by microwave plasma. The films were deposited in a silicon substrate (001) starting from a mixture of gases composed of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and 750 ppm of molecular nitrogen as dopant. The samples were exposed to beta radiation (Sr{sup 90}/ Y{sup 90}) and ultraviolet, being stimulated later on thermal (TL) and optically (LOE) to evaluate their dosimetric properties. The sample without doping presented high response TL/LOE to the ultraviolet and beta radiation. The TL glow curve of the sample without doping showed two TL peaks with second order kinetics in the range of 520 to 550 K, besides a peak with first order kinetics of more intensity around 607 K. The TL efficiency of the non doped sample is bigger than the doped with nitrogen; however the LOE efficiency is similar in both samples. The results indicate that the CVD diamond possesses excellent perspectives for dosimetric applications, with special importance in radiotherapy due to it is biologically compatible with the human tissue. (Author)

  7. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE.

  8. Determination of the dose rapidity of a {sup 90} Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Determinacion de la rapidez de dosis de una fuente de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a {sup 90} Sr-{sup 90} Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  9. Fabrication of new phosphors of NaCl: Cu and their thermoluminescent characterization to be exposed to beta radiation; Fabricacion de nuevos fosforos de NaCl: Cu y su caracterizacion termoluminiscente al ser expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, R.; Perez S, R.; Barboza F, M. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Tostado G, W.C.; Cruz V, C. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of new NaCl:Cu phosphors manufactured by following a previously reported sintering method. The samples were made from mixtures of commercially available Na CI and Cu Cl high purity powders. Tl glow curves obtained after exposing the samples to beta radiation exhibit two main intense peaks at 117 and 310 when a 2 C/s heating rate is used. These peaks positions differ from those reported for NaCl:Cu monocrystals. The first peak vanishes in ca. 3 h, while the high temperature one remains with no meaningful changes. The position, as well as the remarkable stability of the high temperature peak indicates that this new phosphors have better properties than the monocrystals present to be applied as detectors and dosimeters of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  10. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of serum levels in T3, T4 and TSH in beta-thalassemic patients referred to the Abuzar hospital in Ahwaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Zari Tahannejad; Ghazanfari, Majid; Naleini, Seyyed Nima; Sabagh, Azam; Kooti, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Regarding the functioning of the endocrine system, and especially in the thyroid of patients with thalassemia, multiple studies in different parts of the world have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of thyroid hormones and TSH in beta-thalassemic patients in the city of Ahwaz. Methods In this matched case-control study, 105 patients in the case group and 105 subjects as controls were randomly selected from clients referred to the Abuzar hospital in 2015–2016. Serum levels of T3, T4, and TSH hormones were measured using ELISA. Data was processed with the SPSS15 software and tested by using independent t-tests and logistic regression. Results The study results showed that the serum level of T3 hormone did not significantly differ between the two groups (p> 0.05). Whereas the serum level of T4 was lower in the case group, compared to the controls, which was statistically significant (p hemochromatosis in patients with thalassemia major due to the effect of accumulation of iron on thyroid function and detection of hypothyroidism. This course of action will prevent incidence of this complication in patients with thalassemia major. PMID:27648188

  12. {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC receptor-targeted alpha-radionuclide therapy induces remission in neuroendocrine tumours refractory to beta radiation: a first-in-human experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruchertseifer, F.; Apostolidis, C.; Morgenstern, A. [European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boll, R.; Murphy, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radiopeptide therapy using a somatostatin analogue labelled with a beta emitter such as {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC is a new therapeutic option in neuroendocrine cancer. Alternative treatments for patients with refractory disease are rare. Here we report the first-in-human experience with {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC targeted alpha therapy (TAT) in patients pretreated with beta emitters. Seven patients with progressive advanced neuroendocrine liver metastases refractory to treatment with {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC were treated with an intraarterial infusion of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC, and one patient with bone marrow carcinosis was treated with a systemic infusion of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC. Haematological, kidney and endocrine toxicities were assessed according to CTCAE criteria. Radiological response was assessed with contrast-enhanced MRI and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT. More than 2 years of follow-up were available in seven patients. The biodistribution of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC was evaluable with 440 keV gamma emission scans, and demonstrated specific tumour binding. Enduring responses were observed in all treated patients. Chronic kidney toxicity was moderate. Acute haematotoxicity was even less pronounced than with the preceding beta therapies. TAT can induce remission of tumours refractory to beta radiation with favourable acute and mid-term toxicity at therapeutic effective doses. (orig.)

  13. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF THE BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AN INTERNAL CONTAMINATION WITH PURE-BETA EMITTERS IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantínová, K; Fojtík, P; Malátová, I

    2016-09-01

    Rapid measurement techniques are required for a large-scale emergency monitoring of people. In vivo measurement of the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by incorporated pure-beta emitters can offer a rapid technique for the determination of such radionuclides in the human body. This work presents a method for the calibration of spectrometers, based on the use of UPh-02T (so-called IGOR) phantom and specific (90)Sr/(90)Y sources, which can account for recent as well as previous contaminations. The process of the whole- and partial-body counter calibration in combination with application of a Monte Carlo code offers readily extension also to other pure-beta emitters and various exposure scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Thoracic spinal cord compression due to xtramedullary haemopoiesis in a patient with beta-thalassemia: complete clinical regression with radiation therapy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramita Saha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord compression due to Extramedullary   Haemopoesis in beta-thalassemia is extremely rare. Controversies are there between the two modalities of treatment surgery vs radiation therapy. We present here a case of beta thalassemia major in a twenty one years female patient who presented with features of spinal cord compression due to extramedullary  haemopoesis.. She was then treated  with 3000 cGy of radiation therapy targeted to the T5-T8  region, as 200 cGy/fraction daily,  5 fractions/week , over 6 weeks .The patient’s haemoglobin was elevated from 6.1g/dl to 10.1g/dl, with her haematocrit rising from 26.3 % to 32.8%.Steroid dose was tapered on hospital  day number 7.She achieved near full neurological recovery after medical treatment with steroids, blood transfusion and radiation therapy. 

  15. Response of TLD badge to mixed fields of photons of energies above 6 MeV and beta radiation encountered in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Bakshi, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    Response of TLD badge in use for our countrywide personnel monitoring was evaluated for high-energy photon beams (10 MV, 15 MV and 18 MV) from medical Linear Accelerators with beam output measurements within an accuracy better than {+-}3%. The badge has three CaSO{sub 4}:Dy teflon TLD discs (each of dia. 13.5 mm and thickness 0.8 mm) clipped on an aluminum card kept in a cassette having three regions (i) combined metal filter of 1 mm thick Cu and 1 mm thick Al, (ii) 1.6 mm thick plastic filter and (iii) an open window area on either side sandwiching the TLD card. Mainly discs under metal filter and open window are used to estimate the dose due to gamma rays and beta rays, respectively while ratios of responses of discs under plastic filter and open window/metal filter in an algorithm are used for arriving at the correction factors for evaluation of beta and gamma ray doses. In nuclear power plants, especially the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor systems, gamma ray of energy higher than 6 MeV (produced from disintegration of {sup 16}N via the reaction {sup 16}O(n p){sup 16}N) do contribute significantly to personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in addition to situations where beta radiation contributes to personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07). The values of absorbed doses at 10 mm in phantom were obtained from the measured values of dose at Dmax traceable to national standard and irradiations of dosimeters were made on a plastic phantom of size 25x25x25 cm{sup 3}. The bare dosimeter disc was found to exhibit no photon energy dependence for high energy photons of energy above 300 keV (up to 7 MeV). However, the response of the badge was found to increase by about 10% above 6 MeV as compared to that of Co-60 gamma rays due to the influence of metal filters used in the badge for compensation of photon energy (below 200keV) response. In the case of LiF TLD-100 ribbons sandwiched between 0.3 mm thick Cu filters, no over-response was observed. A significant complication in the

  16. Ultra-Low Power High Temperature and Radiation Hard Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Voltage Reference

    OpenAIRE

    El Hafed Boufouss; Francis, Laurent A.; Valeriya Kilchytska; Pierre Gérard; Pascal Simon; Denis Flandre

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40–200 °C and for differ...

  17. Metrological characteristics of the new BSS2 beta secondary standard system; Caracteristicas metrologicas do novo sistema padrao secundario beta - BSS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, Sibele R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Floresta, Denise L.; Soares, Carlos M. de A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Due to the increased interest and the importance of beta radiation dosimetry for radiation protection purposes, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. MG, Brazil, acquired the newest Beta Secondary Standard system (BSS2) in order to replace the old BSS1 model, with the goal of implement a beta radiation metrology laboratory and provide the corresponding reference radiation. The new system BSS2, unique in Latin America, requires operational testing and metrological characterization for reliability purposes. For this, some comparative investigations of the two systems were made. The influence of opening and closing the shutter in the final dose of radiation was identified as the highest in the BSS2 in relation to the one founded in BSS1, justified by the structural difference of the shutters of the systems and the reproducibility of source-detector geometry was better in BSS2, because of the robustness of the same.

  18. Sensitivity studies of beta-radiation detector based on small-crystalline scintillator ZnSe(Te)

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrylyuk, V; Danshin, E

    2001-01-01

    A new large area beta-detector has been designed and studied.The design includes wedge-shaped light transducers.A composite material based on a small crystalline ZnSe(Te) was applied onto the wide surface of light transducer.This design ensures optimum light collection from the large sensitive surface onto the output window of a much smaller size.An experimental specimen has been prepared, which showed a beta-sensitivity C subbeta=5.5 cm sup 2. The spectrograms of a sup 9 sup 0 Sr sup + sup 9 sup 0 Y beta--source obtained with the specimen under study make it possible to evaluate the age of the source by the ratio of low-and high-energy regions of the spectrum. Other designs are proposed for application of large-area detectors possessing wedge-shaped light transducers as elements of assembled constructions for high efficiency detectors operating under flow conditions.

  19. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He-Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

  20. Radiation synthesis of pH-sensitive hydrogels from {beta}-cyclodextrin-grafted PEG and acrylic acid for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Rong Liang [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Baoshan, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lin Han, E-mail: linhan1205@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Baoshan, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xiao Ruijia; Wu Huifeng [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Baoshan, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A water-soluble macromonomer (PEG-{beta}-CD) was synthesised by reaction of {beta}-cyclodextrin with poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether. Then, a novel hydrogel with pH-sensitivity was prepared by irradiating the mixture of acrylic acid and PEG-{beta}-CD with electron beam. Compared with the normal PAAc hydrogel, this novel hydrogel had a higher swelling ratio at pH 3-8. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was chosen as a model drug, and the kinetics of 5-FU releasing behavior was studied. Compared with the PAAc hydrogel, the results showed the release time of 5-FU from the cyclodextrin containing hydrogel was prolonged. It may be ascribed to the formation of inclusion complexes between the drug molecules and cyclodextrin groups.

  1. Repeated exposure of human fibroblasts to ionizing radiation reveals an adaptive response that is not mediated by interleukin-6 or TGF-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieriks, Birger, E-mail: birger.dieriks@ugent.be [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); De Vos, Winnok [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Baatout, Sarah [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Radiobiology Unit, Laboratory Molecular and Cellular Biology, Radiobiology Unit, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Oostveldt, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.VanOostveldt@UGent.be [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-10-01

    Exposing cells to a low dose can protect them against a subsequent higher exposure. This phenomenon is known as adaptive response and is frequently observed in a variety of cells. Even though similarities are suspected with other non-targeted effects, such as bystander effects, the exact mechanism behind adaptive response is not fully clarified. In this study human primary fibroblasts were tested for their response to ionizing radiation (IR) after administrating a low priming dose (0.1-0.5 Gy). Both the abundance of {gamma}H2AX as a marker for double-stranded breaks and the levels of cytokines, secreted in the medium, were monitored in time. Upon challenge, IR-primed cells showed modified {gamma}H2AX spot size distributions and altered repair kinetics, consistent with an adaptive response. In addition, 24 h after priming with IR, four cytokines were significantly upregulated in the medium - GM-CSF (1.33x); IL6 (4.24x); IL8 (1.33x); TGF-{beta} (1.46x). In order to mimick the protective effect of IR priming, we primed the cells with either IL6 or TGF-{beta}. This did not elicit an altered {gamma}H2AX response as observed in IR-primed cells, indicating that the adaptive response in these primary fibroblasts is regulated in an IL-6 and TGF-{beta} independent manner.

  2. Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part III: reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobit, P.; Gómez Tagle, A.; Bautista, F.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated two methods to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) from minimal weather records (daily maximum and minimum temperatures) in Mexico: a modified reduced set FAO-Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al. 1998, Rome, Italy) and the Hargreaves and Samani (Appl Eng Agric 1(2): 96-99, 1985) method. In the reduced set method, the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation was applied with vapor pressure and radiation estimated from temperature data using two new models (see first and second articles in this series): mean temperature as the average of maximum and minimum temperature corrected for a constant bias and constant wind speed. The Hargreaves-Samani method combines two empirical relationships: one between diurnal temperature range ΔT and shortwave radiation Rs, and another one between average temperature and the ratio ETo/Rs: both relationships were evaluated and calibrated for Mexico. After performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of different approximations on the estimation of Rs and ETo, several model combinations were tested to predict ETo from daily maximum and minimum temperature alone. The quality of fit of these models was evaluated on 786 weather stations covering most of the territory of Mexico. The best method was found to be a combination of the FAO-Penman-Monteith reduced set equation with the new radiation estimation and vapor pressure model. As an alternative, a recalibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation is proposed.

  3. Environmental dose rate heterogeneity of beta radiation and its implications for luminescence dating: Monte Carlo modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, R.P.; Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.;

    2003-01-01

    simulations. It is concluded that the effect of beta, heterogeneity in complex environments for luminescence dating is two fold: (i) the infinite matrix dose rate is not universally applicable; its accuracy depends on the scale of the heterogeneity, and (ii) the interpretation of D-e distributions is complex...

  4. Beta androstenediol mitigates the damage of 1 GeV/n Fe ion particle radiation to the hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Roger; Beckman, Mathew; Contaifer, Daniel; Tamariz, Francisco; Gibb, David; Thompson, Laura; Guida, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Space exploration is associated with exposure to 1-3 Gy solar particle radiation and galactic cosmic radiation that could increase cancer rates. Effective nontoxic countermeasures to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure are highly desirable but currently not available. The aim was to determine whether a single subcutaneous injection of androstenediol (Δ(5) androsten-3β, 17β-diol [AED]) could mitigate and restore the mouse hematopoetic system from the radiation-mediated injury of 3 Gy whole-body high LET (56)Fe(26+) exposure. The findings show that postradiation AED treatment has an overall positive and significant beneficial effect to restore the levels of hematopoeitic elements (p<0.001). Androstenediol treatment significantly increased monocyte levels at days 4, 7, and 14 and, similarly, increased red blood cell, hemoglobin, and platelet counts. Flow cytometry analysis 14 days after radiation and AED treatment demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in bone marrow cells counts. Ex vivo osteoclastogenesis studies show that AED treatment is necessary and advantageous for the development and restoration of osteoclastogenesis after radiation exposure. These findings clearly show that androstenediol functions as a countermeasure to remedy hematopoeitic injury mediated by high LET iron ion radiation. Presently, no other agent has been shown to have such properties.

  5. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  6. Ultra-Low Power High Temperature and Radiation Hard Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI Voltage Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hafed Boufouss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40–200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C. The maximum drift of the reference voltage VREF depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μ W at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of VREF and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  7. Comparative study among calibration methods of clinical applicators of beta radiation; Estudo comparativo entre metodos de calibracao de aplicadores clinicos de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara

    2009-07-01

    {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y clinical applicators are instruments used in brachytherapy procedures and they have to be periodically calibrated, according to international standards and recommendations. In this work, four calibration methods of dermatological and ophthalmic applicators were studied, comparing the results with those given by the calibration certificates of the manufacturers. The methods included the use of the standard applicator of the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology; an Amersham applicator (LCI) as reference; a mini-extrapolation chamber developed at LCI as an absolute standard; and thermoluminescent dosimetry. The mini-extrapolation chamber and a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber were studied in relation to their performance through quality control tests of their response, as leakage current, repeatability and reproducibility. The distribution of the depth dose in water, that presents high importance in dosimetry of clinical applicators, was determined using the mini extrapolation chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results obtained were considered satisfactory for the both cases, and comparable to the data of the IAEA (2002) standard. Furthermore, a dosimetry postal kit was developed for the calibration of clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique, to be sent to clinics and hospitals, without the need of the transport of the sources to IPEN for calibration. (author)

  8. Bad Beta, Good Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Vuolteenaho, Tuomo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the size and value "anomalies" in stock returns using an economically motivated two-beta model. We break the beta of a stock with the market portfolio into two components, one reflecting news about the market's future cash flows and one reflecting news about the market's discount rates. Intertemporal asset pricing theory suggests that the former should have a higher price of risk; thus beta, like cholesterol, comes in "had" and "good" varieties. Empirically, we find that v...

  9. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  10. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  11. A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tea tree oils s.l. with special reference to the activity of beta-triketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, F; Kaulfers, P M; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2000-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Australian tea tree oil, cajuput oil, niaouli oil, kanuka oil and manuka oil as well as of a beta-triketone complex isolated from manuka oil were investigated in a constituent-oriented study. The compositions of the oils were analysed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. The MICs for sixteen different microorganisms were determined applying the broth dilution method. Australian tea tree oil showed the best overall antimicrobial effect. The best inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and dermatophytes were achieved with manuka oil due to its beta-triketone content.

  12. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation. Selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentreath, R.J. [Environmental Systems Science Centre, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, RG6 6AB Reading (United Kingdom); Woodhead, D.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Suffolk NR33 0HT Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-28

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a 'reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometries within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources.

  13. Effect of beta-radiation or oxidising agents on 3,5-di-tert, butyl-4-hydroxytoluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcherczyk, C.; Polge, P.; Baylocq, D.; Pellerin, F.

    1986-12-01

    An HPLC method for the identification and determination of BHT (3,5-di-tert.butyl-4-hydroxytoluene) and the by-products obtained from it by ..beta..-ray or oxidative treatment is described. The chemical structure of the by-products is established by mass spectrometry. The irradiation leads to the dimeric and trimeric forms of the antioxidant and the oxidation to a cyclohexa-2,5-dien-l-one with substitution of a hydroxy and a methanol or aldehyde group at position 4.

  14. Regional Radiation Pneumonitis After SIRT of a Subcapsular Liver Metastasis: What is the Effect of Direct Beta Irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.dobrocky@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland); Fuerstner, Markus, E-mail: markus.fuerstner@insel.ch; Klaeser, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.klaeser@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland); Lopez-Benitez, Ruben, E-mail: ruben.lopez@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland); Wälti, Yara Banz, E-mail: yara.banz@pathology.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital (Switzerland); Kara, Levent, E-mail: levent.kara@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    We herein present a patient undergoing selective internal radiation therapy with an almost normal lung shunt fraction of 11.5 %, developing histologically proven radiation pneumonitis. Due to a predominance of pulmonary consolidations in the right lower lung and its proximity to a large liver metastases located in the dome of the right liver lobe a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the effect of direct irradiation of the lung parenchyma. According to our calculations direct irradiation seems negligible and RP is almost exclusively due to ectopic draining of radioactive spheres.

  15. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  16. Common Variants of GSTP1, GSTA1, and TGF{beta}1 are Associated With the Risk of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrazzino, Salvatore [DiSCAFF and Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Farmacogenetica e Farmacogenomica, University of Piemonte Orientale ' Avogadro' , Novara (Italy); La Mattina, Pierdaniele; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Masini, Laura; Franco, Pierfrancesco [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Novara (Italy); Canonico, Pier Luigi; Genazzani, Armando A. [DiSCAFF and Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Farmacogenetica e Farmacogenomica, University of Piemonte Orientale ' Avogadro' , Novara (Italy); Krengli, Marco, E-mail: marco.krengli@med.unipmn.it [DMCS and BRMA, University of Piemonte Orientale ' Avogadro' , Novara (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To provide new insights into the genetic basis of normal tissue radiosensitivity, we evaluated the association between eight polymorphic variants located in six genes related to DNA repair mechanisms, oxidative stress, and fibroblast proliferation (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, TP53 Arg72Pro, GSTP1 Ile105Val, GSTA1 C-69T, eNOS G894T, TGF{beta}1 C-509T, and TGF{beta}1 T869C) and the risk of subcutaneous fibrosis in a retrospective series of patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous fibrosis was scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissue-Subjective Objective Management Analytical scale in 257 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. The association between genetic variants and the risk of moderate to severe fibrosis was evaluated by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Two hundred thirty-seven patients were available for the analysis. Among them, 41 patients (17.3%) developed moderate to severe fibrosis (Grade 2-3), and 196 (82.7%) patients displayed no or minimal fibrotic reactions (Grade 0-1). After adjustment of confounding factors, GSTP1 Ile105Val (odds ratio [OR] 2.756; 95% CI, 1.188-6.393; p = 0.018), GSTA1 C-69T (OR 3.223; 95% CI, 1.176-8.826; p = 0.022), and TGF{beta}1 T869C (OR 0.295; 95% CI, 0.090-0.964; p = 0.043) polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with the risk of Grade 2-3 radiation-induced fibrosis. In the combined analysis, carriers of three risk genotypes were found to be at higher odds for the development of Grade 2-3 fibrosis than were patients with two risk genotypes (OR 4.415; 95% CI, 1.553-12.551, p = 0.005) or with no or one risk genotype (OR 8.563; 95% CI, 2.671-27.447; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: These results suggest that functional variations in

  17. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  18. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  19. Evaluation of heart disease in patients with beta-thalessemia major referred to Shahid Madanni Hospital in Khorram Abad in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2004-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on the X2 test, there was a postive correlation between age, age of Desferal use, and serum ferretin with cardiac disease (P<0.05. However, there was no correlation between age and blood group with cardiac disease. It is suggested that patients with beta-thalessemia major have blood transfusions and use Deseral regularly. Also, it is necessary to periodically evaluate the heart function of these patients.

  20. Enzyme immunoassay of serum beta-2-microglobulin levels in various histological forms of leprosy with special reference to its elevation in type I and type II lepra reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, K; Bhatnagar, A; Sharma, V K; Chakrabarty, A K

    1985-04-01

    The mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum (3,362 +/- 2,494 micrograms/liter) for 76 leprosy patients, including 9 borderline-tuberculoid, 8 borderline-borderline, 9 borderline-lepromatous, and 16 lepromatous-lepromatous patients and 34 patients with type I or type II lepra reactions, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than that (2,122 +/- 1,844 micrograms/liter) for 35 normal subjects. It decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) as the disease glided down from borderline tuberculoid (3,173 +/- 899 micrograms/liter) to the lepromatous end (1,813 +/- 1,391 micrograms/liter). At the onset of type I or type II reaction, the mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum increased (4,447 +/- 2,863 micrograms/liter), and it remained unchanged (4,433 +/- 2,623 micrograms/liter) after clinical remission. The beta-2-microglobulin level in serum decreased in 55.5% of the patients tested after subsidence of reaction. The level was significantly higher in patients with type II reactions (5,433 +/- 3,299 micrograms/liter) than in patients with type I reactions (3,558 +/- 2,171 micrograms/liter).

  1. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.

  2. CdZnTe- and TlBr-detectors response simulation for registration of the mixed beta- and gamma-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches for reconstructing the spectra of the mixed beta- and gamma-radiation, produced by wide band-gap semiconductor detectors, and the subsequent identification of radionuclides that are comprised in the mixture composition is a method based on various methods of spectral deconvolution. The presence of the detector response functions for each individual source of radiation is a key point in the studying such techniques. The response of TlBr- and CdZnTe-detectors to gamma-rays from 90Sr and 137Cs was simulated by Monte-Carlo method via Geant4 package. The computer experiments were conducted with using a β-filter and without it. It was shown that optimal thickness of the Al β-filter required for complete suppressing the conversion electrons in the 137Cs spectrum is 0.5 mm. The modification of 661.7 keV photopeaks with a using β-filter was investigated.

  3. Thermoluminescence characterization of LiMgF{sub 3}: DyF{sub 3} phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, R.; Alday S, K.R.; Brown, F.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    LiMgF{sub 3}: DyF{sub 3} phosphors were obtained as polycrystalline solids from the melting of component salts, with two DyF{sub 3} concentrations, 2.02 % mol, and 4.04 % mol. In order to guarantee the homogeneity of composition, the samples were crushed and the resulting powder was pressed to form pellet-shaped phosphors, some of which were sintered at 700 C for 5 h under air atmosphere. Thermoluminescence measurements of beta irradiated samples show that these phosphors exhibit adequate properties to be considered for development of thermoluminescence dosimeters. Integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose displays a linear dependence with dose for doses below 20.0 Gy. (Author)

  4. Radiative Corrections to Light Neutrino Masses in Low Scale Type I Seesaw Scenarios and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Pavon, J; Petcov, S T

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino mass matrix within low scale type I seesaw extensions of the Standard Model and their implications in experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that a sizable contribution to the effective Majorana neutrino mass from the exchange of heavy Majorana neutrinos is always possible, provided one requires a fine-tuned cancellation between the tree-level and one-loop contribution to the light neutrino masses. We quantify the level of fine-tuning as a function of the seesaw parameters and introduce a generalisation of the Casas-Ibarra parametrization of the neutrino Yukawa matrix, which easily allows to include the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino masses.

  5. Topographic effects on solar radiation distribution in mountainous watersheds and their influence on reference evapotranspiration estimates at watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy and water balance models require time-series surfaces of the climatological variables involved in hydrological processes. Among them, solar radiation constitutes a key variable to the circulation of water in the atmosphere. Most of the hydrological GIS-based models apply simple interpolation techniques to data measured at few weather stations disregarding topographic effects. Here, a topographic solar radiation algorithm has been included for the generation of detailed time-series solar radiation surfaces using limited data and simple methods in a mountainous watershed in southern Spain. The results show the major role of topography in local values and differences between the topographic approximation and the direct interpolation to measured data (IDW of up to +42% and −1800% in the estimated daily values. Also, the comparison of the predicted values with experimental data proves the usefulness of the algorithm for the estimation of spatially-distributed radiation values in a complex terrain, with a good fit for daily values (R2 = 0.93 and the best fits under cloudless skies at hourly time steps. Finally, evapotranspiration fields estimated through the ASCE-Penman-Monteith equation using both corrected and non-corrected radiation values address the hydrologic importance of using topographically-corrected solar radiation fields as inputs to the equation over uniform values with mean differences in the watershed of 61 mm/year and 142 mm/year of standard deviation. High speed computations in a 1300 km2 watershed in the south of Spain with up to a one-hour time scale in 30 × 30 m2 cells can be easily carried out on a desktop PC.

  6. Topographic effects on solar radiation distribution in mountainous watersheds and their influence on reference evapotranspiration estimates at watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy and water balance models require time-series surfaces of the climatological variables involved in hydrological processes. Among them, solar radiation plays an important role, especially in arid environments, as it is a key variable to the circulation of water in the atmosphere. The lack of reliable data for the assessment of solar radiation has led to the use of models. Most of the hydrological GIS-based models apply simple interpolation techniques to data measured at sparse meteorological stations disregarding topographic effects. Here, a topographic solar radiation algorithm is included for the generation of detailed time-series solar radiation surfaces using limited data and relatively simple methods, in order to quantify the effects of topography on the water losses through evapotranspiration estimates in a mountainous watershed in southern Spain. First, the comparison between the topographically corrected interpolated values of daily solar radiation and those obtained by a direct spatial interpolation technique (Inverse Distance Weighed, IDW is provided. The results show the major role of topography in local values and differences of up to +60% and −90% in the estimated daily values. Besides, the results are compared to experimental data proving the usefulness of the model for the estimation of spatially distributed radiation values in complex terrain, with a good adjustment for daily values and the best fits under cloudless skies at hourly time steps. Finally, evapotranspiration fields estimated through the ASCE-Penman-Monteith equation using both corrected and non-corrected radiation values address the hydrologic importance of using topographically corrected solar radiation fields as inputs to the equation over uniform values with mean differences in the watershed of 62 mm/year and 142 mm/year of standard deviation. High speed computations in a 1300 km2 watershed in the south of Spain with up to a one

  7. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayse; Alikamanoglu, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M(1)V(1)-M(1)V(3) generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20gl(-1) PEG6000. Of the M(1)V(3) plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10gl(-1) PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  8. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayse, E-mail: senayse@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Alikamanoglu, Sema [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M{sub 1}V{sub 1}-M{sub 1}V{sub 3} generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl{sup -1} PEG6000. Of the M{sub 1}V{sub 3} plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l{sup -1} PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  9. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sankarshan, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides (32P, 89Sr, 90Sr-90Y, 90Y, 91Y, 208Tl, 210Bi, 234Pa and 40K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to 90Sr-90Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Zmod) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study.

  10. Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part II: radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobit, P.; López Pérez, L.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new model to estimate daily global radiation from daily temperature range measurements. This model combines that of Majumdar et al. (Sol Energy 13(4):383-394, 1972) to estimate clear sky radiation with a Gompertz function to estimate the relation between temperature range and cloud transmittance. Model parameters are estimated from historical weather data: maximum and minimum temperatures and, if available, relative humidity; no other calibration is required. The model was parametrized and validated using 788 weather stations in Mexico. When calibrated using historical humidity data, daily global radiation was estimated with a mean root mean square error of 3.06 MJ m-2 day-1. The model performed well in all situations, except for a few stations around the Gulf of Mexico and in mountain areas. When using estimated humidity, the root mean square error of prediction was only slightly degraded (3.07 MJ m-2 day-1). Possible theoretical basis and applicability of this model to other environments are discussed.

  11. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  12. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  13. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  14. Beta particle detection efficiency of the radiation sensor made from a mixture of polyaniline and titanium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, M., E-mail: tamuram@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Miyata, H., E-mail: miyata@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Matsuda, K.; Ueno, T.; Ito, D. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan)

    2016-08-21

    We developed a new real-time radiation sensor using an organic semiconductor and measured its β-particle detection sensitivity. This sensor is fabricated by simply combining a p-type semiconductor, polyaniline (Pani), with an n-type semiconductor, TiO{sub 2}, and processing the compound. Since Pani and TiO{sub 2} are both inexpensive materials, the sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost than inorganic semiconductor sensors. The signal of each fabricated sensor was measured by a charge sensitive ADC for the irradiation of β-particles. The response signal data of the ADC for each irradiation was measured to calculate the detection efficiency of the detector. The maximum detection efficiency measured as β-particle sensitivity of the sensor was 1%. This β-particle sensitivity is higher than that reported of Pani sensors in the past.

  15. Radiation dosimetry and biodistribution of the beta-amyloid plaque imaging tracer {sup 11}C-BTA-1 in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thees, S. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Neumaier, B.; Glatting, G.; Deisenhofer, S.; Reske, S.N.; Mottaghy, F.M. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Arnim, C.A.F. von [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

    2007-07-01

    Aim: [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]2-(4'-(methylaminophenyl)-benzothiazole({sup 11}C-BTA-1)) is a thioflavin-T derivative that has been one of the promising PET tracers for imaging of amyloid plaque distribution in the Alzheimer patients brain in vivo. The biodistribution and dosimetry of this tracer in humans is presented and compared to the results of a previous dosimetry and biodistribution study of another thioflavin-T derivative [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]2-hydroxy-(4'-(methylaminophenyl)-benzothiazole ({sup 11}C-OH-BTA-1)) in baboons. Methods: Five subjects underwent 2D dynamic PET imaging. Source organs were segmented using a semiautomatic algorithm based on clustering. Residence times for each source organ were determined by analytical integration of an exponential fit of the time activity curves. Finally organ doses were estimated using the software OLINDA/EXM. Results: The administration of 286 {+-} 93 MBq {sup 11}C-BTA-1 was well tolerated by all subjects. Effective radiation dose was 4.3 {mu}Sv/MBq, range 3.6-5.0 {mu}Sv/MBq. In four ofthe five subjects the liver, in one of the subjects the gallbladder was the critical organ. Conclusion: The radiation burden of a single dose of 300 MBq {sup 11}C-BTA-1 is within the accepted limits for research purpose. In contrast to the previous non-human primate study revealing the gallbladder as the critical organ for {sup 11}C-6-OH-BTA-1, we found the liver as the critical organ in humans using {sup 11}C-BTA-1. Possible explanations may be (1) a reduced bile concentration of {sup 11}C-BTA-1 due to the absent OH-group or (2) a different hepatic metabolism of thioflavin derivatives in human and baboon. (orig.)

  16. External dosimetry for ionising radiation. From the national standard to the users in radiotherapy and radiation protection; La dosimetrie externe des rayonnements ionisants de la reference nationale aux utilisateurs en radiotherapie et en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M

    2009-07-01

    This report presents a review of the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations for the protection of the human being. Looking at this topic, at first we are confronted with its diversity: the protection of the workers and the public against radiations, the medical exposures for radiotherapy, diagnosis and surgery, and the accidental situations. These aspects are often artificially separated so that the global comprehension becomes more difficult. We underline the points of convergence and the bonds which exist between the concepts of dosimetry adopted to deal with its different aspects. It also appeared useful to avoid proposing a dictionary of definitions copied in the reports of the international commissions, and adopting the formalism of the ICRU reports. This is why the definitions, when they are essential, are put in appendix. This text presents the reasons which led to the adoption of the system of quantity used today for the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations. After an introduction dealing with the general principle, the first chapter deals with the 'physical' quantities and the methods used for the determination of the national references. The second chapter, through the protection against radiation of the workers and the public, describes the bonds between the measurable 'operational' quantities and the non measurable 'protections' quantities which allow establishing the radiation protection limits and check that they are respected. The third chapter deals with the difficulties encountered for the measurements in area and personal dosimetry. The fourth chapter deals with the specificities of the medical exposures with the 'practical' quantities, the principle of optimisation and how radiotherapy is implemented. The fifth chapter briefly describes the case of the concerted exposures and of the accident. In conclusion, we analyse the needs and some potential new avenues of work for the metrology of the

  17. THE METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 3. The dependence of the radiation beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Titovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the radiation protection of oncology patients is needed to provide the constancy of functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. For this purpose, their quality control procedures are realized including calibration of radiation output of the linac, so the error in determining the dose reference value during this procedure must not exceed 2 %. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the radiation beam. Dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions have been carried out for achievement of the objectives, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the dose rate value, the accuracy of the beam quality and output factors determination, the symmetry and uniformity of the radiation field, the angular dependence of the linac radiation output were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the output factors determination (up to 5.26 % for both photon energy. Dose errors caused by changing dose rate during treatment were different for two photon energies, and reached 1.6 % for 6 MeV and 1.4 % for 18 MeV. Dose errors caused by inaccuracies of the beam quality determination were different for two photon energies, and reached 1.1 % for 18 MeV and –0.3 % for 6 MeV. Errors caused by the remaining of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, there is a possibility to express the results of periodic quality control of the linear accelerator in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output.

  18. Analysis of reference X radiations energies adjusted for the same half-value layer; Analise do espectro de energias de radiacoes X de referencia ajustadas para a mesma camada semirredutora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de; Baptista Neto, Annibal Theotonio; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined the reference radiation for calibration and testing in x and gamma fields. The ISO 4037-1 establishes that if the first and the second half value - layers (HVL) agree within 5%, for two x- ray beams, then these two beams shall be considered the same. In this study, reference radiations with the same HVLs that were obtained trough the total filtration or the tube voltage adjustments were compared in terms of spectra and beam parameters. (author)

  19. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  20. Evaluation method of reference levels of radiation diagnostic in computerized tomography; Metodo de evaluacion de niveles de referencia de radiodiagnostico en tomografia computarizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Walter; Borges, Jose C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mota, Helvecio C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2000-07-01

    The computerized tomography (CT) is a complex technique, with many parameters to be selected and protocols of quality control not standardized, connected with high doses in the patients. In this work a simple methodology is developed, to evaluate levels of reference of diagnosis in computerized tomography using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. This methodology, can be used in the routine of inspection of evaluation of radiological safety in medical radiation diagnostics, executed by the Department of Medical Physics of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry and by the sanitary authorities in Brazil. In order to evaluate this dosimeter magnitude the distribution of dose it was studied the dose distribution obtained trough a profile of dose measured in the axial axis of a simulator(phantom) of water with thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100, for three techniques of examination by CT. The magnitude MSAD was evaluated by means of two different methods. In first, it was evaluated for an only cut, and in the second for multiple cuts. This last method presents/displays to be more practical and adapted to be applied in the routine of evaluation of reference levels, with TLDs.

  1. High-resolution global grids of revised Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves–Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Aschonitis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to provide global grids (0.5° of revised annual coefficients for the Priestley–Taylor (P-T and Hargreaves–Samani (H-S evapotranspiration methods after calibration based on the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers-standardized Penman–Monteith method (the ASCE method includes two reference crops: short-clipped grass and tall alfalfa. The analysis also includes the development of a global grid of revised annual coefficients for solar radiation (Rs estimations using the respective Rs formula of H-S. The analysis was based on global gridded climatic data of the period 1950–2000. The method for deriving annual coefficients of the P-T and H-S methods was based on partial weighted averages (PWAs of their mean monthly values. This method estimates the annual values considering the amplitude of the parameter under investigation (ETo and Rs giving more weight to the monthly coefficients of the months with higher ETo values (or Rs values for the case of the H-S radiation formula. The method also eliminates the effect of unreasonably high or low monthly coefficients that may occur during periods where ETo and Rs fall below a specific threshold. The new coefficients were validated based on data from 140 stations located in various climatic zones of the USA and Australia with expanded observations up to 2016. The validation procedure for ETo estimations of the short reference crop showed that the P-T and H-S methods with the new revised coefficients outperformed the standard methods reducing the estimated root mean square error (RMSE in ETo values by 40 and 25 %, respectively. The estimations of Rs using the H-S formula with revised coefficients reduced the RMSE by 28 % in comparison to the standard H-S formula. Finally, a raster database was built consisting of (a global maps for the mean monthly ETo values estimated by ASCE-standardized method for both reference crops, (b global maps for the revised annual

  2. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  3. 'Shake-off' account of effects from a Beta-decay at determination of internal conversion coefficients due to secondary electron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokhovich, N F

    2002-01-01

    By means of selection coincidence of gamma-quantum with the secondary electrons (e sub o -electrons) and beta-particles (gamma beta e sub 0 -coincidences) and special geometry of measurements the formation of e sub o -electrons from electrons of 'shake-off' accompanying beta-decay is chosen and its output is determined. Influence of this additional source of e sub o -electrons formation on the accuracy of the internal conversion coefficient determination is estimated, when the output of e sub o -electrons from electrons of conversion is defined on the output of e sub o -electrons from beta-particles.

  4. Radiopolymerization of {beta}(-)pinene: A case of chiral amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco [Soc. Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: cdcata@flashnet.it; Keheyan, Yeghis [CNR, Istituto per lo studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Department of Chemistry, University ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 1, Rome (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    {beta}(-)Pinene was treated with {gamma} radiation at three dose levels: 150, 300 and 600 kGy. The expected effect of radiation at these high doses was the partial racemization of the substrate as already observed in the case of other terpene monomers. Unexpectedly {beta}(-)pinene underwent a radiopolymerization reaction into a solid resin and into a dimer. The structure of the products was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy also in comparison to a reference {beta}(-)pinene resin prepared by cationic polymerization. A highly ordered structure was found in the case of the radiopolymer in comparison to the resin from cationic polymerization. Polarimetric measurements have shown astonishing enhancement in the optical activity of the radiopolymer and radiodimer in comparison to the starting optical activity of the {beta}(-)pinene monomer. The results have been discussed in terms of amplification of chirality caused by {gamma} radiation and the implications of this fact on the mechanism of chiral amplification on prebiotic molecules.

  5. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor, E-mail: nestoraragon@fisica.unam.mx; Massillon-JL, Guerda, E-mail: massillon@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F (Mexico); Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo [Hospital de Oncología, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, D.F (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism{sup 1}. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  6. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo; Massillon-JL, Guerda

    2014-11-01

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism1. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  7. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, James A, E-mail: jimcrowhurst@hotmail.com [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Whitby, Mark [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia); Biomedical Technology Services, Health Services Support Agency, Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Thiele, David [Biomedical Technology Services, Health Services Support Agency, Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Halligan, Toni [Allied Health Professions' Office of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Westerink, Adam [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Crown, Suzanne [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Milne, Jillian [Cardiac Clinical Informatics Unit - Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  8. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  9. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  10. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  11. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  12. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities. PMID:26229649

  13. Spectral responsivity calibration of the reference radiation thermometer at KRISS by using a super-continuum laser-based high-accuracy monochromatic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak

    2016-12-01

    We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k  =  1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.

  14. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  15. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt; Medicion de curvas de extrapolacion para el patron secundario de radiacion beta Nr. 86 calibrado en rapidez de dosis absorbida para tejido equivalente por el Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1988-10-15

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  16. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo Varskin modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1992-06-15

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  17. Study of influence of plastic scintillators thicknesses to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Santos, Brianna B. dos; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Santos, Lucas Rodrigues dos; Lopes, Anderson Figueredo; Silva, Alexandre F.P. da; Santos, Diogo F. dos; Camilo, Douglas de S.; Purgato, Rafael T.; Aredes, Vitor O.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 Cid Universitaria CEP: 05508-000- Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN, offers post-graduate programs, namely: Nuclear Technology - Applications (TNA), Nuclear Technology - Materials (TNM), Nuclear Technology - Reactors (TNR). The Institute programs mission is to form expert technicians, physicists and engineers with a strong knowledge in their discipline to work in the nuclear area. The course: 'Theoretical Fundamentals and Practices of the Instrumentation used in Nuclear Data Acquisition' covers the use of laboratory nuclear instrumentation and the accomplishment of experiments to obtain nuclear parameters. One of these experimental exercises is object of this work: 'Study of influence of plastic scintillators to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources'. The use of scintillators plastic for the detection has the advantage of low cost, high mechanical strength, is not hygroscopic and can be manufactured in large volumes. This work aims to present the analysis of relative efficiency of detection of plastic scintillators of various thicknesses for beta particles and gamma radiation by the spectrum of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Due to lack of resolution of the detectors plastic scintillators we worked with relative efficiency. The evaluation was done by reading deposited energy, using the software MAESTRO, for each detector thickness. For beta particles was observed an ideal thickness around 3 mm and the better photon efficiency was observed with increasing the thickness of the detector. The present experiment does not intend to establish a new technique for this subject: it solely aims student's practical exercises in nuclear properties of elements and detectors being part of the nuclear experimental course. (authors)

  18. Nationwide survey of radiation exposure during pediatric computed tomography examinations and proposal of age-based diagnostic reference levels for Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Yasutaka [Kanazawa University, Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro [Kanazawa University, Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ishikawa (Japan); Shimada, Yoshiya; Akahane, Keiichi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Medical Exposure Research Project, Chiba (Japan); Muramatsu, Yoshihisa [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Department of Radiology, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, Keisuke [Nagoya University, Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, Shoichi [Fujita Health University, Faculty of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have not been established in Japan. To propose DRLs for CT of the head, chest and abdomen for three pediatric age groups. We sent a nationwide questionnaire by post to 339 facilities. Questions focused on pediatric CT technology, exposure parameters, CT protocols, and radiation doses for age groups <1 year, 1-5 years, and 6-10 years. For the three age groups in the 196 facilities that responded, the 75th percentile values of volume CT dose index based on a 16-cm phantom (CTDI{sub vol} 16 [mGy]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 39.1, 11.1 and 12.0, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 46.9, 14.3 and 16.7, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 67.7, 15.0 and 17.0, respectively. The corresponding dose-length products (DLP 16 [mGy·cm]) for head, chest and abdominal CT were for infants 526.1, 209.1 and 261.5, respectively; for 1-to 5-year-olds 665.5, 296.0 and 430.8, respectively; and for 6-to 10-year-olds 847.9, 413.0 and 532.2, respectively. The majority of CTDI{sub vol} 16 and DLP 16 values for the head were higher than DRLs reported from other countries. For risk reduction, it is necessary to establish DRLs for pediatric CT in Japan. (orig.)

  19. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters; Modellierung des Transports von Radionukliden durch Gesteinsschichten und der resultierenden Strahlenexposition von Referenzpersonen. Berechnungen mit Parametern der Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-05-21

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  20. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of {sup 82}Rb at rest and during peak pharmacological stress in patients referred for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Chad R.R.N.; DeKemp, Robert A. [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hill, Jeremy [Consultant to Jubilant DraxImage, Kirkland, QC (Canada); Ziadi, M.C.; Beanlands, Rob S.B. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-28

    {sup 82}Rb is an ultra-short-lived positron emitter used for myocardial blood flow quantification with PET imaging. The aim of this study was to quantify the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in patients with coronary disease and in healthy normal volunteers. A total of 30 subjects, 26 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and four healthy volunteers were injected with {sup 82}Rb chloride at 10 MBq/kg followed by a 10-min dynamic PET scan. Chest scans at rest were acquired in all subjects, as well as one additional biodistribution scan of the head, neck, abdomen, pelvis or thighs. Chest scans under stress were acquired in 25 of the CAD patients. {sup 82}Rb time-integrated activity coefficients were determined in 22 source organs using volume of interest analysis, including corrections for partial-volume losses. The mean time-integrated activity coefficients were used to calculate the whole-body effective dose using tissue weighting factors from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 103. A total of 283 organ time-integrated activity coefficients were calculated, with a minimum of four values per source organ. The rest and stress mean effective dose was 0.8 mSv/GBq, according to the most recent ICRP definition. Using 10 MBq/kg for 3D PET imaging, the effective dose to a gender-averaged reference person (60 kg female and 73 kg male) is 1.1 mSv for a complete rest and stress perfusion study. For 2D PET using a typical injected activity of 1.1 to 2.2 GBq each for rest and stress, the effective dose for a complete study is 1.8 to 3.5 mSv. The current effective dose estimate in CAD patients is four times lower than the values reported previously by the ICRP, and about 35 % lower than previous in vivo studies in young healthy subjects. (orig.)

  1. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  2. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  3. Photosynthetic Performance of the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis During Emersion, With Special Reference to Effects of Solar UV Radiation, Dehydration and Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae distributed in intertidal zones experience a series of environmental changes, such as periodical desiccation associated with tidal cycles, increasing CO2 concentration and solar UVB (280-315 nm) irradiance in the context of climate change. We investigated how the economic red macroalga, Pyropia haitanensis, perform its photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and in the presence of solar UV radiation (280-400 nm) during emersion. Our results showed that the elevated CO2 (800 ppmv) significantly increased the photosynthetic carbon fixation rate of P. haitanensis by about 100% when the alga was dehydrated. Solar UV radiation had insignificant effects on the net photosynthesis without desiccation stress and under low levels of sunlight, but significantly inhibited it with increased levels of desiccation and sunlight intensity, to the highest extent at the highest levels of water loss and solar radiation. Presence of UV radiation and the elevated CO2 acted synergistically to cause higher inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which exacerbated at higher levels of desiccation and sunlight. While P. haitanensis can benefit from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during emersion under low and moderate levels of solar radiation, combined effects of elevated CO2 and UV radiation acted synergistically to reduce its photosynthesis under high solar radiation levels during noon periods.

  4. Estimates of power deposited via cesium/barium beta and gamma radiation captured in components of a Hanford cesium chloride capsule and by components of overpacked capsules placed in an interim dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roetman, V.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-23

    The deposition of power in Hanford cesium chloride capsules and in the components of design concepts for overpacking and interim storage were determined as requested (Randklev, 1996a). The power deposition results from the selective capture of gamma and beta radiation coming from the decay of the 137CS isotope in the CsCl contained in the capsules. The following three cases were analyzed: (a) a single CsCl capsule, (b) an overpack containing eight CsCl capsules, and (c) an infinite square array of such overpacks as placed in tubes of a interim dry storage facility. The power deposition was expressed as watts per gram for each of the respective physical design components in these three cases. Per the analyses request and guidance (Randklev 1996a), the primary analysis objective was to characterize, for each case, the power deposition across the radial cross-section at the expected axial position of maximum deposition. As requested, this primary part of the analysis work was done using choices for component dimension and material properties that would reasonably characterize the maximum deposition profile across the salt (CsCl) and the inner capsule barrier of the double walled metal capsule system used to construct the Hanford capsules. The secondary objective was to further evaluate the deposition behavior relative to the influence of axial position. The guidance (Randklev 1996a) also requested 1797 an analysis case that involved a lag-storage pit in a hot-cell, in which a cylindrical metal basket from a transportation cask would be used to position several capsules in the lag-storage pit. Although the basic model for the lag storage concept evaluation was essentially completed by the end of FY-96, the analysis was not run because of the need to prioritize and limit the work scope due to funding limitations for FY-97. The specific purpose for performing the subject set of analyses (Randklev 1996a) is to obtain power deposition values (i.e., per the decay of T37cs

  5. $\\beta$-particle energy-summing correction for $\\beta$-delayed proton emission measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Crawford, H L; Cyburt, R H; Grinyer, G F; Langer, C; Montes, F; Schatz, H; Smith, K

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to studying $\\beta$-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the $\\beta$-delayed proton emitting ($\\beta$p) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the $\\beta$-particle emitted from the $\\beta$p nucleus, an effect referred to here as $\\beta$-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for $\\beta$-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the $\\beta$p nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + $\\beta$) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  6. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, CaF sub 2 :Eu and ZnS:Ag for alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in a flow-cell radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Devol, T A; Fjeld, R A

    1999-01-01

    Granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, and CaF sub 2 :Eu; CaF sub 2 :Eu coated with a fluorescent polymer, and combinations of coated and uncoated CaF sub 2 :Eu with ZnS:Ag were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between alpha and beta particles in a flow-cell radiation detector. The evaluations were based on the analysis of pulse shape spectra. Various granulated scintillators were packed into flow cell detectors that were coils of 3.0 mm ODx1.5 mm ID fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon[reg] tubing positioned between dual photomultiplier tubes for analysis. The best pulse shape discrimination was obtained for a combination of equal masses of uncoated CaF sub 2 :Eu (63-90 mu m) and ZnS:Ag (10 mu m), which had a 9% spillover. Additional research is needed to reduce the spillover.

  8. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  9. Effect of radiation on cell interactions with respect to the phenomenon of inactivation of nonsyngeneic stem cells. Quantitative parameters of the regulatory action of. beta. -lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozmorov, I.M.; Petrov, R.V.; Lutsenko, G.V.; Nikolaeva, I.S.; Rudneva, T.B. (Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    Quantitative regularities have been revealed in the regulatory action of B-lymphocytes from mouse lymph nodes on killer activity of T-lymphocytes of low electrophoretic motility. It was shown that the radiation-inducted charges in the mode of action of B-lymphocytes may be attributed to a decrease in the number of active CPllS.

  10. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  11. A survey of the optical hazards associated with hospital light sources with reference to the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, A; Fedele, F; Freeman, P [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Khazova, M [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Sarkany, R, E-mail: andrew.coleman@gstt.nhs.u [St John' s Institute of Dermatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Workplace exposure to coherent and incoherent optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive (AORD) 2006/25/EC, now implemented in the UK under the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010. These regulations set out exposure limit values. Implementing the AOR (2010 Health and Safety Statutory Instrument No 1140 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1140/pdf/uksi{sub 2}0101140{sub e}n.pdf) requirements in a hospital environment is a potentially complex problem because of the wide variety of sources used for illumination, diagnosis and therapy. A survey of sources of incoherent optical radiation in a large hospital is reported here. The survey covers examples of office lighting, operating theatre lighting, examination lamps, and sources for ultraviolet phototherapy and visible phototherapies, including photodynamic therapy and neonatal blue-light therapy. The results of the survey are used to inform consideration of the strategy that a hospital might reasonably adopt both to demonstrate compliance with the AOR (2010) and to direct implementation effort.

  12. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusciac, D.; Bordy, J.-M.; Daures, J.; Blideanu, V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists' demands for high-energy (6 - 9 MeV) photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors) are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes), a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV) has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this "realistic" radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  13. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusciac D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists’ demands for high-energy (6 – 9 MeV photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes, a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this “realistic” radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  14. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  15. (20-300)kVX射线参考辐射装置的建立%The Establishment of Reference Radiation Device in the range of (20-300) kV X-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛双; 吴金杰; 郭彬; 王培玮; 杨扬; 邱小平

    2016-01-01

    为了推进X射线空气比释动能基准量值传递工作的开展,建立了(20-300) kV X射线参考辐射装置。距离X光管焦点1 m的均匀野处,建立了CCRI会议推荐的两组低能X射线参考辐射质50 kV( a)和50 kV( b),采用拟合方法测量得到的半值层、同质系数与推荐值相差2%以内。通过蒙卡模拟软件EGSnrc研究两组参考辐射质的能谱分布情况,并计算了其平均能量,分别为33.3和28.1 keV。%For promoting the work that the air -kerma primary standard value be transferred , the reference radi-ation device is established in the range of (20-300 ) kV X-rays.Two low-energy reference radiation quali-ties 50 kV ( a) and 50 kV ( b) recommend by CCRI are established on the uniform radiation field .The distance from the source to the reference plane is 1 m.Half-value layer and homogeneity coefficient are measured by the fitting method .The difference with the recommended values is within 2%.Their spectrum distribution can be got by Monte Carlo simulation software EGSnrc and their average energies are calculated to be 33.3 keV and 28 .1 keV respectively .

  16. Application of photo-selective films to manipulate wavelength of transmitted radiation and photosynthate composition in red beet (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnari, Fabio; Galieni, Angelica; Cafiero, Giovanni; Pisante, Michele

    2014-03-15

    Interest is increasing around both the use of plants as functional foods and the agronomic techniques which can increase nutrients and phytochemicals. Nevertheless, little research has focused on the effects of light on accumulation of active compounds in root storage organs. Red beet was treated with RED (red/far red ratio: 1.29; transmitted photosynthetically active radiation: 66.9%) and GREEN (red/far red ratio: 0.43; transmitted photosynthetically active radiation: 25.8%) photo-selective films and changes in nutrients and biomass accumulation were measured. Plants subjected to GREEN treatment had less dry weight accumulation both in storage roots (68%) and leaves (42%); moreover, soluble and structural carbohydrate concentration in roots was increased, as were the K, Mg and Zn concentrations (40.08, 2.95 and 0.023 mg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). Conversely, GREEN lowered total phenolic concentration (0.33 vs. 0.47 mg g⁻¹ fresh weight) and antioxidant activity (0.65 vs. 0.94 µm Trolox equivalents g⁻¹ fresh weight) compared to CONTROL. Total pigment concentration was reduced by 20% and 48% with RED and GREEN treatments, respectively. Red beet showed a strong plasticity in its adaptation to light availability. Some macronutrients (fiber, sugars, minerals) can be concentrated in roots by modifying the amount and quality of the light, principally with GREEN photo-selective films. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;{alpha}). Since H' (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  18. Requirements in the Overseas Employment and Domestic Connected Education for Radiological Technologists : Refers to Students Enrolled in the Department of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kim, Boo Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study investigated the realities of information acquirements and its requirements in the overseas employment and domestic connected education for students at the department of radiation in order to provide basic information for developing the standard educational curriculum for future internationalization in the education of radiation and presenting its direction. The investigation implemented in this study was performed through a questionnaire with 688 students enrolled in the department of radiation. The conclusion of the investigation is summarized as follows : The answers for the question of 'No acquirements in the information of the overseas employment and connected education for radiological technologists' were 487 students (70.8%), and the reason that 'There are no chances in related education' was the highest rate, 424 students (61.6%), of the answers. In the education for the overseas employment, the answers for the question of 'Select a connected education program in school instead of study abroad' were the highest rate, 436 students (63.4%). The most concerned country for the overseas employment was 'Australia', 247 students (35.9%). As a result, answers for the interest, participation, need, and hope for the overseas employment showed high rates even though they demonstrated a low recognition level in the overseas employment. In addition, it is necessary to strategically plan an education program for this issue because all participants agree with the current stream.

  19. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  20. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  1. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  2. Development of a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value; Erarbeitung eines Konzepts zur Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition von Patienten bei zahnmedizinischen Roentgenuntersuchungen und Erhebung von statistischen Daten zur Erstellung diagnostischer Referenzwerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, C.; Sering, M. [Oekoinstitut Freiburg e.V., Freiburg (Germany); Poppe, B.; Poplawski, A.; Looe, H.K.; Beyer, D.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Chofor, N.; Eenboom, F. [Pius Hospital, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The research project on the development a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value includes the following issues: Fundamental facts: dental X-ray examination techniques, dose relevant factors and characteristics during X-ray examinations, radiation exposed organs during dental X-ray examinations, dose assessment based on phantoms. Materials and methodologies of the project: TLD measurements using the phantom, calculation of the effective dose during dental X-ray examinations, properties and settings of the reference facilities for the determination of radiation exposure, selection of dental offices, dosimetric measurements, data acquisition and statistical evaluation. Results of dosimetric examinations: results of dosimetric measurements at reference facilities, results of dosimetric measurements in dental offices. Discussion of the concept for the determination of the radiation exposure during dental X-ray examinations.

  3. Measurement of linear energy transfer distribution at CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility with real-time radiation monitoring device III and its comparison with dosimetric telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Doke, T; Hara, K; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Suzuki, S; Terasawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of linear energy transfer for LET (LET/sub water/) in front of the 80-cm-thick concrete side shield at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field (CERF) facility were measured with a Si detector telescope named real-time radiation monitoring device-III (RRMD-III) covered with and without a 1 cm-thick acrylic plate. In these measurements, a difference of about 20% in the absorbed dose between the two LET/sub water/ distributions was observed as a result of protons, deuterons and tritons recoiled by neutrons. The LET/sub water/ distribution obtained using RRMD-III without the 1-cm-thick acrylic plate is compared with lineal energy distributions obtained using the dosimetric telescope (DOSTEL) detector under the same conditions. These dose equivalents are also compared with that obtained using HANDI TEPC which is used as the standard at the CERF facility. (26 refs).

  4. Synthesis and thermoluminescence of new Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Eu and Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Dy phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, A. R.; Bustamante L, G. A.; Castro C, A. I. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal H, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S. E. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano M, V. M., E-mail: argh@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is systematically studied for the very first concerning their dosimetric capabilities. Pellet- shaped Eu and Dy doped Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} phosphors were synthesized by sintering. Some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation in order to investigate their thermoluminescence (Tl) features. Glow curves were obtained for 80 mg mass samples, showing that both, Tl sensitivity as well as the temperature at which the Tl maximum is recorded, depends upon the sample dopant. The glow curves of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Eu exhibit two maxima, located at 433 and 573 K, when a 5 K/s heating rate was used, being the most intense emission that observed at 573 K. The integrated Tl increases as the radiation dose was increased in the 0.25 - 5 Gy range, with no shift of the Tl maxima being observed, meaning that first order kinetics processes are involved in the Tl emission. The normalized sensitivity recorded in ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles shows a good reusability with only 5 % variability. The integrated Tl fades as a function of the elapsed time between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout of Eu and Dy doped Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} phosphors is obtained. From the obtained results, we conclude that Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is a promising phosphor material to develop high performance Tl dosimeters, and a long term research work focused to understand and to improve their Tl features is absolutely justified. (Author)

  5. Metabolic response to various beta-adrenoceptor agonists in beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice: evidence for a new beta-adrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preitner, F; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Seydoux, J; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Lafontan, M; Giacobino, J P

    1998-08-01

    The beta3-adrenoceptor plays an important role in the adrenergic response of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT). In this study, in vitro metabolic responses to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation were compared in adipose tissues of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout and wild type mice. The measured parameters were BAT fragment oxygen uptake (MO2) and isolated white adipocyte lipolysis. In BAT of wild type mice (-)-norepinephrine maximally stimulated MO2 4.1+/-0.8 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (dobutamine 5.1+/-0.3, terbutaline 5.3+/-0.3 and CL 316,243 4.8+/-0.9 fold, respectively); in BAT of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the beta1- and beta2-responses were fully conserved. In BAT of wild type mice, the beta1/beta2-antagonist and beta3-partial agonist CGP 12177 elicited a maximal MO2 response (4.7+/-0.4 fold). In beta3-adrenoceptor knockout BAT, this response was fully conserved despite an absence of response to CL 316,243. This unexpected result suggests that an atypical beta-adrenoceptor, distinct from the beta1-, beta2- and beta3-subtypes and referred to as a putative beta4-adrenoceptor is present in BAT and that it can mediate in vitro a maximal MO2 stimulation. In isolated white adipocytes of wild type mice, (-)-epinephrine maximally stimulated lipolysis 12.1+/-2.6 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (TO509 12+/-2, procaterol 11+/-3, CL 316,243 11+/-3 fold, respectively) or with CGP 12177 (7.1+/-1.5 fold). In isolated white adipocytes of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the lipolytic responses to (-)epinephrine, to the beta1-, beta2-, beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists and to CGP 12177 were almost or totally depressed, whereas those to ACTH, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were conserved.

  6. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. PART 1. DEPENDANCE OF THE MECHANICAL PARAMETERS OF LINAC’S GANTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide a consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear electron accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linear accelerator, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error in determining this value, depending on the mechanical charachteristics of the linac’s gantry. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the gantry and the deviation of the gantry rotation isocenter were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has gantry rotation isocenter deviation in a plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3,64% for the energy of 6 MeV. Dose errors caused by tilting the gantry and its isocenter deviation in the plane of incidence of the beam were highest for 18 MeV energy and reached –0,7 % and –0,9 % respectively. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of the linear accelerator ganty in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence of the rest of its technical and dosimetric parameters for error in dose.

  7. Effects of the material composition in the TL curves of alkaline halides with Eu{sup 2+} exposed to {beta} radiation; Efectos de la composicion del material en las curvas de TL de halogenuros alcalinos con Eu{sup 2+} expuestos a radiacion {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, R.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R. [Dpto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The solid state dosemeters plays a very important paper in the growing use of the ionizing radiation. When being increased the use of the radioactive isotopes in the medicine and in the industry, the necessity to have materials but adapted in each case it has increased. To synthesize such materials, it is necessary to enlarge the knowledge on the paper that its play the physical characteristics of the crystals such as the crystalline structure, the lattice constant, imbibed nano structures, dislocations, ions size, electronic states of the ions, etc., on the effects of the ionizing radiation. In the past its have been carried out many studies approaching these problems in some materials, but we consider that its are insufficient before the challenges of the applications. To contribute to the understanding of these effects, we present a study focused to alkaline halide crystals impurified with Eu{sup 2+} ions, making an analysis on the paper that its play a) the ions concentration of Eu{sup 2+} in KBr: Eu{sup 2+}, b) the different sites of trapping of electrons and holes in KBr: Eu{sup 2+}, KCl: Eu{sup 2+}, RbBr:Eu{sup 2+}, RbCl: Eu{sup 2+} and c) the composition of the crystalline solid solutions KCl{sub x}Br{sub 1-X}: Eu{sup 2+} and RbCI{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x}: Eu{sup 2+} on the thermoluminescence curve when these materials are exposed to small dose of {beta} irradiation. The increase in the concentration of Eu{sup 2+} ions produces a smaller relative intensity of the emissions of high temperature for a given dose and it is found that in a RbCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x}: Eu{sup 2+} with the greater/smaller concentration of Cl{sup -} ions, the temperature of the characteristic emission is near to the 453/373 K. The composition x of halogenous ions and not the one of alkaline in the crystalline solid solution dominates the landslide of the temperature of the emission. (Author)

  8. Presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) & AmpC positive non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli among Intensive Care Unit patients with special reference to molecular detection of blaCTX-M & blaAmpC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Ahmed, Moied

    2016-08-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have been implicated in a variety of infections, particularly in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs). This study was aimed to overview the burden of multidrug-resistant NFGNB causing infections in ICU and also to assess the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among these isolates. Bacterial culture, identification and antibiotic susceptibility were carried out. ESBLs and AmpC were detected both phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid double-disc synergy test. NFGNB represented 45 (37%) of total 121 Gram negative isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed in 66.9 per cent and 72.5 per cent isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Detection by phenotypic methods showed presence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL in 21.4, 51.1 and 21.4 per cent isolates, respectively. When detected genotypically by polymerase chain reaction, ESBL and AmpC were detected in 21.4 and 41.4 per cent of NFGNB isolates, respectively. BlaCTX-M (21.4%) was the most prevalent gene responsible for ESBL production. Most of the NFGNB isolated from ICU patients were multidrug-resistant and producers of ESBL, AmpC and MBL. A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers, especially in ICU patients.

  9. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  11. Beta-blockers for hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Bradley, Hazel A; Volmink, Jimmy; Mayosi, Bongani M; Opie, Lionel H

    2017-01-01

    Background Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review initially published in 2007 and updated in 2012. Objectives To assess the effects of beta-blockers on morbidity and mortality endpoints in adults with hypertension. Search methods The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to June 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and ClinicalTrials.gov. We checked reference lists of relevant reviews, and reference lists of studies potentially eligible for inclusion in this review, and also searched the the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 06 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year of duration, which assessed the effects of beta-blockers compared to placebo or other drugs, as first-line therapy for hypertension, on mortality and morbidity in adults. Data collection and analysis We selected studies and extracted data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by consensus. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and conducted fixed-effect or random-effects meta-analyses, as appropriate. We also used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE classifies the certainty of evidence as high (if we are confident that the true effect lies

  12. Reference problems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    in science or for that ma t ter, in any other subject. Indeed, the sorry state of science education is only a small part of the much deeper sy s temic rot. A colleague in IIT - Kanpur cynically remarked to me that IIT did not even need to teach... annual budget. (This takes into consideration only 50,000 seriously working scientists out of a total r e search and teaching staff of over 0.4 million in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, un i ver sities, etc.). Following are some good examples for referring...

  13. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  14. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  15. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  16. STARLIFE - An International Campaign to Study the Role of Galactic Cosmic Radiation in Astrobiological Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Leuko, Stefan; Berger, Thomas; Hellweg, Christine Elisabeth; Fujimori, Akira; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Horneck, Gerda

    2017-02-01

    In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum. Low- and high-energy charged particle radiation experiments have been conducted at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. X-rays or γ rays were used as reference radiation at the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne, Germany) or Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS, Wiehl, Germany) to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. All samples were exposed under identical conditions to the same dose and qualities of ionizing radiation (i) allowing a direct comparison between the tested specimens and (ii) providing information on the impact of the space radiation environment on currently used astrobiological model organisms.

  17. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  18. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2003-01-01

    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  19. Coeficientes médios da equação de Angström-Prescott, radiação solar e evapotranspiração de referência em Brasília Angström-Prescott equation mean coefficients, solar radiation and reference crop evapotranspiration in Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Daniele e Silva Dornelas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os coeficientes médios a e b da equação de Angström-Prescott, em Brasília, e seus efeitos sobre o cálculo da radiação solar global (Rs e da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Foram utilizados dados da estação meteorológica da Embrapa Hortaliças, do período de 1978 a 2003. Os coeficientes médios foram determinados por análise de regressão linear, no período todo e em períodos mensais e anuais. Utilizando-se o coeficiente calculado e os propostos pela FAO (0,25 e 0,50 estimaram-se Rs e ETo, e avaliaram-se os seus desempenhos. Os coeficientes médios mensais a variaram de 0,241 a 0,345, e b de 0,430 a 0,515. Os coeficientes médios anuais a e b foram 0,278 e 0,498, e os do período geral foram 0,282 e 0,490, respectivamente. A performance entre esses coeficientes na estimativa da radiação não diferiu. No mês de julho, foram verificados as piores estimativas e os piores desempenhos. Com as estimativas de Rs e os coeficientes médios calculados, as estimativas de ETo não diferiram dos observados, tendo-se constatado um ótimo desempenho, independentemente do coeficiente utilizado. Dependendo do tipo de aplicação final dos dados, recomenda-se utilizar, por sua simplicidade, os coeficientes médios obtidos para o período geral.The objective of this work was to estimate Angström-Prescott equation mean coefficients in Brasília, DF, Brazil, and their effects on the calculations of global radiation (Rs and reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo. It was used meteorological data from Embrapa Hortaliças weather station, from 1978 to 2003. The mean coefficients were determined by linear regression analysis considering monthly, annual and total periods. Using the calculated coefficients for different periods and those provided by FAO (0.25 and 0.50, Rs and ETo were estimated and their performances were evaluated. Monthly mean coefficient a varied from 0.241 to 0.345, and b from 0.430 to 0

  20. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: daltongirao@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Egenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into {sup i}nitial nuclear radiation{sup ,} referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10){sub n}{sup -}. (author)

  1. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  2. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta......Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward...... at the daily frequency. This beta can be computed using option data for a single day, and is able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company. Based on an empirical investigation of daily cross-sections of option contracts on thirty underlying companies, we conclude that these forward...

  3. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  4. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  5. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  6. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  7. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire's theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer.

  8. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  9. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  10. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  11. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  12. 基于蒙特卡罗的小尺度参考辐射装置屏蔽研究%Shielding research of minitype reference radiation device based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐阳; 魏彪; 毛本将; 刘易鑫; 冯鹏

    2016-01-01

    针对移动式小尺度参考辐射(MRR)装置(移动式校准装置),在进行射线辐射剂量测量的仪器仪表标定或刻度时,应满足其辐射屏蔽安全限值5μSv/h 的屏蔽技术要求,采用蒙特卡罗输运程序 MCNP,开展了移动式小尺度参考辐射装置表面剂量场屏蔽的模拟计算和研究分析工作。研究结果表明,通过 MCNP 模拟的屏蔽设计方法可以详尽反映 MRR 装置各个表面的剂量分布特征和规律,实现移动式小尺度参考辐射装置屏蔽设计,采用的铅钢材料复合屏蔽方案能够保证装置硬度且显著地减轻屏蔽体的重量,最终获取的优化MRR 屏蔽箱体重量约为271.9 kg。%When applied the minitype reference radiation (MRR)to calibrate gamma ray dosimeters,the shielding structure of the MRR should meet the shielding technique demand,in which the limit dose rate of the outside surface of the MRR must be lower than 5 μSv/h.In order to optimize the shielding design of the MRR,Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP is em-ployed to simulate and analyze the dose distribution of the outside surface of the MRR.The results show that the dose distribution of each surface of the MRR can be described in detail with MCNP and it is conducive to complete shielding design.The lead-steel composite material is applied to increase the strength and reduce the weight of the MRR.The optimized weight of the MRR is a-bout 271.9 kg.

  13. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  14. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  15. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  16. Dosimetry of beta particles using Li:Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe; Dosimetria de particulas beta usando Li: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, L.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T. [Depto. de Fisica, UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of determining the thermoluminescence (Tl) response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe pellets excited with {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta radiation. The glow curve exhibited three peaks which appear at 121 C, 178 C and 217 C . Its relative sensitivity is 49 with respect to that of the TLD-100 dosemeter taken as a reference. The minimal dose that could be measured was 750 mGy. The Tl response as a function of dose was linear in the range of 0.7 mGy to 22.5 mGy. The study of the repeatability of the information contained in the pellets showed a standard deviation of 2 %. (Author)

  17. Attenuation of the DNA Damage Response by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Inhibitors Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shisuo; Bouquet, Sophie; Lo, Chen-Hao; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Bolourchi, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Parry, Renate [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California (United States); Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen, E-mail: mhbarcellos-hoff@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibition increases the response to radiation therapy in human and mouse non–small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: TGF-β–mediated growth response and pathway activation were examined in human NSCLC NCI-H1299, NCI-H292, and A549 cell lines and murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells. Cells were treated in vitro with LY364947, a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase, or with the pan-isoform TGF-β neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1D11 before radiation exposure. The DNA damage response was assessed by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or Trp53 protein phosphorylation, γH2AX foci formation, or comet assay in irradiated cells. Radiation sensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay. Mice bearing syngeneic subcutaneous LLC tumors were treated with 5 fractions of 6 Gy and/or neutralizing or control antibody. Results: The NCI-H1299, A549, and LLC NSCLC cell lines pretreated with LY364947 before radiation exposure exhibited compromised DNA damage response, indicated by decreased ATM and p53 phosphorylation, reduced γH2AX foci, and increased radiosensitivity. The NCI-H292 cells were unresponsive. Transforming growth factor-β signaling inhibition in irradiated LLC cells resulted in unresolved DNA damage. Subcutaneous LLC tumors in mice treated with TGF-β neutralizing antibody exhibited fewer γH2AX foci after irradiation and significantly greater tumor growth delay in combination with fractionated radiation. Conclusions: Inhibition of TGF-β before radiation attenuated DNA damage recognition and increased radiosensitivity in most NSCLC cells in vitro and promoted radiation-induced tumor control in vivo. These data support the rationale for concurrent TGF-β inhibition and RT to provide therapeutic benefit in NSCLC.

  18. Radiation detector with spodumene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amorim, Raquel Aline P.O.; Lima, Hestia Raissa B.R.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Sasaki, Jose M., E-mail: sasaki@fisica.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, {beta}-spodumene potentiality as a radiation detector was evaluated by making use of thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) techniques. The pellets were obtained from the {beta}-spodumene powder mixed with Teflon followed by a sintering process of thermal treatments of 300 deg/30 min and 400 deg/1.5 h. The samples were irradiated in standard gamma radiation beams with doses between 5 Gy and 10 kGy. The TL emission curve showed a prominent peak at 160 deg and in the case of TSEE a prominent peak at 145 Celsius approximately. Initial results show that the material is promising for high-dose dosimetry. (author)

  19. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  20. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  1. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  2. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  3. Beta-thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Origa Raffaella; Galanello Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor...

  4. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-01-01

    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  5. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  6. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  7. 考虑辐射改进Hargreaves模型计算川中丘陵区参考作物蒸散量%Modifying Hargreaves model considering radiation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration in hilly area of central Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾悦; 崔宁博; 魏新平; 龚道枝; 胡笑涛

    2016-01-01

    为提高Hargreaves-Samani(H-S)模型对参考作物蒸散量(reference crop evapotranspiration,ET0)的计算精度,利用川中丘陵区13个代表站点1954~2013年近60 a逐日数据,依据贝叶斯原理并考虑辐射的影响对H-S模型进行改进,并以 Penman-Monteith(P-M)模型为标准,对其在川中丘陵区的适用性进行评价。结果表明:1)H-S 改进模型与 P-M模型ET0计算结果变化趋势基本一致;2)与H-S模型相比,在3个区域H-S改进模型计算的ET0旬值平均绝对误差分别由0.93、0.95、0.93 mm/d下降到0.15、0.19、0.28 mm/d,且3个区域ET0旬值拟合方程斜率分别由1.45、1.39、1.45变为0.89、0.94、0.90,Kendall一致系数由0.70、0.80、0.82提高到0.88、0.92、0.94,拟合效果与计算精度均明显提高;3)在3~10月的作物主要生长期,3个区域ET0月值平均绝对误差分别由0.89、1.14、1.28 mm/d下降到0.46、0.29、0.21 mm/d, ET0月值回归拟合方程斜率及一致性均明显提高;4)H-S 改进模型随海拔升高计算精度有所降低,H-S 改进模型全年内计算精度最大可提高47%,尤其在作物主要生长期,精度最大提高了48%。因此,H-S改进模型可显著提高ET0计算精度,在海拔较低的区域尤为明显,可作为川中丘陵区ET0计算的简化推荐模型。%Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) is an important parameter in water cycle and water balance. Accurate estimation ofET0 becomes vital in planning and optimizing irrigation schedules and irrigation system management. Numerous methods have been proposed for estimating ET0, among which the Penman-Monteith (P-M) method recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1998 provides the most accurate results across the world wherever in arid or humid environment. But the main problems when computing ET0 by the P-M method are its complicated nonlinear process and requirements of many

  8. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  9. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  10. Sacramento Regional Response Guide to Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    heat, radio waves, and microwaves which are low level radiation energy which is referred to as non- ionizing radiation. High energy radiation is...Response Plan" (California Office of Emergency Services, Updated February 2001), 5. 41 • Department of Fish and Game-lead agency for petroleum spills...radiation-binding and radiation-ridding gels, foam products, films and emulsions . The goal of radiation decontamination is to be sensitive to the

  11. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2000-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  12. 建立医学诊断X射线参考辐射场技术研究%Technical requirements of medical diagnostic X-ray reference radiation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从华; 蒋雪萍; 冯雪峰; 宿川; 张圆月; 郑永明; 王尧君; 徐恒; 杨建; 李鹏; 刘操; 张友德

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of test and calibration of X-ray diagnostic radiation dosimeter and its associated X-ray detection equipment used in China currently,standard medical diagnostic X-ray radiation fields must be built to provide the standard radiation dose values in whole the provinces. In accordance with IEC 61267 Medical diagnostic X-ray equipment-Radiation conditions for use in the determination of characteristics to analyze the radiation qualities and standards of radiation conditions,RQR,RQA,RQC,RQT,RQN,RQB,RQR-M,RQA-M,RQN-M and RQB-M are introduced as for specific technical requirements and the design methods to provide building programs and technical support for domestic Quality inspection agencies, specialized laboratories and the X-ray equipment manufacturers.%为解决国家和地区使用的X射线诊断辐射剂量仪及其相关X射线探测仪辐射计量的检定和校准问题,必须在全国范围内构建医学诊断X射线标准辐射场,提供标准辐射剂量值。按照IEC 61267医用诊断X射线设备辐射特性使用的条件标准,分析辐射质和标准辐射条件,介绍RQR、RQA、RQC、RQT、RQN、RQB、RQR-M、RQA-M、RQN-M、RQB-M的具体技术要求和建立方法,为国内计量部门、专业实验室、X射线设备生产企业提供建设方案和技术支持。

  13. Braking the Gas in the beta Pictoris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fern'andez, R; Wu, Y; Brandeker, Alexis; Fern\\'andez, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    (Abridged) The main sequence star beta Pictoris hosts the best studied circumstellar disk to date. Nonetheless, a long-standing puzzle has been around since the detection of metallic gas in the disk: radiation pressure from the star should blow the gas away, yet the observed motion is consistent with Keplerian rotation. In this work we search for braking mechanisms that can resolve this discrepancy. We find that all species affected by radiation force are heavily ionized and dynamically coupled into a single fluid by Coulomb collisions, reducing the radiation force on species feeling the strongest acceleration. For a gas of solar composition, the resulting total radiation force still exceeds gravity, while a gas of enhanced carbon abundance could be self-braking. We also explore two other braking agents: collisions with dust grains and neutral gas. Grains surrounding beta Pic are photoelectrically charged to a positive electrostatic potential. If a significant fraction of the grains are carbonaceous (10% in t...

  14. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, R. (Universidad de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru)); Marticorena, B. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter.

  15. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  16. Virtual reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Márdero Arellano, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of virtual reference services, their standandars and new technologies that have changed the tradicional practice at the library’s reference desk. Major American virtual reference services initiatives and their characteristics are described.

  17. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Influence of heating rate on the temperature of the (alpha+beta)-beta transformation of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskii, P.E.

    1985-07-01

    Results of a systematic experimental study of the effect of the heating rate, composition, and structure on the temperature of the (alpha+beta)-beta transformation in titanium alloys VT6, VT14, VT3-1, VT23, and VT22 are presented. It is shown that the transformation temperature of the alloys increases proportionally to the coefficient k-beta, which characterizes the alloy content, and to the size of the alpha-phase grains in the original structure. All other conditions being equal, the transformation is completed sooner in alloys with a spheroidal structure. 8 references.

  19. Project 8: Determining neutrino mass from tritium beta decay using a frequency-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, Peter J.; Kofron, Jared N.; MCBride, Lisa; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Doelman, S.; Rogers, Alan E.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel; Oblath, Noah S.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; Monreal, Ben; Bahr, Matthew; Asner, David M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Fernandes, Justin L.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Bradley, Rich; Thummler, Thomas

    2013-10-04

    A general description is given of Project 8, a new approach to measuring the neutrino mass scale via the beta decay of tritium. In Project 8, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay is determined from the frequency of cyclotron radiation emitted as the electrons spiral in a uniform magnetic field

  20. Project 8: Determining neutrino mass from tritium beta decay using a frequency-based method

    CERN Document Server

    Doe, P J; McBride, E L; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Doelman, S; Rogers, A; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Oblath, N S; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; Monreal, B; Bahr, M; Asner, D M; Jones, A M; Fernandes, J; VanDevender, B A; Patterson, R; Bradley, R; Thuemmler, T

    2013-01-01

    A general description is given of Project 8, a new approach to measuring the neutrino mass scale via the beta decay of tritium. In Project 8, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay is determined from the frequency of cyclotron radiation emitted as the electrons spiral in a uniform magnetic field.

  1. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  2. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  3. Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    At least one neutrino has a mass of about 50 meV or larger. However, the absolute mass scale for the neutrino remains unknown. Furthermore, the critical question: Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? is unanswered. Studies of double beta decay offer hope for determining the absolute mass scale. In particular, zero-neutrino double beta decay (\\BBz) can address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of the neutrino, and its mass. A summary of the recent results in \\BBz, and the related technologies will be discussed in the context of the future \\BBz\\ program.

  4. Project 8 Phase II: Improved beta decay electrons reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Mathieu; Project 8 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Project 8 collaboration aims to measure the absolute neutrino mass scale using a cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy technique on the beta decays of tritium. The second phase of the project will measure a differential spectrum of tritium beta decays and extract the tritium endpoint value with an eV or sub-eV scale precision. Monoenergetic electrons emitted by gaseous 83mKr atoms can be used to determine the coefficient between the cyclotron frequency and the electron energy and to optimize the instrument configuration for the tritium measurement. We present the progress on the processing of the electron cyclotron radiation signal to reconstruct the beta decay spectrum of krypton and tritium.

  5. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  6. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  7. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  9. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  10. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  11. Minimize reference sideband generation in microwave PLLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stan

    1991-02-01

    The processes responsible for producing reference sidebands are outlined, and the sources of coupling to the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) tune line including power-supply-generated signals, TTL-controlled interface signals, intermediate programmable-divider signals, and radiated TTL signals are discussed. It is noted that filtering alone is inadequate for reference-sideband suppression, while minimizing the tuning slope and maximizing the reference frequency will result in a reduced reference-sideband level. Minimizing offset currents by using a differential amplifier connection may reduce the reference-sideband level aggravated by an opamp. The selection of a TTL, ECL, or GaAs phase/frequency detector can determine the level of reference sidebands, as well as PCB isolation techniques.

  12. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades...... in the expansion of the beta cell mass in human pregnancy, and the relative roles of endocrine factors and nutrients....

  13. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  14. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  16. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  17. Conditions for $\\beta$-perfectness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsper, J.C.M.; Tewes, M.

    2000-01-01

    A $\\beta$-perfect graph is a simple graph $G$ such that $\\chi(G')=\\beta(G')$ for every induced subgraph $G'$ of $G$, where $\\chi(G')$ is the chromatic number of $G'$, and $\\beta(G')$ is defined as the maximum over all induced subgraphs $H$ of $G'$ of the minimum vertex degree in $H$. The vertices of

  18. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  19. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  20. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Hannechi, N; Boukadida, N; Ben Said, H; Elmherbech, H; Errai, S

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role and importance of beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis and its relative susceptibility to antibiotics, we cultured samples from 143 patients (age range: 3-72 years) who presented over a 5-month period in 2001 at three primary health care centres in Sousse, Tunisia. The cultures yielded 80 beta-haemolytic streptococci (59 group A streptococci and 21 non-group A streptococci). All strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin. Susceptibility was variable in erythromycin, tetracycline, fosfomycin, telithromycin and levofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E-test for penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin. Our results confirm that penicillin is still the reference treatment for acute pharyngitis. However, to minimize the potential for complications arising from its use, continued vigilance is required.

  2. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E

    1998-06-01

    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  3. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  4. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  5. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  7. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  8. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  9. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  10. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  11. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  12. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  13. Statistical analysis of solar measurements in Algeria using beta distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettoumi, F. Youcef; Adane, A. [Univ. of Sciences and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Dept. of Telecommunications, Algiers (Algeria); Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), Algiers (Algeria)

    2002-05-01

    A method of smoothing solar data by beta probability distributions is implemented in this paper. In the first step, this method has been used to process daily sunshine duration data recorded at thirty- three meteorological stations in Algeria for eleven year periods or more. In the second step, it has been applied to hourly global solar irradiation flux measured in Algiers during the 1987/89 period. For each location and each month of the year, beta probability density functions fitting the monthly frequency distributions of the daily sunshine duration measurements are obtained. Both the parameters characterising the resulting beta distributions are then mapped, enabling us to build the frequency distributions of sunshine duration for every site in Algeria. In the case of solar radiation for Algiers, the recorded data have been processed following two different ways. The first one consists in sorting the hourly global solar irradiation data into eight typical classes of the daily clearness index. The second one is based on the repartition of these data per month. The results of the first classification show that for each class of daily clearness index, the hourly data under consideration are modelled by only one beta distribution. When using the second classification, linear combinations of two beta distributions are found to fit the monthly frequency distributions of the hourly solar radiation data. (Author)

  14. Reference frames and refbits

    CERN Document Server

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  15. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  16. Reference Management and Citation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2014-01-01

    Reference Management system offers an easy way of collecting references from online databases, organizing them in a database, and citing them in documents in Microsoft Word. Documents can be shared with colleagues/publish online. A reference management system can facilitate the keeping track of the literature.

  17. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  18. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  19. Effect of the damage by radiation on the reference temperature T{sub 0} of ferritic steel; Efecto del dano por radiacion en la temperatura de referencia T{sub 0} de acero ferritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva O, A

    2004-07-01

    Presently work studies the effect that produces the irradiation in ferritic steels, on the reference temperature T{sub 0} (intrinsic characteristic of the fracture tenacity in the area of ductile-fragile transition), applying the approach of the Master curve that is based on the norm Astm E-1921. For it it was elaborated a methodology and procedure for test tubes type Charpy according to the standard before mentioned. Due to the ferritic steels are used mainly in pressure vessels to the reactor (RPV) of nuclear power plants; in the samples it was simulated the effect of the damage for irradiation through a thermal treatment that induced the precipitation of the carbides and sulfurs in the limits of grain (one of the modifications suffered in the irradiated materials); it was made a comparison later with material samples in initial state (without thermal treatment), used as witness sample, by means of assays of fracture mechanics, specifically flexion in three points; this way with it to observe the effect of the damage for irradiation in the reference temperature (T{sub 0}). This temperature (T{sub 0}) it is a very important parameter in the mechanical property of the material called fracture tenacity; which at the moment gives the rule for the verification of structural integrity of the RPV. As a result of this it was observed an increase in the reference temperature in the material in fragilezed state with respect to the initial state of 31.75 C. They were carried out metallographic analysis and fractographs of the assayed surface finding carbide inclusions and sulfurs that in theory of the Master Curve they are initiators of cracks and of a possible catastrophic flaw of the material. At the moment the Division of Scientific Investigation of the ININ is carrying out activities in the Nucleo electric Central of Laguna Verde (CNLV) related with the program of surveillance of the materials of the vessel of the unit 2, as well as projects of structural integrity

  20. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  1. Reference: RYREPEATLEGUMINBOX [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RYREPEATLEGUMINBOX Fujiwara T, Beachy RN Tissue-specific and temporal regulation of... a beta-conglycinin gene: roles of the RY repeat and other cis-acting elements. Plant Mol Biol 24:261-272 (1994) PubMed: 8111031; ...

  2. Methods for analysis of amyloid-beta aggregates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, K.A.; Muller, M.; Kuiperij, H.B.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) accumulation is one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Abeta aggregates into fibrils, but rather than these end-products of the aggregation process, intermediate species, referred to as oligomers, have been

  3. Localized External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) to the Pelvis Induces Systemic IL-1Beta and TNF-Alpha Production: Role of the TNF-Alpha Signaling in EBRT-Induced Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tasha L; Hung, Arthur Y; Thomas, Charles R; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients undergoing localized external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can experience a progressive increase in fatigue, which can affect physical functioning and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop a mouse EBRT prostate cancer treatment model with which to determine the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the genesis of EBRT-related fatigue. We assessed voluntary wheel-running activity (VWRA) as a proxy for fatigue, food intake and body weight in male C57BL/6 mice undergoing EBRT to the pelvis. In the first experiment, anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice underwent fractionated EBRT to the pelvis for a total dose of 68.2 Gy, thereby mimicking a clinically relevant therapeutic dose and frequency. The day after the last treatment, levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma along with mRNA levels in liver, colon and whole brain were measured. EBRT-induced fatigue resulted in reduced body weight, diminished food intake, and increased plasma and tissue levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. In a follow-up experiment, we used TNF-α-deficient mice to further delineate the role of TNF-α signaling in EBRT-induced sickness behavior. EBRT-induced changes in fatigue, food intake and body weight were no different between TNF-α deficient mice and their wild-type counterparts. Taken together our data demonstrate that a clinically relevant localized irradiation of the pelvis induces a systemic IL-1β and TNF-α response and sickness behavior in mice, but the TNF-α signaling pathway alone does not independently mediate these effects.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of beta-globin; this abnormality is called beta thalassemia . In people with sickle cell disease , at least ... globin. If mutations that produce hemoglobin S and beta thalassemia occur together, individuals have hemoglobin S- beta thalassemia (HbSBetaThal) ...

  5. Effect of the radiation in the reference temperature T{sub 0} in ferritic steel; Efecto de la radiacion en la temperatura de referencia T{sub 0} en acero ferritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva O, A.; Gachuz M, M.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The present work studies the effect that produces the irradiation in ferritic steels (AISI 8620) on the reference temperature (T{sub 0}) that characterizes the tenacity to the fractures (K{sub JC}) of these materials obtaining this way a characteristic curve (Master Curve) of this steel. The approach of the 'Master curve' is based on the Astm E-1921. Following this standard the methodology of a sub size settled down in Charpy type test tubes. Due to this type of steels is used mainly in pressure vessels of the reactor in Nuclear Power plants, the fracture tenacity gives the rule at the moment for the verification of structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the reactor. (Author)

  6. Interleukin-1 beta induced transient diabetes mellitus in rats. A model of the initial events in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I

    1998-01-01

    , compared to the effects of IL-1 beta on rat beta cell function. Finally, this review discussed the effects of IL-1 beta on human beta cells in vitro, and the clinical relevance of these experiments, with special reference to a clinical trial with the aim of preventing IDDM in man. The pharmacokinetic...... parameters of the absorption and biological activity of IL-1 beta after peripheral injection. Injections of rhIL-1 beta to normal, non-diabetes prone rats induced initial beta cell stimulation followed by inhibition, in accordance with in vitro data. Furthermore, induction of peripheral insulin resistance...... edema and microvillous processes on the beta cells, which might be early evidence of apoptosis. The diabetes mellitus-like state was not aggravated if the daily injections were continued beyond 5 days. Daily injections of rhIL-1 beta for 2 to 4 weeks induced formation of blocking IL-1 beta...

  7. Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipin, R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

  8. Synthesis of amides and sulfonamides of {beta}-D- galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine and evaluation of their interactions with the lectins from Erythrina cristagalli and Ricinus communis; Sintese de amidas e sulfonamidas de {beta}-D-galactopiranosilamina e {beta}-lactosilamina e avaliacao de suas interacoes com lectinas de Erythrina cristagalli e de Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Anna Paola; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Faria, Luiz Carlos Alves de; Nunes, Maria Angelica; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br; Andrade, Milton Hercules Guerra de; Silva, Karina Taciana Santos [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Biologicas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-09-15

    We report herein the synthesis of some {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides. The interactions of these compounds with lectins from the seeds of Erythrina cristagalli (LEC) and Ricinus communis (RCA120) were evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibitory activity assay. D-Galactose and lactose were used as reference compounds. The {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides were nearly as active as lactose in inhibiting LEC mediated hemagglutination and were less active against RCA120 agglutinin. The {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine amides and sulfonamides were, with one exception, considerably less active than D-galactose in the assay with both lectins. (author)

  9. Establishing a dataset for a ‘reference site’

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Walker, L; Copplestone, D.; Wells, C.; Newsome, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ICRP published their framework for radiation protection of the environment in Publication 108 (ICRP 2008). This describes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) as the basis for the framework. Publication 108 presented dose coefficient values for the selected RAPs and also reviewed data on the effects of ionising radiation to suggest Derived Consideration Reference Levels (defined as a band of dose rate within which there is likely to be some chance of deleterious effects of ionis...

  10. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  11. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become a widely used tool in the search for disease genes. When examining gene expression with qPCR in psychiatric diseases, endogenous reference gene(s) must be used for normalization. Traditionally, genes such as beta-actin (ActB), Gap...

  12. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  13. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  14. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  15. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure, Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the {prime}978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  16. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - main report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2), which is a boiling water reactor (BWR), located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low- level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  17. Wind-Forced Baroclinic Beta-Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmadani, A.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.; Schneider, N.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    A planetary beta-plume is a classical example of oceanic circulation induced by a localized vorticity source or sink that allows an analytical description in simplistic cases. Its barotropic structure is a zonally-elongated, gyre-like cell governed by the Sverdrup circulation on the beta-plane. The dominant zonal currents, found west of the source/sink, are often referred to as zonal jets. This simple picture describes the depth-integrated flow. Previous studies have investigated beta-plumes in a reduced-gravity framework or using other simple models with a small number of vertical layers, thereby lacking representation of the vertical structure. In addition, most previous studies use a purely linear regime without considering the role of eddies. However, these jets are often associated with strong lateral shear that makes them unstable under increased forcing. The circulation in such a nonlinear regime may involve eddy-mean flow interactions, which modify the time-averaged circulation. Here, the baroclinic structures of linear and nonlinear wind-forced beta-plumes are studied using a continuously-stratified, primitive equation, eddy-permitting ocean model (ROMS). The model is configured in an idealized rectangular domain for the subtropical ocean with a flat bottom. The surface wind forcing is a steady anticyclonic Gaussian wind vortex, which provides a localized vorticity source in the center of the domain. The associated wind stress curl and Ekman pumping comprise downwelling in the vortex center surrounded by a ring of weaker upwelling. Under weak forcing, the simulated steady-state circulation corresponds well with a theoretical linear beta-plume. While its depth-integrated transport exhibits a set of zonal jets, consistent with Sverdrup theory, the baroclinic structure of the plume is remarkably complex. Relatively fast westward decay of the surface currents occurs simultaneously with the deepening of the lower boundary of the plume. This deepening suggests

  18. Inhibition of restenosis with beta-emitting radiotherapy: Report of the Proliferation Reduction with Vascular Energy Trial (PREVENT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Raizner (Albert); A. Colombo (Antonio); Y.L. Lim; A.C. Yeung (Alan); N.M. Ali (Nadir); L. Vandertie (Lynn); G.L. Kaluza (Grzegorz); J.K. Chiu; P.J. Fitzgerald (Peter); L.R. White (Larry); S.N. Oesterle; R. Waksman (Ron); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Intracoronary gamma- and beta-radiation have reduced restenosis in animal models. In the clinical setting, the effectiveness of beta-emitters has not been studied in a broad spectrum of patients, particularly those receiving stents. METHODS AND RESULTS: A pr

  19. The Majorana Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay searches play a major role in determining the nature of neutrinos, the existence of a lepton violating process, and the effective Majorana neutrino mass. The Majorana Collaboration proposes to assemble an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The technique is augmented with recent improvements in signal processing and detector design, and advances in controlling intrinsic and external backgrounds. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module containing 60 kg of Ge detectors to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module will be presented. This paper will also discuss detector optimization and low-background requirements, such as material purity, background...

  20. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  1. Reference Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, John; Young, William

    This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

  2. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  3. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  4. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  5. Aspect and Reference time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borik, O.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  6. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  7. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  8. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  9. [BiOBr promoted the photocatalytic degradation of beta-cypermethrin under visible light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Zhu; Zhao, Xiao-Rong; Jia, Man-Ke; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Ying-Ping

    2014-05-01

    As a visible light photocatalyst, bismuth oxide bromide (BiOBr) was used to catalyze the degradation of beta-cypermethrin (beta-CP). The photocatalytic degradation of beta-CP was studied with gas chromatography. The effects of pH and catalyst dose on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were discussed. The oxidization and mineralization of beta-CP were detected by chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer. The results showed that beta-CP could be effectively degraded under visible light irradiation using BiOBr as the catalyst. At given experimental conditions, the degradation rate of beta-CP reached 94. 68% after 10 h and the COD removal rate reached 67. 99% after 36 h. With the increase of catalyst dose and pH value, the degradation rate was improved. The photocatalytic oxidation species was determined by peroxidase method and terephthalic acid fluorescence method. These results suggested that the photocatalytic degradation process mainly referred to hydroxyl radical ( OH) mechanism.

  10. Sectoral Differences in the Choice of the Time Horizon during Estimation of the Unconditional Stock Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dadakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are fewer references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return relationship of a stock. We examine the appropriate time horizon for beta estimation, differentiating our results by sector according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. We employ data from the NYSE and estimate varying lengths of beta employing data from 30 to 250 trading days. The constructed beta series is then examined for the presence of breaks using the endogenous structural break literature. Results show evidence against the use of betas that employ more than 90 trading days of data provisional to the sector under study.

  11. Radiation events in astronomical CCD images

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. R.; McDonald, R. J.; Hurley, D. L.; Holland, S. E.; Groom, D. E.; Brown, W E; Gilmore, D. K.; Stover, R.J.; Wei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The remarkable sensitivity of depleted silicon to ionizing radiation is a nuisance to astronomers. "Cosmic rays" degrade images because of struck pixels, leading to modified observing strategies and the development of algorithms to remove the unwanted artifacts. In the new-generation CCD's with thick sensitive regions, cosmic-ray muons make recognizable straight tracks and there is enhanced sensitivity to ambient gamma radiation via Compton-scattered electrons ("worms"). Beta emitters i...

  12. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  13. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  14. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  15. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin and...

  16. Measurements of sin 2 $\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A

    2000-01-01

    A review of the most recent measurements of the CP violating parameter sin 2 beta from LEP and CDF is reported. These yield an average value of sin 2 beta =0.91+or-0.35, giving a confidence level that CP violation in the B system has been observed of almost 99%. (10 refs).

  17. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...

  18. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  19. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  20. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  1. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  2. Collaborating on Referring Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Hirst, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model of how conversational participants collaborate in order to make a referring action successful. The model is based on the view of language as goal-directed behavior. We propose that the content of a referring expression can be accounted for by the planning paradigm. Not only does this approach allow the processes of building referring expressions and identifying their referents to be captured by plan construction and plan inference, it also allows us to account for how participants clarify a referring expression by using meta-actions that reason about and manipulate the plan derivation that corresponds to the referring expression. To account for how clarification goals arise and how inferred clarification plans affect the agent, we propose that the agents are in a certain state of mind, and that this state includes an intention to achieve the goal of referring and a plan that the agents are currently considering. It is this mental state that sanctions the adoption of g...

  3. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  4. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  5. Olfactory Reference Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome is a delusional disorder in which the patient persistently and falsely believes that his or her body emits a foul odor. The disease is considered a variant of somatic type of delusional disorder under the diagnostic systems. Similarities between olfactory reference syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder have also been noted. The etiopathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been clarified. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review clinical features, neurobiology, differantial diagnosis, classification problems and treatment of olfactory reference syndrome.

  6. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  7. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  8. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  9. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  10. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  11. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  12. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  13. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  14. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been developed for a class of self-contained, long-duration power sources called beta batteries, which harvest the energy contained in the radioactive emissions from beta decay isotopes. The new battery is a significant improvement over the conventional phosphor/solar cell concept for converting this energy in three ways. First, the thin phosphor is replaced with a thick scintillator that is transparent to its own emissions. By using a scintillator sufficiently thick to completely stop all the beta particles, efficiency is greatly improved. Second, since the energy of the beta particles is absorbed in the scintillator, the semiconductor photodetector is shielded from radiation damage that presently limits the performance and lifetime of traditional phosphor converters. Finally, instead of a thin film of beta-emitting material, the isotopes are incorporated into the entire volume of the thick scintillator crystal allowing more activity to be included in the converter without self-absorption. There is no chemical difference between radioactive and stable strontium beta emitters such as Sr-90, so the beta emitter can be uniformly distributed throughout a strontium based scintillator crystal. When beta emitter material is applied as a foil or thin film to the surface of a solar cell or even to the surface of a scintillator, much of the radiation escapes due to the geometry, and some is absorbed within the layer itself, leading to inefficient harvesting of the energy. In contrast, if the emitting atoms are incorporated within the scintillator, the geometry allows for the capture and efficient conversion of the energy of particles emitted in any direction. Any gamma rays associated with secondary decays or Bremsstrahlung photons may also be absorbed within the scintillator, and converted to lower energy photons, which will in turn be captured by the photocell or photodiode. Some energy will be lost in this two-stage conversion process (high-energy particle

  15. beta- and gamma-Comparative dose estimates on Enewetak Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crase, K W; Gudiksen, P H; Robison, W L

    1982-05-01

    Enewetak Atoll is one of the Pacific atolls used for atmospheric testing of U.S. nuclear weapons. Beta dose and gamma-ray exposure measurements were made on two islands of the Enewetak Atoll during July-August 1976 to determine the beta and low energy gamma-contribution to the total external radiation doses to the returning Marshallese. Measurements were made at numerous locations with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), pressurized ionization chambers, portable NaI detectors, and thin-window pancake GM probes. Results of the TLD measurements with and without a beta-attenuator indicate that approx. 29% of the total dose rate at 1 m in air is due to beta- or low energy gamma-contribution. The contribution at any particular site, however, is somewhat dependent on ground cover, since a minimal amount of vegetation will reduce it significantly from that over bare soil, but thick stands of vegetation have little effect on any further reductions. Integral 30-yr external shallow dose estimates for future inhabitants were made and compared with external dose estimates of a previous large scale radiological survey (En73). Integral 30-yr shallow external dose estimates are 25-50% higher than whole body estimates. Due to the low penetrating ability of the beta's or low energy gamma's, however, several remedial actions can be taken to reduce the shallow dose contribution to the total external dose.

  16. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  17. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  18. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  19. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  20. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  1. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  3. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  4. Radiation-hard polycrystalline mercuric iodide semiconductor particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Ca 94556 (United States); Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-06-01

    Mercuric iodide polycrystalline radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters and for large area imaging devices, have been fabricated using three different methods. Response to X- and gamma rays, beta particles and to 100GeV muons, as well as radiation hardness results are briefly described. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  6. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  7. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  9. Reference Based Genome Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Bobbie; Ochoa, Idoia; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target gen...

  10. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  11. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helt-Hansen, J

    2000-11-01

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50{mu}m/150{mu}m/7000{mu}m covered by a 2 {mu}m thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Joo, Young Hyun [and others

    2005-04-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha} ,{beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  15. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  18. Theoretical study of the NO beta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Komornicki, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical determination of the transition moment functions (TMFs) for the beta system of NO is presented. High levels of correlation treatment are required to show the changing degree of Rydberg character in the B2II with decreasing r values. The state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field multireference configuration-interaction method is used for the determination. Previous lifetime measurements made with laser-induced fluorescence, varying between 2 and 0.85 microns, are discussed in terms of the calculated lifetimes for v-prime values 0-6, which vary from 2.12-1.17 microns. When larger r values are used for the transition moment function, the calculated lifetimes correlate with experimental lifetimes. The Einstein coefficients agree with experimental results, although limitations in the calibration of the spectrometer can account for systematic differences. The correlation with earlier experimental results suggests that radiative lifetimes are in the range of 1-2 microns.

  19. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  20. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P;

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-r...... role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC....

  1. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  2. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  3. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  4. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  5. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2012-09-15

    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities

  6. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  7. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  8. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  9. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora and Beta vulgaris L. in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Bi, Ying-Dong; Yu, Li-Jie; Guo, De-Dong; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-11-01

    Apomixis refers to a process in which plants produce seed without fertilization through female syngamy that produces embryos genetically identical to the maternal parent. In sugar beet, interspecific hybrids between diploid Beta vulgaris and tetraploid Beta corolliflora were established and monosomic addition line M14 was selected because of the apomictic phenotype. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels we identified the proteins which were differently expressed between the M14 and B. vulgaris. A total of 27 protein spots which varied expressed between lines were isolated and successfully identified with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them five protein spots were found to be only presented in M14 and two protein spots only expressed in Beta. According to their functional annotations described in Swissprot database, these proteins were, respectively, involved in important biological pathways, such as cell division, functionally classified using the KEGG functional classification system. The result may be useful for us to better understand the genetic mechanism of apomixes.

  11. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  12. Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D M; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thummler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L

    2014-01-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta sp...

  13. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  14. In vivo evaluation of expression of TGF{beta}1 in the irradiated heart; Expressao da proteina TGF{beta}1 em coracao irradiado in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso Junior, Renato Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. Diagnostico por Imagem; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Silva, Maria Regina Regis [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Setor de Anatomia Patologica; Kimura, Edna Teruko [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Histologia; Egami, Mizue Imoto [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Morfologia; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: hrcs.dmed@unifesp.epm.br

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the latent and active TGF{beta}1 localization in the heart, to evaluate whether or not radiation induces latent TGF{beta}1 activation, and to study the distribution of collagen fibers in the irradiated heart. Thirty-two C 57 BL mice were randomly assigned in two groups: GI (non irradiated animals) and GII (irradiated animals). The mice from G II received a single whole-body radiation dose of 7 Gy, using a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 0.97 Gy/min. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 1, 14, 30 and 90 days after irradiation. The irradiated hearts showed: nuclear changes and muscle cells with decreased striations; significant increase in the collagen deposition 90 days after irradiation; latent TGF{beta}1 activation in the cardio myocytes and connective tissue cells after irradiation. Our results show the importance of TGF{beta}1 protein in the process of radiation-induced heart fibrosis and suggest that cardio myocytes and connective cells may play a role in this mechanism acting as cellular sources of active TGF{beta}1. (author)

  15. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [College of Medicine, Keimhyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-{alpha} and TGF {beta} and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-{alpha} and TGF-{beta}] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation

  16. Development of a plasma panel radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Ben-Moshe, M; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Wetzel, R; Zhou, B; Anderson, T; McKinny, K; Bentefour, E H

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology. The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. PPS components are non-reactive and intrinsically radiation-hard materials, such as glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons, and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated risetimes and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

  17. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  18. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  19. New celestial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. K.; Kaplan, G. H.; van Flandern, T. C.

    It is pointed out that the IAU (1976) System of Astronomical Constants, the FK5 and new lunar and planetary theories are being introduced in 1984. The investigation and planning for the transition have revealed the complex interdependencies between observational techniques and the reference systems and their strong link to the rotating and orbiting earth. Details for the conversion to the new system are given. The concepts for a future reference system are developed, based on separating the real motions involved in such a way that observations from various moving platforms can be related to the appropriate coordinate system without involving motions that are not intrinsically involved in the observations. As a consequence, the reference systems determined or used in space, while affected by aberration and parallax, would logically be defined with no dependence on precession, nutation, polar motion, or Universal Time, all of which are concerned with motions of the earth's surface.

  20. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  1. Biocompatibility of beta-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2004-11-01

    In comparison to the presently used alpha + beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications, beta-titanium alloys have many advantageous mechanical properties, such as an improved wear resistance, a high elasticity and an excellent cold and hot formability. This will promote their future increased application as materials for orthopaedic joint replacements. Not all elements with beta-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications-corrosion and wear processes cause a release of these alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. In this investigation, the biocompability of alloying elements for beta- and near beta-titanium alloys was tested in order to estimate their suitability for biomaterial components. Titanium (grade 2) and the implant steel X2CrNiMo18153 (AISI 316 L) were tested as reference materials. The investigation included the corrosion properties of the elements, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, cell morphology and the size of MC3T3-E1 cells and GM7373 cells after 7 days incubation in direct contact with polished slices of the metals. The statistical significance was considered by Weir-test and Lord-test (alpha = 0.05). The biocompatibility range of the investigated metals is (decreasing biocompatibility): niobium-tantalum, titanium, zirconium-aluminium-316 L-molybdenum.

  2. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Karimim@sums.ac.ir; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  3. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  4. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Microglobulin, Serum, Urine, or CSF Related tests: Albumin , Tumor Markers , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests Online ...

  5. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  6. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  7. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  8. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  9. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  10. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  11. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  12. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  13. Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi; Marzieh Salimi; Nima Ghal-Eh; Gholam Reza Etaati; Hossien Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of these technologies in various fields of industry, medicine, research and etc, protection against radioactive rays is one of the most important topics in this field .The purpose of this is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted various types of nuclear radiation with different energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma radiation. Given ...

  14. Beta-carbolines, psychoactive compounds in the mammalian body. Part I: Occurrence, origin and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, M M; Kari, I

    1981-02-01

    We review the occurrence in nature and the formation and biotransformation in mammals of beta-carbolines, the condensation products of tryptophan and indolealkylamines with aldehydes, with special reference to their possible role in man. They are found in many plants, some of which have been used as hallucinogens and drugs. They also occur as minor constituents in tobacco smoke. In man tetrahydro-beta-carboline (tetrahydronorharman), formed from tryptamine condensed with formaldehyde, occurs normally in plasma and is highly concentrated in platelets. The corresponding products from 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-methoxytryptamine have been identified in rats but their concentrations in man have not yet been assessed. 1-Methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline (tetrahydroharman) is formed in the body as the acetaldehyde condensate after alcohol intake and its concentration is usually greatest at the time of hang-over. Its oxidation product, 1-methyl-beta-carboline (harman), has also been found in human urine and platelets. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may be oxidized to corresponding dihydro-beta-carbolines and beta-carbolines, at least in vitro. Due to the interesting biochemical and pharmacological effects (see part II) of beta-carbolines, several hypotheses about their role in the body can be made. The concentrations and roles of beta-carbolines in different neuropsychiatric diseases, however, remain to be determined, as suitable evaluation methods have only been developed in recent years.

  15. Hydrolytic and photochemistry degradation of the amoxicillin in {beta}-cyclodextrin; Degradacao hidrolitica e fotoquimica da amoxicilina na presenca de {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bariccatti, R.A.; Silva, C.; Souza, M.L.; Lindino, C.A.; Rosa, M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: reinaldo0207@brturbo.com.br

    2008-10-15

    This work has like purpose monitors the degradation of the drug amoxicillin in the presence and absence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, through techniques spectroscopy. For this, there was accompanied the hydrolysis of the drug protected of the light for around 400 hours. The results indicate that, initially, the cyclodextrin does not alter the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin, however, after 250 hours there is an increase of the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin when present at cyclodextrin. Another variable was the irradiation of the sample with radiation in the region of the UV, we see that the solutions containing {beta}- cyclodextrin suffer a slower phototransformation (26,8%) than the solutions without {beta}-cyclodextrin, when irradiated by UV radiation. (author)

  16. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 SignalingAttenuates Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Activity in Response toGenotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam; Lavin, Martin F.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta})-1, which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiologic and pathologic processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}I null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17, and p53; reduced H2AX radiation-induced foci; and increased radiosensitivity compared with TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM, which directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate, and tissue integrity. Thus, Tgf{beta}I, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  17. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring from the decommission of TRIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2000-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around TRIGA Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around TRIGA Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation measured by potable ERM and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with thepast years. Gross {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. but only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. (author)

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 production and autocrine growth control in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Jennings, C L; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1994-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide with multiple physiological functions. Isoforms of this growth factor have important roles in control of the cell cycle, in regulation of cell-cell interactions and in growth and development. Malignant transformation has been shown to be associated with increased expression of TGF-beta. Since bone is the largest storage site and producer of TGF-beta, we speculated on the existence of an autocrine mechanism in osteosarcoma, a malignant bone tumor. Expression of TGF-beta cell surface receptors, effects on growth of TGF-beta and TGF-beta antibodies and production of 2 TGF-beta isoforms were studied in a panel of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. In contrast to most previous reports on the effects of TGF-beta on osteosarcoma cell growth, we found a mitogenic effect of TGF-beta 1 in 4 of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. Receptor profiles for TGF-beta were aberrant in 5 of the 7 cell lines tested, and production of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 varied among cell lines. Addition of anti-TGF-beta antagonized the effects of endogenous TGF-beta. Our results suggest a potential role of TGF-beta in autocrine growth control of osteosarcoma cells.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  2. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  3. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  4. Digital Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Lorri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

  5. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  6. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  7. The Reference Encounter Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  8. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  9. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  10. X Python reference manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manu

  11. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the

  12. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  13. Ndiff Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Deniau, L

    2013-01-01

    ndiff is an efficient and flexible tool designed to compare unformatted text files with numerical content. It is well suited for regression testing, for validating data versus templates, and for filtering data following templates. This technical note is the reference manual of the ndiff tool initially developed for the MAD-X test system and subsequently extended for data validation.

  14. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  15. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  16. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  17. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  18. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  19. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  20. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  1. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  2. Spectrochemical studies with {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, Miguel A.; Plivelic, Tomas S.; Mainardi, Raul T. [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Atronomia y Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Electrons emitted by {sup 90} Sr radioactive source and positrons from a {sup 22} Na source were used to produce ionizations in the constituents of a sample. The sources have similar energy spectra and this allowed us to compare the characteristic radiation emission efficiencies. The new proposed experimental set up for radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is of a transparent source type and provides at least a ten times increase in the intensity of characteristic x-rays emitted by the sample as compared with a standard set up in XRFA. It is shown that this fact, together with the relatively high energy of the beta particles, make it possible to carry out a mirror elemental analysis in a few minutes using low intensity radioactive sources (no special handling license). Preliminary experimental results are shown using both electrons and positrons impinging on pure and composed samples and simple analytical expressions are provided for the characteristic radiation intensity as detected by an HPGe detector. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  3. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease.

  4. The reference phantoms: voxel vs polygon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C H; Yeom, Y S; Nguyen, T T; Wang, Z J; Kim, H S; Han, M C; Lee, J K; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N; Bolch, W E; Lee, C; Chung, B S

    2016-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference male and female adult phantoms, described in Publication 110, are voxel phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography scans of a male and a female patient, respectively. The voxel in-plane resolution and the slice thickness, of the order of a few millimetres, are insufficient for proper segmentation of smaller tissues such as the lens of the eye, the skin, and the walls of some organs. The calculated doses for these tissues therefore present some limitations, particularly for weakly penetrating radiation. Similarly, the Publication 110 phantoms cannot represent 8-40-µm-thick target regions in respiratory or alimentary tract organs. Separate stylised models have been used to represent these tissues for calculation of the ICRP reference dose coefficients (DCs). ICRP Committee 2 recently initiated a research project, the ultimate goal of which is to convert the Publication 110 phantoms to a high-quality polygon-mesh (PM) format, including all source and target regions, even those of the 8-40-µm-thick alimentary and respiratory tract organs. It is expected that the converted phantoms would lead to the same or very similar DCs as the Publication 110 reference phantoms for penetrating radiation and, at the same time, provide more accurate DCs for weakly penetrating radiation and small tissues. Additionally, the reference phantoms in the PM format would be easily deformable and, as such, could serve as a starting point to create phantoms of various postures for use, for example, in accidental dose calculations. This paper will discuss the current progress of the phantom conversion project and its significance for ICRP DC calculations.

  5. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  6. Sterilizing radiation effects on selected polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiens, W. E.

    1979-03-01

    The mechanism of radiation effects and their industrial applications are discussed for the following classes of polymers: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, films and fibers, and adhesives/coatings/potting compounds. 35 references, 3 tables. (DLC)

  7. Beta therapy with 90strontium as single modality therapy for canine squamous cell carcinoma in third eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lima de Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of beta-radiation with strontium-90 as single modality treatment of canine third eyelid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Nine dogs diagnosed with third eyelid SCC were treated with strontium-90. Radiation therapy was administered in four fractions of 100cGy per site every four days and at a depth of 0.2cm (Strontium-90 build' up in each fraction. Radiation with beta therapy was well tolerated in all animals with no occurrence of radiation induced cataracts. In all cases, there were increased signs of conjunctival inflammation around the mass, which subsided with topical anti-inflammatory. Two dogs required surgical treatment for local tumor recurrence at 150 days and 352 days. In the remaining seven cases, disease free interval ranged from 1239 days to 2555 days. Beta therapy using 90Sr may be a valid alternative for the treatment of third eyelid SCC in dogs

  8. Human parvovirus B19 in patients with beta thalassemia major from Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was per...

  9. Supersymmetric Scenarios with Dominant Radiative Neutralino Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosanio, S; Ambrosanio, Sandro; Mele, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    The radiative decay of the next-to-lightest neutralino into a lightest neutralino and a photon is analyzed in the MSSM. We find that significant regions of the supersymmetric parameter space with large radiative BR's (up to about 100%) do exist. The radiative channel turns out to be enhanced when the neutralino tree-level decays are suppressed either `kinematically' or `dynamically'. In general, in the regions allowed by LEP data and not characterized by asymptotic values of the SuSy parameters, the radiative enhancement requires tan beta ~= 1 and/or M_1 ~= M_2, and negative values of relaxing the usual relation M_1=(5/3)*tan^2(th_W)*M_2, i.e. gaugino mass unification at the GUT scale. The influence of varying the stop masses and mixing angle when the radiative decay is enhanced is also considered. Some phenomenological consequences of the above picture are discussed.

  10. The Reference Forward Model (RFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhia, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The Reference Forward Model (RFM) is a general purpose line-by-line radiative transfer model, currently supported by the UK National Centre for Earth Observation. This paper outlines the algorithms used by the RFM, focusing on standard calculations of terrestrial atmospheric infrared spectra followed by a brief summary of some additional capabilities and extensions to microwave wavelengths and extraterrestrial atmospheres. At its most basic level - the 'line-by-line' component - it calculates molecular absorption cross-sections by applying the Voigt lineshape to all transitions up to ±25 cm-1 from line-centre. Alternatively, absorptions can be directly interpolated from various forms of tabulated data. These cross-sections are then used to construct infrared radiance or transmittance spectra for ray paths through homogeneous cells, plane-parallel or circular atmospheres. At a higher level, the RFM can apply instrumental convolutions to simulate measurements from Fourier transform spectrometers. It can also calculate Jacobian spectra and so act as a stand-alone forward model within a retrieval scheme. The RFM is designed for robustness, flexibility and ease-of-use (particularly by the non-expert), and no claims are made for superior accuracy, or indeed novelty, compared to other line-by-line codes. Its main limitations at present are a lack of scattering and simplified modelling of surface reflectance and line-mixing.

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  12. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  13. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report two sisters presenting with delayed diagnoses of classical 3beta-HSD, despite salt wasting (SW) episodes in infancy. Sibling 1 was referred for premature pubarche, slight....... There is no previous report of the combination of SW and premature pubarche due to mutations in the type II 3beta-HSD gene. Because neonatal diagnosis could have prevented life-threatening crises in these girls, this report further supports the benefits for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia...

  14. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  15. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  16. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  17. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  18. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  19. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  20. Maritime Claims Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-12

    8217 75028.8’ 28 Isla Conica 51010.7’ 75015.5’ 29 Roca Santa Lucia 51037.0’ 75.21.0’ 30 Roca Galicia 52003.4’ 75009.0’ 31 Islotes Evangelistas 52023.6’ 75005.6...amendment to the Marine Space Act which, inter alia , deletes reference to Rotuma as an archipelago. Instead, the waters within the baselines are