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Sample records for beta ray burns

  1. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  2. Burn Patients Infected With Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Japoni, Aziz; Rafaatpour, Noroddin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Abbasi, Pejman; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Alipour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the burn patients is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and remains a serious health concern among the clinicians. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients and determine multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and respective resistance patterns. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the burn patients ...

  3. Coexistence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, AmpC Beta-Lactamases and Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii from burns patients: a report from a tertiary care centre of India

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.; Garg, R.; Garg, S.; J Chander; Attri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii is a major pathogen encountered in pyogenic infections, especially from burns patients in hospital settings. Often there is also coexistence of multiple beta-lactamase enzymes responsible for beta-lactam resistance in a single isolate, which further complicates treatment options. We conducted a study on burn wound pus samples obtained from the burns unit of our hospital. Phenotypic tests were used to determine the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, Am...

  4. Detection of burning ashes from thermonuclear X-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajava, J J E; Poutanen, J; Cumming, A; Suleimanov, V; Kuulkers, E

    2016-01-01

    When neutron stars (NS) accrete gas from low-mass binary companions, explosive nuclear burning reactions in the NS envelope fuse hydrogen and helium into heavier elements. The resulting thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts produce energy spectra that are fit well with black bodies, but a significant number of burst observations show deviations from Planck spectra. Here we present our analysis of RXTE/PCA observations of X-ray bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455. We have discovered that the non-Planckian spectra are caused by photo-ionization edges. The anti-correlation between the strength of the edges and the colour temperature suggests that the edges are produced by the nuclear burning ashes that have been transported upwards by convection and become exposed at the photosphere. The atmosphere model fits show that occasionally the photosphere can consist entirely of metals, and that the peculiar changes in black body temperature and radius can be attributed to the emergence and disappea...

  5. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  6. Coexistence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, AmpC Beta-Lactamases and Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii from burns patients: a report from a tertiary care centre of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Garg, R; Garg, S; Chander, J; Attri, A K

    2013-12-31

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii is a major pathogen encountered in pyogenic infections, especially from burns patients in hospital settings. Often there is also coexistence of multiple beta-lactamase enzymes responsible for beta-lactam resistance in a single isolate, which further complicates treatment options. We conducted a study on burn wound pus samples obtained from the burns unit of our hospital. Phenotypic tests were used to determine the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, AmpC Beta-Lactamase and Metallo-Beta-Lactamase producing status of the isolates. Almost half of the samples from the burn wounds yielded Acinetobacter baumanii as the predominant pathogen (54.05%). Coexistence of the three resistance mechanisms was seen in 25 of the 100 (25%) isolates of Acinetobacter baumanii. This study emphasizes the need for the detection of isolates that produce these enzymes to avoid therapeutic failures and nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:24799848

  7. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas. (author)

  8. A STUDY OF METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN BLOOD SAMPLES OF BURNED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Septicaemia is a life threatening complication of severely burned patients. Among many organisms invading blood stream Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known for its powerful antibiotic resistance mechanisms which increasingly limit the choices for treatment. Among many such resistance mechanisms it is the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL which confers resistance to Carbapenem group of antibiotics, one of the final resorts to fight them. The present study was undertaken to detect MBL producing P. aeruginosa using phenotypic method from blood samples of burned patients as well as to know their drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose 67 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from blood samples of admitted burned patients were subjected to susceptibility testing to antipseudomonal drugs by disc diffusion test and those found to be Carbapenem resistant were subjected to Imipenem - EDTA combined disk synergy test for MBL detection. RESULT: Out of 67 isolates of P.aeruginosa, 19 (28.4% were found to be Carbapenem resistant and 11 (16.4% were MBL producers. A particularly important feature was that the MBL producers were highly resistant to the antibiotics tested than the non-producers. However all of them were susceptible to Colistin and Polymixin B. CONCLUSION: This study has made us to think that a constant vigil and careful selection of antibiotics are necessary to keep prevalence of MBL producing P.aeruginosa in check. The accurate identification and reporting of MBL producing P. aeruginosa will aid infection control practitioners in preventing the spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates

  9. Measurement of Solid Rocket Propellant Burning Rate Using X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Matthew D.

    The burning rate of solid propellants can be difficult to measure for unusual burning surface geometries, but X-ray imaging can be used to measure burning rate. The objectives of this work were to measure the baseline burning rate of an electrically-controlled solid propellant (ESP) formulation with real-time X-ray radiography and to determine the uncertainty of the measurements. Two edge detection algorithms were written to track the burning surface in X-ray videos. The edge detection algorithms were informed by intensity profiles of simulated 2-D X-ray images. With a 95% confidence level, the burning rates measured by the Projected-Slope Intersection algorithm in the two combustion experiments conducted were 0.0839 in/s +/-2.86% at an average pressure of 407 psi +/-3.6% and 0.0882 in/s +/-3.04% at 410 psi +/-3.9%. The uncertainty percentages were based on the statistics of a Monte Carlo analysis on burning rate.

  10. Fatigue crack growth behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huan; ZHAO Yongqing; ZENG Weidong; QIAN Li

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta Ti40 alloy. The FCG rotes were analyzed. The fracture surfaces and the side surfaces of the test samples were explored. The results show that frequency affects the cracking behaviors of Ti40 alloy. Temperature also plays an important role in Ti40 alloy cracking. At room temperature (25℃), when the frequency increases, the cracking rate changes a little in the range of low stress intensity factor (ΔK), while it changes significantly when ΔK is high. At 500℃, the cracking rate of Ti40 alloy changes significantly during all the course of clacking. The frequency also affects the microstructure patterns of Ti40 alloy. A number of secondary cracks appear in the area more than 200 μm from the main crack at a high ΔK when the fre-quency is 1 Hz, but only a few secondary cracks exist when the frequency is 10 Hz. Facet image is the main image of the fracture surfaces when the frequency is 1 Hz. While, ductile striation occupies most of the area of fracture surfaces when the frequency is 10 Hz.

  11. An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tienko E-mail: tkw@faculty.nthu.edu.tw; Peir Jinnjer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products {sup 97}Zr/{sup 97}Nb, {sup 132}I, and {sup 140}La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by re irradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, {sup 235}U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by {sup 239}Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio and {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs ratio.

  12. An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by re irradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio

  13. An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T K; Peir, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by reirradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio. PMID:10670930

  14. Thermonuclear Burning on the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of nuclear burning on the accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The neutron star's dipolar magnetic field is 50 years. We also discuss the nature of the binary and point out that a velocity measurement of the stellar companion (most likely a Roche-lobe filling giant with m_K>17) will constrain the neutron star mass.

  15. Beta-ray dose assessment from skin contamination using a point kernel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a point kernel method to calculate beta-ray dose rate from skin contamination was introduced. The beta-ray doses rates were computed by performing numerical integration of the radial dose distribution around an isotropic point source of monoenergetic electrons called as point kernel. In this study, in-house code, based on MATLAB version 7.0.4 was developed to perform a numerical integration. The code generated dose distributions for beta-ray emitters from interpolated point kernel, and beta-ray dose rates from skin contamination were calculated by numerical integration. Generated dose distributions for selected beta-ray emitters agreed with those calculated by Cross et al within 20%, except at a longer distance where there are differences up to more than 100%. For a point source, calculated beta-ray doses were agreed well with those derived from Monte Carlo simulation. For a disk source, the differences were up to 17% at a deep region. Point kernel method underestimated beta-ray doses than Monte Carlo simulation. The code will be improved to deal with a three-dimensional source, shielding by cover material, air gap and contribution of photon to skin dose. For the sake of user's convenience, the code will be equipped with graphic user interface. (author)

  16. Precise Proportional Counting of Beta-Ray Emitting Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of beta-ray emitting liquids are often assayed using an all-glass G-M counter where the liquid is placed between an outer cylinder and the counting tube (Veall-type counter). Besides the well-known disadvantages of G-M tubes, these jacketed counters are difficult to handle, fragile and apt to change their counting characteristics. A methane-flow proportional counter was developed in our Laboratory specifically for β-emitting liquid samples. The liquid is placed in a plastic cylinder with a bottom of aluminized mylar foil (1 mg/cm2). This vessel is screwed into the top of a circular proportional counter. In case of contamination, the vessel can be replaced. When the bottom foil is exchanged, a calibration curve, giving the efficiency as a function of the measured weight per unit area, may be used to obtain a new value for the efficiency. This counter was used successfully for the assay of 32P, 204Tl and 35S solutions giving results reproducible to ±0.2%. Compared with the jacketed counter, the counting efficiency of our counter is higher for low-energy β-emitters although somewhat lower for high-energy β-emitters. (author)

  17. Reduced rate of adenosine triphosphate synthesis by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and downregulation of PGC-1beta in distal skeletal muscle following burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, A Aria; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Padfield, Katie; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N; Yu, Hongue; Cao, Haihui; Zhang, Qunhao; Astrakas, Loukas G; Zhang, Jiangwen; Yu, Yong-Ming; Rahme, Laurence G; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Using a mouse model of burn trauma, we tested the hypothesis that severe burn trauma corresponding to 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) causes reduction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in distal skeletal muscle. We employed in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in intact mice to assess the rate of ATP synthesis, and characterized the concomitant gene expression patterns in skeletal muscle in burned (30% TBSA) versus control mice. Our NMR results showed a significantly reduced rate of ATP synthesis and were complemented by genomic results showing downregulation of the ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 F0 complex and PGC-1beta gene expression. Our findings suggest that inflammation and muscle atrophy in burns are due to a reduced ATP synthesis rate that may be regulated upstream by PGC-1beta. These findings implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in distal skeletal muscle following burn injury. That PGC-1beta is a highly inducible factor in most tissues and responds to common calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathways strongly suggests that it may be possible to develop drugs that can induce PGC-1beta.

  18. How well do we know the beta-decay of 16N and oxygen formation in helium burning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the status of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction rate, of importance for stellar processes in a progenitor star prior to a supernova collapse. Several attempts to constrain the p-wave S-factor of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction at Helium burning temperatures (200 MK) using the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N have been made, and it is claimed that this S-factor is known, as quoted by the TRIUMF collaboration. In contrast, reanalyses (by GM Hale) of all thus far available data (including the 16N data) does not rule out a small S-factor solution. Furthermore, we improved our previous Yale-UConn study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N by improving our statistical sample (by more than a factor of 5), improving the energy resolution of the experiment (by 20%), and in understanding our line shape, deduced from measured quantities. Our newly measured spectrum of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N is not consistent with the TRIUMF (1994) data, but is consistent with the Seattle (1995) data, as well as the earlier (unaltered) data of Mainz (1971). The implication of these discrepancies for the extracted astrophysical p-wave S-factor is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to broad spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by extended spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs. These enzymes are encoded by different genes located either on chromosome or plasmids. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates and screened for ESBL production. Methods: After isolation from burn patients in Tehran Hospital, identification of P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed using biochemical tests. We then performed disk agar diffusion (DAD according to CLSI guidelines to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. The frequency of ESBLs and prevalence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes were determined with combined disk and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods, respectively. Results: One hundred strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. The resistance of these strains to cephpodoxime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, piperacilin- tazobactam and ceftriaxon was 100%, 90%, 83%, 92%, 85%, 88%, 63%, 66%, 98%, 89%, 70% and 91%, respectively. Of these, 40 strains (40% were ESBL positive, 29 strains (29% were OXA-10 positive and 18 strains (18% were PER-1 positive. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need for proper antimicrobial therapy in burn hospitals, considering the resistance pattern and frequency of strains producing ESBLs and the presence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes. Since an increase in the prevalence of ESBL in P. aeruginosa strains might lead to the transfer of these ESBL genes to other gram-negative bacteria, we recommend the use of appropriate drugs, especially cephalosporins, in burn hospitals.

  20. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  1. The Beta Problem: The Incompatibility of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Model Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, E.; Motl, P.; Norman, M.

    2006-12-01

    We describe an analysis of a large sample of numerically simulated clusters which demonstrates the effects of using X-ray fitted beta-model parameters with Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) data. There is a fundamental incompatibility between beta-model fits to X-ray surface brightness profiles and those done with SZE profiles. Since observational SZE radial profiles are in short supply, the X-ray parameters are often used in SZE analysis. We show that this leads to biased estimates of the integrated Compton y-parameter inside r500 and the value of the Hubble constant calculated from clusters. We suggest a simple scaling of the X-ray beta-model parameters which brings these calculated quantities into close agreement with the true values.

  2. Development of continuous monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, G. I.; Kong, G. N.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Continuous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides was designed conceptually while keeping the optimization and the automation in mind. The conincidence MCA was designed to maintain, repair and upgrade with ease. DSP was adopted to realize hardware function using software and to miniaturize the coincidence Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The MCA system showed 99% background rejection rate, and was applied well to gamma-ray system using {sup 60}C0. An algorithm using least square method was developed for simultaneous radioassay of multiple beta-ray nuclides. The algorithm was tested using the simulation and was applied to experimental data. The results show that the algorithm is suitable to continous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides.

  3. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-GLUCAN COLLAGEN FOR TREATMENT OF PARTIAL THICKNESS BURNS IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP PATIENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: Burn injuries present a major public health problem for children. In India this constitutes about one-fourth of total burn injuries. This article deals with situations that need to be addressed in the care of partial thickness wounds in children to provide optimal conditions for wound protection and repair while minimizing the morbidity and complications. AIM: To compare outcomes for pediatric age group patients who were applied beta-glucan collagen or anti-microbial dressing as primary wound covering in respect to pain, infection rate and healing time. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Tertiary care hospital of central India from 2008-2010. METHODS: Patients admitted at tertiary care centre with partial thickness burns at first presentation were recruited to randomized controlled trial. Patients in trial were randomly allocated for beta-glucan collagen or anti-microbial dressings. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were recruited over 28 months. Two were excluded from final analysis due to premature demise. Out of seventy subjects thirty-five were in BGC group while remaining thirty-five were in SSD group. Subjects were in 1-11 age range with majority being in 1-5 age groups. Out of total seventy patients thirty-three were male and thirty-three were females. Flame burns and scald burns were equally distributed in both groups and difference was not significant. Most of the patients presented within 6 hrs of initial injury (54.7%. TBSA% in BGC group was 16.4 while it was 18.2 in control group. Most of the patients in both the groups had burn injury over upper limb followed by anterior trunk. Partial thickness burns in children can be cost effectively treated with BGC with decreased pain, mean healing time and hospital stay with good cosmetic results.

  5. Decomposition of beta-ray induced ESR spectra of fossil tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joannes-Boyau, Renaud, E-mail: renaud.joannes-boyau@anu.edu.a [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Gruen, Rainer [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Two fossil tooth enamel fragments were irradiated with beta rays, one through the outer surface, the other through the dentine-enamel junction. The angular ESR spectra of the two fragments were decomposed using an automated simulated annealing (SA) procedure, which is particularly well suited to separate overlapping signals. Beta irradiation generated different qualitative and quantitative responses to previous gamma irradiation experiments. Similar to gamma rays, the beta irradiation created both non-oriented and oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals. In contrast to gamma irradiation, which only created orthorhombic oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals, both axial and orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals were extracted after beta irradiation. Furthermore, gamma irradiation created significantly more non-oriented radicals than beta irradiation. Altogether, the radical distribution created by beta irradiation resembled that of the natural sample, which had been exposed to environmental irradiation over several hundreds of thousands of years. The natural sample contained 9% non-orientated CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and a mix of orthorhombic to axial CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals in the ratio of 35:65. The beta induced spectra of the fragment irradiated through the outer surface contained 9% non-orientated CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and a mix of orthorhombic to axial CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals in the ratio of 45:55, while for the other sample these values were 19% and 59:41, respectively. The angle between the axial and orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals is around 23{sup o} in both natural and beta irradiation components. This indicates that the radicals produced by the different irradiation modes are located in the same positions in the hydroxyapatite crystals. The higher percentage of non-oriented CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals closer to the dentine-enamel junction points to interprismatic zones for their possible location.

  6. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  7. Counting efficiency for radionuclides decaying by beta and gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, counting efficiency vs figure of merit for beta and gamma-ray emitters has been computed. It is assumed that the decay scheme has only a gamma level and the beta-ray emission may be coincident with the gamma-rays or the internal-conversion electrons. The radionuclides tabulated are: 20O, 20F, 28Al, 35P,41Ar, 42K, 47Se, 62Fe, 66Cu, 81Ge, 86Rb, 104Rh, 108Ru, 112Pd, 121Sn(m), 122In, 129I, 141Ce, 142Pr, 151Sm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 194Os, 203Hg, 205Hg, 210Pb, 225Ra, 244Am(m). It has been assumed that the liquid is a toluene based scintillator solution in standard glass vials containing 10 cm3. (Author)

  8. The Secret XUV Lives of Cepheids: FUV/X-ray Observations of Polaris and beta Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Scott G; DePasquale, Joseph; Evans, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    We report on the surprising recent discovery of strong FUV emissions in two bright, nearby Classical Cepheids from analyses of FUSE archival observations and one of our own approved observations just prior to the failure of the satellite. Polaris and beta Dor are currently the only two Cepheids to have been observed with FUSE, and beta Dor is the only one to have multiple spectra. Both Cepheids show strong C III (977A, 1176A) and O VI (1032A, 1038A) emissions, indicative of 50,000-500,000 K plasma, well above the photospheric temperatures of the stars. More remarkably, beta Dor displays variability in the FUV emission strengths which appears to be correlated to its 9.84-d pulsation period. This phenomenon has never before been observed in Cepheids. The FUV studies are presented along with our recent Chandra/XMM X-ray observations of Polaris and beta Dor, in which X-ray detections were found for both stars (as well as for the prototype Classical Cepheid, delta Cep). Further X-ray observations have been propose...

  9. H-$\\beta$ Line Width and the UV-X-ray Spectra of Luminous AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Wills, B J; Yuan Jian Min

    2000-01-01

    The width of the broad H-beta emission line is the primary defining characteristic of the NLS1 class. This parameter is also an important component of Boroson and Green's optical Eigenvector 1 (EV1), which links steeper soft X-ray spectra with narrower H-beta emission, stronger H-beta blue wing, stronger optical Fe II emission, and weaker [O III] lambda 5007. Potentially, EV1 represents a fundamental physical process linking the dynamics of fueling and outflow with the accretion rate. We attempted to understand these relationships by extending the optical spectra into the UV for a sample of 22 QSOs with high quality soft-X-ray spectra, and discovered a whole new set of UV relationships that suggest that high accretion rates are linked to dense gas and perhaps nuclear starbursts. While it has been argued that narrow (BLR) H-beta means low Black Hole mass in luminous NLS1s, the C IV, lambda 1549 and Ly alpha emission lines are broader, perhaps the result of outflows driven by their high Eddington accretion rate...

  10. Saturated multikilovolt x-ray amplification with Xe clusters: single-pulse observation of Xe(L) spectral hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-pulse measurements of spectral hole burning of Xe(L) 3d → 2p hollow atom transition arrays observed from a self-trapped plasma channel provide new information on the dynamics of saturated amplification in the λ ∼ 2.8-2.9 A region. The spectral hole burning on transitions in the Xe34+ and Xe35+ arrays reaches full suppression of the spontaneous emission and presents a corresponding width Δ h-bar ωx ∼ = 60 eV, a value adequate for efficient amplification of multikilovolt x-ray pulses down to a limiting length τx ∼ 30 as. The depth of the suppression at 2.86 A indicates that the gain-to-loss ratio is ≥10. An independent determination of the x-ray pulse energy from damage produced on the surface of a Ti foil in the far field of the source gives a pulse energy of 20-30 μJ, a range that correlates well with the observation of the spectral hole burning and indicates an overall extraction efficiency of ∼10%. (letter to the editor)

  11. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Effect on pancreatic beta cells and nerve cells by low let x-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Hun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungbuk National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kgu Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daegu health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Cultured pancreatic beta cells and nerve cells, it is given normal condition of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 11.1 mM glucose and hyperglycemia condition of 1% FBS, 30 mM glucose. For low LET X-ray irradiated with 0.5 Gy/hr dose-rate(total dose: 0.5 to 5 Gy). Survival rates were measured by MTT assay. When non irradiated, differentiated in the pancreatic beta cells experiment is hyperglycemia conditions survival rate compared to normal conditions survival rate seemed a small reduction. However increasing the total dose of X-ray, the survival rate of normal conditions decreased slightly compared to the survival rate of hyperglycemia conditions, the synergistic effect was drastically reduced. When non irradiated, undifferentiated in the nerve cells experiment is hyperglycemia conditions survival rate compared to normal conditions survival rate seemed a large reduction. As the cumulative dose of X-ray normal conditions and hyperglycemia were all relatively rapid cell death. But the rate of decreased survivals by almost parallel to the reduction proceed and it didn't show synergistic effect.

  13. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  14. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  15. High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies on {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Nandini; Karmakar, S.; Sharma, S.M.Surinder M.; Busseto, E.; Sikka, S.K

    2004-06-15

    Using in situ X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the high-pressure behavior of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} upto 10 GPa. No phase transformation was observed in this pressure range. Our studies show that the diffraction peaks show inherent broadening on increase of pressure. This suggests that H-lattice may be already disordered at ambient conditions and further increase in pressure may increase the lattice disorder as observed in Co(OH){sub 2} (Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 134301)

  16. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-14

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  17. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  18. An application of the swept-current method to a DuMond type magnetic beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''combination magnetic-Si(Li), swept current electron spectrometer'' method has been applied to a DuMond type magnetic beta ray spectrometer without depriving the spectrometer of the function of high resolution measurements by usual uses. Properties of the system have been examined by observing conversion lines of sup(110m)Ag and good performances of the system have been confirmed. By adopting this method, intensive sources with large area can be used and entire momentum spectra can be obtained rapidly irrespective of the existences of gamma rays and so weak conversion lines can be found more easily. For nuclei with high beta ray backgrounds, the method is not so powerful that an experiment to combine the electron-beta coincidence method with this one is now in progress. (auth.)

  19. Epidemiology and virulence of VIM-4 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients in eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meradji, Samah; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bentakouk, Mohamed Cherif; Nayme, Kaotar; Zerouali, Khalid; Mazouz, Dekhil; Chettibi, Houria; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) in burn patients from eastern Algeria, CRPA virulence factors and the molecular epidemiology of CRPA. The overall prevalence of CRPA was 48.38%. Seven (46.66%) isolates were metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producers and contained the MBL genes blaVIM-4 (n=6) and blaVIM-2 (n=1). Risk factors for CRPA infection were urinary catheter use and intubation (p=0.008). A high percentage of virulence factors (86.6% of these isolates were able to produce protease; 73.3% of isolates has DNase; and 66.6% were haemolysin positive) was observed in CRPA isolates. Among the seven MBL-producing isolates, four had the same clonal profile. The class 1 integrons, which contained the aadA7 gene cassette, were detected in six isolates. The 16SrRNA methylase gene, rmtB, was detected in one strain. All CRPA isolates were biofilm formers. A study on the kinetics of biofilm production revealed that biofilm production increased when the concentration of imipenem or ciprofloxacin and the incubation time increased. This is the first study to report the presence of VIM-4-producing P. aeruginosa from North Africa and also of the high prevalence of CRPA isolates. Based on our study of burn unit patients, the high percentage of P. aeruginosa with virulence factors and multi-drug resistance is alarming. PMID:27156788

  20. {beta}-ray irradiation effects in RbBr: Eu crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco B, J.M.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, 83190 hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Defects induced by {beta}-ray irradiation in RbBr: Eu{sup 2+} crystals doped with a high concentration of Eu{sup 2+} ions are studied by means of optical absorption (OA), thermoluminescence (TL), and optically stimulated TL (OSTL). The fading, dose, and optical bleaching effects on the TL glow curves of room temperature irradiated samples has been analyzed. OA indicates that irradiation of samples at room temperature induce the formation of F but not F{sub z} centers. The TL glow curves show peaks at 267, 303, and 403 K. The 267 K glow peak disappear in less than 1 s under blue light or infrared radiation photo bleaching. A high sensitivity to the ionizing radiation has been observed. These results confirm that this material is an efficient phosphor. (Author)

  1. First identification of. gamma. rays in the. beta. /sup +//EC decay of sup(104,105)Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneffe, K.; Coenen, E.; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van (LISOL, Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika); Vanhorenbeeck, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)); Marmol, P. del; Fettweis, P. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1985-03-01

    The ..beta../sup +//EC decay of mass-separated /sup 104/Sn and /sup 105/Sn isotopes was studied by x-ray and ..gamma..-ray singles, as well as by x-..gamma.. and ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidences. Sources were produced in the reactions /sup 92/Mo (/sup 20/Ne, ypxn). The nucleus /sub 50//sup 104/Sn with Tsub(1/2 = 23 +- 2 s was identified. A partial decay scheme of /sup 105/Sn is proposed.

  2. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  3. Measurements of $L_{31}, L_{3}\\alpha, L_{3}\\beta, L_{2}\\beta, L_{2} \\gamma, L_{1}\\beta, L_{1}\\gamma, L_{\\beta}, L_{\\gamma}, L_{1x}, L_{2x}$ and $L_{3x}$ X-ray production cross sections and L subshell fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Ertugrul, M

    2001-01-01

    The L/sub 3l/, L/sub 3 alpha /, L/sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L/sub 3x/ X-ray production cross sections in Re, W and Ta have been measured using the 59.5 keV incident photon energy. The measurements were performed using an Am-241 radioisotope as the photon source and a Si(Li) detector. The L X-rays are resolved with a new analytical method. The obtained L/sub l/, L/sub alpha /, L /sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L /sub 3x/ X-rays are compared with the theoretical calculations using the most reliable theoretical values of L/sub i/ (i=1, 2, 3) subshell photoionization cross sections, fluorescence yields, X-ray emission rates and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. The results in the present paper are found to be in good agreement with the calculated values. (23 refs).

  4. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  5. A new method for characterizing beta-ray ophthalmic applicator sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described which enables one to obtain detailed dose characteristics of 90Sr beta-ray ophthalmic applicators. A radiochromic radiation detector which is a solid-state solution of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide in a nylon polymer (i.e., thin foil), has been used to determine the surface dose rate and dose distribution of these sources. The detectors are rugged, easily handled, have an equivalent response (optical density per unit absorbed dose) to photons and electrons, and produce high-resolution images. They have been found useful for this application due to the high surface dose rates [0.10-1.0 Gy (H2O)/s] and their low sensitivity (approximately 10(4) Gy for an optical density of 1.0). The foils have been evaluated on a He-Ne scanning laser densitometer with a resolution of 0.3 mum. Comparison with NIST (formerly NBS) extrapolation ionization chamber measurements indicates surface dose-rate agreement within 6%. Spectral dosimetric characteristics are presented and discussed

  6. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  7. Total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy of beta delayed neutron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Rice, S.; Agramunt, J.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Porta, A.; Fallot, M.; Jordan, M. D.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Bowry, M.; Bui, V. M.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eloma, V.; Eronen, T.; Garcia, A.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Moore, I.; Rissanen, J.; Ńystö, J.; Penttilä, H.; Kankainen, A.; Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.; Perez, A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Farrelly, G. F.; Weber, C.; Mendoza, E.; Igisol People

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary results of the data analysis of the beta decay of 94Rb using a novel - segmented- total absorption spectrometer are shown in this contribution. This result is part of a systematic study of important contributors to the decay heat problem in nuclear reactors. In this particular case the goal is to determine the beta intensity distribution below the neutron separation energy and the gamma/beta competition above.

  8. Pile-up corrections for high-precision superallowed {beta} decay half-life measurements via {gamma}-ray photopeak counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyer, G.F. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: ggrinyer@physics.uoguelph.ca; Svensson, C.E.; Andreoiu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Andreyev, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, St. Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bandyopadhyay, D. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chakrawarthy, R.S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Finlay, P. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hyland, B. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0430 (United States); Leach, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leslie, J.R. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morton, A.C.; Pearson, C.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sarazin, F. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Schumaker, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)] (and others)

    2007-09-11

    A general technique that corrects {gamma}-ray gated {beta} decay-curve data for detector pulse pile-up is presented. The method includes corrections for non-zero time-resolution and energy-threshold effects in addition to a special treatment of saturating events due to cosmic rays. This technique is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data using radioactive beams of {sup 26}Na implanted at the center of the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Na obtained from counting 1809-keV {gamma}-ray photopeaks emitted by the daughter {sup 26}Mg was determined to be T{sub 1/2}=1.07167{+-}0.00055s following a 27{sigma} correction for detector pulse pile-up. This result is in excellent agreement with the result of a previous measurement that employed direct {beta} counting and demonstrates the feasibility of high-precision {beta}-decay half-life measurements through the use of high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detectors. The technique presented here, while motivated by superallowed-Fermi {beta} decay studies, is general and can be used for all half-life determinations (e.g. {alpha}-, {beta}-, X-ray, fission) in which a {gamma}-ray photopeak is used to select the decays of a particular isotope.

  9. Crystallochemical study of amides derived from 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid by X-ray diffraction; Estudo cristaloquimico de amidas derivadas do acido 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-di- hidroxivouacapan-17 {beta}-oico por difracao de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Marcello Cardoso; Prado Gambardella, Maria Teresa do [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica Molecular

    1995-12-31

    Abstract. The 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid (DVA) is a Furane-diterpene isolated from Peterodon genus. It has anti inflammatory and analgesic properties. The purpose of this work is the characterization of amides derived from DVA, in order to understand the relationship between Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Vouacapanes. The structures of DVA derivatives will be solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Crystallochemical study of esters derived from 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oic acid by x-ray diffraction; Estudo cristaloquimico de esteres derivados do acido 6{alpha}, 6{beta}-di-hidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oico por difracao de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao Junior, Odonirio [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-12-31

    The 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid (DVA) is a Furane-diterpene isolated from Peterodon genus. It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The purpose of this work is the characterisation by x-ray single crystal diffraction technique of esters derived from DVA, to understand the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of vouacapanes. (author) 15 refs.

  11. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  12. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb Beta-Delayed Neutron Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, E; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the decay of 87Br, 88Br and 94Rb using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable gamma-intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1 to 100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for gamma emission from neutron unbound s...

  13. Clonal spread of both oxyimino-cephalosporin- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates co-producing SHV-2a and DHA-1 beta-lactamase at a burns intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jonghyun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2006-12-01

    Over a 1-month period, a total of 16 ceftriaxone- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were isolated from 15 patients hospitalised at a burns intensive care unit (ICU). These isolates showed negative results for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) by the Vitek system and were highly resistant to ceftazidime, aztreonam and cefoxitin (minimum inhibitory concentrations > or =128 microg/mL). The bla(SHV-2a) and bla(DHA-1) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the isolates were identical. AmpC disk tests for AmpC enzymes as well as double-disk tests and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) confirmatory disk tests for ESBLs yielded positive results for all the isolates. However, only three isolates (18.8%) were shown to produce ESBL by CLSI confirmatory tests using broth microdilution. We report the first outbreak of colonisations and infections due to K. pneumoniae isolates co-producing an SHV-2a ESBL and a DHA-1 AmpC beta-lactamase in a Korean hospital, which were suggested to represent a single clonal spread at a burns ICU. In addition, this report presents problems associated with ESBL detection using broth microdilution in isolates that co-produce an ESBL and an AmpC beta-lactamase. PMID:17095195

  14. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  15. The imaging pin detector - a simple and effective new imaging device for soft x-rays and soft beta emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new bidimensional imaging detector system for soft X and beta radiations is reported. Based on the detection of the differential induction signals on pickup electrodes placed around a point anode in a gas avalanche detector, the system described has achieved a spatial resolution of better than 1mm fwhm over a field of 30mm diameter while preserving excellent pulse height resolution. The present device offers considerable potential as a cheap and robust imaging system for applications in X-ray diffraction and autoradiography. (author)

  16. The imaging pin detector. A simple and effective new imaging device for soft X-rays and soft beta emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new bidimensional imaging detector system for soft X- and beta radiations is reported. Based on the detection of the differential induction signals on pickup electrodes placed around a point anode (or pin) in a gas avalanche detector, the system described has achieved a spatial resolution of better than 1 mm fwhm over a field of 30 mm diameter while preserving excellent pulse height resolution (20% fwhm for 5.9 keV X-rays). While limited to applications in which fairly low counting rates are encountered (<5 kHz) the present device offers considerable potential as a cheap and robust imaging system for applications in X-ray diffraction and autoradiography. (orig.)

  17. RBE of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than myeloid leukemia in male CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes of death were examined for 5,206 male CBA/H mice which had previously been treated with tritiated water or with X rays at comparable doses and comparable dose rates. Data on induced myeloid leukemia had been examined in detail in a previous report. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than mye-loid leukemia. However, no consistent values for the tritium relative biological effectiveness were obtained. The values were spread over a wide range for different endpoints and were generally less reliable than those for induction of myeloid leukemia. A surprising decrease in time to death of animals without tumours was observed in the irradiated groups of mice. This observation suggests that a detailed review of recent data on non-specific life shortening in irradiated animals and humans might be useful

  18. Estimation of beta-ray skin dose from exposure to fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2012-03-01

    Beta-ray skin dose due to the fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb is potentially related to the epilation in the black rain area. The absorbed dose to the skin from beta-rays emitted by fission fallout has been estimated for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² on the ground at 0.5 h after the explosion. The estimated skin dose takes into account both external exposure from fission fallout radionuclides uniformly distributed in 1 mm of soil on the surface of the ground and from a 26 μm thickness of contaminated soil on the skin, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. The cumulative skin dose for 1 month after the explosion is taken as the representative value. The estimated skin dose for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² was determined to be about 500 mSv. PMID:22042969

  19. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  20. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy. (paper)

  1. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L F; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-21

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  2. Monte Carlo Models for the Production of beta-delayed Gamma Rays Following Fission of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J

    2004-02-03

    A Monte Carlo method for the estimation of {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray spectra following fission is described that can accommodate an arbitrary time-dependent fission rate and photon collection history. The method invokes direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the fissioning system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and the spectral distributions for photon emission for each decay mode. Though computationally intensive, the method can provide a detailed estimate of the spectrum that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer, and can prove useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries, for identifying gaps in these libraries, etc. The method is illustrated by a first comparison of calculated and experimental spectra from decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general purpose transport calculations, where detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may be unnecessary, it is shown that an accurate and simple parameterization of a {gamma}-ray source function can be obtained. These parametrizations should provide high-quality average spectral distributions that should prove useful in calculations describing photons escaping from thick attenuating media.

  3. A novel method to determine Poisson's ratio by beta-ray absorption experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, Jafar [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafi, Saleh [Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movla, Hossein [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhaian, Samad, E-mail: sobhanian@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper a new experimental method is applied to determine Poisson's ratio of an industrial rubber tape based on the attenuation of beta particles. A simple theoretical model is presented and the experimental results are compared with the model's prediction. Poisson's ratio of the rubber is obtained by applying a steady state strain force. The relatively good agreement between the model's prediction and the experimental results could be a verification test for the presented method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper indicates a novel method to determine Poisson's ratio by beta absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple model is presented and the experimental results are compared with its prediction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method utilizes typical values in defining properties such as Young's modulus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement is obtained between the model's prediction and the experimental results.

  4. Acid-beta-glycerophosphatase reaction products in the central nervous system mitochondria following x-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizin, L; Orlovskaja, D; Liu, J C; Carsten, A L

    1975-06-01

    A survey of the literature to date on the enzyme histochemistry of intracellular organelles has not yielded any reference to the presence of acid phosphatase reaction products in the mammalian mitochondria of the central nervous system. A combination of Gomori's acid phosphatase mehtod, however, with standard electron microscopy has disclosed the presence of enzyme reaction products in the mitochondria of the central nervous system of rats from 2 hr to 22 weeks after x-ray irradiation, as well as in a cerebral biopsy performed on a patient affected by Huntington's chorea. No enzyme reaction products, on the other hand, were observed in serial sections that had been incubated in substrates either containing sodium fluoride or lacking in beta-glycerophosphate. The abnormal mitochondrial enzyme reaction (chemical lesion) is considered to be the consequenco of the pathologic process affecting the ultrastructural-chemical organization of the organelle.

  5. An X-ray diffraction procedure for the estimation of the alpha and beta polymorph proportion in sintered silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of X-ray powder diffraction for the determination of the proportions of the alpha and beta polymorphs in the sintered silicon carbide of furnace elements has been investigated. There are several α-SiC reflections without β-SiC counterparts but no unique β-SiC reflection. An internal ratio method cannot therefore be employed and direct reliance must be placed on the intensity change of distinctive α-SiC peaks with progressive β-SiC dilution. Uniformity of sample preparation, sample presentation and machine operating conditions during calibration and subsequent application is therefore essential. The 0.266 nm α-SiC peak was selected for use in calibration as it is readily discriminated above a relatively flat background even at low levels of α-SiC in mixtures of the two polymorphs. (author)

  6. A study on radiation safety measures for the use of high-energy beta-ray sources in medical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Woo; Yang, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyeon Jo [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : an investigation of the current application status of medical radioisotopes, Sr-90, Ho-166, Re-188, which emit beta-rays of energy greater than 1.5 Mev, analyses of the environments under which the above isotopes are used, estimation of personal radiation doses by using the MCNP-4C computer code for the situations in which high radiation doses might be probable, review of the USA's regulations related to safe use of the radioisotopes, investigation of past over-expose cases reported in the internet, analysis of the current domestic regulations, suggestion of safety measures necessary for the use of the radioisotopes.

  7. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  8. Metal location and thickness in a multilayered sheet by measuring K{alpha}/K{beta}, L{alpha}/L{beta} and L{alpha}/L{gamma} X-ray ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Rizzutto, Marcia A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 0558-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: rizzutto@dfn.if.usp.br; Brunetti, Antonio [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Rao, Donepudi V. [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Dept. of Physics, SIR CRR Autonomous College, Eluru, AP (India)], E-mail: donepudi_venkateswararao@rediffmail.com

    2009-09-01

    When a multilayered material is analyzed by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, then the X-ray ratios of K{alpha}/K{beta}, or L{alpha}/L{beta} and L{alpha}/L{gamma}, for an element in the multilayered material, depend on the composition and thickness of the layer in which the element is situated, and on the composition and thickness of the superimposed layer (or layers). Multilayered samples are common in archaeometry, for example, in the case of pigment layers in paintings, or in the case of gilded or silvered alloys. The latter situation is examined in detail in the present paper, with a specific reference to pre-Columbian alloys from various museums in the north of Peru.

  9. Dosimetry of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators: Comparison of different measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international intercomparison of the dosimetry of three beta particle emitting ophthalmic applicators was performed, which involved measurements with radiochromic film, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), alanine pellets, plastic scintillators, extrapolation ionization chambers, a small fixed-volume ionization chambers, a diode detector and a diamond detector. The sources studied were planar applicators of 90Sr-90Y and 106Ru-106Rh, and a concave applicator of 106Ru-106Rh. Comparisons were made of absolute dosimetry determined at 1 mm from the source surface in water or water-equivalent plastic, and relative dosimetry along and perpendicular to the source axes. The results of the intercomparison indicate that the various methods yield consistent absolute dosimetry results at the level of 10%-14% (one standard deviation) depending on the source. For relative dosimetry along the source axis at depths of 5 mm or less, the agreement was 3%-9% (one standard deviation) depending on the source and the depth. Crucial to the proper interpretation of the measurement results is an accurate knowledge of the detector geometry, i.e., sensitive volume and amount of insensitive covering material. From the results of these measurements, functions which describe the relative dose rate along and perpendicular to the source axes are suggested

  10. The Beta-Model Problem: The Incompatibility of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Model Fitting for Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Motl, Patrick M; Michael L. Norman

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed a large sample of numerically simulated clusters to demonstrate the adverse effects resulting from use of X-ray fitted beta-model parameters with Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) data. There is a fundamental incompatibility between model fits to X-ray surface brightness profiles and those done with SZE profiles. Since observational SZE radial profiles are in short supply, the X-ray parameters are often used in SZE analysis. We show that this leads to biased estimates of the int...

  11. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Kr and Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z line with a Total Absorption $\\gamma$-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to measure the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the decays of $^{71-75}$Kr and $^{75,76}$Sr using a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) based on a large NaI(TI) detector. The $\\gamma$-rays emitted in these decays will be detected in the TAGS in coincidence with positrons and X-rays from electron capture. Measurements of $\\beta$-delayed particles will also be performed in coincidence with the TAGS. Comparison with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach, Tamm-Dancoff and QRPA method should allow a determination of the shapes of the ground states of these nuclei.

  12. The Beta-Model Problem: The Incompatibility of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Model Fitting for Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hallman, Eric J; Motl, Patrick M; Norman, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed a large sample of numerically simulated clusters to demonstrate the adverse effects resulting from use of X-ray fitted beta-model parameters with Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) data. There is a fundamental incompatibility between model fits to X-ray surface brightness profiles and those done with SZE profiles. Since observational SZE radial profiles are in short supply, the X-ray parameters are often used in SZE analysis. We show that this leads to biased estimates of the integrated Compton y-parameter inside r_{500} calculated from clusters. We suggest a simple correction of the method, using a non-isothermal beta-model modified by a universal temperature profile, which brings these calculated quantities into closer agreement with the true values.

  13. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the assessment of liver iron in patients with beta thalassaemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Beta thalassaemia major is a condition in which anaemia from abnormal haemoglobin production causes bone marrow expansion and frequently reduced bone mineral density. These patients have a chronic requirement for transfusion which results in tissue iron overload which may cause organ damage. Increased X-ray attenuation in the liver was noted in patients undergoing whole body DEXA for the assessment of bone density and it was assumed that this was related to liver iron stores. The aim of this study was to determine if useful information about liver iron could be obtained from these studies. Method: Using a Lunar DPXL, whole body scanning was performed in 16 patients (eight male) age 19-32 with Beta Thalassaemia. As well as calculating indices of total body composition, regions of interest were placed over the visualised liver. The 'bone mineral content' (BMC),g and bone mineral density (BMD),g/cm2 were calculated over the liver regions, with the assumption that the calculation related to mineral in the region of interest. The results were compared with the serum ferritin as an indirect measure of body iron stores. Results showed a highly significant correlation (r=0.85) between 'BMD' in the liver region and ferritin. Conclusion: Despite the known difficulties with equating iron stores and ferritin, and possible confounders on liver density, such as fibrosis, the high correlation suggests that DEXA may have a place in the assessment of iron deposition, and be more cost effective than other technologies such as MRI and CT. Prospective studies with invasive measurements of liver iron will be needed to determine this. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Calculation of beta-ray dose distributions from ophthalmic applicators and comparison with measurements in a model eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distributions throughout the eye, from three types of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators, were calculated using the EGS4, ACCEPT 3.0, and other Monte Carlo codes. The applicators were those for which doses were measured in a recent international intercomparison [Med. Phys. 28, 1373 (2001)], planar applicators of 106Ru-106Rh and 90Sr-90Y and a concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator. The main purpose was to compare the results of the various codes with average experimental values. For the planar applicators, calculated and measured doses on the source axis agreed within the experimental errors (106Ru-106Rh and 5 mm for 90Sr-90Y. At greater distances the measured values are larger than those calculated. For the concave 106Ru-106Rh applicator, there was poor agreement among available calculations and only those calculated by ACCEPT 3.0 agreed with measured values. In the past, attempts have been made to derive such dose distributions simply, by integrating the appropriate point-source dose function over the source. Here, we investigated the accuracy of this procedure for encapsulated sources, by comparing such results with values calculated by Monte Carlo. An attempt was made to allow for the effects of the silver source window but no corrections were made for scattering from the source backing. In these circumstances, at 6 mm depth, the difference in the results of the two calculations was 14%-18% for a planar 106Ru-106Rh applicator and up to 30% for the concave applicator. It becomes worse at greater depths. These errors are probably caused mainly by differences between the spectrum of beta particles transmitted by the silver window and those transmitted by a thickness of water having the same attenuation properties

  15. Burn out or fade away? On the X-ray and magnetic death of intermediate mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Kashyap, Vinay; Günther, H. Moritz; Wright, Nicholas J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-3, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Braithwaite, Jonathan, E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-05-10

    The nature of the mechanisms apparently driving X-rays from intermediate mass stars lacking strong convection zones or massive winds remains poorly understood, and the possible role of hidden, lower mass close companions is still unclear. A 20 ks Chandra HRC-I observation of HR 4796A, an 8 Myr old main sequence A0 star devoid of close stellar companions, has been used to search for a signature or remnant of magnetic activity from the Herbig Ae phase. X-rays were not detected and the X-ray luminosity upper limit was L{sub X} ≤ 1.3 × 10{sup 27} erg s{sup –1}. The result is discussed in the context of various scenarios for generating magnetic activity, including rotational shear and subsurface convection. A dynamo driven by natal differential rotation is unlikely to produce observable X rays, chiefly because of the difficulty in getting the dissipated energy up to the surface of the star. A subsurface convection layer produced by the ionization of helium could host a dynamo that should be effective throughout the main sequence but can only produce X-ray luminosities of the order 10{sup 25} erg s{sup –1}. This luminosity lies only moderately below the current detection limit for Vega. Our study supports the idea that X-ray production in Herbig Ae/Be stars is linked largely to the accretion process rather than the properties of the underlying star, and that early A stars generally decline in X-ray luminosity at least 100,000 fold in only a few million years.

  16. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs

  17. Burn Out or Fade Away? On the X-ray and Magnetic Death of Intermediate Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Jeremy J; Kashyap, Vinay; Guenther, H Moritz; Wright, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the mechanisms apparently driving X-rays from intermediate mass stars lacking strong convection zones or massive winds remains poorly understood, and the possible role of hidden, lower mass close companions is still unclear. A 20ks Chandra HRC-I observation of HR 4796A, an 8 Myr old main sequence A0 star devoid of close stellar companions, has been used to search for a signature or remnant of magnetic activity from the Herbig Ae phase. X-rays were not detected and the X-ray luminosity upper limit was L_X =< 1.3x10^27 erg/s. The result is discussed in the context of various scenarios for generating magnetic activity, including rotational shear and subsurface convection. A dynamo driven by natal differential rotation is unlikely to produce observable X rays, chiefly because of the difficulty in getting the dissipated energy up to the surface of the star. A subsurface convection layer produced by the ionisation of helium could host a dynamo that should be effective throughout the main-sequence b...

  18. Stimulation or inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis by irradiation with γ-rays of Calendula Officinalis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to see what is the effect of irradiation with gamma rays of Calendula officinalis (marigolds) seeds. Could it be a stimulation or a inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis? This paper presents results of irradiation of germinated seeds of marigolds. It was carried out irradiation of seeds at 8 different doses ( 1 kRad, 3.3 kRad, 10 kRad, 25 kRad, 50 kRad, 100 kRad, 200 kRad, 500 krad), one set of seeds being unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of β-carotene was realized through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical concentrations of β-carotene in leaves and stalks of marigolds had been determined by Varian spectrophotometer. Quantitative determination of β-carotene was carried out through spectral analysis using a standard spectrum of carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b. (authors)

  19. Intergrown new zeolite beta polymorphs with interconnected 12-ring channels solved by combining electron crystallography and single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhengbao

    2012-10-09

    Two new polymorphs of zeolite beta, denoted as SU-78A and SU-78B, were synthesized by employing dicyclohexylammonium hydroxides as organic structure-directing agents. The structure was solved by combining transmission electron microscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. SU-78 is an intergrowth of SU-78A and SU-78B and contains interconnected 12-ring channels in three directions. The two polymorphs are built from the same building layer, similar to that for the zeolite beta family. The layer stacking in SU-78, however, is different from those in zeolite beta polymorph A, B, and C, showing new zeolite framework topologies. SU-78 is thermally stable up to 600 °C. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H., E-mail: msgjhlee@mju.ac.kr; Sohn, S. G., E-mail: sgsohn@mju.ac.kr; Jung, H. I., E-mail: jhinumber1@hanmail.net; An, Y. J., E-mail: anyj0120@hanmail.net; Lee, S. H., E-mail: sangheelee@mju.ac.kr [Myongji University, Drug Resistance Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  1. Distortion of pulse height spectra due to absorbers in the measurement of low-energy beta-rays with a silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, H; Norimura, T; Katase, A

    2002-01-01

    In measurement of beta-rays from sup 1 sup 4 C with a silicon semiconductor detector, pulse height spectra are observed to change by insertion of absorbers between the source and the detector. An obvious broad peak appears in the spectra by the insertion. An increase in the absorber thickness reduces the peak height, and shifts the peak position to the higher energy side in the spectra. On the other hand, the increase in the distance between the source and the absorber also reduces the peak height, but does not move the position of the peak. The absorption curve derived from these results shows its particular shape corresponding to the respective position of the absorber. Therefore, the distortion of the pulse height spectrum for low-energy beta-rays depends not only on the thickness of the absorber but also on its position between the source and the detector. (author)

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  3. Experimental studies of high-energy X-ray emission and bootstrap current generation in high [epsilon][beta][sub p] lower-hybrid driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.P.; Porkolab, M.; Colborn, J.A.; Villasenor, J. (Plasma Fusion Center and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

    1994-10-15

    High poloidal beta ([epsilon][beta][sub p]-1) plasma equilibria have been produced by injection of lower-hybrid waves with both asymmetric (current-drive) and symmetric (heating) spectra in the Versator II tokamak. Asymmetric and symmetric injection both generate nearly the same plasma current (5kA), with the loop voltage measured as zero. We studied the rf-created high energy electron distribution with a radial and tangential array of X-ray spectrometers (1[double prime][times]3[double prime] NaI), along with a single soft X-ray spectrometer (SiLi). Analysis of the X-ray data is carried out using a bremsstrahlung emission code. We find that nearly all of the plasma current in the current-drive case can be accounted for by the asymmetric electron tail. In the heating case, the soft X-ray data indicates the presence of an enhanced population of intermediate energy electrons ([similar to]10 keV) consistent with that of the launched LH wave spectrum. Our estimates show that bootstrap current generated by these electrons can account for a majority of the plasma current.

  4. X-ray study of the critical behavior of V(2)H near the beta(,2)-beta(,2) phase transition in a defective near-surface volume and in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkler, Johann

    We have observed two length scales in the critical x-ray diffuse scattering (CDS) from a VH0.525 crystal above the beta1-beta 2 phase transition where a sharp Lorentzian profile in the CDS was superimposed on a broader one. While no sharp component appeared in transmission geometry with high-energy x-rays, no broad component was detected in an experiment confined to a near-surface volume. Based on HERDA- and SNMS-measurements, the decay of the mosaic spread with increasing penetration, a larger d-spacing in the skin layer than in the bulk, and the above x-ray experiments, we conclude that the sharp component arises in the presence of a "defective" near-surface volume, while the broad component is associated with the pure bulk. For the defective skin layer, we observed a continuous phase transition allowing us to extract a tricritical exponent beta below TC, and tricritical exponents nu1 and gamma 1 for small reduced temperatures t = T/ TC -- 1. For larger t, the exponents nu and gamma are altered within the experimental range of t. Furthermore, the CDS of the defective skin layer is very anisotropic . The bulk, however, displays a strong discontinuous phase transition. This is not associated with a crossing of a two-phase region, nor with the small concentration H/V gradient within the upper 200 A, nor with a local (near-surface) ternary phase diagram due to an oxygen gradient in this region. The bulk displays an almost isotropic diffuse intensity above TC. In this work, we discuss the scaling and crossover behavior in the skin layer, the change of the order of the phase transition from the bulk to the skin layer associated with a change in the sign of the fourth order term in the Landau free energy expansion and the change of the correlation length with temperature, crystallographic direction and penetration. Furthermore, we qualitatively simulate the short-range order via Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss and the Chepulskii-Bugaev RING approximations, taking into account the

  5. Simultaneous high-P, high-T X ray diffraction study of beta-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4 to 26 GPa and 900 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Shu, Jinfu; Parthasarathy, G.; Bassett, W. A.; Ko, Jaidong

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the lattice parameters of beta phase (Mg(0.84)Fe(0.16))2SiO4 determined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation under simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The experiments were conducted up to a pressure of 26 GPa and a temperature of 900 K. High pressures were generated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using neon gas as a pressure medium. The sample was heated with an external Ni80Cr20 wire heater. Gold was used as an internal high-pressure calibrant at high temperature. The experimental data indicated the anisotropic behavior of the beta phase at high pressure and temperature, i.e., the c axis is about 35-percent more expansible and about 25-percent more compressible than the a and b axes. A value of 5.1 +/-0.8 was found for the Anderson-Grueneisen parameter. The derived thermodynamic parameters for the beta phase are summarized.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of beta-alanine synthase from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobritzsch, D.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Andersen, Birgit;

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotes and some bacteria, the third step of reductive pyrimidine catabolism is catalyzed by beta-alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6). Crystals of the recombinant enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri were obtained using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2...

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a thermostable glycoside hydrolase family 43 beta-xylosidase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Puspaningsih, Ni Nyoman Tri

    2007-01-01

    The main enzymes involved in xylan-backbone hydrolysis are endo-1,4-beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase. beta-Xylosidase converts the xylo-oligosaccharides produced by endo-1,4-beta-xylanase into xylose monomers. The beta-xylosidase from the thermophilic Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08, a member of

  8. Sulfur K{beta} x-ray emission from carbonyl sulfide: Variations with polarization and excitation energy at the S K threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, K.E. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Arp, U. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Southworth, S.H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Meehan, T.E.; Walsh, T.R.; Larkins, F.P. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, (Australia) 3052

    1998-04-01

    Sulfur K{beta} x-ray-emission spectra from carbonyl sulfide have been measured with resonant excitation at the sulfur K absorption threshold and compared with results of self-consistent field and singles-doubles configuration-interaction calculations. For excitation to the strong 4{pi} absorption resonance, a splitting of the main emission peak is interpreted in terms of influence of the 4{pi} electron on the final valence-hole states. The polarization selectivity of the emission spectrometer was used to distinguish emission polarized parallel versus perpendicular with respect to the polarization of the excitation radiation. The observed polarization dependence is consistent with the molecular symmetries of the calculated intermediate and final states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study on a xyloglucan-specific exo-beta-glycosidase, oligoxyloglucan reducing-end specific cellobiohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Kondo, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Mamoru; Noro, Natsuko; Tsuda, Sakae; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2003-10-01

    A novel xyloglucan-specific exo-beta-glycosidase, oligoxyloglucan reducing-end specific cellobiohydrolase (OXG-RCBH), recognizes the reducing end of oligoxyloglucan and releases two glucosyl residue segments from the main chain. OXG-RCBH was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 3000 and polyethylene glycol 400 as precipitants. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 61.0, b = 146.9, c = 211.9 A. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.2 A and are suitable for X-ray structure analysis. PMID:14501131

  10. Skin dose from neutron-activated soil for early entrants following the A-bomb detonation in Hiroshima: contribution from beta and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    Epilation was reported among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, including "early entrance survivors" who entered the cities after the bombings. The absorbed dose to the skin by neutron-activated soil via beta and gamma rays has been estimated in a preliminary fashion, for these survivors in Hiroshima. Estimation was done for external exposures from activated soil on the ground as well as skin and hair contamination from activated soil particles, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. Assuming 26 mum thickness of activated soil on the skin as an example, the skin dose was estimated to be about 0.8 Gy, for an exposure scenario that includes the first 7 days after the bombing at 1 m above the ground at the hypocenter. In this case, 99% of the total skin dose came from activated radionuclides in the soil, i.e., 0.19 and 0.63 Gy due to beta and gamma rays, respectively. In contrast, contribution to skin dose due to skin contamination with soil particles was found to be about 1%. To make it comparable to the exposure by neutron-activated soil on the ground, a soil thickness on the skin of about 1 mm would be required, which seems to be difficult to keep for a long time. Fifty-five percent of the 7-day skin dose was delivered during the first hour after the bombing. Our estimates of the skin dose are lower than the conventionally reported threshold of 2 Gy for epilation. It should be noted, however, that the possibility of more extreme exposure scenarios for example for entrants who received much heavier soil contamination on their skin cannot be excluded. PMID:18496704

  11. Feasibility of photoelectron sources for testing the energy scale stablity of the KATRIN beta-ray spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoun, O; Kaspar, J; Bonn, J; Kovalik, A; Otten, E W; Venos, D; Weinheimer, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Photoabsorption of nuclear gamma-rays in thin metallic convertors was examined with the aim to produce monoenergetic photoelectrons of kinetic energy around 18.6 keV and natural width of about 1 eV. Calculations were carried out for commercial photon sources of 241Am (1.1 GBq) and 119mSn (0.5 GBq) irradiating Co and Ti convertors. Photoelectrons ejected by 241Am gamma- and X-rays from Co convertors of various thickness were measured with two electrostatic spectrometers.

  12. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  14. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Fab fragment of WO2, an antibody specific for the A[beta] peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, Kwok S.; Miles, Luke A.; Crespi, Gabriela A.N.; Wycherley, Kaye; Ascher, David B.; Barnham, Kevin J.; Cappai, Roberto; Beyreuther, Konrad; Masters, Colin L.; Parker, Michael W.; McKinstry, William J. (SVIMR-A); (HeidelbergU); (WEHI); (Melbourne)

    2008-05-28

    The murine monoclonal antibody WO2 specifically binds the N-terminal region of the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) associated with Alzheimer's disease. This region of A{beta} has been shown to be the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the peptide and hence is considered to be a basis for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies against this prevalent cause of dementia. Structural studies have been undertaken in order to characterize the molecular basis for antibody recognition of this important epitope. Here, details of the crystallization and X-ray analysis of the Fab fragment of the unliganded WO2 antibody in two crystal forms and of the complexes that it forms with the truncated Az{beta} peptides A{beta}{sub 1-16} and A{beta}{sub 1-28} are presented. These crystals were all obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. Crystals of WO2 Fab were grown in polyethylene glycol solutions containing ZnSO{sub 4}; they belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The complexes of WO2 Fab with either A{beta}{sub 1-16} or A{beta}{sub 1-28} were cocrystallized from polyethylene glycol solutions. These two complex crystals grew in the same space group, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracted to 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. A second crystal form of WO2 Fab was grown in the presence of the sparingly soluble A{beta}{sub 1-42} in PEG 550 MME. This second form belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution.

  16. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  17. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  18. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame he...

  19. A mini X-ray generator as an alternative to a 90Sr/90Y beta source in luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out an investigation to test whether mini X-ray generators are a suitable alternative to radioactive sources in luminescence dating. The study has mainly been motivated by the need for high dose rates (similar to 1 Gy/s) to make dating of older samples using regeneration protocols...... more practical. Furthermore, X-ray generators are more suited for field work and work in countries where regulations restrict the use of radioactive sources. The system tested here (a 50 kV I mA Varian VF-50J tube with tungsten target and a matched Spellman high-voltage power supply) was found...... to provide: (i) excellent linearity between tube current (as set by the user on the control computer) and dose rate, (ii) a wide dynamic range: 2-30 mGy/s at 10 kV and 10-2000 mGy/s at 50 kV, (iii) short-term stability better than 0.2%, and (iv) a highly uniform irradiation of the sample area. Tests...

  20. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  1. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  2. High-resolution metallic magnetic calorimeters for {beta}-spectroscopy on {sup 187}rhenium and position resolved X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porst, Jan-Patrick

    2011-02-01

    This thesis describes the development of metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution spectroscopy. MMCs are energy dispersive particle detectors based on the calorimetric principle which are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK. The detectors make use of a paramagnetic temperature sensor to transform the temperature rise upon the absorption of a particle in the detector into a measurable magnetic flux change in a dc-SQUID. The application of MMCs for neutrino mass measurements and their advantages with respect to other approaches are discussed. In view of this application the development of an MMC optimized for {beta}-endpoint spectroscopy on {sup 187}rhenium is presented. A fully micro-fabricated X-ray detector is characterized and performs close to design values. Furthermore, a new technique to more efficiently couple rhenium absorbers mechanically and thermally to the sensor was developed and successfully tested. By employing a metallic contact, signal rise times faster than 5 {mu}s could be observed with superconducting rhenium absorbers. In addition to the single pixel detectors, an alternative approach of reading out multiple pixels was developed in this work, too. Here, the individual absorbers have a different thermal coupling to only one temperature sensor resulting in a distribution of different pulse shapes. Straightforward position discrimination by means of rise time analysis is demonstrated for a four pixel MMC and a thermal model of the detector is provided. Unprecedented so far, an energy resolution of less than {delta}E{sub FWHM}<5 eV for 5.9 keV X-rays was achieved across all absorbers. (orig.)

  3. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  4. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  5. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  6. Heterogeneity of chromosome damage in [beta]-thalassaemia traits. An evaluation of spontaneous and [gamma]-ray-induced micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in vitro after G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] phase irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaja, A.P.; Sharma, N.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Molecular Biology and Agriculture Div.)

    1994-07-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the chromosomal radiosensitivity of [beta]-thalassaemia traits compared with healthy individuals from the general population, necessitated by the fact that [beta]-thalassaemia trait is present in 1-17% of different population groups in India and the chances of encountering them in radiation and chemical related industries do exist. Spontaneous chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from [beta]-thalassaemia traits were found to be in the normal range, whereas significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei (MN) were observed in thalassaemia traits. Based on MN frequency at 2 Gy, [beta]-thalassaemia traits fall into two distinct categories. A hypersensitive group with significant increase in radiation-induced MN over the control group, and a second group with MN frequency slightly above normal individuals. Even when compared with the fitted data at 2 Gy obtained from the pooled results of extensive dose-response investigations from 0.5-5 Gy [gamma]-rays with normal donors for MN, dicentrics and total aberrations, the difference between the means of MN frequencies in [beta]-thalassaemia traits and normals is significant. (author).

  7. An atlas of selected beta-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in lithium fluoride and soft tissue generated by a fast Monte-Carlo-based sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Gillespie, Timothy J.; Chris Wang, C.-K.

    1996-12-01

    A method to generate depth-dose distributions due to beta radiation in LiF and soft tissue is proposed. In this method, the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code is initially used to generate a library of monoenergetic electron depth-dose distributions in the material for electron energies in the range of 10 keV to 5 MeV in 10 keV increments. A polynomial least-squares fit is applied to each distribution. In addition, a theoretical model is developed to generate beta-ray energy spectra of selected radionuclides. A standard Monte Carlo random sampling technique is then employed to sample the spectra and generate the depth-dose distributions in LiF and soft tissue. The proposed method has an advantage over more traditional methods in that the actual radiation transport in the media is performed only once for a set of monoenergetic cases and the beta depth-dose distributions are easily generated by sampling this previously-acquired database in a matter of minutes. This method therefore reduces the demand on computer resources and time. The method can be used to calculate depth-dose distribution due to any beta-emitting nuclide or combination of nuclides with up to ten beta components.

  8. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  9. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  10. X-ray fluorescence mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopic characterization of exhaust particulates emitted from auto engines burning MMT-added gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölders, N; Schilling, P J; Wong, J; Roos, J W; Smith, I L

    2001-08-01

    The elemental distribution and compositional homogeneity in auto exhaust particulates emitted from methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl-(MMT-)added gasoline engines have been investigated using a newly installed synchrotron X-ray microprobe. Two representative groups of exhaust particulate matter, as defined in a recent bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopic study at the Mn K-edge, were studied. The micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate a relatively homogeneous distribution of phases within a given particulate sample, down to a spatial extent of 40 microm (the resolution of microprobe). The micro-XANES also enabled analysis of several areas which displayed compositions different from the bulk sample, supporting the general theory describing manganese species formation in the exhaust. The ability to evaluate small regions also enabled direct verification of manganese sulfate from the S XANES despite the vast excess of sulfur present in other forms. The presence of a chloride compound, introduced through the sample dilution air and engine intake air, was also revealed. The study demonstrates the value of the combined X-ray microfluorescence with excitation by polychromatic radiation for elemental mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopy for chemical speciation in the study of dilute environmental materials containing low-Z constituents such as Cl, S, and P. PMID:11505987

  11. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  12. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  13. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  14. Experimental studies of high energy X-ray emission and bootstrap current generation in high {beta}{sub p} lower hybrid driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.P.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Colborn, J.A.; Villasenor, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-12-31

    High poloidal beta ({epsilon}{beta}{sub p}{approx}1) plasma equilibria have been produced by injecting lower-hybrid waves with both asymmetric (current drive) and symmetric (heating) spectra in the Versator II tokamak. At high {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} nearly the same plasma current was generated by the symmetric rf phasing as with the asymmetric phasing, with the loop voltage being zero in both cases. The current for symmetric injection could not be accounted for by either inductive or rf current drive, so we believe that bootstrap current generation is operative in the present experiment. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  16. Neutron capture nucleosynthesis during core helium burning in massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prantzos, N.; Arnould, M.; Arcoragi, J.P.

    1987-04-01

    Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis during core He burning in massive (ZAMS mass = 50-100 solar mass) mass-losing stars, which are identified with Wolf-Rayet stars, is studied in the framework of recent stellar models based on the Roxburgh criterion for convection and on the latest nuclear data available. The nucleosynthesis is followed with the aid of a full nuclear reaction network incorporating up-to-date Maxwellian-averaged neutron-capture cross sections and new density- and temperature-dependent beta-decay rates. Numerical techniques are developed in order to integrate efficiently the set of coupled differential equations of the network. The resulting stellar core and surface abundances are presented, as well as the composition of the stellar winds ejected during the WC phase. Consideration is given to the implications of these results for the composition of OB associations and of the solar system, for the isotopic anomalies in meteorites and in the galactic cosmic rays, as well as for nuclear gamma-ray line astronomy. 114 references.

  17. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  19. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  20. A cartography of K{beta} resonant inelastic X-ray scattering for lifetime-broadening-suppressed spin-selected XANES of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hisashi [Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan)], E-mail: hayashih@fc.jwu.ac.jp; Azumi, Tomofumi; Sato, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yasuo [IMRAM, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    A series of K{beta} resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is presented as two-dimensional RIXS maps and analyzed in terms of the Kramers-Heisenberg equation. Genuine lifetime-broadening-suppressed (LBS) spin-selected oscillator strength distributions, which are consistent with Hund's rule, are deduced. It is shown that 2D maps can highlight implications of RIXS results to reveal existences and characteristics of electronic states which are hidden in absorption spectra.

  1. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  2. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  3. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  4. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  5. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  6. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  7. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  9. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  11. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  12. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  13. {beta}-decay data requirements for reactor decay heat calculations: study of the possible source of the gamma-ray discrepancy in reactor heat summation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, A.; Tain, J.L.; Perez-Cerdan, A.B.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Caballero, L.; Nacher, E.; Jordan, D.; Molina, F. [Valencia Univ., IFIC (Spain); Algora, A.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M.D.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Aysto, J.; Penttila, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Moore, I.; Eronen, T.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Hakala, J.; Karvonen, P.; Kankainen, A.; Hager, U.; Sonoda, T.; Saastamoinen, A.; Rissanen, J.; Kessler, T.; Weber, C.; Ronkainen, J.; Rahaman, S.; Elomaa, V. [Jyvaskyla Univ. (Finland); Burkard, K.; Huller, W. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Batist, L. [PNPI, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Gelletly, W. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom); Yoshida, T. [Mushashi Institute of Technology (Japan); Nichols, A.L. [IAEA Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Sonzogni, A. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Perajarvi, K. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    The decay heat of fission products plays an important role in predictions of the heat up of nuclear fuel in reactors. The released energy is calculated as the summation of the activities of all fission products P(t) equals {sigma}(E{sub i}*{lambda}{sub i}*N{sub i}(t)), where E{sub i} is the decay energy of nuclide i (gamma and beta component), {lambda}{sub i} is the decay constant of nuclide i and N{sub i}(t) is the number of nuclide i at cooling time t. Even though the reproduction of the measured decay heat has improved in recent years, there is still a long standing discrepancy in the t about 1000 s cooling time for some fuels. A possible explanation to this improper description has been found in the work of Yoshida et al., where it has been shown that the incomplete knowledge of the {beta}-decay of some T{sub c} isotopes can be the source of the systematic discrepancy. We have recently measured the {beta}-decay process of some Tc isotopes using a total absorption spectrometer at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaskyla (Finland). The results of the measurements as well as the their consequences on summation calculations are discussed. (authors)

  14. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  15. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  16. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  17. Study on Acinetobacter baumannii plasmid with 3 types of beta-lactamase genes in a burn ward%关于携带3种β内酰胺酶基因的鲍氏不动杆菌质粒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 李文林; 石小玉; 曾元临; 徐小文; 赵林

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the transferrable character of Aciuetobacter baumanni i(AB)plasraids with 3 types of beta-lactamase gene. Methods The plasmid of multi-drug resistant AB(donor)isolated from burn wound were transferred to E.coil ATCC25922 (receptor) through conjugation,and drug sensitivity was also observed.Drug-resistant gene and Stability of filial generation and zygote were analyzed by PCR. Results The dug-resistance of donor plasmids to Sulfamethoxazole, Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cetpodoxime,Cefuroxime,Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin/SuIbactam,and three types of beta-lactamase gene were transferred to the receptor,and were also stably transmitted for passages. The minimum inhibitor concentration ot receptor to Sulfamethoxazole was>2 mg/L after conjugation with donor,and inhibitory character could be transferred to next generation. Conclusion blaTEM-1,blaPER-1 and blaOXA-23 genes carried in the ptasmid of AB can be transferred through conjugation and stably transmitted for passages,and it is one of the molecular mechanisms for AB with multi-drug resistance after burn infections.%目的 了解携带3种β内酰胺酶基因的鲍氏不动杆菌质粒的町传递性.方法 选取从烧伤创面分离出的多重耐药鲍氏不动杆菌(供体菌),将之与大肠埃希菌ATCC 25922(受体菌)进行耐药质粒接合、药物敏感试验,并采用PCR分析接合子及其子代的耐药基因型、传代稳定性. 结果鲍氏不动杆菌通过接合将其携带对磺胺甲恶唑、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢博肟、头孢呋辛、亚胺培南/两司他丁和氨苄西林/舒巴坦的耐药性质粒及3种耐药基因传递给受体菌(例如经接合,使受体菌对磺胺甲恶唑的最低抑菌浓度>2 mg/L),且可稳定传代. 结论鲍氏不动杆菌质粒上携带可接合传递并稳定传代的β内酰胺酶基冈(blaTEM-1、blaPER-1、blaOXAS-23),是烧伤感染后其具有多重耐药性的分子生物学机制之一.

  18. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase FabG from Aquifex aeolicus VF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qilong; Duax, William L; Umland, Timothy C

    2007-02-01

    The gene product of fabG from Aquifex aeolicus has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification of the protein took place using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography and the protein was then crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.8 A and the initial phases were determined by molecular replacement. The A. aeolicus FabG protein is a putative beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase. Structure-function studies of this protein are being performed as part of a larger project investigating naturally occurring deviations from highly conserved residues within the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family.

  19. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  20. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Anna C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  2. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  3. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  4. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...

  5. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  6. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  7. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.;

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used for studying intermediate species, isolated after heat-induced aggregation of the A variant of bovine P-lactoglobulin. The intermediates were separated in two fractions, the heated metastable dimer and heated metastable oligomers larger than the dimer. The pa...

  8. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  9. PLASTIC SURGERY AND BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  10. News Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

  11. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  12. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  13. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  14. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  15. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  16. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  17. Thermonuclear Burning as a Probe of Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a fundamental process taking place in the matter transferred onto neutron stars in accreting binary systems. The heat deposited by nuclear reactions becomes readily visible in the X-ray band when the burning is either unstable or marginally stable, and results in the rich phenomenology of X-ray bursts, superbursts, and mHz quasiperiodic oscillations. Fast X-ray timing observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) over the past decade have revealed a wealth of new phenomena associated with thermonuclear burning on neutron stars, including the discovery of nuclear powered pulsations during X-ray bursts and superbursts. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these new phenomena, with an emphasis on recent findings, and discuss what they are telling us about the structure of neutron stars.

  18. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  19. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  20. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  1. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  2. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  3. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients. PMID:360162

  4. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  5. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  6. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  7. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  8. [The organization of burn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  9. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  11. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  12. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  13. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  14. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  15. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  16. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  17. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  18. How to manage burns in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns.

  19. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  20. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W

    1990-01-01

    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  1. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  2. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  3. The biology of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  4. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  5. Erythema and Burning Pain in the Vulva: A Possible Phenotype of Erythromelalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Iyer, Priya; Eanes, Alisa; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of burning vulvar pain accompanied by erythema responding to an oral combination of a benzodiazepine and a beta blocker. The positive response to two medication classes used in the treatment of erythromelalgia supports the possibility of a localized manifestation of this disorder in the genital region.

  6. Decreased pulmonary inflammation after ethanol exposure and burn injury in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Melanie D; Morgan, Michelle O; Ramirez, Luis; Yong, Sherri; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that alcohol consumption dysregulates immune function. Burn patients who consume alcohol before their injuries demonstrate higher rates of morbidity and mortality, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, than patients without alcohol at the time of injury. Our laboratory observed higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the lungs of mice after ethanol exposure and burn injury than with either insult alone. To understand the mechanism of the increased pulmonary inflammatory response in mice treated with ethanol and burn injury, we investigated the role of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Wild-type and ICAM-1 knockout (KO) mice were treated with vehicle or ethanol and subsequently given a sham or burn injury. Twenty-four hours postinjury, lungs were harvested and analyzed for indices of inflammation. Higher numbers of neutrophils were observed in the lungs of wild-type mice after burn and burn with ethanol treatment. This increase in pulmonary inflammatory cell accumulation was significantly lower in the KO mice. In addition, levels of KC, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in the lung were decreased in the ICAM-1 KO mice after ethanol exposure and burn injury. Interestingly, no differences were observed in serum or lung tissue content of soluble ICAM-1 24 hours postinjury. These data suggest that upregulation of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 on the vascular endothelium may play a critical role in the excessive inflammation seen after ethanol exposure and burn injury.

  7. A system for simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, A. T.; Hamby, D. M.

    2007-08-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for real-time and simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) designed and built in our laboratory. The DPP board digitally captures the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfers valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A resolving algorithm also was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events, and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimal crosstalk. The spectrometer has proven to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  8. Three-dimensional drift chambers of the DCBA experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T., E-mail: ishikawat@hakone.phys.metro-u.ac.j [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Igarashi, H.; Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Ishihara, N.; Iwai, G.; Iwase, H.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Inagaki, T.; Makida, Y.; Ohama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Yamada, Y. [High Energy Accel, Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tashiro, E.; Ishizuka, T. [Shizuoka University, Naka, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Kitamura, S. [Nihon Institute of Medical Science, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Teramoto, Y. [Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakano, I. [Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer) experiment is to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The half-life of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} is expected to give us the information of Majorana nature and the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. A prototype test apparatus DCBA-T2 has the energy resolution of about 150 keV (FWHM) around 1 MeV. In order to check the detector performance, engineering runs detecting double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo started in May 2009 using natural Mo, which contains 9.6% of {sup 100}Mo. Ten candidates of the double beta decay ({beta}{beta}) have been detected so far. It has been found that the background events due to {sup 214}Bi decay are distinguishable from the double beta decays by detecting {alpha}-particles from {sup 214}Po.

  9. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  10. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  11. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  12. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  13. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  14. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  15. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F

    2001-06-01

    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  16. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  17. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  18. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  19. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with DCBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project called DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer) is in progress at KEK in order to search for the events of neutrinoless double beta decay. For investigating technical problems, a test apparatus called DCBA-T has been constructed. The preliminary results of its engineering run are described together with the simulation studies of backgrounds originating from 214Bi and 208Tl

  20. TRIGA fuel burn-up calculations supported by gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy based non-destructive methods is employed to measure spent fuel parameters. By this method, the axial distribution of Cesium-137 has been measured which results in an axial burn up profiles. Knowing the exact irradiation history of the fuel, four spent TRIGA fuel elements have been selected for on-site gamma scanning using a special shielded scanning device developed at the Atominstitute. Each selected fuel element was transferred into the fuel inspection unit using the standard fuel transfer cask. Each fuel element was scanned in one centimetre steps of its active fuel length and the Cesium-137 activity was determined as a proved burn up indicator. The absolute activity of each centimetre was measured and compared with the reactor physics code ORIGEN2.2 results. This code was used to calculate average burn up and isotopic composition of fuel element. The comparison between measured and calculated results shows good agreement. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  2. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  3. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  4. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  5. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  6. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  7. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity and microstructure of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUNG-TAE LEE; DAE-HAN LEE; SANG-MIN LEE; SANG-SOO HAN; SANG-HYUNG LEE; SUNG-KI LIM

    2016-06-01

    Ca-doped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina was synthesized using a solid-state reaction. The changes in the properties of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina resulting from the presence of Ca impurity were studied. Ca (0–5 wt%) was added to the respective samples, which were then sintered. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanningelectron microscopy, densimetry and impedance analysis. In the sintered specimens, the $\\beta"$-alumina phase fraction decreased as Ca content increased, whereas the relative sintered density increased. The surface morphology of Cadoped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina specimens showed a Ca-rich layer, which was the main cause of increase in the specificresistance.

  8. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  9. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  10. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  11. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  12. CHANGES OF IMMUNE FUNCTIONS AFTER RADIATION, BURNS AND COMBINED RADIATION-BURN INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎永堂; 冉新泽; 魏书庆

    1995-01-01

    The changes ot several immune functions were observed in rats after they were inflicted with 6 Gy gamma rays irradiation, 15% TBSA full thickness hrun and the combination of the 2 injuries. It was found that the ftmcldons of thymocytes and epienocytes suffered the most severe suppressinn in the 24th to 72nd hour after radiation injury and began to recover on the 7th day. In the rats with burn injury, the suppression on thymocytes and splenocytes were significantly less severe than that after radiation and recovered more rapidly. The effects of combined rediation-bura injury showed several characteristics. The suppression on the thymocytes was more severe with slower recovery as compared with that after single radiation injury only. The suppression on the splenocytes as a whole was similar to that after single radiation injury, but in the early stage after combined injury, the suppression was far more severe than that after radiation. Escharectccny and skin grafting on the burn wounds on the lst day after combined injury could accelerate the recovery on both the thymocytes and eplenocytes. Our findings indicated that the severity of the suppression on the immune functions due to combined radiadon-burrt injury might depend on the size of the burn wounds.

  13. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  14. Open questions in stellar helium burning studied with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of helium burning is the formation of the two elements, carbon and oxygen. The ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of helium burning is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in Type II supernova. While an oxygen rich star is predicted to end up as a black hole, a carbon rich star leads to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that creates the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNIa. Since the triple alpha-particle capture reaction, 8Be(α, γ)12C, the first burning stage in helium burning, is well understood, one must extract the cross section of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction at the Gamow peak (300 keV) with high accuracy of approximately 10% or better. This goal has not been achieved, despite repeated strong statements that appeared in the literature. Constraints from the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N were shown to not sufficiently restrict the p-wave cross section factor; e.g. low values can not be ruled out. Measurements at low energies, are thus mandatory for measuring the elusive cross section factor for the 12O(α, γ)16O reaction. We are constructing a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HIγS-TUNL facility at Duke University to study the 16O(γ, α)12C reaction, and thus the direct reaction at low energies, as low as 0.7 MeV. This work is in progress. (author)

  15. Resistive MHD studies of high-beta tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.

    1982-02-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in high-beta tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations have been built on earlier low-beta techniques, but the beta effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an x-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current-driven modes at low beta to predominantly pressure-driven modes at high beta is described. The nonlinear studies yield x-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  16. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  18. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  19. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    CERN Document Server

    Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  20. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  1. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  2. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  3. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics...

  4. [Ergotherapy of severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerl, U; Resag, I

    1995-04-01

    Occupational therapy for severely burned patients includes individual exercise programmes, activities of daily living (ADL), assessment of the need for technical aids, splinting and pressure bandages, as well as psychological and social support. There are different focal points in the three stages of treatment. In the burn-care unit (first stage), if necessary, the patient is provided with splints. At this time the first contact is made. In the burn-care ward (second stage), the occupational therapy is focused on individual exercise programmes, dynamic splinting, ADL, and preparation for discharge from hospital. In the outpatient department (third stage), the aims of occupational therapy are: providing the patients with pressure bandages, checking of splints, assessment of the need for technical aids and special support if the patients have difficulties at home and work. PMID:7761866

  5. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  6. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J;

    1991-01-01

    to human beta 2-microglobulin at 46 and 47 positions, respectively, and to bovine beta 2-microglobulin at 47 positions, i.e. there is about 47% identity between avian and mammalian beta 2-microglobulins. The known X-ray crystallographic structures of bovine beta 2-microglobulin and human HLA-A2 complex...... suggest that the seven chicken to turkey differences are exposed to solvent in the avian MHC class I complex. The key residues of beta 2-microglobulin involved in alpha chain contacts within the MHC class I molecule are highly conserved between chicken and man. This explains that heterologous human beta 2...

  7. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  8. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  9. Fluorescence Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Nguyen, Hue; Malko, Anton; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-03-01

    Early removal of affected tissues from burn patients can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore it is important to locate and identify the burn (area and thickness) so that it can be removed as quickly as possible. Our project explores the use of autofluorescence as a tool to identify the burned tissues from healthy ones. Here we present that our fluorescence results show differences between burned and normal skin in both its spectra and lifetime.

  10. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  11. TRIGA fuel burn-up calculations and its confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cesium (Cs-137) isotopic concentration due to irradiation of TRIGA Fuel Elements FE(s) is calculated and measured at the Atominstitute (ATI) of Vienna University of Technology (VUT). The Cs-137 isotope, as proved burn-up indicator, was applied to determine the burn-up of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor FE. This article presents the calculations and measurements of the Cs-137 isotope and its relevant burn-up of six selected Spent Fuel Elements SPE(s). High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy based non-destructive method is employed to measure spent fuel parameters. By the employment of this method, the axial distribution of Cesium-137 for six SPE(s) is measured, resulting in the axial burn-up profiles. Knowing the exact irradiation history and material isotopic inventory of an irradiated FE, six SPE(s) are selected for on-site gamma scanning using a special shielded scanning device developed at the ATI. This unique fuel inspection unit allows to scan each millimeter of the FE. For this purpose, each selected FE was transferred to the fuel inspection unit using the standard fuel transfer cask. Each FE was scanned at a scale of 1 cm of its active length and the Cs-137 activity was determined as proved burn-up indicator. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) together with suitable fast electronics and on-line PC data acquisition module. The absolute activity of each centimeter of the FE was measured and compared with reactor physics calculations. The ORIGEN2, a one-group depletion and radioactive decay computer code, was applied to calculate the activity of the Cs-137 and the burn-up of selected SPE. The deviation between calculations and measurements was in range from 0.82% to 12.64%.

  12. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfone acids as inhibitors of beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H G; Angehrn, P; Hubschwerlen, C; Kania, M; Page, M G; Specklin, J L; Winkler, F K

    1996-09-13

    A general method for synthesis of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfones has been developed. The new compounds inhibited most of the common types of beta-lactamase. The level of activity depended very strongly on the nature of the substituent in the 2 beta-alkenyl group. The inhibited species formed with the beta-lactamase from Citrobacter freundii 1205 was sufficiently stable for X-ray crystallographic studies. These, together with UV absorption spectroscopy and studies of chemical degradation, suggested a novel reaction mechanism for the new inhibitors that might account for their broad spectrum of action. The (Z)-2 beta-acrylonitrile penam sulfone Ro 48-1220 was the most active inhibitor from this class of compound. The inhibitor enhanced the action of, for example, ceftriaxone against a broad selection of organisms producing beta-lactamases. The organisms included strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produce cephalosporinases, which is an exceptional activity for penam sulfones.

  13. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  14. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  15. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  16. Feasibility study of advanced fuel burning nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been conducted to determine both physics, engineering and economic aspects of fusion power reactors based on magnetic confinement and on burning advanced fuels (AFs). DT burning Tokamaks are taken as reference concept. We show that the attractive features of advanced fuels, in particular of neutronlean proton-based AFs, can be combined, in appropriately designed AF reactors (high beta), with power densities comparable to or even higher than those achievable in DT Tokamaks. Moreover we identify physical requirements which would assure Q values well above unity. As an example a semi-open confinement scheme is analyzed based on a self-consistent plasma calculation. We find that a mirror, even if only ''semi-open'' as a result of strong diamagnetism, can barely be expected to achieve high Q values. Therefore confinement schemes such as compact tori, multipole surmacs etc. may be required to burn AFs. We conclude that the economics of AF reactors, as determined by the nuclear boiler power density, may be superior to that of DT-rectors if low recirculating power fractions can be obtained by appropriate plasma tayloring (high fractional transfer of fusion power to ions required). A more detailed investigation is suggested for proton-based fuel cycles. (orig.)

  17. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  19. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  20. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  1. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  2. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  5. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    2002-01-01

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  6. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  7. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  8. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  9. Estrogen treatment following severe burn injury reduces brain inflammation and apoptotic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ahamed H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytokines in animal models have been observed in remote organs, however data are lacking regarding early brain cytokine levels following burn injury, and the effects of estradiol on these levels. Using an experimental animal model, we studied the acute effects of a full-thickness third degree burn on brain levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and the protective effects of acute estrogen treatment on these levels. Additionally, the acute administration of estrogen on regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic events in the brain following severe burn injury were studied through measuring the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-Akt, active caspase-3, and PARP cleavage in the placebo and estrogen treated groups. Methods In this study, 149 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats received 3rd degree 40% total body surface area (TBSA burns. Fifteen minutes following burn injury, the animals received a subcutaneous injection of either placebo (n = 72 or 17 beta-estradiol (n = 72. Brains were harvested at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours after injury from the control (n = 5, placebo (n = 8/time point, and estrogen treated animals (n = 8/time point. The brain cytokine levels were measured using the ELISA method. In addition, we assessed the levels of phosphorylated-ERK, phosphorylated-Akt, active caspase-3, and the levels of cleaved PARP at the 24 hour time-point using Western blot analysis. Results In burned rats, 17 beta-estradiol significantly decreased the levels of brain tissue TNF-α (~25%, IL-1β (~60%, and IL-6 (~90% when compared to the placebo group. In addition, we determined that in the estrogen-treated rats there was an increase in the levels of phospho-ERK (p p p p Conclusion Following severe burn injury, estrogens decrease both

  10. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  11. Biomass burning as the main source of organic aerosol particulate matter in Malaysia during haze episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi bin Abas, M; Oros, Daniel R; Simoneit, B R T

    2004-05-01

    The haze episodes that occurred in Malaysia in September-October 1991, August-October 1994 and September-October 1997 have been attributed to suspended smoke particulate matter from biomass burning in southern Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the present study, polar organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Malaysia are converted to their trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to better assess the contribution of the biomass burning component during the haze episodes. On the basis of this analysis, levoglucosan was found to be the most abundant organic compound detected in almost all samples. The monosaccharides, alpha- and beta-mannose, the lignin breakdown products, vanillic and syringic acids and the minor steroids, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were also present in some samples. The presence of the tracers from smoke overwhelmed the typical signatures of emissions from traffic and other anthropogenic activities in the urban areas.

  12. Biomass burning as the main source of organic aerosol particulate matter in Malaysia during haze episodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, M. Radzi bin [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Oros, Daniel R.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The haze episodes that occurred in Malaysia in September-October 1991, August-October 1994 and September-October 1997 have been attributed to suspended smoke particulate matter from biomass burning in southern Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the present study, polar organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Malaysia are converted to their trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to better assess the contribution of the biomass burning component during the haze episodes. On the basis of this analysis, levoglucosan was found to be the most abundant organic compound detected in almost all samples. The monosaccharides, {alpha}- and {beta}-mannose, the lignin breakdown products, vanillic and syringic acids and the minor steroids, cholesterol and {beta}-sitosterol were also present in some samples. The presence of the tracers from smoke overwhelmed the typical signatures of emissions from traffic and other anthropogenic activities in the urban areas. (Author)

  13. Classification Methods of Skin Burn Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,methodsto automatically detect and categorize the severity of skin burn imagesusingvariousclassification techniquesare compared andpresented. A database comprisingofskin burn imagesbelonging to patients of diverseethnicity, genderand age areconsidered. First the images arepreprocessed andthen classifiedutilizingthe pattern recognitiontechniques:TemplateMatching(TM,Knearestneighbor classifier (kNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM.The classifier istrained fordifferentskin burn grades using pre-labeled images and optimizedfor the features chosen. This algorithmdeveloped,works as an automatic skin burn wound analyzerandaids in the diagnosisof burn victims

  14. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  15. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  16. Burn Resuscitation in the Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael; Jeng, James; Moghazy, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described. PMID:27600127

  17. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  18. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  19. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  20. Precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Moltz, D M; Kern, B D; Noma, H; Ritchie, B G; Toth, K S

    1981-01-01

    A technique for precise determination of beta endpoints with an intrinsic germanium detector has been developed. The energy calibration is derived from gamma -ray photopeak measurements. This analysis procedure has been checked with a /sup 27/Si source produced in a (p, n) reaction on a /sup 27/Al target and subsequently applied to mass separated samples of /sup 76/Rb, /sup 77/Rb and /sup 78/Rb. Results indicate errors <50 keV are obtainable. (29 refs).

  1. Southeast U.S. burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  2. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  3. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  4. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  5. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.

  6. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  7. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  8. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  9. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  10. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei (UC)

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  12. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  13. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  14. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nobuhiro.ishihara@kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  15. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  16. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  17. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  18. Coal and cremation at the Tschudi burn, Chan Chan, Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.; Galvez, Mora C.; Jackson, J.C.; McGeehin, J.P.; Hood, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.

  19. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  20. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  1. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 21. Christiani DC. Physical and chemical ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 94. Mazzeo AS, Price LA, ...

  2. Wintertime organic aerosols in Christchurch and Auckland, New Zealand: contributions of residential wood and coal burning and petroleum utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haobo Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; David Shooter [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Institute of Low-Temperature Science

    2006-09-01

    Wintertime PM10 samples from two New Zealand cities (Christchurch and Auckland) have been characterized using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for biomass burning tracers, hopanes, n-alkanes, fatty acids, n-alkanols and sugars. The aerosol samples of Christchurch, which were heavily influenced by residential wood and coal burning, showed substantially higher ambient concentrations for most of the organic compounds than those of Auckland, where major sources of aerosols were vehicular emissions and sea-salt. Mass ratios between the biomass burning tracers studied were found to be significantly different (e.g., {beta}-sitosterol to nssK{sup +} ratios were more than three times higher in Christchurch than in Auckland), although levoglucosan to nssK{sup +} ratios were similar at the both sites. We also estimated, for the first time using stereochemical configurations of hopanes, that 60% of fossil fuel emissions came from petroleum utilization with the remaining 40% being from coal burning in Christchurch. In contrast, contribution of coal burning was negligible in Auckland. Moreover, contributions of most biomass burning tracers to organic carbon (OC) were significantly higher in Christchurch than in Auckland. On the other hand, saccharides (excluding levoglucosan) and hopanes accounted for larger fractions of OC in Auckland. This study demonstrates that intensive wood and coal burning can significantly affect organic aerosol composition in an urban environment. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  4. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  5. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  6. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment...

  7. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  8. Nephrilin peptide modulates a neuroimmune stress response in rodent models of burn trauma and sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Desmond D; ElAyadi, Amina; Singh, Baljit K; Prasai, Anesh; Hegde, Sachin D; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis occurs three times more often in burns than in other types of trauma, suggesting an overlap or synergy between underlying immune mechanisms in burn trauma and sepsis. Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of mTORC2, has previously been shown to modulate a neuroimmune stress response in rodent models of xenobiotic and metabolic stress. Here we investigate the effect of nephrilin peptide administration in different rodent models of burn trauma and sepsis. In a rat scald burn model, daily subcutaneous bolus injection of 4 mg/kg nephrilin significantly reduced the elevation of kidney tissue substance P, S100A9 gene expression, PMN infiltration and plasma inflammatory markers in the acute phase, while suppressing plasma CCL2 and insulin C-peptide, kidney p66shc-S36 phosphorylation and PKC-beta and CGRP in dorsal root ganglia at 14 days (chronic phase). In the mouse cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis, nephrilin fully protected mice from mortality between surgery and day 7, compared to 67% mortality in saline-treated animals, while significantly reducing elevated CCL2 in plasma. mTORC2 may modulate important neuroimmune responses in both burn trauma and sepsis. PMID:24273694

  9. The interaction between burn injury and vitamin D metabolism and consequences for the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The stress and inflammatory responses to burn injury are associated with bone loss. The stress response entails production of large amounts of endogenous glucocorticoids that decrease osteoblasts on the mineralization surface of bone and decreases differentiation of marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts, thereby decreasing the amount of bone formation. Deficiency of osteoblasts also blocks osteoclastogenesis thus leading to low bone turnover and bone loss. The inflammatory response generates cytokines such as interleukin 1-beta and interleukin-6, which normally increase osteoclastogenic bone resorption via stimulation of osteoblast production of RANK ligand. However, in the absence of osteoblasts as a target we postulate that they attack the parathyroid gland chief cells and up-regulate the calcium-sensing receptor. The consequence of this upregulation is the lowering of the circulating calcium necessary to suppress parathyroid hormone production and the development of hypocalcemia and urinary calcium wasting. It is the parathyroid hormone suppression that causes us to postulate acute deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the consequence of this for post-burn metabolism could include derepression of the gene that controls renin production, leading to elevated levels of angiotensin II, which can contribute to insulin resistance, as can vitamin D deficiency itself. Moreover, the skin from burned patients cannot synthesize vitamin D normally. Thus vitamin D supplementation is the only means by which to ensure vitamin D sufficiency for burn victims. The proper requirement for vitamin D in acutely burned patients remains unknown.

  10. Zone-plate coded imaging of thermonuclear burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first high-resolution, direct images of the region of thermonuclear burn in laser fusion experiments have been produced using a novel, two-step imaging technique called zone-plate coded imaging. This technique is extremely versatile and well suited for the microscopy of laser fusion targets. It has a tomographic capability, which provides three-dimensional images of the source distribution. It is equally useful for imaging x-ray and particle emissions. Since this technique is much more sensitive than competing imaging techniques, it permits us to investigate low-intensity sources

  11. Understanding the stagnation and burn of implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Weber, S. V.; Yeamans, C. B.; Cerjan, C. J.; Divol, L.; Eckart, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu; Herrmann, H. W.; Le Pape, S.; Munro, D. H.; Grim, G. P.; Jones, O. S.; Berzak-Hopkins, L.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    An improved the set of nuclear diagnostics on NIF measures the properties of the stagnation plasma of implosions, including the drift velocity, areal density (ρr) anisotropy and carbon ρr of the compressed core. Two types of deuterium-tritium (DT) gas filled targets are imploded by shaped x-ray pulses, producing stagnated and burning DT cores of radial convergence (Cr) ∼ 5 or ∼20. Comparison with two-dimensional modeling with inner and outer surface mix shows good agreement with nuclear measurements.

  12. Neuroendocrine Stress Response after Burn Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of the stress response during acute intensive care for severe burns are described and quantified by measuring hormonal and neuroendocrine patterns and relating these to organ function in the short term. This includes an assessment of whether there are markers for the severity of stress that are better than conventional descriptors of the severity of a burn in predicting failing organ function. P-CgA after a major burn injury is an independent and better predictor of organ dysfunc...

  13. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  14. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  15. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  16. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  17. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  18. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  19. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  20. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  1. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  3. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  4. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. This work is a result of Comprehensive study of delayed-neutron yields for accurate evaluation of kinetics of high-burn up reactors entrusted to Tokyo Institute of Technology by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  5. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  6. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Moody

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  7. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies.

  8. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  9. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  10. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  11. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  12. Applications of TAGS data in beta decay energies and decay heat calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, N. S.; 片倉 純一

    2007-01-01

    The recent data of beta-decay intensity measured by using the total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (TAGS), for several fission products (FP), has been applied for calculations of the average energies and spectra, and decay heat summations. The calculations were performed based on the Gross theory of beta decay, in which the beta strength functions were experimentally derived from TAGS data. The deviations of decay heat power predictions from the original decay data of JENDL Decay Data File...

  13. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  14. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  15. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  17. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  18. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  19. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  1. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  2. Skin Dendritic Cells in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arpa, N.; D’Amelio, L.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Pileri, D.; Mogavero, R.; Amato, G.; Napoli, B.; Alessandro, G.; Lombardo, C.; F. Conte

    2009-01-01

    The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.

  3. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  4. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  5. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  6. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  7. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  8. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  9. The relevance of dose for low-energy beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific issues in risk assessment for low-energy beta emitters include specification of the radiation weighting factor, values of relative biological effectiveness for specific or accurate risk estimates, non-uniformities of dose within tissues and cells, and use of standard tissue weighting factors for non-uniform situations. Unusual features of low-energy beta emitters include: increased average ionisation density on subcellular (and cellular) scales; short ranges of the beta electrons; non-uniformity of the absorbed dose over subcellular, cellular, and tissue dimensions; reduced hit frequencies; nuclear transmutations; different chemical forms, influencing biokinetics and dose distributions; and large isotopic mass differences, particularly in the case of tritium and hydrogen. Many of these features are not included explicitly in conventional radiation protection dosimetry, although they may be partly included in experimental determinations of relative biological effectiveness. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown low-energy electrons to be particularly efficient in producing double-strand breaks in DNA, including complex double-strand breaks. Hence, on fundamental grounds, tritium beta particles should be expected to have greater biological effectiveness per unit absorbed dose than 60Co gamma-rays or orthovoltage x-rays. For practical purposes, and in view of the paucity of epidemiological estimates of risk from low-energy electrons, consideration should be given to applying a raised relative biological effectiveness, say of value 2, to all low-energy internal emitters, including beta particles and soft x-ray emissions.

  10. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  12. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  13. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  14. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process......The industrial cement process is subject to several changes in order to reduce the high energy consumption and thereby increase the profitability of cement production. These changes also affect the core of the entire cement producing process: the clinker formation in the rotary kiln. Thus, in order...... to maintain or even improve clinker quality (and output), we need a better understanding of the development of clinker properties inside the kiln to react upon the impact of process changes. Clinker formation in industrial rotary kilns is very complex due to a vast number of interacting parameters: kiln...

  15. Numerical study of external burning flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Robert D.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the successful application of CFD to modeling an external burning flowfield. The study used the 2D, 3D, and PNS versions of the SPARK code. Various grids, boundary conditions, and ignition methodologies have been employed. Flameholding was achieved through the use of a subsonic outflow condition and a hot block located behind the step to ignite the fuel. Since the resulting burning produces a large subsonic region downstream of the cowl, this entire surface can be pressurized to the level of the back pressure. An evaluation of interactions between the ramjet exhaust and the external burning products demonstrate the complexity of this design issue. Ths code is now capable of evaluating the external burning effectiveness for flight vehicles using simple injector schemes, and the methodology can be readily applied to other external burning designs.

  16. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  17. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  18. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  19. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  20. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  1. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  2. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  3. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  4. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  5. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  6. Synthesis of beta carbon nitride nanosized crystal through mechanochemical reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Long Wei; Liu Yu Xian; Sui Jin Ling; Wang Jing Min

    2003-01-01

    Nanosized beta carbon nitride (beta-C sub 3 N sub 4), of grain size several tens of nanometres, has been synthesized by mechanochemical reaction processing. The low-cost synthetic method developed facilitates the novel and effective synthesis of nanosized crystalline beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 (a = 6.36 A, c = 4.648 A) powders. The graphite powders were first milled to a nanoscale state, then the nanosized graphite powders were milled in an atmosphere of NH sub 3 gas. It was found that nanosized beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 was formed after high-energy ball milling under an NH sub 3 atmosphere. After thermal annealing, the shape of the beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 changes from flake-like to sphere-like. The nanosized beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 formed was characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A solid-gas reaction mechanism was proposed for the formation of nanosized beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 at room temperature induced by mechanochemical activation.

  7. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  8. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock wh...

  9. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  10. Carbon synthesis in steady-state hydrogen and helium burning on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superbursts from accreting neutron stars probe nuclear reactions at extreme densities (ρ ≈ 109 g cm–3) and temperatures (T > 109 K). These bursts (∼1000 times more energetic than type I X-ray bursts) are most likely triggered by unstable ignition of carbon in a sea of heavy nuclei made during the rapid proton capture process (rp-process) of regular type I X-ray bursts (where the accumulated hydrogen and helium are burned). An open question is the origin of sufficient amounts of carbon, which is largely destroyed during the rp-process in X-ray bursts. We explore carbon production in steady-state burning via the rp-process, which might occur together with unstable burning in systems showing superbursts. We find that for a wide range of accretion rates and accreted helium mass fractions large amounts of carbon are produced, even for systems that accrete solar composition. This makes stable hydrogen and helium burning a viable source of carbon to trigger superbursts. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to nuclear reactions. We find that the 14O(α, p)17F reaction rate introduces by far the largest uncertainties in the 12C yield.

  11. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  12. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  13. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  14. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  15. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  16. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  17. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.

  18. Levoglucosan and other cellulose and lignin markers in emissions from burning of Miocene lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Torri, C.; Simonei, B.R.T.; Marynowski, L.; Rushdi, A.I.; Fabianska, M.J. [Silesian University, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2009-05-15

    Levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), galactosan (G) and other cellulose and lignin markers from burn tests of Miocene lignites of Poland were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess their distributions and concentrations in the smoke. Their distributions were compared to those in the pyrolysis products of the lignites. Levoglucosan and other anhydrosaccharides are products from the thermal degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and are commonly used as tracers for wood smoke in the atmosphere. Here we report emission factors of levoglucosan in smoke particulate matter from burning of lignite varying from 713 to 2154 mg kg{sup -1}, which are similar to those from burning of extant plant biomass. Solvent extracts of the lignites revealed trace concentrations of native levoglucosan (0.52-3.7 mg kg{sup -1}), while pyrolysis yielded much higher levels (1.6-3.5 x 10{sup 4} mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that essentially all levoglucosan in particulate matter of lignite smoke is derived from cellulose degradation. The results demonstrate that burning of lignites is an additional input of levoglucosan to the atmosphere in regions where brown coal is utilized as a domestic fuel. Interestingly, galactosan, another tracer from biomass burning, is not emitted in lignite smoke and mannosan is emitted at relatively low concentrations, ranging from 7.8 to 70.5 mg kg{sup -1}. Thus, we propose L/M and L/(M + G) ratios as discriminators between products from combustion of lignites and extant biomass. In addition, other compounds, such as shonanin, belonging to lignans, and some saccharides, e.g., alpha- and beta-glucose and cellobiose, are reported for the first time in extracts of bulk lignites and of smoke particulate matter from burning these lignites.

  19. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  20. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  1. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this approach...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  2. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  3. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  4. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  5. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  6. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  7. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  8. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  9. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  10. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  11. Sediment availability on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Moody, John A.; Smith, Hugh G.; Noske, Philip J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2013-12-01

    describes the inherent resistance of soil to erosion. Hillslope erosion models typically consider erodibility to be constant with depth. This may not be the case after wildfire because erodibility is partly determined by the availability of noncohesive soil and ash at the surface. This study quantifies erodibility of burned soils using methods that explicitly capture variations in soil properties with depth. Flume experiments on intact cores from three sites in western United States showed that erodibility of fire-affected soil was highest at the soil surface and declined exponentially within the top 20 mm of the soil profile, with root density and soil depth accounting for 62% of the variation. Variation in erodibility with depth resulted in transient sediment flux during erosion experiments on bounded field plots. Material that contributed to transient flux was conceptualized as a layer of noncohesive material of variable depth (dnc). This depth was related to shear strength measurements and sampled spatially to obtain the probability distribution of noncohesive material as a function of depth below the surface. After wildfire in southeast Australia, the initial dnc ranged from 7.5 to 9.1 mm, which equated to 97-117 Mg ha-1 of noncohesive material. The depth decreased exponentially with time since wildfire to 0.4 mm (or < 5 Mg ha-1) after 3 years of recovery. The results are organized into a framework for modeling fire effects on erodibility as a function of the production and depletion of the noncohesive layer overlying a cohesive layer.

  12. Simulation of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate dynamical behaviour of tokamak fusion reactors, a zero-dimensional time-dependent particle and power balance code has been developed. The zero-dimensional plasma model is based on particle and power balance equations that have been integrated over the plasma volume using prescribed profiles for plasma parameters. Therefore, the zero-dimensional model describes the global dynamics of a fusion reactor. The zero-dimensional model has been applied to study reactor start-up, and plasma responses to changes in the plasma confinement, fuelling rate, and impurity concentration, as well as to study burn control via fuelling modulation. Predictions from the zero-dimensional code have been compared with experimental data and with transport calculations of a higher dimensionality. In all cases, a good agreement was found. The advantage of the zero-dimensional code, as compared to higher-dimensional transport codes, is the possibility to quickly scan the interdependencies between reactor parameters. (88 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  13. The ALMR actinide burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives

  14. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  15. Relativistic calculation of L$\\beta\\_2$ satellite spectra of W and Au

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, J P; Martins, M C; Indelicato, P J; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    L$\\beta\\_2$ X-ray satellite spectra of tungsten and gold are calculated using the Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock energies and compared with recent experimental data. New calculations of L$\\_1$-L$\\_3$M$\\_5$ Coster-Kronig transition energies for tungsten are presented, confirming the origin of the L$\\beta\\_2$ visible satellites reported by two experimental groups. We found the value 5.09 eV for the average energy of the L$\\_1$-L$\\_3$M$\\_5$ Coster-Kronig transition in tungsten. A detailed calculation of the L$\\beta\\_2$ and L$\\beta\\_{15}$ satellite spectra was performed for gold.

  16. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report

  17. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment DCBA using a magnetic momentum-analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, N., E-mail: nobuhiro.ishihara@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, Y.; Inagaki, T.; Ohama, T.; Takeda, S.; Yamada, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Ukishima, N.; Teramoto, Y. [Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka, 558-8585 (Japan); Morishima, Y.; Nakano, I. [Okayama University, Okayama, 700-8530 (Japan); Kitamura, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa, Tokyo, 116-8551 (Japan); Sakamoto, Y. [Tohoku Gakuin University, Izumi, Sendai, 981-3193 (Japan); Nagasaka, Y. [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Saeki, Hiroshima, 731-5193 (Japan); Tamura, N. [Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Tanaka, K. [BTE, Minato, Tokyo, 105-0011 (Japan); Ito, R. [ZTJ, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 101-0047 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    A magnetic momentum-analyzer is being developed at KEK for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment called DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer, inverted ABCD). A lot of thin plates of {sup 150}Nd compound are installed in tracking detectors located in a uniform magnetic field. The three-dimensional position information is obtained for the helical track of a beta ray. More R and D will be studied using the second test apparatus DCBA-T2, which is now under construction.

  19. Oxidation characteristics of Beta-21S in air in the temperature range 600 to 800 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A.; Clark, Ronald K.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1992-01-01

    The metastable beta-Ti alloy Beta-21S, Ti-15Mo-2.7Nb-3Al-0.2Si (weight percent), has been proposed as a candidate for use in metal matrix composites in future hypersonic vehicles. The present study investigated the oxidation behavior of Beta-21S over the temperature range 600 C to 800 C. Oxidation weight gain was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis. Oxidized specimens were evaluated using x ray diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x ray analysis, and electron microprobe analysis to identify oxidation products and evaluate oxidation damage to the alloy.

  20. Simulation in double-beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed understanding of background radiation sources is a key to interpretation and enhanced sensitivity of double-beta decay experiments. Improvement of several techniques will be discussed. An implementation of the EGS4 code was developed to improve the accuracy of detector simulations, in particular for a 100Mo double-beta decay experiment. The efficiency modification due to the angular dependence of the 539 keV - 590 keV gamma-ray coincidence was successfully determined. The success of the 100Mo effort led to the modeling of uranium-thorium backgrounds found in an electroformed copper shield built for a 76Ge experiment. The large copper mass increased our sensitivity to contaminants present in copper produced this way, and led to changes in our cryostat electroforming technique. The original goal was the determination of the 210Pb content of the 450 year old lead shield previously used in 71Ge two-neutrino double-beta decay measurements. The results pertaining to low background materials and fabrication techniques will also be discussed

  1. LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF ECCENTRIC, ISOMETRIC, CONCENTRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AFTER SEVERELY BURNED ADULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Abdelgayed Ebid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe burn leads to marked and prolonged skeletal muscle catabolism and weakness. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long term effect of severe burn injury on eccentric, concentric, isometric muscle torque, average power, lean body mass, six minute walk and 8-foot walk. Design: Eccentric, isometric and concentric muscle torque and average power were assessed at 24 months in burned adult with 40%-50% total body surface area (TBSA at 150 o/s by using isokinetic dynamometry, Total lean body mass (TLBM and lower limb mass (LLM measurements were assessed for both groups using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Functional capacity was assessed using six minute walk test (6MWT and 8-Feet walk test. Lean body mass (LBM was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nonburned adult was assessed similarly, and served as controls. Results: severely burned adult (n=35, relative to nonburned adult (n=42 had significantly lower peak torque of eccentric, isometric, concentric muscle strength, average power and functional capacity. The most affected type of muscle strength after burn was concentric, isometric then eccentric. Conclusions: Our results serve as an objective data for assessing the three modes of muscle strength and functional capacity in severely burned adult population.

  2. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  3. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  4. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  5. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention ... keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step ...

  6. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  7. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  8. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model...... is induced immediately by the burns and lasts about 24 h dependent on the intensity of the heat stimulus. The burns heal without sequela. A study of the reproducibility of pain assessments in the burn model has shown that measures based on repeated measurements were significantly more reproducible than......Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...

  9. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  10. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  11. Influence of early post-burn enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes of patients with extensive burns

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guozhong; Huang, Jiren; Yu, Junjie; Zhu, Yugang; Cai, Liangliang; Gu, Zaiqiu; Su, Qinghe

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum alb...

  12. Characteristics of burn deaths from 2003 to 2009 in a burn center: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality remains one of the most important end-point quality control parameters to evaluate a burn care system. We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS patterns of burn deaths in our center from January 2003 to December 2009. The mortality rate during this time period was 2.3%. Fifty-six patients died, including 49 males and 7 females. The mean survival time was 28.45 ± 24.60 days. The burn percentage was (76.70 ± 26.86 % total burn surface area (TBSA, with (27.74 ± 24.95 % deep-partial thickness burns and (46.88 ± 33.84 % full-thickness burns. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 36 (64.29% patients. Patients who had undergone an operation, particularly in the first week post-burn, had a significantly longer survival time. An average of 5.50 ± 1.35 malfunctioning organs per patient and a mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score of 13.91 ± 3.65 were observed. The most frequently malfunctioning organs were involved in the respiratory, hematologic, circulatory, and central nervous systems. Most of the organ damage occurred during the first week post-burn, followed by 4 weeks later, with relatively less organ damage observed in the third week. Among patients with a TBSA over 50%, non-survivors had larger burn sizes (particularly larger full-thickness burns and a higher incidence of inhalation injury compared with survivors; non-survivors were also more likely to have microorganism-positive blood and sputum cultures. In conclusion, burn deaths are related to a higher burn percentage, inhalation injury, MODS, and infection. Early operation may help improve survival duration.

  13. Stability of Rocket Flight during Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1967-10-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the rocket motion during burning is discussed taking into consideration gravity, aerodynamic forces and torques. Conditions for stabilizing the rocket motion are investigated. Analysis for initial and final phases of burning is given separately. Stability regions of the projected motions on two dimensional co-ordinate planes are obtained and thereby stability region of the actual motion is derived. Stability diagrams illustrate statically and dynamically stable and unstable regions.

  14. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  15. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  16. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  17. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  18. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  19. Van burn-out naar bevlogenheid

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekx, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Het fenomeen burn-out is tegenwoordig niet meer uit de media weg te denken. Steeds meer mensen gaan ten onder aan werkstress en geraken opgebrand. Dat heeft niet alleen voor de persoon in kwestie negatieve gevolgen, zowel mentaal als lichamelijk, maar ook voor de organisatie. Een minder bekend en relatief nieuw begrip is bevlogenheid of engagement, de tegenhanger van burn-out. Bevlogen mensen zijn energiek, voelen zich betrokken bij de organisatie en kunnen lang en onvermoeibaar doorgaan met ...

  20. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  2. [Treatment of pain in children burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L

    1997-03-01

    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  3. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  4. Early Sequential Excision of Chemical Burns - our Experience in Riyadh Burns Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach after 24 h, at which stage autografts/homografts were effected, depending upon the extent of the burn and having ascertained that the wound was bleeding and that there was no necrotic tissue. Resul...

  5. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  6. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  7. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  8. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  9. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  10. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  11. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  12. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  13. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  14. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  15. Observation of Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, S B; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Perez-Loureiro, D; Bowe, A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$-ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from $\\beta$-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using $\\beta$-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than $A=10$. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using $\\gamma$-ray peaks from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of $^{26}$P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613 keV $\\gamma$-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776 keV $\\gamma$ ray de-exciting the 2720 keV $^{25}$Al level was observed...

  16. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  17. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  18. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-beta NSTX Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal {beta} discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-{beta} may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  19. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  20. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  1. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  2. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  3. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  4. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  5. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  6. Evidence for novel beta-sheet structures in Iowa mutant beta-amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Meredith, Stephen C

    2009-07-01

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of beta-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Abeta40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 1.07 x 10(-4) min(-1) for D23N-Abeta40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Abeta40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-beta pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 A and a broad reflection at 9.4 A, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Abeta40 fibrils (10.4 A). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel beta-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Abeta40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel beta-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  7. Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

  8. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  9. Profile of self-inflicted burn patients treated at a tertiary burn center in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Fatih; Sever, Celalettin; Oksüz, Sinan; Duman, Haluk

    2009-01-01

    The factors and demographic features of self-inflicted burns in Eastern and Western cultures differ from each other. In this retrospective study, the authors' aim is to identify the epidemiologic features of self-inflicted burn patients treated at their Tertiary Burn Centre. The Burn Centre provides health care to a large population from Istanbul, which is located at the crossroads between Asia and Europe. The demographic data and information of 32 patients who were admitted to the GATA HEH Burn Center in Istanbul for attempted suicide were retrospectively reviewed over a 7-year period (2001-2008). Twenty-eight of the 32 patients were men, whereas the remaining four patients were women. The average age was 25.9 years. Seventeen patients had a previous history of self-harming and 22 patients were unemployed. History of a psychiatric illness was found in 20 patients. Mean total body burn surface area was 70%. The mortality rate was 43.4%. This study demonstrates that suicide attempts by burning differ from Eastern and Western cultures by factors and demographic features. It has been concluded that the solution to preventing self-inflicted burns calls for the joint efforts of physicians, psychologists, and sociologists. Furthermore, it is necessary to reinstate prevention programs and revise strategies for prevention based on the country and its culture.

  10. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  11. Medical response to the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over two years the Hospital for Burns in Buenos Aires has been studying the burns caused by radiation, in accordance to an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. The analysis of each case showed the importance of the differential diagnosis from conventional injuries, of this early diagnosis depends the possibility of treatment from the 0 (zero) hour (time at which the accident took place) and achieve the wound healing with the best possible treatment, weather it is medical or surgical in nature. The Hospital's medical staff has developed the necessary skills to recognize this type of burns from an early stage. Most patients arrive to the consultation on their own accord due to the general practitioners inability to correctly diagnose the wounds appeared after radiotherapy has been applied. In this article, we present the general guidelines that the doctors of the Hospital for Burns follow in the presence of radio inducted injuries, objectifying the ethiopathogenic differences of the various burns. (author)

  12. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin. (author)

  13. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  14. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  15. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (ppatients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  16. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  17. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  18. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  19. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  20. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  1. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  2. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  3. Beta-delayed gamma decay of 26P: Possible evidence of a proton halo

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Bowe, A; Brown, B A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C J; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Schwartz, S B; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurements of $\\beta$ decay provide important nuclear structure information that can be used to probe isospin asymmetries and inform nuclear astrophysics studies. Purpose: To measure the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of $^{26}$P and compare the results with previous experimental results and shell-model calculations. Method: A $^{26}$P fast beam produced using nuclear fragmentation was implanted into a planar germanium detector. Its $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-ray emission was measured with an array of 16 high-purity germanium detectors. Positrons emitted in the decay were detected in coincidence to reduce the background. Results: The absolute intensities of $^{26}$P $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-rays were determined. A total of six new $\\beta$-decay branches and 15 new $\\gamma$-ray lines have been observed for the first time in $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay. A complete $\\beta$-decay scheme was built for the allowed transitions to bound excited states of $^{26}$Si. $ft$ values and Gamow-Teller strengths were a...

  4. A clarion to recommit and reaffirm burn rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald L; Hedman, Travis L; Quick, Charles D; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Renz, Evan M; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Dougherty, Mary E; Esselman, Peter C; Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Franzen, Beth J; Hunter, Hope; Kowalske, Karen; Moore, Merilyn L; Nakamura, Dana Y; Nedelec, Bernedette; Niszczak, Jon; Parry, Ingrid; Serghiou, Michael; Ward, R Scott; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation has been a part of burn care and treatment for many years. Yet, despite of its longevity, the rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe burns is less than optimal and appears to have leveled off. Patient survival from burn injury is at an all-time high. Burn rehabilitation must progress to the point where physical outcomes parallel survival statistics in terms of improved patient well-being. This position article is a treatise on burn rehabilitation and the state of burn rehabilitation patient outcomes. It describes burn rehabilitation interventions in brief and why a need is felt to bring this issue to the forefront. The article discusses areas for change and the challenges facing burn rehabilitation. Finally, the relegation and acceptance of this responsibility are addressed. PMID:18388581

  5. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  6. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  7. Beta-decay properties of $^{25}$Si and $^{26}$P

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J C; Äystö, J; Béraud, R; Blank, B; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Ensallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Honkanen, J; Jokinen, A; Laird, A M; Lewitowicz, M; Longour, C; De Santos, F O; Peräjärvi, K; democrite-00023307, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    The $\\beta$-decay properties of the neutron-deficient nuclei $^{25}$Si and $^{26}$P have been investigated at the GANIL/LISE3 facility by means of charged-particle and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. The decay schemes obtained and the Gamow-Teller strength distributions are compared to shell-model calculations based on the USD interaction. B(GT) values derived from the absolute measurement of the $\\beta$-decay branching ratios give rise to a quenching factor of the Gamow-Teller strength of 0.6. A precise half-life of 43.7 (6) ms was determined for $^{26}$P, the $\\beta$- (2)p decay mode of which is described.

  8. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  9. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  10. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  11. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  12. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  13. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De Roock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9 obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure. Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.

  14. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  15. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio (Degali); (NIH); (NWU); (UCSF)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  16. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  17. Development of CaMoO4 crystal scintillators for double beta decay experiment with 100-Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, A N; Danevich, F A; Georgadze, A S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y D; Kobychev, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Korzhik, M; Lee, J I; Missevitch, O; Mokina, V M; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Sedlak, D J; Shkulkova, O G; So, J H; Solsky, I M; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S

    2007-01-01

    Energy resolution, alpha/beta ratio, pulse-shape discrimination for gamma rays and alpha particles, temperature dependence of scintillation properties, and radioactive contamination were studied with CaMoO4 crystal scintillators. A high sensitivity experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100-Mo by using CaMoO4 scintillators is discussed.

  18. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  19. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  20. Control of a burning tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, R.E.; Mandrekas, J.; Stacey, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a review of the literature relevant to the control of the thermonuclear burn in a tokamak plasma. Some basic tokamak phenomena are reviewed, and then control by modulation of auxiliary heating and fueling is discussed. Other possible control methods such as magnetic ripple, plasma compression, and impurity injection as well as more recent proposed methods such as divertor biasing and L- to H-mode transition are also reviewed. The applications of modern control theory to the tokamak burn control problem are presented. The control results are summarized and areas of further research are identified.

  1. [Plastic reconstructive surgery for burn injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederbichler, A D; Vogt, P M

    2009-06-01

    The stage-adjusted therapy of thermal injuries is based on pathophysiologic mechanisms as well as functional and aesthetic requirements. Plastic reconstructive surgical approaches are highly important in the prevention of the frequent grave sequelae of thermal trauma and to achieve optimal functional rehabilitation and favourable outcome. In reconstructive surgery of burns operative goals are subdivided into acute, secondary reconstructive, functional and aesthetic indications. The achievement of early wound closure to preserve functional skin and soft tissue components is an essential part of acute reconstructive procedures. Functional reconstructive and aesthetic procedures supplement the conservative treatment modalities of the secondary phase of burn care with physical therapy, ergotherapy and psychological support. PMID:19543874

  2. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-06-05

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  3. Study of Bacterial Infections among Burn Patients Hospitalized in Isfahan Burn Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faghri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Burn patients are at risk of acquiring infection because of destroy skin barrier, suppression of immunity, prolonged hospitalization, and invasive therapeutic and diagnostic procedure, risk of acquiring infection is high among burned patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence rate of bacterial etiology and infections among burn patients in the burn center of Isfahan. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted descriptive – cross sectional during a period of one year, (from august 2004 until September 2005. A total of 106 patients presenting with no signs and symptoms of infection within the first 48 hours of admission were included. CDC definition for nosocomial infections was applied. Each patient’s clinical examinations and records investigated daily. Swab culture, blood culture (during fever time, tissue culture from biopsy specimen of burn wound and urine culture obtained. The data were analyzed and interpreted using SPSS 10 Software, using Chi – square and Kappa Coefficient. P.value < 0.05 was significant. Results: One-hundred and six patients met the inclusion criteria, 91 (85/8% acquired at least one type of infection, including, urinary tract 28 (26/4%, blood stream 30 (28/3%, and burn wound 91(85/8%. Pseudomonas aeroginosa was the most common causative agent isolated from blood culture and swab culture, 27/42% and 54/4% respectively. Also, E.coli was the major casautive agent of urinary tract infections (6.4% isolated from urine culture of these burn patients.Conclusion: The results indicated that, biopsy from burn wounds and study of histopathologic specimen day by other day depends on blood and urine culture conditions overall can be effective for early detection of burn wounds infections.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF β-LACTAMASE PRODUCERS THROUGH INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES IN BURN ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachhatarjit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR pathogens due to various β-lactamases are major contributors in increasing morbidity and mortality rates in Burn Intensive Care Units, ICU. This study is aimed to apply the various infection control measures and to compare the results of two halves of study and to establish a relation between environment, Health Care Workers (HCWs and patients regarding manifestation of nosocomial infection. DESIGN AND SETTING Over a period of three years (June 2010 to June 2013, Clinical, Environment and Health care providers samples from Burn ICU were processed in the Department of Microbiology, Sri Guru Ramdas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. Organisms were identified by standard microbiological techniques and their antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The MDR were further tested for various β-lactamases by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI disc diffusion method using Ceftazidime and Ceftazidime + clavulanate and Cefotaxime and Cefotaxime clavulanate for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL, Meropenem and meropenem + EDTA for Metallo Beta Lactamases (MBLs and 3-Dimensional test for AmpC beta lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS 307 clinical, 210 environmental and 117 HCWs samples in 1st and 192 clinical, 62 environmental and 92 HCWs samples in 2nd half of study were processed by standard microbiological techniques. After identification all MDR isolates were first screened for ESBL, AmpC and MBL then confirmed by the respective confirmatory tests. Results of two halves were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Infection rate was reduced from 50.16% to 40.10% in Burn patients. Culture positivity was reduced from 38.0% to 27.41% in environmental and 27.35% to 7.60% in HCWs samples. β-lactamases prevalence in Gram positive was 54.23% and Gram negative was 60.86% before and 37.03% and 54.05% after interventions. CONCLUSION In addition to the

  5. Healing the Burn: Advances in Burn Treatment Technology Aim to Save Lives, Lessen Pain and Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer E

    2016-01-01

    When brothers Jamie and Glen Selby, aged 5 and 7, arrived at the Shriners Burns Institute in Denver, Colorado, in July 1983, more than 97% of their skin had been destroyed by a fire they had accidentally started while playing in an abandoned house. The boys were so badly burned that their outlook was grim-a 6-year-old friend who was also in the fire died from his injuries?but Jamie and Glen were lucky. Not only did they survive, but they were also some of the first patients to benefit from a new burn treatment nicknamed test-tube skin. PMID:27414631

  6. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of resuscitation fluids, topical antimicrobials, and more patients undergoing operative intervention, translating into improved burn patient outcomes. PMID:21131848

  7. "Burn catatonia": a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Davin Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been recognized to cause significant neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in their sufferers since the middle of the 20th century, when Drs. Stanley Cobb and Erich Lindemann of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) studied survivors of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. Although "burn encephalopathy" or burn-induced delirium is a common occurrence in the acute phase, catatonia in burn patients is not often reported. This report describes a case of malignant catatonia occurring in a 51-year-old male patient acutely suffering from burns acquired in a chemical explosion, effectively treated with reinstitution of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The literature on burn encephalopathy and catatonia in burns is reviewed. Few examples of burn catatonia exist. Burn encephalopathy is common, and may occur in patients with low TBSA burns such as described in the case above. Descriptions of burn encephalopathy are numerous, but have not included catatonia as a possible etiology. Catatonia in burn patients as an etiology of burn encephalopathy is likely underrecognized. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of catatonia when a patient's confusional state after a burn does not respond to usual care.

  8. 4. pi beta. -. gamma. coincidence system with minimally broadened pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Johnson, L.O. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (USA))

    1982-12-15

    The performance characteristics of a new type 4..pi.. ..beta..-..gamma.. coincidence system have been measured. In contrast with the conventional 4..pi.. ..beta..-..gamma.. circuitry, which is based on a fixed pulse width (approx.= 2 ..mu..s) and a non-extendable dead time, the pulse processing circuitry in this new system is based on a minimally broadened pulse (i.e., as narrow as 0.25 ..mu..s). In this system each pulse has a different pulse width, so that the dead times for the ..beta..- and ..gamma..-ray detectors are determined by summing the measured dead time attributed by each pulse in each channel. The ..beta..-..gamma.. coincidences are defined with an overlap coincidence circuit. This system is shown to be much less sensitive to mismatch in the coincidence timing than is the conventional system. In spite of the narrower pulse widths, no spurious ..beta.. pulses are observed when the 4..pi.. proportional counter is operated near the center of its plateau. Disintegration rates were measured for calibrated sources with strength up to approx.= 10/sup 6/ Bq. These data indicate that with this new system the disintegration rates of very intense sources (approx.= 10/sup 6/ Bq) and moderately intense sources (< 10/sup 5/ Bq) can be determined with accuracies of approx.= 4% and <= 0.1%, respectively.

  9. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  10. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  11. Stress-mediated increases in systemic and local epinephrine impair skin wound healing: potential new indication for beta blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja K Sivamani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress, both acute and chronic, can impair cutaneous wound repair, which has previously been mechanistically ascribed to stress-induced elevations of cortisol. Here we aimed to examine an alternate explanation that the stress-induced hormone epinephrine directly impairs keratinocyte motility and wound re-epithelialization. Burn wounds are examined as a prototype of a high-stress, high-epinephrine, wound environment. Because keratinocytes express the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR, another study objective was to determine whether beta2AR antagonists could block epinephrine effects on healing and improve wound repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Migratory rates of normal human keratinocytes exposed to physiologically relevant levels of epinephrine were measured. To determine the role of the receptor, keratinocytes derived from animals in which the beta2AR had been genetically deleted were similarly examined. The rate of healing of burn wounds generated in excised human skin in high and low epinephrine environments was measured. We utilized an in vivo burn wound model in animals with implanted pumps to deliver beta2AR active drugs to study how these alter healing in vivo. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting were used to examine the up-regulation of catecholamine synthetic enzymes in burned tissue, and immunoassay for epinephrine determined the levels of this catecholamine in affected tissue and in the circulation. When epinephrine levels in the culture medium are elevated to the range found in burn-stressed animals, the migratory rate of both cultured human and murine keratinocytes is impaired (reduced by 76%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 56%-95% in humans, p < 0.001, and by 36%, 95% CI 24%-49% in mice, p = 0.001, and wound re-epithelialization in explanted burned human skin is delayed (by 23%, 95% CI 10%-36%, p = 0.001, as compared to cells or tissues incubated in medium without added epinephrine. This impairment is reversed by beta2

  12. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using trapped radioactive ions

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Ryan Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy has been developed using trapped radioactive ions. The neutron energy spectrum was reconstructed by measuring the time of flight (TOF) of the nuclear recoil following neutron emission, thereby avoiding all the challenges associated with neutron detection such as backgrounds from scattered neutrons and gamma rays and complicated detector-response functions. A proof-of-principle measurement was conducted on 137I+ by delivering ions from a ...

  13. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  15. [Phage therapy for bacterial infection of burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y Z; Huang, G T

    2016-09-20

    With the long-term and widespread use of antibiotics, drug resistance of bacteria has become a major problem in the treatment of burn infection. For treating multidrug resistant bacteria, phage therapy has become the focus of attention. Development of phage therapy to fill the blank of this field in China is extremely urgent. PMID:27647065

  16. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  17. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  18. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  20. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  1. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. PMID:24733875

  2. Peculiar Features of Burning Alternative Motor Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some peculiar features of air-hydrogen mixture combustion process in a modeling combustion chamber are given in the paper. Dependences of burning duration of various fuel types on initial pressure have been obtained. The paper considers dynamics of changes in pressure and ignition rate of some fuel types in the combustion chamber.

  3. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.V. Kumar; S. Ebenezer; F. Lobbezoo

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case (2

  4. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  5. Biomass burning contribution to Beijing aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning, the largest global source of elemental carbon (EC and primary organic carbon (OC, is strongly associated with many subjects of great scientific concern, such as secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon which exert important effects on the environment and on climate in particular. This study investigated the relationships between levoglucosan and other biomass burning tracers (i.e., water soluble potassium and mannosan based on both ambient samples collected in Beijing and source samples. Compared with North America and Europe, Beijing was characterized by high ambient levoglucosan concentrations and low winter to summer ratios of levoglucosan, indicating significant impact of biomass burning activities throughout the year in Beijing. Comparison of levoglucosan and water soluble potassium (K+ levels suggested that it was acceptable to use K+ as a biomass burning tracer during summer in Beijing, while the contribution of fireworks to K+ could be significant during winter. Moreover, the levoglucosan to K+ ratio was found to be lower during the typical summer period (0.21 ± 0.16 compared with the typical winter period (0.51 ± 0.15. Levoglucosan correlated strongly with mannosan (R2 = 0.97 throughout the winter and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 9.49 ± 1.63, whereas levoglucosan and mannosan exhibited relatively weak correlation (R2 = 0.73 during the typical summer period when the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 12.65 ± 3.38. Results from positive matrix factorization (PMF model analysis showed that about 50% of the OC and EC in Beijing were associated with biomass burning processes. In addition, a new source identification method was developed based on the comparison of the levoglucosan to K+ ratio and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio among different types of biomass. Using this method, the major source of biomass burning aerosol in Beijing was suggested to be the combustion of crop residuals, while the

  6. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  7. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  8. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Get Involved Giving Donate Safety Tips Age ... this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  9. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  10. Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160258.html Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns: Study Access to household cleaning products to blame, ... and 2 years have relatively high rates of chemical eye burns, with everyday cleaners a common cause, researchers say. ...

  11. Inclusion phenomena of clove oil with alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L X; Xu, P; Wang, H M; Yang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion interactions of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) as hosts with clove oil (an impure eugenol, I-Eug) as guest in aqueous solution were investigated by fluorescence emission spectra. The binding constants of different hosts to I-Eug in aqueous solution decreased in the order: gamma- > beta- > DMbeta- > alpha-CD. Two solid supramolecular inclusion complexes, I-Eug-beta-CD and I-Eug-gamma-CD, were prepared and characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All the results proved the formation of I-Eug-CD. The inclusion differences between I-Eug and pure eugenol were discussed. The relative contents of the main component eugenol (Eug), second component (eugenol acetate, Eua) and others in I-Eug were found to be fairly different before and after being included by beta-CD, according to the data obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. This could be a practical method to extract the effective components (Eug and Eua) from I-Eug.

  12. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  13. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  14. Ultrasonic pulse-echo determination of burn depth in partial-thickness burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of possible techniques for measuring burn depth were considered, and it was concluded that high-frequency ultrasound offers the best possibility for investigation of burn injury. A conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo system was assembled and modified so that small distances in tissue (less than or equal to 1 mm) can be resolved. Typical transducers used during the course of measurements on human and porcine skin are described. Ultimate success of the ultrasonic technique is dependent on the validity of the assumption that the acoustic impedance of necrotic burn tissue is sufficiently different from that of viable tissue to allow for ultrasonic reflections at the interface between burned and viable tissue. In general, this assumption seems to have been valid in animal and human experiments carried out to date

  15. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Kelli J

    2010-04-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (solar burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate by 5-7 days if a patient reports ultraviolet-related erythema in the past 2-4 days or presents with a notable sunburn. PMID:20334462

  16. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  17. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  18. Biomass burning aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban area and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is burned every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the annual PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized areas and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane burning period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass burning, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane burning and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.

  19. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  20. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.