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Sample records for beta radiation part

  1. Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation - Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 6980 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation: Part 1: Method of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This part 2 of ISO 6980 specifies methods for the measurement of the directional absorbed-dose rate in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom in the ISO 6980 reference beta-particle radiation fields. The energy range of the beta-particle-emitting isotopes covered by these reference radiations is 0.066 to 3.54 MeV (maximum energy). Radiation energies outside this range are beyond the scope of this standard. While measurements in a reference geometry (depth of 0.07 mm at perpendicular incidence in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom) with a reference class extrapolation chamber are dealt with in detail, the use of other measurement systems and measurements in other geometries are also described, although in less detail. The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) as used for area monitoring of strongly penetrating radiation, is not an appropriate quantity for any beta radiation, even for that penetrating a 10 mm thick layer of ICRU tissue (i.e. E max > 2 MeV). If adequate protection is provided at 0.07 mm, only rarely will one be concerned with other depths, for example 3 mm. This document is geared towards organizations wishing to establish reference-class dosimetry capabilities for beta particles, and serves as a guide to the performance of dosimetry with the reference class extrapolation chamber for beta-particle dosimetry in other fields. Guidance is also provided on the statement of measurement uncertainties

  2. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  3. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  4. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  5. Study of detectors in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Xavier, M.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several commercial detectors used with gamma or X radiation are studied. Their sensibility and energetic dependence are analysed in exposures of beta radiation fields. A comparative evaluation with the reference detector (the extrapolation chamber) is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead...

  7. MetroBeta: Beta Spectrometry with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters in the Framework of the European Program of Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, M.; Beyer, J.; Bockhorn, L.; Enss, C.; Györi, D.; Kempf, S.; Kossert, K.; Mariam, R.; Nähle, O.; Paulsen, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2018-05-01

    MetroBeta is a European project aiming at the improvement of the knowledge of the shapes of beta spectra, both in terms of theoretical calculations and measurements. It is part of a common European program of ionizing radiation metrology. Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with the beta emitter embedded in the absorber have in the past proven to be among the best beta spectrometers, in particular for low-energy beta transitions. Within this project, new designs of MMCs optimized for five different beta energy ranges were developed. A new detector module with thermal decoupling of MMC and SQUID chips was designed. An important aspect of the research and development concerns the source/absorber preparation techniques. Four beta spectra with maximum energies ranging from 76 to 709 keV will be measured. Improved theoretical calculation methods and complementary measurement techniques complete the project.

  8. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.S.; Barnes, C.L.; Spitzer, A.I.; Sledge, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm 2 /MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide's therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Determination of alternative conditions for instruments calibration with beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of homogenization filter in the determination of chamber calibration factors and transmission factors of beta radiation in air, for obtaining different alternative conditions for beta-gamma portable monitors calibration was studied, using an extrapolation chamber and the beta secondary system at IPEN-CNEN-Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  10. Ionising radiation. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief tutorial on the health effects of ionising radiation is presented. The distinction between somatic and genetic health effects is explained. The two types of somatic health effects, i.e., acute and chronic effects, are discussed, as well as the concepts of ''deterministic'' and ''stochastic'' (also called ''probabilistic'') health effects. The possibility of cancer caused by DNA damage is discussed. The document ends with the definition of some key radiation terms

  11. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  12. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-02-01

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; α). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147 Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; α) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  13. Proposal of a dosemeter for skin beta radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-08-01

    Beta radiation is, undoubtedly, less penetrating than X or gamma radiation. Thus, beta radiation sources external to the human body do not cause a significant irradiation of its deeper tissues. However, in some cases, they may contribute in a very important way to the irradiation of the lens of the eyes and, mainly, of the skin. Specially, the hands and finger tips may receive a high dose. In this work some relevant aspects of the individual monitoring in beta radiation fields are discussed and the importance of monitoring this kind of radiation in some activities where the skin absorbed dose may be a limiting factor is evidenced. The main characteristics of the thermoluminescent (TL) response of ultra-thin CaSO 4 : Dy detectors (UT-CaSO 4 : Dy) in the detection of this kind of radiation are also studied. The irradiation are performed with 90 Sr 90 Y, 204 TI and 147 Pm sources. The reproducibility, linearity, dependence on the absorbed dose rate, optical fading, energy and angular dependences of the detector TL responce are investigated. Transmission factors for different thicknesses of tissue equivalent material are obtained for the TL detectors using the three available beta sources. Based on the results obtained, a dosemeter for skin beta radiation absorbed dose assessment with an energy dependence better than 12% is proposed. (Author) [pt

  14. Estimation of radiation exposures due to the exemption of beta-contaminated radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltz, D.; Botsch, W.; Huettig, M.; Boerchers, F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have checked the individual clearance levels of pure beta-emitters (Sr 89, Sr 90+) according to Anlage III, Table 1, column 8 and 10 StrlSchV for the clearance of buildings. According to Monte-Carlo simulations the direct exposure coming from contaminated parts of a building can exceed the range of trivial doses significantly, although the clearance levels are met. Furthermore, the high radiation level outside a barrel of beta-emitting waste showed that even the mass-specific clearance levels for the disposal of beta-contaminated waste need to be reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  16. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  17. Automobile parts by radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, graft polymerization and degradation are useful technologies to improve polymer materials. The crosslinking causes improvement in strength, heat stability and processability to gives network structure for polymer materials and hence crosslinked materials are used in various fields, especially car parts. Electron beam (EB) of short time irradiation is used for these modifications. Irradiated (pre-vulcanized) before sulfur vulcanization rubber tires, heat resistant wires/cables, shrinkable tubes and foams of car parts are achieved by EB crosslinking. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride are used in cables and wires, polypropylene in plastic foams and natural rubber etc. In this paper radiation processing of tire, wire/cables, foams, shrinkable tubes and circuit protection devices (CPT) are explained. (author)

  18. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-01-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ( 37 Cs and 60 Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ( 90 Sr+ 9' 0Y e 204 Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  19. Revealing low-energy part of the beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An effective method is proposed to separate electronic noise from the beta-particle spectra revealing lower energy part of the spectra. The available methods for reducing the noise problem cut the noise along with the low-energy part of the beta spectra by using a discriminator. Our setup eliminates this undesirable effect by shifting the noise toward the lowest energy scale leaving the low-energy part of spectra undisturbed. We achieved this noise-pulse-separation by treating the noise as a pulse so that we can exploit the application of the pulse-shape analyzer equipment used for pulse shape identification of particles and rejection of defective pulses. To the best of our knowledge this method of the noise separation is a novel approach

  20. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud; Jonizacioni profil beta zracenja radioaktivnog oblaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vojvodic, V [VTI Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  1. Time reversal violation in radiative beta decay: experimental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J. A.; McNeil, J.; Anholm, M.; Gorelov, A.; Melconian, D.; Ashery, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some explanations for the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe involve sources of time reversal violation (TRV) in addition to the one known in the standard model of particle physics. We plan to search for TRV in a correlation between the momenta of the beta, neutrino, and the radiative gamma sometimes emitted in nuclear beta decay. Correlations involving three (out of four) momenta are sensitive at lowest order to different TRV physics than observables involving spin, such as electric dipole moments and spin-polarized beta decay correlations. Such experiments have been done in radiative kaon decay, but not in systems involving the lightest generation of quarks. An explicit low-energy physics model being tested produces TRV effects in the Fermi beta decay of the neutron, tritium, or some positron-decaying isotopes. We will present plans to measure the TRV asymmetry in radiative beta decay of laser-trapped 38mK at better than 0.01 sensitivity, including suppression of background from positron annihilation. Supported by NSERC, D.O.E., Israel Science Foundation. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  2. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, M.; Vojvodic, V.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  3. Some methods for calibration and beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Linda V. Ehlin

    1980-01-01

    The calibration of beta radiation was studied from the point of view of primary and secondary standardization, using extrapolation chambers and examining several effects. The properties of a commercial ionization chamber were investigated, and the possibility of its use in calibration and dosimetry of 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation was demonstrated . A secondary standard calibration facility was developed and the results obtained with this facility were compared with those obtained from a primary system directly or indirectly. Nearly energy independent response was obtained in.the range 60 keV to 0,8 MeV with this secondary standard. Two solid state techniques namely thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) were also used for beta dosimetry. Various characteristics like reproducibility, response with dose,energy dependence, etc. were studied for the materials: LiF, CaF 2 ,Li 2 B 4 O 7 , Be O, CaSO 4 and Al 2 O 3 . TL detectors of thickness 0,9 mm underestimate the dose 60 μm thick CaSO 4 :Tm embedded on a thin aluminium plate gave energy independent response behind skin layers of 7 mg/cm 2 . Mixed field of beta, X and gamma radiation was analysed using this detector. Quartz based Be O and graphite based alpha beta-Al 2 O 3 were found to be good beta radiation detectors when the TSEE technique is used. Energy independent CaSO 4 :Tm TL dosimeters were used in international comparison for dose measurements and the results obtained were in agreement with the actual given doses within 10%. The TL detectors were also used for dose rate measurements from glazed painted tiles used in construction industry and a 85 Kr source used in textile and metal industries. Results obtained in the later case were Q compared with those using the secondary standard facility. (author)

  4. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy β radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were β spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy β radiation field a moderated spectrum from a 14 C source (E β , max =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 μm in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for 147 Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for β radiation from 14 C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to β radiation for radiation fields with maximum β energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum β energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a β dose higher than about 10 μGy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the βenergy for E β , max values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs

  5. Properties of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    The properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber were studied, and the possibility is shown of its use in beta radiation dosimetry. The chamber calibration factors were determined for several sources ( 90 Sr, 90 Y- 204 Tl and 147 Pm) making known the dependence of its response on the energy of the incident radiation. Extrapolation curves allow to obtain independence on energy for each source. One of such curves, shown for the 90 Sr- 90 Y source at 50 cm from the detector, is obtained through the variation of the chamber window thickness and the extrapolation to the null distance (determined graphically). Different curves shown also: 1) the dependence of the calibration factor on the average energy of beta radiation; 2) the variation of ionization current with the distance between the chamber and the sources; 3) the effect of the collecting electrode area on the value of calibration factors for the different sources. (I.C.R.) [pt

  6. Degradation of elastomers by tritium beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.; Tuer, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Based on its tritium radiation resistance, ethylene propylene rubber has been selected as a candidate for replacement of nitrile rubber in the SRP tritium facilities. A specification for flange gasket material has been developed for ethylene propylene such that its mechanical properties are similar to those of nitrile rubber. In-process testing of ethylene propylene and nitrile gaskets will be conducted in the tritium facilities under identical exposure conditions

  7. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  8. Dosimetric methodology for extremities of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation using the optically stimulated luminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Teresa Cristina Nathan Outeiro

    2010-01-01

    A dosimetric methodology was established for the determination of extremity doses of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation, using Al 2 O 3 :C detectors and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) reader system microStar, Landauer. The main parts of the work were: characterization of the dosimetric material Al 2 O 3 :C using the OSL technique; establishment of the dose evaluation methodology; dose rate determination of beta radiation sources; application of the established method in a practical test with individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation during a calibration simulation of clinical applicators; validation of the methodology by the comparison between the dose results of the practical test using the OSL and the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The results show that both the OSL Al-2O 3 :C detectors and the technique may be utilized for individual monitoring of extremities and beta radiation. (author)

  9. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH 3 I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  10. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, Jorma [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Eastern Finland Univ., Kuopio (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  11. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr / 90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;α). Since H' (O. 07;α) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm -2 ); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, S tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of 60 Co , J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of 90 Sr/ 90 Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass; four positions of irradiation is used: glass 1 (window of

  12. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  13. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavente, Jhonny A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  14. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  15. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  16. Living with radiation - part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The author explains the nature of the different sources of ionizing radiation to which human populations are actually or potentially exposed; characterizing and putting in perspective the levels of exposure of human populations to them. Particular reference is made to some of the sources, or circumstances of radiation exposure which, from time to time, prompt public concern and comment

  17. T-odd momentum correlation in radiative {beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Susan, E-mail: gardner@pa.uky.edu; He, Daheng [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The triple-product correlations observable in ordinary neutron or nuclear beta decay are all naively T violating and can connect, through an assumption of CPT invariance, to constraints on sources of CP violation beyond the Standard Model. They are also spin dependent. In this context the study of radiative beta decay opens a new possibility, in that a triple-product correlation can be constructed from momenta alone. Consequently its measurement would constrain new spin-independent sources of CP violation. We will describe these in light of the size of the triple momentum correlation in the decay rate arising from electromagnetic final-state interactions in the Standard Model. Our expression for the corresponding T-odd asymmetry is exact in O({alpha}) up to terms of recoil order, and we evaluate it numerically under various kinematic conditions. We consider the pattern of the asymmetries in nuclear {beta} decays and show that the asymmetry can be suppressed in particular cases, facilitating searches for new sources of CP violation in such processes.

  18. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;{alpha}). Since H' (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  19. Beta Radiation Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Diamond Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Croot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based thermionic emission devices could provide a means to produce clean and renewable energy through direct heat-to-electrical energy conversion. Hindering progress of the technology are the thermionic output current and threshold temperature of the emitter cathode. In this report, we study the effects on thermionic emission caused by in situ exposure of the diamond cathode to beta radiation. Nitrogen-doped diamond thin films were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on molybdenum substrates. The hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond was studied using a vacuum diode setup with a 63Ni beta radiation source-embedded anode, which produced a 2.7-fold increase in emission current compared to a 59Ni-embedded control. The emission threshold temperature was also examined to further assess the enhancement of thermionic emission, with 63Ni lowering the threshold temperature by an average of 58 ± 11 °C compared to the 59Ni control. Various mechanisms for the enhancement are discussed, with a satisfactory explanation remaining elusive. Nevertheless, one possibility is discussed involving excitation of preexisting conduction band electrons that may skew their energy distribution toward higher energies.

  20. Radiation hardening of semiconductor parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of total-ionizing-dose and single-event hardening techniques and should be used as a guide to a range of research publications. It should be stressed that there is no clear and simple route to a radiation-tolerant silicon integrated circuit. What works for one fabrication process may not work for another, and there are many complex interactions within individual processes and designs. The authors have attempted to highlight the most important factors and those process changes which should bring improved hardness. The main point is that radiation-hardening as a procedure must be approached in a methodical fashion and with a good understanding of the response mechanisms involved

  1. Counter of radiation in body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiation counter for the determination of radiocontaminated body parts has been designed. Composed of several movable detectors, shielded from background radiation and focused on different parts of the human body by narrow apertures in the lead enclosure, the invention provides a quick tool for quantitative and qualitative part-by-part analysis of the body with respect to radiocontamination. The counter can be handled easily by the tested person himself and consequently, it is suitable for mass controls etc. (G.J.P.)

  2. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurements of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E max values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the dose rate. (Author)

  3. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value...

  4. A new extremity dosemeter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Pagenkamper, M.

    1988-01-01

    An extremity dosemeter developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre is very well suited for the precise and energy-independent measurement of the skin dose generated by beta or gamma radiation. This is also confirmed by the results of this intercomparison programme. The dosemeter contains three TLDs of LiF in Teflon mounted behind a window of 0.9 mg/cm 2 . The great advantage of this dosemeter is three TLD's enabling statements about the radiation quality. However, the dosemeter has two disadvantages The dosemeter is complicated to manufacture. A very thin plastic foil of 0.9 mg/cm 2 must be attached to a support. This work is difficult and time-consuming and cannot be automated. The window in front of the TLD is not sturdy enough and is occasionally destroyed when the dosemeter is being worn. These two disadvantages prevent this extremity dosemeter from being used more frequently. For this reason, work was begun on developing a new extremity dosemeter without these two disadvantages. The great advantage of the previous dosemeter of obtaining statements about the type of radiation with the aid of readings from three TLD's was to be retained. The improved extremity dosemeter has a more sturdy and thicker window with a similar response as the previous dosemeter with a thinner window

  5. Development of thin dosemeters of CaSO4: Dy for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin pellets of CaSO: Dy (0,20mm) were produced and tested in beta radiation fields. The Thermolumiscent (TL) characteristics studied were sensitivity, reproducibility, lower detection limit, linearity of TL response with absorved dose energy dependence. The results show the usefulness of this thin pellets in beta radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  6. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P, E-mail: rpstokes@dstl.gov.uk [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Department, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  7. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

    2011-01-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  8. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon dosimetric pellets for X, beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Lima, M.F.

    1987-08-01

    CaSO 4 : Dy + TEFLON dosimetric pellets with high sensitivity and low cost for X, beta and gamma radiation monitoring were studied and developed by the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of the Radiological Protection Departament and are disposable for sale. The thickness of the pellets are suitable for X, beta and gamma radiation measurements. The dosimetric properties of these pellets were determined and presented in this work. The results show the usefulness of 0,20mm thick pellets for beta radiation monitoring and 0,80mm thick pellets for x and gamma radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  9. Manufacture of plastic parts by radiation molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszyk, G.M.; Morrison, E.D.; Williams, R.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thin plastic parts which can have precise tolerances and can be of complex shape are prepared by casting a viscous radiation-curable composition onto a support, such as a moving web of polymeric material, in the shape of the desired part and then irradiating, for example with ultraviolet radiation or high energy electrons, to cause curing of the composition to a solid plastic. The radiation-curable composition is formulated with viscosity and flow characteristics it to be cast in the exact shape of the part desired yet retain this shape during curing while supported only by the surface on which it has been cast. Plastic parts made by this method can be formed entirely of the radiation-curable composition by casting onto a web having a release surface from which the part can be stripped subsequent to curing or can be formed partially from a web material and partially from the radiation-curable composition by casting onto a web to which the composition will bond and subsequently cutting the web into discrete portions which include the cured composition

  10. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  11. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  12. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  13. Determination of beta radiation doses received by personnel involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Krjuchkov, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, and in the post-accident period, workers were exposed to beta and low-energy-photon radiation. This paper describes a method of retrospective estimation of skin doses from these radiations by correlating known doses from gamma radiation. Dose distributions of beta and gamma radiation in tissue-equivalent materials were both calculated and measured using multilayer thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different site locations. It was determined that the doses to the skin from beta radiation exceeded the maximum doses to the whole-body from gamma radiation by 1 or even 2 orders of magnitude. It is concluded that nuclear power plants should be equipped with multilayer skin dosimeters in order to ensure accurate skin dosimetry. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on viability of isolated Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Bornman, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of viability as measured by vital straining with fluorescein diacetate were carried out on freshly isolated and partially aged (16-hour-old) Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare mesophyll protoplasts following irradiation with UV-B. Damage to the photosynthetic system by UV-B was determined by delayed light emission (DLE). In the case of freshly isolated Protoplasts Beta was approximately 30% more susceptible than Hordeum following 3h irradiation, with viability decreasing from 90% to 40%. After storage of protoplasts on ice for 16 h UV-B radiation markedly depressed viability in both species, but in the case of Hordeum there was a substantial initial loss of nearly 70% in viability over the first hour of irradiation. The first 10 min of UV-B radiation decreased the intensity of DLE by 40% without appreciably affecting the decay rate. Longer treatment times did not give a proportional effect so that even after 60 min of UV-B the inhibition did not exceed 60%. This suggested that although the enzyme system responsible for FDA hydrolysis may be partially inactivated (viability was 75-80% as compared with 90% in the control), the UV-B did not penetrate the innermost parts of the chloroplasts, but left some thylakoids undamaged. (orig.)

  15. Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolitov, Yu.A.; Kovtun, N.N.; Timofeev, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs is studied. Obtained data illustrate the interactions between tissues in local exposure of live tissue to beta-radiation and determine the threshold total dose as 400 sGy. Higher doses lead to secondary changes in the gingival mucosa after which the tissue barrier does not recover [ru

  16. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  17. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  18. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute ( 60 Co) and chronic ( 137 Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation ( 32 P), lethality (LD 50 , LD 100 ), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD 50 and LD 100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  19. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  20. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, S. R.; Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 85 Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and -0.3% for the 85 Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  1. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lopez, Sergio Victor Hugo

    1997-01-01

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  2. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films; Caracterizacao de campos de radiacao beta utilizando filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, Jhonny A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: jabc@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reynaldo, Sibele R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  3. Different small, acid-soluble proteins of the alpha/beta type have interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.M.; Setlow, P.

    1987-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which carry deletion mutations in one gene (sspA) or two genes (sspA and sspB) which code for major alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) are known to be much more sensitive to heat and UV radiation than wild-type spores. This heat- and UV-sensitive phenotype was cured completely or in part by introduction into these mutant strains of one or more copies of the sspA or sspB genes themselves; multiple copies of the B. subtilis sspD gene, which codes for a minor alpha/beta-type SASP; or multiple copies of the SASP-C gene, which codes for a major alpha/beta-type SASP of Bacillus megaterium. These findings suggest that alpha/beta-type SASP play interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of bacterial spores

  4. Information as a part of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS

  5. Information as a part of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M. [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS.

  6. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Moore, G.H.; Deere, W.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.; Mueller, G.P.

    1983-12-01

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse.

  7. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Moore, G.H.; Deere, W.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.; Mueller, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse

  8. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF

  9. Effect of Ionizing Beta Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(ethylene under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found in this study, that ionizing beta radiation has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of poly(ethylene. In recent years, there have been increasing requirements for quality and cost effectiveness of manufactured products in all areas of industrial production. These requirements are best met with the polymeric materials, which have many advantages in comparison to traditional materials. The main advantages of polymer materials are especially in their ease of processability, availability, and price of the raw materials. Radiation crosslinking is one of the ways to give the conventional plastics mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of expensive and highly resistant construction polymers. Several types of ionizing radiation are used for crosslinking of polymers. Each of them has special characteristics. Electron beta and photon gamma radiation are used the most frequently. The great advantage is that the crosslinking occurs after the manufacturing process at normal temperature and pressure. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the effect of ionizing beta radiation on the tensile modulus, strength and elongation of low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 99 kGy were compared and on the test temperature. Radiation cross-linking of LDPE and HDPE results in increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased of elongation. The measured results indicate that ionizing beta radiation treatment is effective tool for improvement of mechanical properties of LDPE and HDPE under thermal stress.

  10. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  11. Reference beta radiations for calibrating dosemeters and dose ratemeters and for determining their response as a function of beta radiation energy. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the requirements for reference beta radiations produced by radionuclide sources to be used for the calibration of protection level dosemeters and dose ratemeters, and for the determination of their response as a function of beta energy. It gives the characteristics of radionuclides which have been used to produce reference beta radiations, gives examples of suitable source constructions and describes methods for the measurement of the residual maximum beta energy and the absorbed dose rate at a depth of 7 mg·cm -2 in a semi-infinite tissue-equivalent medium. The energy range involved lies between 66 keV and 3.6 MeV and the absorbed dose rates are in the range from about 10 μGy·h -1 (1 mrad·h -1 ) to at least 10 Gy·h -1 (10 3 rad·h -1 ). This International Standard proposes two series of beta reference radiations from which the radiation necessary for determining the characteristics (calibration and energy response) of an instrument shall be selected. Series 1 reference radiations are produced by radionuclide sources used with beam flattening filters designed to give uniform dose rates over a large area at a specific distance. The proposed sources of 90 Sr+ 90 Y, 204 TI and 147 Pm produce maximum dose rates of approximately 5mGy·h -1 (0.5 rad·h -1 ). Series 2 reference radiations are produced without the use of beam flattening filters which allows a range of source-to-calibration plane distances to be used. Close to the sources only relatively small areas of uniform dose rate are produced but this Series has the advantage of extending the energy and dose rate ranges beyond those of Series 1. The radionuclides used are those of Series 1 with the addition of the radionuclides 14 C and 106 Ru+ 106 Rh; these sources produce dose rates of up to 10 Gy·h -1 (10 3 rad·h -1 )

  12. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  13. Influence of beta radiation from tritium and gamma radiation from 60Co on the biological half-times of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of beta radiation from tritium on the biological half-times of organically bound tritium in particular tissues of the rat is compred with the influence of fractionated gamma radiation from 60 Co. (M.F.W.)

  14. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC

  15. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  16. The measurement of alpha, beta and gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Detection methods for nuclear radiations are based on the processes of excitation and ionization of atoms in the detection medium by the passage of a charged particle. Detectors are usually of two types, those which produce a charge pulse following ionization of the medium and those which produce a burst of light photons which are then detected by a photomultiplier tube. By processing the electronic signals produced in suitable ways either the count rate of the source, the activity, or the dose equivalent to a person may be determined. In order to make these determinations it is necessary to understand the type of nuclear transformation of the radionuclide in question, the type and energy of the radiation being emitted and the processes involved when these radiations pass through the medium of the detector. Suitable choice of detectors and extrapolation from measured data to the quantity which is to be determined can then be made

  17. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  18. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  19. Responses of a grassland arthropod community to chronic beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styron, C.E.; Dodson, G.J.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A long-term project was initiated in 1968 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assess effects of mixed beta and gamma radiation from simulated fallout on a grassland ecosystem. Beta and gamma radiation dose rates in microhabitats of the experimentally contaminated enclosure were measured with LiF thermoluminescent microdosimeters. Extensive statistical analyses of data on numbers of individuals collected for each of 76 arthropod and 2 molluscan taxa have identified no lasting significant changes in similarity or species diversity of experimental versus control communities as the result of the long-term irradiation at low dose rates. Natural fluctuations in community dynamics obscured any possible radiation effects. Thus, the apparent threshold for mixed beta and gamma radiation inducing changes in community structure must be above the exposure rate range of 2.3 to 13 rad/day delivered during the 5 yr of observation. Establishing such a threshold is of importance in assessing the impact of communities subjected to chronic, low level environmental exposure to ionizing radiation

  20. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using ZrO2: Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M.; Rivera M, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ ) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ , previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO 2 : Eu 3+ was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO 2 doped with the (Eu 3+ ) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO 2 ) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  1. The use of postoperative beta radiation in the treatment of pterygia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaniz-Camino, F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of 483 cases of pterygia treated with surgery and prophylactic postoperatory beta therapy are discussed. Distribution by age and sex show the predominant age range to be between 20 to 50 years with an almost equal proportion of males and females. The postoperative dose administrated was 2800 rads in four to five days overall time, with a recurrence rate of 4.32%. Of this group of recurrent cases, only one patient received the first irradiation treatment immediately after surgery; the rest were treated 24 hours after being operated. We have found no undesirable side effects or damage produced by beta radiation

  2. Beta Radiation exposure of medical personnel during vascular brachytherapy with Re-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.; Baer, F.; Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intracoronary radiation is currently considered a promising breakthrough approach for preventing restenosis after angioplasty and stenting in patients with severe coronary artery disease. For the therapy of in-stent-restenosis vascular irradiation using balloon catheters filled with liquid radioisotopes provide excellent homogeneity due to the artery stenosis morphology. The radionuclide normally used is a Re-188 solutions (E β ,max=2,12 MeV). To achieve a sufficient dose in the stenosed artery wall (30 Gy in 0.5 mm wall depth) in a tolerable time-scale very high specific activities (>5-10 GBq/ml) of the isotope are necessary. During the preparation of the radioactive solution and the application at the patient very short distances between the source of the radiation and the skin of the doctors for cardiology / nuclear medicine are possible, especially when manipulations at the balloon catheter during the radiation are necessary. In addition, a severe risk of contamination exists. A further problem is that in hospitals often no or insufficient dosimeters for beta radiation are available. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel was determined at the preparation of the Re-188 solution, the therapy itself and the waste management. The partial body exposure, i. e. the dose of the skin at the hands due to beta radiation, was determined with very sensitive thin-layer thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). During a preparation, intracoronary radiation and waste management of the Re-188-perrhenate solution using normal radiation shielding first measurements resulted din more than 500 mSv per working day at the fingertips. This extreme high radiation exposure of the personnel were mainly due to direct radiation by touching the evacuated balloon catheter (only residual radionuclides left). to reduced radiation we performed several additional radiation protection measures. The consequent use of plastic shielding of the source, the use of a semiautomatic preparation

  3. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-01-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with

  4. Infrared metaphysics: the elusive ontology of radiator (part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonelli, S.; Chang, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hardly any ontological result of modern science is more firmly established than the fact that infrared radiation differs from light only in wavelength; this is part of the modern conception of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation reaching from radio waves to gamma radiation. Yet,

  5. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation silver paramagnetic centers in a beta-alumina crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, A.G.; Zhitnikov, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Silver paramagnetic centers in a β-alumina crystal, formed after X-ray radiation at 77 K, are investigated by the EPR method. Silver enters the β-alumina crystal, substituting sodium and potassium ions in a mirror plane. Crystals with substitution from 0.1 to 100% of alkali metal ions by Ag + ions are investigated. Silver atomic centers (Ag 0 -centers), formed by electron capture with the Ag + ion, are firstly detected and investigated in the β-alumina. Hole Ag 2+ -centers are investigated and detected in crystals with high concentration of Ag + . By studying the orientation dependence of a g-factor it is established that hole capture by the Ag + ion is accompanied by Ag 2+ ion displacement from the position, Ag + being primarity taken up (Beavers-Roth or anti- Beavers-Roth) to the position between two oxygen ions in the mirror plane

  7. Review of present beta dosimetry problems in radiation protection; to day's answers and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The large use of pure beta radionuclides needs to be develop beta dosimetry methods for radiation protection. The different types of present dosimetry assessments are reviewed. In all the cases the quantity to take into account is the absorbed dose rate in human tissus and more particularly in skin. In the case of point sources of known nature and activity this quantity can be worked out. This calculation is achieved either by incident beta spectrum analysis or theoretical considerations based on Kernel point. The absorbed dose rate can also be measured by extrapolation ionization chamber which characteristics and working are detailed here. All present survey meter were not initially planned for such a beta dosimetry, as this performed with the extrapolation ionization chamber which is taken here as a reference. So responses of usual dosimeters compared to this reference need to be estimated. Responses of personal film badges used in CEA, portable ionization chambers as babyline, pocket dosimeters SEQ7 and the thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD700 are exposed here. Results show that all these survey meters are not completely suitable for routine beta dosimetry. Consequently other operational dosimetry techniques have to be pursued. In particular some thermoluminescence dosimeters for instance boron diffused in surface layer and multi-elements, and furthermore Thermally Stimulated Exoelectron Emission (TSEE) and surface barrier detectors are described [fr

  8. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  9. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Tamayo Garcia, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  10. Radiation transport Part B: Applications with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the previous sections Len Lorence has described the need, theory, and types of radiation codes that can be applied to model the results of radiation effects tests or working environments for electronics. For the rest of this segment, the author will concentrate on the specific ways the codes can be used to predict device response or analyze radiation test results. Regardless of whether one is predicting responses in a working or test environment, the procedures are virtually the same. The same can be said for the use of 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional codes and Monte Carlo or discrete ordinates codes. No attempt is made to instruct the student on the specifics of the code. For example, the author will not discuss the details, such as the number of meshes, energy groups, etc. that are appropriate for a discrete ordinates code. For the sake of simplicity, he will restrict himself to the 1-dimensional code CEPXS/ONELD. This code along with a wide variety of other radiation codes can be obtained form the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) for a nominal handling fee

  11. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J. [Tyne Engineering Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects.

  12. Cell cycle phase dependent role of DNA polymerase beta in DNA repair and survival after ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of DNA polymerase beta in repair and response after ionizing radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Synchronized cells deficient and proficient in DNA polymerase beta were irradiated in different

  13. Beta Radiation Exposure of Personnel in Radiosynovectomy and at the Production of Eye Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarek, J.; Barth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Beta radionuclides are increasingly used in nuclear medicine therapy. In a study of exposure at working places with supposed enhanced radiation risk the followings are monitored: 1. Production of eye applicators ( 106 Ru/ 106 Rh) for therapy of intraocular tumours. During the processes radionuclides are used in sealed and unsealed form. 2. Radiosynovectomy (RSO). This therapy is often used in treatment of inflammatory joint disease. The radionuclides 169 Er, 186 Re and 90 Y are applied in form of radioactive solutions. A complex of problems has to be solved here: Handling of high activities (several GBq per day), very small distances between source and skin, high risk of skin contamination, unsatisfactory dose measurement techniques. In our investigations high sensitive thin thermoluminescence dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were used to determine the skin dose of the hands especially fingertips during preparation and application of the radioactive substances at several institutions. During production of eye applicators we found hand doses essentially below the annual limit. But direct radiation at RSO caused more than 100 mSv at the fingertips per working day in some cases. Even higher doses (more than 50% of the annual limit for skin during a working day) were caused by contamination of the hands. By use of manipulators, wearing of appropriate protection gloves and by improvement of directions for work, the radiation exposure could be reduced dramatically. Consequences for individual beta dosimetry and with respect to license of use of beta radionuclides are discussed. (author)

  14. Thermoluminescent characterization of thin films of aluminium oxide submitted to beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagran, E.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Martinez A, L.

    2002-01-01

    By mean of the laser ablation technique, thin films of aluminium oxide have been deposited on kapton substrates. These films present thermoluminescent response (Tl) when they are exposed to beta and gamma radiation. The brilliance curves show two peaks between 112 C and 180 C. A dose-response relationship study was realized and the Tl kinetic parameters were determined using the computerized deconvolution of the brilliance curve (CGCD). The thin films of aluminium oxide have potential applications as ultra.thin radiation dosemeters. (Author)

  15. Determination of transmission factors for beta radiation at different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    During the transmission factors determination of beta radiation in air, using an ionization chamber with variable volume (extrapolation chamber), connected to a digital electrometer, and the secondary standard system constituted by the 90 Sr + 90 Y, 204 Tl and 147 Pm sources, the positioning of absorber materials equivalent to tissue, in relation to the detector and to the radiation sources is fundamental. In this work the absorbers were positioned in front of the sources, as well in front of the chamber, in different experiments, and the data were compared. (author) [pt

  16. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  17. Simulation of beta radiator handling procedures in nuclear medicine by means of a movable hand phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    In nuclear medicine therapies, people working with beta radiators such as (90)Y may be exposed to non-negligible partial body doses. For radiation protection, it is important to know the characteristics of the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Besides extensive measurements, simulations can provide these data. For this purpose, a movable hand phantom for Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Specific beta radiator handling scenarios can be modelled interactively with forward kinematics or automatically with an inverse kinematics procedure. As a first investigation, the dose distribution on a medical doctor's hand injecting a (90)Y solution was measured and simulated with the phantom. Modelling was done with the interactive method based on five consecutive frames from a video recorded during the injection. Owing to the use of only one camera, not each detail of the radiation scenario is visible in the video. In spite of systematic uncertainties, the measured and simulated dose values are in good agreement.

  18. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...

  19. Development and testing of a thermoluminescent dosemeter for mixed neutron-photon-beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zummo, J.J.; Liu, J.C.

    1998-08-01

    A new four-element thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeter and dose evaluation algorithm have been developed and tested to better characterize personnel exposure in mixed neutron-photon-beta radiation fields. The prototype dosemeter is based on a commercially available TL card (with three LiF-7 chips and one LiF-6 chip) and modified filtration elements. The new algorithm takes advantage of the high temperature peak characteristics of the LiF-6 element to better quantify the neutron dose component. The dosemeter was tested in various radiation fields, consisting of mixtures of two radiation types typically used for dosemeter performance testing, as well as mixtures of three radiation types to simulate possible exposure conditions. The new dosemeter gave superior performance, based on the tolerance levels, when using the new algorithm as compared to a conventional algorithm that did not use the high temperature peak methodology. The limitations and further improvements are discussed

  20. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  1. Ultra-violet radiation: hazard in workplaces? (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This is the continuation of part I, which was discussed in the later issue. In this part, hazard of ultraviolet radiation were briefly discused i.e. effects on the skin and the eyes. Other subjects discussed are exposure limits, how to assess the radiation, protection against ultraviolet radiation

  2. Radiogenic late effects in the eye after therapeutic application of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommatzsch, P.; Neumeister, K.

    1978-01-01

    Beta irradiation with 90 Sr/ 90 Y is used to treat epibulbar tumours (carcinoma, melanoma) and irradiation with 106 Ru/ 106 Rh is used to treat intra-ocular tumours (melanoma, retinoblastoma). Two studies have been carried out. Since 1960, 185 patients with epibulbar pigment tumours and 15 patients with conjunctiva carcinomas have been treated with 90 Sr/ 90 Y-applicators and observed for several years. The dose applied was 10,000 to 20,000 rads at the focus depending on the type and extent of the tumour. Apart from teleangiectasias of the conjunctiva, there were only a few cases of severe radio-induced complications such as keratopathies and secondary glaucoma, which were regarded as the lesser evil in comparison with the main disease. The radiation cataract after beta irradiation remains peripheral and does not impair vision. So far 39 patients with choroid melanomas and 22 children with retinoblastomas have been observed for more than 5 years after beta irradiation with 106 Ru/ 106 Rh. The dose applied at the sclera surface was 40,000 to 100,000 rads for 4 to 8 days. In 39 patients with successfully irradiated choroid melanomas, radio-induced late complications developed such as macula degeneration, opticus atrophy and retinal-vessel ablations, which may impair vision. In the 22 children irradiated, only 7 cases of late complications with impaired functions could be observed. Whereas radiation-induced late damage after beta irradiation of the front section of the eye is of small clinical importance, especially in older patients, intra-ocular tumours with radio-induced late damage in the retinal vessel and capillary system have to be expected after high-dose beta irradiation

  3. Standardization of reference radiation field of beta for 85Kr using extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Fendinugroho

    2013-01-01

    Standardization of reference radiation field of beta for 85 Kr in PTKMR-BATAN Laboratory has been performed at the SDD's 30 cm by using extrapolation chamber detector, coupled with Uni dose electrometer. The result was : (8.98±3 %) mGy/h, at 95 % confidence level. The aim of standardization of reference radiation field is to support radiation protection and safety program, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to its Member States, included BATAN-Indonesia, especially, PTKMR. The aim of radiation protection program and safety program is to promote an internationally harmonized approach for radiation measurement in protection level, besides for calibration of radiation measuring instrument, which users spread across Indonesia, with the number of about 795 firms in the year of 2012. These benefits can be felt by workers, communities and the environment, because by calibration, measurement survey meter, pocket dosimeter and TLD to be more accurate so that the radiation dose received by radiation workers is accurate and can be ascertained in a specified period, not to exceed a predetermined NBD by BAPETEN. The aim of this calibration is appropriate with the primary objective of calibration on IAEA/TRS16:2000. (author)

  4. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices

  5. Development of the 'Beta-Boy' radiation counter for public acceptance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kitada, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., which was established on July 1st, 1992 largely financed by Japan's electric power companies is presently developing four projects in the village of Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, roughly 700 km north of Tokyo: a uranium enrichment plant, which began operation in March, 1992; a reprocessing plant to begin construction in March, 1993; a high level radioactive waste storage facility for waste returned from overseas reprocessing, construction of which began in May, 1992; and a low level radioactive waste disposal center for waste generated in nuclear power plants, which began operation in December, 1992. Approval for the location of these facilities was obtained from the authorities in Aomori Prefecture and Rokkasho Village in 1985. However, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the nuclear fuel cycle project in Rokkasho as well as other nuclear facilities throughout the country were faced with very active opposition from the antinuclear movement. Through our efforts to obtain public acceptance by arranging site tours, lectures, public debates and so on, we realized that many of the people of Aomori Prefecture had doubts about the nuclear fuel cycle, and that more than 80% of those people held concerns about radiation. We also found that through the demonstration of measuring atmospheric radiation levels using a large conventional portable GM survey meter of the type used in nuclear facilities, we were able to obtain considerable understanding of the nature of radiation at our lectures. Realizing therefore the need to increase this effect, we decided to develop a simple radiation counter, which all the participants at our lectures could operate themselves to measure radiation. I will now explain the characteristics of 'Beta-Boy', new radiation counter, and the method to explain radiation by using 'Beta-Boy' in our public acceptance activities

  6. Influence of radiation-dose pattern from inhaled beta--gamma-emitting radionuclides on canine peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Boecker, B.B.; Pickrell, J.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    As part of studies assess the biological hazards associated with inhaled radionuclides, periodic hematologic evaluations were performed on beagle dogs given a single nose-only exposure to aerosols of beta--gamma-emitting isotopes. The physical form and specific radionuclides selected produced radiation-dose patterns representative of those which might be encountered in the event of human accidental exposures. Dogs received graded lung burdens of either 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr, each in fused clay. Differences in the effective half-lives of these radionuclides resulted in a spectrum of cumulative radiation doses to lung delivered at a variety of dose rates. Since the form in which the radionuclides were inhaled was relatively insoluble, the lung and intrathoracic tissues represented the primary recipient of the dose. Regardless of the effective half-life of radionuclide retention, a dose-related depression of peripheral lymphocytes was observed at various times after inhalation exposure. The time at which maximum depression and subsequent recovery occurred, however, was most directly related to the effective half-life of the radionuclide. Of special interest was the persistence of lymphopenia through 2 1 / 2 years after exposure to 144 Ce and 90 Sr in fused clay where, other than tracheobronchial lymph nodes, the lymphoid tissue received very little radiation dose. The possible mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte depression from these various radiation-dose patterns are discussed

  7. Dosimetric characterization of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film irradiated with UV and beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is an excellent prospect for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissue-equivalence properties and being chemically inert. The use of diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price; although recently the capability of growing high quality polycrystalline has renewed the interest in using diamond films as detectors and dosimeters. In the present work we have characterized the dosimetric properties of diamond films synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition. The thermoluminescence (TL) of UV and beta exposed samples shows a glow curve composed of at least four peaks; one located around 587 K presents excellent TL properties suitable for dosimetric applications with ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The TL excitation spectrum exhibits maximum TL efficiency at 220 nm. The samples show regions of linear as well as supralinear behavior as a function or irradiation dose. The linear dose dependence was found for up to sixteen minutes of UV irradiation and 300 Gy for beta irradiated samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined and found in the range of 0.32 - 0.89 eV and 1.1x10^2 - 2x10^8s_-1, respectively. The observed TL performance is reasonable appropriate to justify further investigation of diamond films as radiation dosimeters.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.; Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO 2 -a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H 3 and Zr-O 2 . One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO 2 -a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO 2 -a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  9. Beta-Carotene production enhancement by UV-A radiation in Dunaliella bardawil cultivated in laboratory reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogedas, B.; Casal, C.; Forjan, E.; Vilchez, C.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene is an antioxidant molecule of commercial value that can be naturally produced by certain microalgae that mostly belong to the genus Dunaliella. So far, nitrogen starvation has been the most efficient condition for enhancing beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. However, while nitrogen starvation promotes beta-carotene accumulation, the cells become non-viable; consequently under such conditions, continuous beta-carotene production is limited to less than 1 week. In this study, the use of UV-A radiation as a tool to enhance long-term beta-carotene production in Dunaliella bardawil cultures was investigated. The effect of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) on growth and carotenoid accumulation of D. bardawil in a laboratory air-fluidized bed photobioreactor was studied. The results were compared with those from D. bardawil control cultures incubated with PAR only. The addition of 8.7 W/square m UV-A radiation to 250 W/square m PAR stimulated long-term growth of D. bardawil. Throughout the exponential growth period the UV-A irradiated cultures showed enhanced carotenoid accumulation, mostly as beta-carotene. After 24 days, the concentration of beta-carotene in UV-A irradiated cultures was approximately two times that of control cultures. Analysis revealed that UV-A clearly induced major accumulation of all-trans beta-carotene. In N-starved culture media, beta-carotene biosynthesis in UV-A irradiated cultures was stimulated. We conclude that the addition of UV-A to PAR enhances carotenoid production processes, specifically all-trans beta-carotene, in D. bardawil cells without negative effects on cell growth

  10. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  11. Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jennifer S; Taschereau, Richard; Olma, Sebastian; Liu Kan; Chen Yichun; Shen, Clifton K-F; Van Dam, R Michael; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed that microfluidic chips used for synthesizing 18 F-labeled compounds demonstrate visible light emission without nearby scintillators or fluorescent materials. The origin of the light was investigated and found to be consistent with the emission characteristics from Cerenkov radiation. Since 18 F decays through the emission of high-energy positrons, the energy threshold for beta particles, i.e. electrons or positrons, to generate Cerenkov radiation was calculated for water and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the most commonly used polymer-based material for microfluidic chips. Beta particles emitted from 18 F have a continuous energy spectrum, with a maximum energy that exceeds this energy threshold for both water and PDMS. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the emitted light from 18 F in distilled water were also measured, yielding a broad distribution from 300 nm to 700 nm, with higher intensity at shorter wavelengths. A photograph of the 18 F solution showed a bluish-white light emitted from the solution, further suggesting Cerenkov radiation. In this study, the feasibility of using this Cerenkov light emission as a method for quantitative measurements of the radioactivity within the microfluidic chip in situ was evaluated. A detector previously developed for imaging microfluidic platforms was used. The detector consisted of a charge-coupled device (CCD) optically coupled to a lens. The system spatial resolution, minimum detectable activity and dynamic range were evaluated. In addition, the calibration of a Cerenkov signal versus activity concentration in the microfluidic chip was determined. This novel method of Cerenkov radiation measurements will provide researchers with a simple yet robust quantitative imaging tool for microfluidic applications utilizing beta particles.

  12. An energy-independent dose rate meter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Keller, M.

    1986-01-01

    An easy to handle dose rate meter has been developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre with a small probe for the energy-independent determination of the dose rate in mixed radiation fields. The dose rate meter contains a small ionisation chamber with a volume of 15.5 cm 3 . The window of the ionisation chamber consists of an aluminised plastic foil of 7 mg.cm -2 . The dose rate meter is suitable for determining the dose rate in skin. With a supplementary depth dose cap, the dose rate can be determined in tissue at a depth of 1 cm. The dose rate meter is energy-independent within +-20% for 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation and for gamma radiation in the energy range above 35 keV. (author)

  13. TL and LOE dosimetric evaluation of diamond films exposed to beta and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado F, S.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.; Schreck, M.; Cruz Z, E.

    2005-01-01

    The diamond possesses a privileged position regarding other materials of great technological importance. Their applications go from the optics, microelectronics, metals industry, medicine and of course as dosemeter, in the registration and detection of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. In this work the results of TL/LOE obtained in two samples of diamond of 10 μm thickness grown by the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) assisted by microwave plasma. The films were deposited in a silicon substrate (001) starting from a mixture of gases composed of CH 4 /H 2 and 750 ppm of molecular nitrogen as dopant. The samples were exposed to beta radiation (Sr 90 / Y 90 ) and ultraviolet, being stimulated later on thermal (TL) and optically (LOE) to evaluate their dosimetric properties. The sample without doping presented high response TL/LOE to the ultraviolet and beta radiation. The TL glow curve of the sample without doping showed two TL peaks with second order kinetics in the range of 520 to 550 K, besides a peak with first order kinetics of more intensity around 607 K. The TL efficiency of the non doped sample is bigger than the doped with nitrogen; however the LOE efficiency is similar in both samples. The results indicate that the CVD diamond possesses excellent perspectives for dosimetric applications, with special importance in radiotherapy due to it is biologically compatible with the human tissue. (Author)

  14. Lower limits of detection in using carbon nanotubes as thermoluminescent dosimeters of beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Jurewicz, Izabela; Alalawi, Amani I.; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Alsubaie, Abdullah; Hinder, Steven; Bañuls-Ciscar, Jorge; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    World-wide, on-going intensive research is being seen in adaptation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for a wide variety of applications, particular interest herein being in the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of CNTs and their sensitivity towards energetic radiations. Using beta radiation delivering dose levels of a few Gy it has been observed in previous study that strain and impurity defects in CNTs give rise to significant TL yields, providing an initial measure of the extent to which electron trapping centres exist in various qualities of CNT, from super-pure to raw. This in turn points to the possibility that there may be considerable advantage in using such media for radiation dosimetry applications, including for in vivo dosimetry. CNTs also have an effective atomic number similar to that of adipose tissue, making them suitable for soft tissue dosimetry. In present investigations various single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) samples in the form of buckypaper have been irradiated to doses in the range 35-1.3 Gy, use being made of a 90Sr beta source, the response of the CNTs buckypaper with dose showing a trend towards linearity. It is shown for present production methodology for buckypaper samples that the raw SWCNT buckypaper offer the greatest sensitivity, detecting doses down to some few tens of mGy.

  15. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  16. Beta-Excited Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation; Sources de rayonnements electromagnetiques excites par des particules beta; Vozbuzhdennye beta-chastitsami istochniki ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya; Fuentes de radiacion electromagnetica excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J F; Rhodes, J R [Physics Group, Isotope Research Division, (AERE), Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    Beta-excited sources of electromagnetic radiation covering the energy region 1-200 keV and suitable for industrial use are described. H{sup 3}, Pm{sup 147}, Kr{sup 85}, Tl{sup 204} and (Sr+Y){sup 90} were chosen as sources of beta particles by the criteria of long half-life, low price, ready availability and high specific activity. The {beta}-excited sources have been designed on the basis of a compromise between practical source construction and the best theoretical efficiency in a given energy region. In their paper, the authors calculate the number of photons produced per beta particle and consider how the results must be corrected for self-absorption of the X-rays. In the calculations account is taken of both bremsstrahlung and characteristic {alpha}-radiation; optimum characteristic X-ray yield is achieved for targets with an atomic number between 40 and 60. ''Sandwich'' targets of 1-2 beta half-value thicknesses are found to give maximum photon-yields in the desired energy region. Al, Ag and Au are suitable from the manufacturing point of view as source coverings. They were also found to give satisfactory bremsstrahlung and X-ray yields and distribution for various energy regions in the range 1-200 keV when correctly combined with the above-mentioned D-emitters. Some energy spectra are given and absorption curves in Al and Fe are shown for the best source-target combinations. The difference between sources constructed of {beta}-emitters sandwiched between target foils and intimate source-target mixtures was found to be small. Tables are given as a guide to the best source to be used for a particular absorber thickness range. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent des sources de rayonnements electromagnetiques excites par des particules beta, couvrant une gamme d'energies allant de 1 a 200 keV et convenant aux usages industriels. Comme sources de particules beta on a choisi le tritium, le {sup 147}Pm, le {sup 85}Kr, le {sup 204}Tl et le {sup 90}(Sr+Y), en

  17. Reference neutron radiations. Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ISO 8529 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference neutron radiations: Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This Part 1. of ISO 8529 specifies the reference neutron radiations, in the energy range from thermal up to 20 MeV, for calibrating neutron-measuring devices used for radiation protection purposes and for determining their response as a function of neutron energy. Reference radiations are given for neutron fluence rates of up to 1x10 9 m 2 s-1 , corresponding, at a neutron energy of 1 MeV, to dose-equivalent rates of up to 100 mSv h -1 . This part of ISO 8529 is concerned only with the methods of producing and characterizing the neutron reference radiations. The procedures for applying these radiations for calibrations are described in ISO 8529-2 and ISO 8529-3. The reference radiations specified are the following: neutrons from radionuclide sources, including neutrons from sources in a moderator; neutrons produced by nuclear reactions with charged particles from accelerators; neutrons from reactors. In view of the methods of production and use of them, these reference radiations are divided, for the purposes of this part of ISO 8529, into the following two separate sections. In clause 4, radionuclide neutron sources with wide spectra are specified for the calibration of neutron measuring devices. These sources should be used by laboratories engaged in the routine calibration of neutron-measuring devices, the particular design of which has already been type tested. In clause 5, accelerator-produced monoenergetic neutrons and reactor-produced neutrons with wide or quasi monoenergetic spectra are specified for determining the response of neutron-measuring devices

  18. Influence of surface active agents on the detection of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been studied the efficiency of beta irradiation detection by liquid scintillation counting using the pesticide 14 C-lindane as radiation source and scientillation cocktails containing Triton-X, Arkopal, Tinoventin, Extravon-200, Oswalmida, Bigral, ethanol and methanol. Excepting the last 5 products, which led to a phase formation in the mixture, all other compounds, that are easily available in the local market, proved to be good substitute products for the well known Triton-X, an expensive and restrict emulsifier used for liquid scintillation measurement of aqueous solutions. (Author) [pt

  19. Determination of the dose rapidity of a 90 Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  20. Measurement system study using beta radiation for determining different paper superficial density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Thais Molina; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2000-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used now in some areas of the industry. For quality control purposes, they are used in non-destructive analysis (NDA) which is applied to the materials examination verifying if they are adequate to the patterns demanded by technical rules or the market. Gamma, beta or neutron radiation sources may be used to do NDA, depending on material to be analyzed and the industrial process. In this work, the study of measurement system applied to quality control area was conceived and, in the evaluation of the material in test, a radioactive beta source was used. A system was designed and mounted, using a plastic scintillator detector developed in the laboratories of the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two beta sources were used in the operational test: 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl. Measures were obtained using several paper samples with different superficial density in g/m 2 . With the results, an equation correlating the relative activity with the superficial density in g/m 2 was established. (author)

  1. Interactions of the integrin subunit beta1A with protein kinase B/Akt, p130Cas and paxillin contribute to regulation of radiation survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidler, Julia; Durzok, Rita; Brakebusch, Cord

    2005-01-01

    25beta1B cells, which express mutant beta1B-integrins, were compared in terms of radiation survival and beta1-integrin signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, laminin, vitronectin, anti-beta1-integrin-IgG (beta1-IgG) or poly-l-lysine were irradiated with 0-6Gy...... and phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot technique. RESULTS: Adhesion of GD25beta1A cells to extracellular matrix proteins or beta1-IgG resulted in growth factor-independent radiation survival. In contrast, serum starved GD25beta1B cells showed a significant (Pradiation survival on all...... phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p130Cas and paxillin subsequently prevented activation of cell death-regulating JNK. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that beta1-integrin-mediated signaling through the cytoplasmic integrin domains is critical for efficient pro-survival regulation after irradiation. Profound knowledge...

  2. Thermoluminescence characterization of CVD diamond film exposed to UV and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Gastelum, S.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Brown, F.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Gan, B.; Ahn, J.; Zhang, Q.; Yoon, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of diamond films grown by microwave and hot filament CVD techniques were studied. The main purpose of the present work was to characterize the thermoluminescence response of diamond films to ultraviolet and beta radiation. The thermoluminescence excitation spectrum exhibits maximum TL efficiency around 210-215 nm. All samples presented a glow curve composed of at least one TL peak and showed regions of linear as well as supralinear behavior as a function or irradiation dose. The linear dose dependence was found for up to sixteen minutes of monochromatic UV irradiation and 300 Gy for beta irradiated samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined and found in the range of 0.33-1.7 eV and 5.44 x 10 2 -5.67 x 10 16 s -1 , respectively. The observed TL performance is reasonable appropriate to justify further investigation of diamond films as radiation dosimeters keeping in mind that diamond is an ideal TL dosemeter since it is tissue-equivalent and biological compatible. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Post radiation protection and enhancement of DNA repair of beta glucan isolated from Ganoderma lucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Thulasi G.; Nair, C.K.K.; Uma Devi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Fr) P. Karst, commonly known as Reishi in Japan and Ling Zhi in China, is well known for its medicinal properties. G. lucidum contains a number of components among which the polysaccharides, particularly beta-glucan, and triterpenoids are the major active components. Radioprotective effect of a beta glucan (BG) isolated from the mushroom G. lucidum against radiation induced damage was investigated taking mouse survival and chromosomal aberrations as end points. DNA repair enhancing property of BG was determined by comet assay in human peripheral blood leucocytes. Young Swiss albino mice were exposed to whole body γ-irradiation. For mouse survival study, BG was administered orally 5 min after 8 Gy radiation exposures and at 4 Gy exposure for chromosomal aberrations. BG at 500 ug/kg body wt produced 66% mouse survival at 30 days given post irradiation. In chromosomal aberrations significant reduction in number of aberrant cells and different types of aberrations was observed in BG administered group compared to RT along treated group. For DNA repair, the comet parameters were studied at 2 Gy γ-irradiation with 15 min intervals. The comet parameters were reduced to normal levels after 120 min of exposure. The DNA repairing ability of BG contributes to the post radio protective effect of BG. (author)

  4. Beta radiation exposure of staff during and after therapies with 90Y-labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpler, A.; Barth, I.; Baum, R. B.; Senftleben, S.; Geworski, L.

    2008-01-01

    Radio-immuno-therapies (RITs) and peptide receptor radio-therapies (PRRTs) with 90 Y-labelled compounds offer promising prospects for tumor treatment in nuclear medicine. However, when preparing and performing these therapies, which require manipulations of high activities of 90 Y (>1 GBq), technicians and physicians may receive high exposures, mainly to the skin of the hands. Even non-occupationally exposed persons, such as caregivers and family members, receive external exposures in the initial period after therapy, arising from the 90 Y in the patient. The local skin doses of the individual staff members, measured during RITs and PRRTs with thermoluminescence detectors fixed with tapes to the fingers, vary considerably. The exposure of staff can exceed the annual permissible dose limit of 500 mSv if radiation protection standards are low. Thus, adequate safety measures are needed. Measurements of the dose rate around patients, made using survey meters with sufficient response to beta particles, indicate that the exposure of caregivers and family members is considerably higher than previously assumed, and was dominated by primary beta radiation instead of Bremsstrahlung. Nevertheless, under normal circumstances, the annual dose limits for the public (effective dose: 1 mSv, skin dose: 50 mSv) will be complied with. (authors)

  5. Classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis regarding human reactivity to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usurelu Daniela; Radu Irina; Gavrila Lucian; Cimponeriu Danut; Apostol Pompilia; Ahmadi Elham

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most important mutagen agents in developing different types of cancer is the action of ionizing radiation. The main events induced by irradiation are: chromosome breakage, chromosome rearrangements and genomic instability. The chromosomal aberrations are very useful biomarkers as intermediate end points in evaluating harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. So, the main objectives of this work were: the study of human genome reactivity to beta radiation by classic microscopy; the study of the integrity/modification of the telomeres after irradiation and the analysis of the amplification of the RNA telomerase compound by FISH technique. Irradiations were performed at Electron Accelerators Laboratory, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania. The samples were irradiated using an ALIN 10 linear electron accelerator. ALIN 10 is a travelling wave type linac operating at 2.998 GHz, 6.5 MeV mean energy, with a 0.1 mm Al foil exit window. Improved Fricke, ferrous sulphate, cupric sulphate and sulphuric acid in triple distilled water dosimetry system has been used to perform preliminary dose measurements. The conventional Hungerford method on short-term cultures for 72 hrs was adapted for human chromosome investigation. The peripheral blood was collected from aged 27, healthy, non-smoker donor. The doses used to irradiate human blood cultures were: 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. The slides for optic microscopy were prepared by air-drying and stained with a 10% Giemsa solution. For FISH technique was used Chromosome In Situ Hybridization Kit. The probes were: one satellite probe - for revealing the telomere and the second one for the RNA telomerase compound. A large spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements was induced by beta irradiation in humans in vitro: complex chromosomal interchange involving at least two nonhomologous chromosomes, double minutes (DM), acentric fragments

  6. Investigation of the mixed beta-photon radiation field in plant areas of the heat steam generator of the Obrigheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1988-10-01

    The investigations of the beta-photon radiation field in parts of the plant in the primary circuit were performed by irradiation experiments in different distances of exhausted disks of the heat steam generator using LiF-TLDs. The depth dose distribution for a detector free of mass is found on the basis of the measurement results by using a standardized extrapolation procedure. The measurement results show that the depth dose distribution is more or less independent of the detector-to-source distance if the absorption in air and the detector is taken into account. Thus low energy beta-photon fields can be analyzed, in general, using the results found in one distance of about 5 cm from the source. For the purpose of radiation protection at working places transmission factors for protective clothes and detectors of different thicknesses were determined. The estimation of the dose equivalents H'(0.07) and H'(10) and the dose equivalents in the lens of the eye and the testes shows that the low energy beta radiation component contributes only to the partial dose equivalent H'(0.07) and will be absorbed by a protective layer of 100 mg.cm -2 . (orig.) [de

  7. Dosimetric characterization of BeO samples in alpha, beta and X radiation beams using luminescent techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppo, Daniela Piai

    2013-01-01

    In the medical field, the ionizing radiation is used both for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, in a wide range of radiation doses. In order to ensure that the objective is achieved in practice, detailed studies of detectors and devices in different types of radiations beams are necessary. In this work a dosimetric characterization of BeO samples was performed using the techniques of thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) by a comparison of their response for alpha, beta and X radiations and the establishment of an appropriated system for use in monitoring of these radiations beams. The main results are: the high sensitivity to beta radiation for both techniques, good reproducibility of TL and OSL response (coefficients of variation lower than 5%), maximum energy dependence of the X radiation of 28% for the TL technique, and only 7% for the OSL technique, within the studied energy range. The dosimetric characteristics obtained in this work show the possibility of applying BeO samples to dosimetry of alpha, beta and X radiations, considering the studied dose ranges, using the TL and OSL techniques. From the results obtained, the samples of BeO showed their potential use for beam dosimetry in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Simultaneos determination of absorbed doses due to beta and gamma radiations with CaSO4: Dy produced at Ipen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Rosa, L.A.R. da.

    1988-07-01

    Due to the Goiania radiological accident, it was necessary to develop urgently a dosimeter in order to evaluate, simultaneously, beta and gamma absorbed doses, due to 137 Cs radiations. Therefore, the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of IPEN developed a simple, practical, light and low cost badge using small thickness (0,20mm) thermoluminescent CaSO 4 : Dy pellets produced by the same laboratory. This pellets are adequate for beta radiation detection. These dosimeters were worn by some IPEN technicians who worked in Goiania city, and were used to evaluate the external and internal contaminations presented by the accident victims interned at the Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias. (author) [pt

  9. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A sample of 40 composed personal dosemeters by cards model: G-l, (each card is made up of two TLD-100 crystals encapsulated in teflon), Harshaw trademark; those personal dosemeters present a free window and another with a filter of A1 of 171.7 mg cm -2 of mass thickness.The objective of the work is to select of this sample of 40 personal dosemeters a population with the same stocking and standard deviation. The technique used is that of comparison of stockings, (ANOVA; Variance Analysis, when samples of the same one were had size; and/or GLM, Widespread Lineal Models, when the samples were of different size), by means of the use of those Duncan statistics, SNK, Tukey, Gabriel; the results are validated proving the kindness of adjustment of the experimental data to a Normal distribution by means of the Shapiro-Wilks statistics.The experimental design used consists on a test of two vias: a via is the variable card with two levels, (crystal 1 and 2), the other via is the variable irradiation position with four levels, (LS=left superior, SR= right superior, LI= left Inferior, IR = right inferior). The irradiations carried out in blocks of four personal dosemeters in a gamma radiation beam range of Cobalt 60; carrying out three repetitions of the design. With object of proving the homogeneity of the filter of A1 in those personal dosemeters the experimental design was executed for those cards without personal dosemeters.They were also carried out tests of stockings to the readings of bottom and sensibility of the reader equipment, (Harshaw, model marks 2271), certain that doesn t exist differences for sequence of reading, but if in the stockings of the sensibility, (they were 4 different populations). The responses of the dosemeters were corrected subtracting him the reading correspondence of bottom and by sensibility of the reader equipment before subjecting them to the tests of stockings mentioned. Of the results of the tests of stockings for the cards with and

  10. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations. Part 1: Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) calibration service for ionizing radiations has been active for 40 years in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory web. It has been the first center, in 1985, to be acknowledges by the Italian calibration service (SIT) for the two quantities for photons: exposure and air kerma. Since the Institute for the Radiation Protection of ENEA has moved to the new site in Montecuccolino (Bologna, Italy) in 1995, the whole laboratory has been renovated and all irradiation rooms together with radiation source and equipment have been reorganized according to the Χ, γ, β and neutron fields metrology requirements. The aim of this report, as the first part of a report describing all facilities available at the service, is to give a detailed description of all equipment s qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters [it

  11. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  12. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  13. Fungal beta glucan protects radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Thulasi G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Salvi, Veena P; Janardhanan, Krishnankutty K; Nair, Cherupally K K

    2014-02-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi), a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus has been used extensively for therapeutic use in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2,000 years. The present study is an attempt to investigate its DNA protecting property in human lymphocytes. Beta glucan (BG) was isolated by standard procedure and the structure and composition were studied by infrared radiation (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography and paper chromatography. The radioprotective properties of BG isolated from the macro fungi Ganoderma lucidum was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Human lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma radiation in the presence and absence of BG. The comet parameters were reduced by BG. The results indicate that the BG of G. lucidum possessed significant radioprotective activity with DNA repairing ability and antioxidant activity as the suggestive mechanism. The findings suggest the potential use of this mushroom for the prevention of radiation induced cellular damages.

  14. Effectiveness of interferon-[beta], ACNU, and radiation therapy in pediatric patients with brainstem glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun; Mizuno, Masaaki; Sugita, Kenichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Kito, Akira

    1992-12-01

    Sixteen pediatric patients with brainstem glioma were treated with a combination of interferon-[beta], 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-methyl -3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), and radiation therapy (IAR therapy). All patients received 1-1.5 million IU/day of interferon-[beta] intravenously for 1 week of each 6-week cycle. In addition, ACNU (2-3 mg/kg) was given on the 2nd day of each cycle. Conventional focal irradiation (1.5-2 Gy/day for 5 days to a total dosage of 40-60 Gy) was administered beginning on day 3. Patients underwent at least two 6-week cycles. Adverse effects included nausea, vomiting, and myelosuppression, but were mild and transient. Response to treatment was evaluated by the reduction in tumor size measured on postcontrast computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. Responses occurred in 10 of 11 patients with the intrinsic type of brainstem glioma, including three complete and seven partial responses. Two of the five patients with exophytic type gliomas partially responded. The median survival was 15.7 months, a remarkable improvement over the natural course of this disease. These results indicate that IAR therapy is a useful primary treatment for pediatric patients with brainstem gliomas. (author).

  15. Beta radiation effects in sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted pollucite

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, N J; Conradson, S D; Weber, W J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-energy beta radiation on the long-range and local structure of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted CsAlSi sub 2 O sub 6 (pollucite) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques at the Cs K-edge. Analysis of the XRD pattern of pollucite with an absorbed dose of 10 sup 1 sup 8 beta decays/g using Rietveld analysis indicates a 0.5-1% volume expansion of the tetrahedral structure as measured at 50 K and a minor displacement of the Cs cation toward the face of one of the six-membered rings. Analysis of the real-space pair-distribution function obtained from Fourier transformation of the diffraction pattern indicates significant correlated movement of the (Si,Al)-O pairs and large static disorder between Cs-O pairs. Analysis of the Cs K-edge XAS revealed substantial contributions from the Cs atomic X-ray absorption. This likely results from the exceedingly long Cs-O bond distances in the pollucite structure, which diminish the fine structure of the XAS os...

  16. Cherenkov radiation imaging of beta emitters: in vitro and in vivo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Calderan, Laura; Marengo, Mario; Fenzi, Alberto; Menegazzi, Marta; Sbarbati, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate both in vitro and in vivo Cherenkov radiation (CR) emission coming from 18 F and 32 P. The main difference between 18 F and 32 P is mainly the number of the emitted light photons, more precisely the same activity of 32 P emits more CR photons with respect to 18 F. In vitro results obtained by comparing beta counter measurements with photons average radiance showed that Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) allows quantitative tracer activity measurements. In order to investigate in vivo the CLI approach, we studied an experimental xenograft tumor model of mammary carcinoma (BB1 tumor cells). Cherenkov in vivo dynamic whole body images of tumor bearing mice were acquired and the tumor tissue time activity curves reflected the well-known physiological accumulation of 18 F-FDG in malignant tissues with respect to normal tissues. The results presented here show that it is possible to use conventional optical imaging devices for in vitro or in vivo study of beta emitters.

  17. Cherenkov radiation imaging of beta emitters: in vitro and in vivo results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Antonello E., E-mail: spinelli.antonello@hsr.it [Medical Physics Department, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina N. 60, Milan (Italy); Boschi, Federico [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Daniela [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, via Massarenti N. 9, Bologna (Italy); Calderan, Laura [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Marengo, Mario [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, via Massarenti N. 9, Bologna (Italy); Fenzi, Alberto [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Menegazzi, Marta [Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Del Vecchio, Antonella; Calandrino, Riccardo [Medical Physics Department, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina N. 60, Milan (Italy)

    2011-08-21

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate both in vitro and in vivo Cherenkov radiation (CR) emission coming from {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P. The main difference between {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P is mainly the number of the emitted light photons, more precisely the same activity of {sup 32}P emits more CR photons with respect to {sup 18}F. In vitro results obtained by comparing beta counter measurements with photons average radiance showed that Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) allows quantitative tracer activity measurements. In order to investigate in vivo the CLI approach, we studied an experimental xenograft tumor model of mammary carcinoma (BB1 tumor cells). Cherenkov in vivo dynamic whole body images of tumor bearing mice were acquired and the tumor tissue time activity curves reflected the well-known physiological accumulation of {sup 18}F-FDG in malignant tissues with respect to normal tissues. The results presented here show that it is possible to use conventional optical imaging devices for in vitro or in vivo study of beta emitters.

  18. A filter for reducing the angular dependence of LiF; Ti, Mg for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an improvement in the angular dependence of LiF:Ti,Mg (TAD-100) for beta radiation which was achieved by using a special filter design which produced a constant dosimeter response over a range of +70 degrees and -70 degrees. The filter material used was acetate. The filter design was tested with three different beta sources, Sr/Y-90, Tl-204 and Pm-147 with average energies of 0.8, 0.24 and 0.06 MeV, respectively. The average response at 180 degrees of the new filtered dosimeter differed by less than 5% when compared to the response at zero degrees. An average decrease in sensitivity of 53% for Sr-90, 70% for Tl-204 and 67% for Pm-147 was obtained due to filter use. All doses were calculated for a depth dose in tissue of 0.07 mm equivalent to 7 mg/cm 2 as is recommended in ICRP Publication 26. A comparison of the energy dependence for a bare TAD-100 at 0.0 mm and 0.07 mm depth in tissue was obtained

  19. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of new phosphors of Zn O exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H.; Barboza F, M.; Bernal, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence dosimetry of a new Zn O phosphor obtained by annealing of Zn S powder precipitated when Zn S films were grown by employing a CBD method. The collected Zn S powder was pressed in a die to form pellets which were subjected to different thermal treatments under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of Zn S to Zn O. The phosphors thus obtained were exposed to high doses of beta radiation and their thermoluminescent dosimetry show that these new phosphors are materials suitable to be used in high dose thermoluminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry performance of natural Brazilian topaz exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, R.; Souza, D. N.; Valerio, M. E. G.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has become the technique of choice in many areas of dosimetry. Natural materials like topaz are available in large quantities in Brazil and other countries. They have been studied to investigate the possibility of use its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for dosimetric applications. In this work, we investigate the possibility of utilising the OSL properties of natural Brazilian topaz in dosimetry. Bulk topaz samples were exposed to doses up to 100 Gy of beta radiation and the integrated OSL as a function of the dose showed linear behaviour. The fading occurs in the first 20 min after irradiation but it is <6% of the integrated OSL measured shortly after exposure. We conclude that natural colourless topaz is a very suitable phosphor for OSL dosimetry. (authors)

  1. The process of Ni-63 production and measurement of beta radiation of irradiated Ni-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhma, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jin Tae; Park, Jong Han

    2016-01-01

    It has the following characteristics: long service lifetime, high energy density, easy small-scale fabrication, and minimum maintenance. For this reasons, betavoltaic batteries are widely used in many low-power applications such as medical applications and power sources for micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) because they can operate effectively at extreme environments. Proper selection of radioisotope is a critical factor in the design of a betavoltaic battery. The important factors affecting the performance of a betavoltaic battery are specific activity, half-life, and toxicity. In this study, a target for irradiation was produced using 99% Ni-62 metal power concentrate. Ni-62 target of 1 g was irradiated in MARIA reactor operated in Poland for 470 hours, and estimated production of Ni- 63 was calculated. Irradiated Ni-63 pellets were dissolved in HCl solution, and its beta radiation was measured by Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC).

  2. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are ''hypersensitive'' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. (orig.)

  3. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part I: Cell signalling in radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. It has been proposed that the occurrence and severity of the adverse reactions to radiation therapy are also influenced by such genetic susceptibility. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. This paper, the first of two parts, reviews the main mechanisms involved in cell response to ionising radiation. DNA repair machinery and cell signalling pathways are considered and their role in radiosensitivity is analysed. The implication of non-targeted and delayed effects in radiosensitivity is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF2 for beta radiation of 90Sr + 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2003-01-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF 2 commercial dosimetry for detection of 90 Sr + 90 Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves

  5. Involvement of DNA polymerase beta in repair of ionizing radiation damage as measured by in vitro plasmid assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vens, C.; Hofland, I.; Begg, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic of damage introduced in DNA by ionizing radiation is the induction of a wide range of lesions. Single-strand breaks (SSBs) and base damages outnumber double-strand breaks (DSBs). If unrepaired, these lesions can lead to DSBs and increased mutagenesis. XRCC1 and DNA polymerase beta

  6. Radiation protection in inhomogeneous beta-gamma fields and modelling of hand phantoms with MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F.; Hegenbart, L.; Heide, B.; Schimmelpfeng, J.; Urban, M.

    2009-01-01

    The usage of beta-radiation sources in various nuclear medicine therapies is increasing. Consequently, enhanced radiation protection measures are required, as medical staff more frequently handle high-activity sources required for therapy. Inhomogeneous radiation fields make it difficult to determine absorbed dose reliably. Routine monitoring with dosemeters does not guarantee any accurate determination of the local skin dose (LSD). In general, correction factors are used to correct for the measured dose and the maximum absorbed dose received. However, strong underestimations of the maximum exposure are possible depending on the individual handling the process and the reliability of dose measurements. Simulations can be used as a tool for a better understanding of the maximum possible exposure depending on the individual-related handling. While measurements reveal the overall dose during the entire irradiation time of the dosemeter, simulations help to analyse sequences of action. Hence, simulations allow for tracking the points of highest absorbed dose received during the handling process. In this respect, simulations were performed using the MCNPX software. In order to investigate the LSD, two hand phantoms were used, a model based on geometrical elements and a voxel hand. A typical situation of radio-synoviorthesis, i.e. handling a syringe filled with 90 Y, was simulated. The results of the simulations show that the annual dose limit may be exceeded within minutes at the position of maximum absorbed dose received and that finger-ring dosemeters measure significantly different doses depending on their wearing position. It is of essential importance to wear the dosemeter properly and to use suitable correction factors with respect to the individual. Simulations are a suitable tool for ensuring reliable dose determination and may help to derive recommendations regarding radiation protection measures. (authors)

  7. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y, 147Pm and 204TI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern s four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); 147 Pm, (518 MBq) and 204 TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of 147 Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, (α 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s -1 and 0.027 mGy s -1 , respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; 90 Sr / 90 Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s -1 and 0.002 mGy s -1 , with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the 147 Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 μGy s -1 and 0.43 μGy s -1 , with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the 204 TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 μGy s -1 with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with separations different from zero, models of simple lineal regression were used. However for the case of the

  8. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Additional knowledge on the impact of various kinds of ionizing radiation in plants on individual, biochemical and molecular level is needed to unravel and compare the toxic mode of action. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied both in lab and field studies to derive the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. However, environmental relevant studies on chronic low-dose gamma exposures are scarce. The radio-ecologically relevant radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is a pure beta emitting isotope and originates from nuclear activities and accidents. Although this radionuclide is not essential for plant metabolism, it bears a chemical analogy with the essential plant macro-nutrient Ca{sup 2+} thereby taking advantage of Ca{sup 2+} transport systems to contaminate plant organs and tissues. Ones plants are exposed to radiation stress, ionization events can cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce damage to biological material like DNA, lipids and structural proteins. The following work aimed at evaluating individual, biochemical and molecular endpoints to understand and to compare the mode of action of gamma- and beta radiation stress in plants. Having an equal relative biological effectiveness to non-human biota, it is still not clear in how plants differ or overlap in sensing and interpreting highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with short-range particle radiation. The floating plant Lemna minor was chosen as model system. Following the OECD guidelines Lemna plants were being exposed separately to an external gamma radiation source or to a {sup 90}Sr-contaminated growth medium to obtain single-dose response curves for each type of radiation. In order to acquire accurate dose rate quantifications for beta radiation exposures, {sup 90}Sr uptake and accumulation of root and

  9. 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol Promotes Recovery of Immature Hematopoietic Cells Following Myelosuppressive Radiation and Synergizes With Thrombopoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts-Kaya, Fatima S.F.; Visser, Trudi P.; Arshad, Shazia [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Frincke, James; Stickney, Dwight R.; Reading, Chris L. [Harbor Therapeutics, Inc, San Diego, California (United States); Wagemaker, Gerard, E-mail: g.wagemaker@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol (5-AED) stimulates recovery of hematopoiesis after exposure to radiation. To elucidate its cellular targets, the effects of 5-AED alone and in combination with (pegylated) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and thrombopoietin (TPO) on immature hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated following total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were exposed to radiation delivered as a single or as a fractionated dose, and recovery of bone marrow progenitors and peripheral blood parameters was assessed. Results: BALB/c mice treated with 5-AED displayed accelerated multilineage blood cell recovery and elevated bone marrow (BM) cellularity and numbers of progenitor cells. The spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) assay, representing the life-saving short-term repopulating cells in BM of irradiated donor mice revealed that combined treatment with 5-AED plus TPO resulted in a 20.1-fold increase in CFU-S relative to that of placebo controls, and a 3.7 and 3.1-fold increase in comparison to 5-AED and TPO, whereas no effect was seen of Peg-G-CSF with or without 5-AED. Contrary to TPO, 5-AED also stimulated reconstitution of the more immature marrow repopulating (MRA) cells. Conclusions: 5-AED potently counteracts the hematopoietic effects of radiation-induced myelosuppression and promotes multilineage reconstitution by stimulating immature bone marrow cells in a pattern distinct from, but synergistic with TPO.

  10. The radiation protection optimization as part of education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.; Foltyn, P.

    2008-01-01

    These days, when economy is a part of everyday life, it is necessary to use a number of economic tools in the radiation protection at NPP (Nuclear Power Powerstation). The optimization according the ALARA principal predominates over, in bygone times preferred, the doses minimization. This philosophy is a big benefit in the praxis, and it is suitable to prefer it everywhere, where the radiation protection is trained. In the graduation thesis on the Faculty of health and social studies, the author P. Foltyn has used (for the support of the radiation protection optimization.at NPP), the famous method for years, relatively simple and practical -the so called CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis). Its principle are discussed. (authors)

  11. DOGMAS AND UPDATES ON THE USE OF BETA-BLOCKERS IN SECONDARY PREVENTION. FIRST PART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Morales Salinas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is consensus on clinical guidelines that beta-blockers (BB provide unquestionable benefits in several environments of secondary prevention, such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. However, in everyday practice they are underused in contexts where they are not contraindicated. Such is the case of heart failure with ejection fraction. This article presents an analysis on the available evidence of beta blockers’ effectiveness in heart failure with ejection fraction. It is concluded that overwhelming evidence favours the use of beta-blockers in chronic heart failure with ejection fraction, whereas in episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, their suspension should be avoided whenever it is possible.

  12. Efficacy of beta radiation in prevention of post-angioplasty restenosis : An interim report from the beta energy restenosis trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Meerkin; R. Bonan (Raoul); I.R. Crocker; A. Arsenault (André); P. Chougule; V.L.M.A. Coen (Veronique); D.O. Williams (David); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); S.B. King 3rd (Spencer)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRestenosis remains a major limitation of coronary angioplasty in spite of major advances in techniques and technology. Recent studies have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may limit the degree of this problem. Gamma radiation has been shown to be effective in reducing in stent

  13. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay. Part 1: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    International Standard ISO 12790-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiation protection. ISO 12790 consists of the following parts, under the general title Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay: Part 1: General principles; and Part 2: Rationale and specific applications This part of ISO 12790 provides criteria for quality assurance and control, evaluation of performance and the accreditation of radiobioassay service laboratories. Criteria and guidance for direct radiobioassay ( in vivo) and indirect radiobioassay ( in vitro) are given in separate clauses of this part of ISO 12790. This part of ISO 12790 addresses: a) the accuracy of direct ( in vivo) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test phantoms and indirect ( in vitro) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test samples; b) methods for determining the minimum detectable amount; c) minimum testing levels and testing ranges; d) requirements for reporting radiobioassay results by service laboratories; e) quality assurance in service laboratories; f) quality control in service laboratories; g) protocol for reporting test evaluations by service laboratories to the testing laboratory; h) default procedures when the service laboratory customer does not specify the performance criteria. The scope of this part of ISO 12790 does not include: a) detailed radiochemical methods for separating radionuclides from biological samples; b) detailed procedures for in vivo and in vitro radioactivity measurements; c) metabolic data and mathematical models for converting radiobioassay results into absorbed dose and dose equivalent; d) procedures for the preparation and distribution of test samples and phantoms by the testing laboratories. Analytical methods for radiobioassay are not currently standardized, but are available in the literature. Guidance for converting

  14. Interleukin-1 beta gene deregulation associated with chromosomal rearrangement: A candidate initiating event for murine radiation-myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.; Boultwood, J.; Breckon, G.; Masson, W.; Adam, J.; Shaw, A.R.; Cox, R.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in CBA/H mice following exposure to single acute doses of ionizing radiation has previously been determined. A high proportion of these AMLs are characterized by rearrangement of murine chromosome 2 in the C2 and/or E5-F regions, and there is evidence that these events are a direct consequence of radiation damage to multipotential hemopoietic cells. Using a combination of in situ chromosome hybridization and mRNA analyses, we show that the cytokine gene interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is encoded in the chromosome 2 F region and is translocated in a chromosome 2---2 rearrangement in an x-ray-induced AML (N36). Also, IL-1 beta is specifically deregulated in N36 and in two other chromosome 2-rearranged AMLs but not in a fourth, which has two cytogenetically normal chromosome 2 copies. We suggest that radiation-induced specific chromosome 2 rearrangement associated with IL-1 beta deregulation may initiate murine leukemogenesis through the uncoupling of normal proliferative control mechanisms in multipotential hemopoietic cells

  15. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy part I - Systems and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course is designed for residents in radiation oncology, preparing for their boards. It includes the physics and chemistry of the absorption of radiation, a description of the biological systems used to obtain a quantitative relationship between dose and biological effect, as well as a review of the basic principles in radiation biology that have been established. The biological effects of radiation may result from the direct action, which refers to ionizations in the DNA itself, or the indirect action which is mediated by free radicals. For x or gamma rays, about 70% of the damage is by the indirect action, which can be modified by oxygen and various chemical agents. Radiation-induced DNA damage may lead to carcinogenesis and hereditary effects, which are important in personnel protection, or to cell lethality which is the basis of radiotherapy. Chromosome aberrations and cell lethality appear to result from the interaction of two lesions (probably double strand breaks) which leads to the linear-quadratic relationship. This refers to mitotic death, which is the most common form of radiation induced death. Programmed cell death orApoptosis also occurs which appears to be important in more radiosensitive tumors, and relatively unimportant in radioresistant tumors. A number of quantitative biological test systems have been developed to quantify the effects of radiation as a function of dose. Cells may be cultured in vitro, of normal and neoplastic origin, and survival curves produced with reproductive integrity plotted as a function of dose. Normal tissue systems where reproductive integrity can be scored as an endpoint include skin, gut, colony forming units in the bone marrow, as well as breast, thyroid and testis. The response of some normal tissues depends, not only on the fraction of cells killed, but on the tissue architecture in terms of functional subunits, this will be discussed in Part III. A range of transplantable tumors have been studied

  16. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test....

  17. Reference neutron radiations. Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    ISO 8529 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference neutron radiations: Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This Part 2. of ISO 8529 takes as its starting point the neutron sources described in ISO 8529-1. It specifies the procedures to be used for realizing the calibration conditions of radiation protection devices in neutron fields produced by these calibration sources, with particular emphasis on the corrections for extraneous effects (e.g., the neutrons scattered from the walls of the calibration room). In this part of ISO 8529, particular emphasis is placed on calibrations using radionuclide sources (clauses 4 to 6) due to their widespread application, with less details given on the use of accelerator and reactor sources (8.2 and 8.3). This part of ISO 8529 then leads to ISO 8529-3 which gives conversion coefficients and the general rules and procedures for calibration

  18. The influence of radiation sterilisation on some {beta}-blockers in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniec, B. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Gruwaldzka Str., 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Ogrodowczyk, M., E-mail: mogrodo@ump.edu.pl [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Gruwaldzka Str., 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Czajka, B.; Hofman, M. [Department of Cooridinational Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Six {beta}-blockers (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol) in solid phase were exposed to the ionising radiation by e-beam in doses from 25 to 400 kGy. {yields} To establish the effects of irradiation on their physico-chemical properties, the compounds were then analysed by DSC, SEM, XRD and FT-IR. {yields} For alprenolol, propranolol and metoprolol linear relations were found between the irradiation dose and the decrease in the melting point (r = 0.9446-0.9864). {yields} No changes were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the SEM images of the compounds studied. - Abstract: Six derivatives of aryloxyalkylaminopropanol of known {beta}-adrenolytic activity (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol) in solid phase were exposed to the ionising radiation generated by e-beam of high-energy electrons from an accelerator ({approx}10 MeV) in doses from 25 to 400 kGy. To establish the effects of irradiation on their physico-chemical properties, the compounds were then analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectrometry. The standard sterilisation dose (25 kGy) was found to cause no changes in only one derivative - acebutolol, whereas in the other derivatives the irradiation caused colour changes, differences in X-ray diffraction patterns and in the character of DSC curves, including a decrease in the melting point. For each derivative one clear peak corresponding to the process of melting was observed and its position shifted towards lower temperatures with increasing dose of irradiation. For all compounds studied the value of the shift was between 0.1 and 1.0 {sup o}C. For alprenolol, propranolol and metoprolol linear relations were found between the irradiation dose and the decrease in the melting point, described by the correlation coefficient (between 0.9446 and 0.9864). No changes were observed in

  19. Standards for protection against radiation, 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, D.A.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    On may 21, 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a revision to its standards for protection against ionizing radiation, 10 CFR Part 20. Although the revised part (section section 20.1001-20.2401) became effective on June 20, 1991, licensees may defer implementation of the revised rule until January 1, 1993. Licensees continue to be required to comply with the provisions of section section 20.1-20.601 until the time they adopt the provisions of section section 20.1001-20.2401. Therefore, between June 20, 1991 and January 1, 1993 both the provisions of section section 20.1-20.601 and section section 20.1001-20.2401 are in effect. This NUREG presents a comparative text of the provisions of the revised Part 20 (section section 20.1001-20. 2401) to the text of section section 20.1-20.601 for use by the NRC staff and NRC licensees. 2 refs

  20. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part I: Systems and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    1997-01-01

    , this will be discussed in Part II. A range of transplantable tumors have been studied with endpoints of tumor cure, growth delay, or cell survival. In addition, many human tumor cells grow as multicellular spheroids, or as xenografts in immuno-deficient nude mice. Based on laboratory data, the basic principles of radiation biology have been established; these include: (1) The shape of the cell survival curve for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations. (2) The difference in the shapes of the dose response relationships for early and late responding tissues. (3) The variation of cellular response with the quality of the radiation. (4) The age-response function, i.e., the variation of cellular radiosensitivity with the phase of the cell cycle. (5) Fractionation, the repair of sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage and the dose rate effect. (6) The effect of the presence or absence of molecular oxygen on radiation response, and the wider question of the chemical modification of radiation injury by sensitizers and protectors. (7) The kinetics of cells, tissues and tumors; cell cycle, growth fraction, cell loss factor and the process of reoxygenation. Multifraction radiotherapy protocols were developed empirically, but can now be understood in terms of principles derived from laboratory data. The importance of fraction size and overall time as separate variables has been made clear from experiments with cells and animals. Many of the new initiatives to be discussed in Part II are also a development of ideas that originated in the laboratory

  1. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on radiation transformation in vitro; inhibition of effects by protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of 17 beta-estradiol, given both alone and with X-irradiation, on the induction of malignant transformation in vitro. Treatment with 10(-6)M 17 beta-estradiol for 6 weeks, or 10(-5)M 17 beta-estradiol for only 5 days, induced malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Estradiol also acted as a cocarcinogen for X-ray induced transformation; the results indicate an additive effect when the cells were exposed to both agents together. The protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin suppressed estradiol induced transformation as well as the additive effect observed for estradiol-radiation transformation

  2. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on radiation transformation in vitro; inhibition of effects by protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of 17 beta-estradiol, given both alone and with X-irradiation, on the induction of malignant transformation in vitro. Treatment with 10(-6)M 17 beta-estradiol for 6 weeks, or 10(-5)M 17 beta-estradiol for only 5 days, induced malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Estradiol also acted as a cocarcinogen for X-ray induced transformation; the results indicate an additive effect when the cells were exposed to both agents together. The protease inhibitors antipain and leupeptin suppressed estradiol induced transformation as well as the additive effect observed for estradiol-radiation transformation.

  3. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  4. The effect of a combined action of beta-radiation and shoch wave on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill', O.D.; Borzunov, V.B.; Vikhrov, A.I.; Vorob'eva, N.G.; Ivanov, L.I.; Kovalev, E.E.; Yanushkevich, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of shock wave (SW) and beta-radiation (β) on Lactuca sativa L. seeds was investigated. Exposure to SW at an amplitude of 200 and 600 MPa in various combinations with β caused a lower survival rate and development of abnormal plants. At an amplitude of 600MPa, when the SW + β protocol was used, the maximum amount of abnormalities was seen after 220-240 hours of wetting and when the β + SW protocol was used the maximum amount of abnormalities was seen after 80-100 hours of wetting. At an amplitude of 600 MPa, the most significant changes in the germination of seeds at different SW and β combinations were observed. When seeds were first exposed to β and then to SW, most significant changes were rcorded suggesting synergism of the above factors. These observations can be considered as indirect evidence in support of the hypothesis that SW may also occur around the track of a heavy charged particle

  5. RBE [relative biological effectiveness] of tritium beta radiation to gamma radiation and x-rays analyzed by both molecular and genetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation to 60 Co gamma radiation was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL) induced in Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa as the biological effect. The SLRL test, a measure of mutations induced in germ cells transmitted through successive generations, yields a linear dose-response curve in the range used in these experiments. From these ratios of the slopes of the 3 H beta and the 60 Co gamma radiation linear dose response curves, an RBE of 2.7 is observed. When sources of error are considered, this observation suggests that the tritium beta particle is 2.7 ± 0.3 times more effective per unit of energy absorbed in inducing gene mutations transmitted to successive generation than 60 Co gamma radiation. Ion tracks with a high density of ions (high LET) are more efficient than tracks with a low ion density (low LET) in inducing transmissible mutations, suggesting interaction among products of ionization. Molecular analysis of x-ray induced mutations shows that most mutations are deletions ranging from a few base pairs as determined from sequence data to multi locus deletions as determined from complementation tests and Southern blots. 14 refs., 1 fig

  6. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co{sub 60}; Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte I. Estudio de la homogeneidad de la respuesta dosimetros personales (tarjetas G-1, TLD-100), en campos de radiacion de Co{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    A sample of 40 composed personal dosemeters by cards model: G-l, (each card is made up of two TLD-100 crystals encapsulated in teflon), Harshaw trademark; those personal dosemeters present a free window and another with a filter of A1 of 171.7 mg cm{sup -2} of mass thickness.The objective of the work is to select of this sample of 40 personal dosemeters a population with the same stocking and standard deviation. The technique used is that of comparison of stockings, (ANOVA; Variance Analysis, when samples of the same one were had size; and/or GLM, Widespread Lineal Models, when the samples were of different size), by means of the use of those Duncan statistics, SNK, Tukey, Gabriel; the results are validated proving the kindness of adjustment of the experimental data to a Normal distribution by means of the Shapiro-Wilks statistics.The experimental design used consists on a test of two vias: a via is the variable card with two levels, (crystal 1 and 2), the other via is the variable irradiation position with four levels, (LS=left superior, SR= right superior, LI= left Inferior, IR = right inferior). The irradiations carried out in blocks of four personal dosemeters in a gamma radiation beam range of Cobalt 60; carrying out three repetitions of the design. With object of proving the homogeneity of the filter of A1 in those personal dosemeters the experimental design was executed for those cards without personal dosemeters.They were also carried out tests of stockings to the readings of bottom and sensibility of the reader equipment, (Harshaw, model marks 2271), certain that doesn{sup t} exist differences for sequence of reading, but if in the stockings of the sensibility, (they were 4 different populations). The responses of the dosemeters were corrected subtracting him the reading correspondence of bottom and by sensibility of the reader equipment before subjecting them to the tests of stockings mentioned. Of the results of the tests of stockings for the cards with

  7. Maintenance experiences with hand and foot monitor for monitoring alpha and beta radiation of personnel in NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra Rao, A.; Kulkarni, R.S.; Banerjee, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    NFC is producing natural uranium and enriched uranium fuels for various reactors including PHWR etc. Monitoring of α and β radiations in the active plants of NFC is very much essential in many aspects. The personnel who are handling radiation materials have to be monitored for α radiation of hands and cloths and β radiation of feet. So the Alpha and Beta Monitor became important monitoring equipment for monitoring α and β radiations of persons working in active plants of NFC. Many Alpha and Beta Monitors of make, ECIL, PLA, and Nucleonix etc. were being used in active plants in NFC. Basically α and β radiation monitors consists of four PMT (Photo Multiplier Tubes) for detection of radiation of hands and one PMT for monitoring clothes. The PMT use ZnS (Ag) as the scintillator for detection of α radiation. GM tubes are used to detect β radiation of feet. The latest Hand and Foot Monitors have been incorporated with PC based monitoring system along with software for making the monitoring process more efficient and user friendly. As an instrumentation maintenance team for these monitors, our experiences are varied. These monitors are to be periodically maintained and tested for its effective functioning in monitoring the nuclear radiation. The monitors procured from M/s. ECIL were being used since long time in these areas. The instrumentation maintenance had faced some problems with these monitors such as frequent failure of High Voltage cards, Amplifier and Counter PCB cards. Modifications were made in the circuits of High Voltage and Counter cards to minimize the failure rate and for loading of Display and Monitoring Software through Hard disk instead of from floppy disk. So the availability of monitors for monitoring radiation got improved. Later the introduction of more sophisticated α and β radiation monitors of M/s. PLA make in these areas further improved monitoring of radiation of personnel working in active areas. These monitors are more user

  8. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-04-01

    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed

  9. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-04-01

    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed.

  10. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of 90Sr/90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: 90 Sr/ 90 Y; Ophthalmic applicators 9 0 S r/ 90 Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  12. Relative response of TL and component-resolved OSL to alpha and beta radiations in annealed sedimentary quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Afouxenidis, Dimitrios; Raptis, Spyridoula; Liritzis, Ioannis; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative luminescence response to alpha and beta radiation is very important in TL and OSL dating. In the present study the relative alpha to beta response is studied in a sedimentary quartz sample, previously fired at 900 deg. C for 1 h, in the dose region between 1 and 128 Gy, for both thermoluminescence (TL) and linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM - OSL). The LM - OSL measurements were performed at room temperature and at 125 deg. C. All OSL signals were deconvolved into their individual components. Comparison of OSL curves after alpha and beta irradiation strongly supports that quartz OSL components follow first order kinetics in both cases. In the case of TL, the relative alpha to beta response is found to be very different for each TL glow-peak, but it does not depend strongly on irradiation dose. In the case of LM - OSL measurements, it is found that the relative behaviour of the alpha to beta response is different for three distinct regions, namely the fast OSL component, the region of medium OSL component originating from the TL glow-peak at 110 deg. C when stimulation takes place at room temperature and finally the region of slow OSL component. Following stimulation at ambient temperature, the relative alpha to beta response of all components was not observed to depend significantly on dose, with the value of ratio being 0.03 and a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. However, in the case of measurements performed at 125 deg. C, the relative response of the fast components is much enhanced, and for the remaining components it increases with increasing dose. Special care must be taken to examine the relative alpha to beta response of the fast component at 125 deg. C which contrasts the relative response of the TL peak at ca. 325 deg. C. The implications for the dating of annealed quartz are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: → Relative alpha to beta response for TL and LM-OSL is studied in annealed

  13. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao e filmes radiocromicos para verificacao da coerencia metrologica entre campos padroes de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-07-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta

  14. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  15. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of new phosphors of Zn O exposed to beta radiation; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de nuevos fosforos de ZnO expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Barboza F, M.; Bernal, R. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence dosimetry of a new Zn O phosphor obtained by annealing of Zn S powder precipitated when Zn S films were grown by employing a CBD method. The collected Zn S powder was pressed in a die to form pellets which were subjected to different thermal treatments under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of Zn S to Zn O. The phosphors thus obtained were exposed to high doses of beta radiation and their thermoluminescent dosimetry show that these new phosphors are materials suitable to be used in high dose thermoluminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  17. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Martin, Neil E.; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, John Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  18. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  19. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part III: Normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This is the third part of a course designed for residents in radiation oncology preparing for their boards. This part of the course will focus on the mechanisms underlying damage in normal tissues. Although conventional wisdom long held that killing and depletion of a critical cell(s) in a tissue was responsible for the later expression of damage, histopathologic changes in normal tissue can now be explained and better understood in terms of the new molecular biology. The concept that depletion of a single cell type is responsible for the observed histopathologic changes in normal tissues has been replaced by the hypothesis that damage results from the interaction of many different cell systems, including epithelial, endothelial, macrophages and fibroblasts, via the production of specific autocrine, paracrine and endocrine growth factors. A portion of this course will discuss the clinical and experimental data on the production and interaction of those cytokines and cell systems considered to be critical to tissue damage. It had long been suggested that interindividual differences in radiation-induced normal tissue damage was genetically regulated, at least in part. Both clinical and experimental data supported this hypothesis but it is the recent advances in human and mouse molecular genetics which have provided the tools to dissect out the genetic component of normal tissue damage. These data will be presented and related to the potential to develop genetic markers to identify sensitive individuals. The impact on clinical outcome of the ability to identify prospectively sensitive patients will be discussed. Clinically it is well-accepted that the volume of tissue irradiated is a critical factor in determining tissue damage. A profusion of mathematical models for estimating dose-volume relationships in a number of organs have been published recently despite the fact that little data are available to support these models. This course will review the

  20. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Chandra M.; Mageras, Gikas S.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: In this presentation we will look into the basic components of 3-dimensional conformal treatment planning, and will discuss planning for some selected sites. We will also review some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning. External beam radiation therapy is one of the arms of cancer treatment. In the recent years 3-D conformal therapy had significant impact on the practice of external beam radiation therapy. Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-D treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. In this course we will give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning, such as field shaping with multileaf collimation, computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into treatment planning process

  1. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations. Part 1: Photons; Il centro di taratura per la radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) calibration service for ionizing radiations has been active for 40 years in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory web. It has been the first center, in 1985, to be acknowledges by the Italian calibration service (SIT) for the two quantities for photons: exposure and air kerma. Since the Institute for the Radiation Protection of ENEA has moved to the new site in Montecuccolino (Bologna, Italy) in 1995, the whole laboratory has been renovated and all irradiation rooms together with radiation source and equipment have been reorganized according to the {chi}, {gamma}, {beta} and neutron fields metrology requirements. The aim of this report, as the first part of a report describing all facilities available at the service, is to give a detailed description of all equipment s qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il centro di taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna opera nel campo della metrologia secpndaria da quasi 40 anni ed e' stato il primo centro nel 1985 ad essere riconosciuto dal SIT (Servizio di Taratura in Italia) per le grandezze esposizione e Kerma in aria. Con l'insediamento di tutto l'Istituto per la Radioprotezione nella nuova sede di Montecuccolino sono state ricostruite e riorganizzate anche tutte le sale di irraggiamento e tutti gli impianti radiogeni a disposizione per la metrologia delle radiazioni X, gamma, beta e neutroni. Intenzione di questo primo rapporto e' descrivere le attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  2. Enhancement of radiation effect using beta-lapachone and underlying mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Jung; Lee, Hyung Sik; Bai, Se Kyung; Song, Chang Won

    2013-01-01

    Beta-lapachone (β-Lap; 3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1, 2-b]pyran-5,6-dione) is a novel anti-cancer drug under phase I/II clinical trials. (β-Lap has been demonstrated to cause apoptotic and necrotic death in a variety of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the (β-Lap toxicity against cancer cells has been controversial. The most recent view is that (β-Lap, which is a quinone compound, undergoes two-electron reduction to hydroquinone form utilizing NAD(P)H or NADH as electron source. This two-electron reduction of (β-Lap is mediated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), which is known to mediate the reduction of many quinone compounds. The hydroquinone forms of (β-Lap then spontaneously oxidizes back to the original oxidized (β-Lap, creating futile cycling between the oxidized and reduced forms of (β-Lap. It is proposed that the futile recycling between oxidized and reduced forms of (β-Lap leads to two distinct cell death pathways. First one is that the two-electron reduced (β-Lap is converted first to one-electron reduced (β-Lap, i.e., semiquinone (β-Lap (SQ)- causing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then causes apoptotic cell death. The second mechanism is that severe depletion of NAD(P)H and NADH as a result of futile cycling between the quinone and hydroquinone forms of β- p causes severe disturbance in cellular metabolism leading to apoptosis and necrosis. The relative importance of the aforementioned two mechanisms, i.e., generation of ROS or depletion of NAD(P)H/NADH, may vary depending on cell type and environment. Importantly, the NQO1 level in cancer cells has been found to be higher than that in normal cells indicating that β-Lap may be preferentially toxic to cancer cells relative to non-cancer cells. The cellular level of NQO1 has been found to be significantly increased by divergent physical and chemical stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent reports clearly demonstrated

  3. US/French joint research program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation: Volume 2, Phase-2a screening tests: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckalew, W.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1987-09-01

    As part of the ongoing joint NRC/CEA cooperative test program to investigate the relative effectiveness of beta and gamma irradiation to produce damage in polymer base materials, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) specimens, in slab geometry, were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays and accelerator produced electron beams. Specimens were irradiated and evaluated at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). These tests included several electron beam energies, sample thicknesses, exposure doses, and dose rates. Based on changes in the tensile properties, of the test specimens, results of these studies suggest that material damage resulting from electron and gamma irradiations can be correlated on the basis of absorbed radiation dose

  4. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and 60 Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed

  5. Influence of γ ionizing radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuyck, S.; Connaulte, J.; Lesgards, G.; Prost, M.; Raffi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of vegetables is a cleaning up and preservation physical treatment which consists in submitting them to γ radiation, X radiation or electrons beam. This study deals with the influence of γ radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts. In that purpose, we use a simple biological test based on erythrocytes hemolysis. (authors)

  6. Respiration and phosphorylation in liver and kidney mitochondria of rats exposed to high-energy gamma and beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhoreva, S I; Vetlugina, N S

    1973-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation with ..gamma.. rays (radiation source /sup 60/Co) at 40 rad and ..beta.. rays (source, a linear accelerator, electron energy 25 MeV) at 43 rad on oxidative phosphorylation in liver and kidney mitochondria was studied in rats. Gamma radiation gradually slowed the esterification of phosphate and respiratory rate during the oxidation of succinate in the liver and kidney mitochondria. The decrease was largest on day 15 after irradiation. However, the P/O ratio did not decrease by more than 10 to 12 percent. Despite the oxidation of glutamate in the mitochondria, respiration, phosphate consumption, and P/O ratio scarcely changed. Irradiation with electrons slowed the rate of oxidation of succinate and glutamate in liver mitochondria within 3 to 7 days. Phosphate consumption decreased at the same time so that the P/O ratio remained unchanged. Beta irradiation had virtually no effect on liver mitochondria. There is a discussion of the mechanism of action of high-energy radiation on the phosphorylation system of the mitochondria.

  7. Calculation of higher order radiation corrections to beta decay of hyperons in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritisz, Tanaszisz

    1984-01-01

    The Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of unified electromagnetic and weak interactions, believed to be the correct quantum theory of these interactions, possesses the great advantage of being renormable. Thus the perturbation theory is applicable to calculate the radiative corrections of the tree-graph results. The present paper describes the detailed calculation of one-loop corrections to beta decay of hyperons. After defining the theory and fixing the gauge and renormalization conventions, the equations of weak and electromagnetic one-loop corrections are derived. Numerical evaluation of the equations was helped by algebraic and integrator computer codes. The results are directly comparable to experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  8. Peculiarities of the clinical course of radiation sickness and organizational decisions for radiation accidents with beta-gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskova, A.K.; Gusev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of a number of recent large scale accidents involving beta-gamma sources in the last 40 years, such as those of the Marshall Islands (1954); Windscale, UK (1957); Chernobyl, USSR (1986) and Goiania, Brazil (1987) demonstrates the predominance and importance of health and social impacts. (author)

  9. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); Patron Nacional para la realizacion de la unidad de la rapidez de dosis absorbida en aire para radiacion beta. (Metodo: Ionometrico, cavidad de Bragg-Gray implementada en una camara de extrapolacion con electrodos de separacion variable, expuesta a un campo de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, M T; Morales P, J R [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-01-15

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Ophthalmic applicators {sup 9}0{sup S}r/{sup 90}Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  10. [Radiation-induced bystander effect: the important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideł, Maria; Przybyszewski, Waldemar; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2009-08-18

    It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the "bystander effect" or "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE). This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy), but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays) at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not definitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effect may have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation field and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The bystander effect may be a

  11. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  12. Plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes for high ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.ua [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kovalenko, V.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Luminescent and scintillation properties of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes are investigated. A scintillator with dibenzoylmethane Eu complex containing two phenyl groups demonstrates the maximum scintillating efficiency. It is shown that plastic scintillators efficiency is dramatically decreased if {beta}-diketone derivatives contain no phenyl groups as substituents. This fact can be explained by exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a matrix to Eu complex. - Highlights: > Fluorescent properties of polystyrene scintillators with {beta}-diketone complexes of Eu were studied. > Scintillating efficiency is increased with the number of phenyl groups in Eu complex. > This is related to exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a polymer matrix to Eu complex.

  13. Radiation protection during brachytherapy, radiosynoviorthesis or radioimmunotherapy using liquid beta sources. Statement of the SSK; Strahlenschutz bei der Therapie mit Beta-Strahlern in fluessiger Form im Rahmen einer Brachytherapie, Radiosynoviorthese und einer Radioimmuntherapie. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Unsealed liquid beta sources (Sr-89, Y-90, I-131, Er-169, Re-186, Re-188) are used increasingly in nuclear medicine for therapeutic purposes. In contrast to radioiodine therapy of thyroid diseases, interdisciplinary cooperation may be necessary (cardiology, orthopedic, rheumatology, oncology etc.), e.g. during applicaiton outside nuclear medicine or in case of non-nuclear invasive application methods. During preparation and application of beta sources, enhanced radiation exposure of the medical staff, especially doctors, is possible both in consequence of external exposure and in case of contaminations. Routine applications of unsealed liquid beta sources therefore necessitate specified radiation protection measures as specified in the guideline ''Strahlenschutz in der Medizin''. (orig.)

  14. Modification of polyethylene films by radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and immobilization of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava-Ortiz, C.A.B. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto polyethylene films using a preirradiation method with {gamma} rays. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were verified by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. {beta}-Cyclodextrin was immobilized onto polypropylene modified with glycidyl methacrylate, and the ability of the cavities of {beta}-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes was demonstrated using the typically organic compound approach with m-toluic acid (3-MBA) as a probe.

  15. A study on radiation safety measures for the use of high-energy beta-ray sources in medical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Woo; Yang, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyeon Jo [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : an investigation of the current application status of medical radioisotopes, Sr-90, Ho-166, Re-188, which emit beta-rays of energy greater than 1.5 Mev, analyses of the environments under which the above isotopes are used, estimation of personal radiation doses by using the MCNP-4C computer code for the situations in which high radiation doses might be probable, review of the USA's regulations related to safe use of the radioisotopes, investigation of past over-expose cases reported in the internet, analysis of the current domestic regulations, suggestion of safety measures necessary for the use of the radioisotopes.

  16. Fabrication of new phosphors of NaCl: Cu and their thermoluminescent characterization to be exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, R.; Perez S, R.; Barboza F, M.; Tostado G, W.C.; Cruz V, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of new NaCl:Cu phosphors manufactured by following a previously reported sintering method. The samples were made from mixtures of commercially available Na CI and Cu Cl high purity powders. Tl glow curves obtained after exposing the samples to beta radiation exhibit two main intense peaks at 117 and 310 when a 2 C/s heating rate is used. These peaks positions differ from those reported for NaCl:Cu monocrystals. The first peak vanishes in ca. 3 h, while the high temperature one remains with no meaningful changes. The position, as well as the remarkable stability of the high temperature peak indicates that this new phosphors have better properties than the monocrystals present to be applied as detectors and dosimeters of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  17. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br, e-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2003-07-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  18. Consideration of the problems of the separate measurement of {beta}, {gamma} and X radiation; Considerations sur les problemes de la dosimetrie individuelle des radiations {beta}, {gamma}, X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After outlining the present state of knowledge concerning the determination of doses absorbed by external irradiation for various types of radiation, the author gives figures for the comparative sensitivity of common detectors. He then defines the criteria which have to be considered for the choice of the sensitive medium and of the nature and the thickness of the detector walls. Considered very generally, the detection assembly intended for measuring the dose absorbed at a given point in the organism must be designed with a view to giving the same overall interactions with the radiation considered as those occurring in the organism. (author) [French] Apres avoir precise l'etat de nos connaissances generales actuelles concernant la determination des doses absorbees par irradiation externe pour les divers rayonnements, l'auteur indique la sensibilite comparee des detecteurs usuels. Il definit ensuite les criteres qui doivent etre pris en consideration pour le choix du milieu sensible, de la nature et de l'epaisseur de la paroi des detecteurs. D'une maniere tres generale, l'ensemble de detection destine a mesurer une dose absorbee en un point donne de l'organisme doit etre concu en vue de presenter les memes interactions globales avec le rayonnement etudie que celles mises en jeu dans l'organisme. (auteur)

  19. Modelling of hand phantoms and optimisation of dose measurements in inhomogeneous beta-photon radiation fields using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Frank; Blunck, Christoph; Hegenbart, Lars; Heide, Bernd; Leone, Debora; Nagels, Sven; Schimmelpfeng, Jutta; Urban, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Inhomogeneous beta-photon radiation fields make a reliable dose difficult to determine. Routine monitoring with dosemeters does not guarantee any accurate determination of the local skin dose. In general, correction factors are used to correct for the measured dose and the maximum exposure. However, strong underestimations of the maximum exposure are possible, depending on the individual handling and the reliability of dose measurements. Simulations provide the possibility to track the points of highest exposure and the origin of the highest dose. In this connection, simulations are performed with MCNPX. In order to investigate the local skin dose, two hand phantoms are used, a model based on geometrical elements and a voxel hand. A typical case of radio synoviorthesis, handling of a syringe filled with 90 Y, is simulated. Another simulation focuses on the selective internal radio therapy, revealing the origin of the main dose component in the mixed beta-photon radiation field of a 90 Y vial in an opened transport container. (author)

  20. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling - part A: Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The need to understand how particle radiation (high-energy photons and electrons) from a variety of sources affects materials and electronics has motivated the development of sophisticated computer codes that describe how radiation with energies from 1.0 keV to 100.0 GeV propagates through matter. Predicting radiation transport is the necessary first step in predicting radiation effects. The radiation transport codes that are described here are general-purpose codes capable of analyzing a variety of radiation environments including those produced by nuclear weapons (x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons), by sources in space (electrons and ions) and by accelerators (x-rays, gamma rays, and electrons). Applications of these codes include the study of radiation effects on electronics, nuclear medicine (imaging and cancer treatment), and industrial processes (food disinfestation, waste sterilization, manufacturing.) The primary focus will be on coupled electron-photon transport codes, with some brief discussion of proton transport. These codes model a radiation cascade in which electrons produce photons and vice versa. This coupling between particles of different types is important for radiation effects. For instance, in an x-ray environment, electrons are produced that drive the response in electronics. In an electron environment, dose due to bremsstrahlung photons can be significant once the source electrons have been stopped

  1. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  2. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  3. The GSF secondary standard dosimetry laboratory for photon and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerl, H.; Nahrstedt, U.

    1986-03-01

    A brief outline of the laboratory's tasks and a detailed description of its layout and equipment is given. The laboratory contains a Co-60 irradiation unit, a Cs-137 irradiation unit, a panoramic irradiation unit for different nuclide sources, a 160- and 420 kV X-ray unit, a beta-irradiation unit and a measuring and control room. The calibration laboratory is equipped with reference and field dosemeters. (DG)

  4. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Rajon, Didier A.; Patton, Phillip W.; Jokisch, Derek W.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of skeletal dose assessment in both medical physics (radionuclide therapy) and health physics (dose reconstruction and risk assessment) rely heavily on a single set of bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions in which particle energy deposition is tracked within an infinite extent of trabecular spongiosa, with no allowance for particle escape to cortical bone. In the present study, we introduce a paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model which provides a more realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry for particle transport in the skeletal site at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of its histology. Ex vivo CT scans were acquired of the pelvis, cranial cap, and individual ribs excised from a 66-year male cadaver (BMI of 22.7 kg m -2 ). For the three skeletal sites, regions of trabecular spongiosa and cortical bone were identified and segmented. Physical sections of interior spongiosa were taken and subjected to microCT imaging. Voxels within the resulting microCT images were then segmented and labeled as regions of bone trabeculae, endosteum, active marrow, and inactive marrow through application of image processing algorithms. The PIRT methodology was then implemented within the EGSNRC radiation transport code whereby electrons of various initial energies are simultaneously tracked within both the ex vivo CT macroimage and the CT microimage of the skeletal site. At initial electron energies greater than 50-200 keV, a divergence in absorbed fractions to active marrow are noted between PIRT model simulations and those estimated under existing techniques of infinite spongiosa transport. Calculations of radionuclide S values under both methodologies imply that current chord-based models may overestimate the absorbed dose to active bone marrow in these skeletal sites by 0% to 27% for low-energy beta emitters ( 33 P, 169 Er, and 177 Lu), by ∼4% to 49% for intermediate-energy beta emitters ( 153 Sm, 186 Re, and 89 Sr), and by ∼14% to

  5. Radiation thickness gauge using beta particle sensitivity controlled open air corona streamer counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, L.; El-Hazek, S.; El-Araby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Beta particles have been used extensively in radio gauging applications when measurements of foil thicknesses are desired. Using beta particle open air corona streamer counter (point-grid-plane) as a thickness gauge is presented. This gauge consists of two similar counters with two similar Sr-90 beta sources. One counter-source combination is called standard unit, and the other counter-source combination is called measuring unit in which the required foil thickness can be measured by inserting it between the source and the counter. The signals from the counters are amplified with the same gain factor and the net difference between their responses is measured using specially designed electronic circuit. By this way any change that takes place in the operating medium (variation of parameters of open air i.e. temperature, humidity...etc) can similarly affect the two units, the errors in the measurements caused by them are cancelled, and the only response is due to the measured foil thickness. A theoretical model is suggested to explain and analyze the overall response of the gauge system and calculate the calibration thickness gauge constant. All theoretical findings are confirmed by experiments

  6. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  7. Pathological features of cerebral radiation necrosis - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaix, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cerebral radiation necrosis is a major hazard of radiation therapy involving delivery of high doses of radiation to the brain. It is generally irreversible and frequently leads to death from brain necrosis. Necrosis has been reported with total doses of 50-60 Gy, delivered in conventional fractions of 1.7 to 2 Gy daily. Signs and symptoms depend upon the volume of brain irradiated and are frequently those of an intracranial mass. Injury tends to be more severe in white matter and may be present as an area of gliosis or frank necrosis. Possible causes include some direct effect of radiation on glial cells, vascular changes and the action of an immunological mechanism. The weight of evidence suggests that demyelination is important in the early delayed reaction, and that vascular changes gradually become more important in the late delayed reactions, several months to years after treatment. Late delayed radiation injuries of the brain and spinal cord are reviewed in man, dog, monkey and rat

  8. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose {beta} radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Zhou Xiangyan

    1995-06-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with {beta}-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic {beta}-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or {gamma}-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs.

  9. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis

  10. Personal monitoring for external sources of beta and low energy photon radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.; Herbaut, Y.; Marshall, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    In general, the dosemeters currently used for personal monitoring of beta and low energy photon doses suffer from an energy threshold problem because the detector and/or filter is too thick. Furthermore, current non-tissue-equivalent dosemeters, e.g. film dosemeters, are not provided with the filters needed to evaluate beta ray and low energy photon doses separately. To improve the present state of film dosemeters the thickness of the film wrapping paper should be reduced significantly and the badge should be provided with a number of pairs of thin filters. The dose evaluation from such a dosemeter is, however, complex and inaccurate and it seems unlikely that the required improvement is achievable at a reasonable cost. Improvement of tissue-equivalent dosemeters is possible by further development of multi-element dosemeters and thin detectors. The multi-element method has the advantage of using existing detectors, however the dose estimation is encumbered with high random error and the dosemeter design may become prohibitively expensive. The use of thin tissue-equivalent detectors implies a very simple badge design and an inherently accurate and uncomplicated dose evaluation. The development of adequate, thin, tissue-equivalent detectors suited for automated processing should therefore be encouraged.

  11. Personal monitoring for external sources of beta and low energy photon radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.; Herbaut, Y.; Marshall, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    In general, the dosemeters currently used for personal monitoring of beta and low energy photon doses suffer from an energy threshold problem because the detector and/or filter is too thick. Furthermore, current non-tissue-equivalent dosemeters, e.g. film dosemeters, are not provided with the filters needed to evaluate beta ray and low energy photon doses separately. To improve the present state of film dosemeters the thickness of the film wrapping paper should be reduced significantly and the badge should be provided with a number of pairs of thin filters. The dose evaluation from such a dosemeter is, however, complex and inaccurate and it seems unlikely that the required improvement is achievable at a reasonable cost. Improvement of tissue-equivalent dosemeters is possible by further development of multi-element dosemeters and thin detectors. The multi-element method has the advantage of using existing detectors, however the dose estimation is encumbered with high random error and the dosemeter design may become prohibitively expensive. The use of thin tissue-equivalent detectors implies a very simple badge design and an inherently accurate and uncomplicated dose evaluation. The development of adequate, thin, tissue-equivalent detectors suited for automated processing should therefore be encouraged. (author)

  12. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of new ZnO nano phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of ZnO nano phosphors obtained by thermal annealing of ZnS powders synthesized by precipitation in a chemical bath deposition reaction. To obtain nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnS pellet-shaped samples were subjected to a sintering process at 700 C during 24 under air atmosphere. Some samples were exposed to beta particles in the 0.15-10.15 kGy dose range and the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose increased as dose increased, with no saturation clue for the tested doses. Computerized glow-curve deconvolution of the experimental TL curves in individual peaks revealed a second order kinetics. In order to test the BOSL (Blue Optically Stimulated Luminescence) response, samples were beta irradiated with doses up to 600 Gy, showing an increasing OSL intensity as dose increases. From the experimental results that we have obtained, we conclude that the new ZnO phosphors under investigation are good candidates to be used as dosimetric materials. (Author)

  13. Study and industrial applications of the external slowing-down {beta}{sup -} radiation of the yttrium - 90; Etude et applications industrielles du rayonnement de freinage externe des {beta}{sup -} de l'yttrium - 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P; Martinelli, P; Chauvin, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of the {beta}{sup -} particles on the nucleus gives place to the emission of a X-ray Bremsstrahlung radiation. In view of possible industrial applications, we studied the slowing-down radiation of {sup 90}(Sr + Y) sources in various materials. This pure {beta}{sup -} emitter of long period is in the fission products of uranium. Among of the industrial applications, these sources of weak X-rays energy can be used for the radiography of thin pieces, for measuring the thickness, or for the analysis by fluorescence. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion inelastique des particules {beta}{sup -} sur les noyaux donne lieu a l'emission d'un rayonnement X de freinage. En vue de possibles applications industrielles, nous avons etudie le rayonnement de freinage des sources {sup 90}(Sr + Y) dans divers materiaux. Cet emetteur {beta}{sup -} pur a longue periode se trouve dans les produits de fission de l'uranium. Parmi les applications industrielles a l'etude, ces sources de rayons X de faible energie peuvent etre utilisees pour la radiographie de pieces minces, la mesure d'epaisseurs, ou encore pour l'analyse par fluorescence. (M.B.)

  14. Direct ion storage dosimetry systems for photon, beta and neutron radiation with instant readout capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, C.; Kahilainen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter is a new type of electronic dosemeter from which the dose information for both H p (10) and H p (0.07) can be obtained instantly at the workplace by using an electronic reader unit. The number of readouts is unlimited and the stored information is not affected by the readout procedure. The accumulated dose can also be electronically reset by authorised personnel. The DIS dosemeter represents a potential alternative for replacing the existing film and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) used in occupational monitoring due to its ease of use and low operating costs. The standard version for normal photon and beta dosimetry, as well as a developmental version for neutron dosimetry, have been characterised in several field studies. Two new small size variations are also introduced including a contactless readout device and a militarised version optimised for field use. (author)

  15. Effects of. beta. radiation on amphibian embryos (Pleurodeles waltlii) and capacities of regulation during development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallien, C L; Lenfant-Guyot, M; Labrousse, J P [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France)

    1981-01-01

    The eukariotic cells of complex organisms possessing abundant and sophisticated genetic information, advanced metabolism and very diversified structures are particularly sensitive to the effects of radiation. One may note, however, that all cells of an organism which has been totally radiated may not be affected in the same way; this leaves room, particularly in embryonic organisms during development, for fairly broad possibilities of regulation. We have undertaken analysis of one aspect of these phenomena on a particularly favorable biological model: the embryo of the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii.

  16. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  17. Thermoluminescent characterization of thin films of aluminium oxide submitted to beta and gamma radiation; Caracterizacion termoluminiscente de peliculas delgadas de oxido de aluminio sometidas a radiacion beta y gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagran, E.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Martinez A, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    By mean of the laser ablation technique, thin films of aluminium oxide have been deposited on kapton substrates. These films present thermoluminescent response (Tl) when they are exposed to beta and gamma radiation. The brilliance curves show two peaks between 112 C and 180 C. A dose-response relationship study was realized and the Tl kinetic parameters were determined using the computerized deconvolution of the brilliance curve (CGCD). The thin films of aluminium oxide have potential applications as ultra.thin radiation dosemeters. (Author)

  18. Ultra-violet radiation - hazard in workplaces? (part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This article presents some basics information on UV hazard and various protective measures that could be taken so that any workplace where UV source are present can be ensured safe for general public to enter and for workers to work in. (Author)

  19. The effects of radiation (beta/gamma and alpha) on cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-02-01

    A worldwide review of what has been published on the effects of radiation on cemented ILW has been carried out where properties such as composition and volume of any gas evolved/absorbed, physical properties, chemical evolution and dose rate were considered. It is clear that only a superficial knowledge of the underlying reasons for radiolytic effects exist although there is sufficient data to enable quantities of gas a function of storage time to be predicted. If long term predictions of behaviour are to be made then the understanding of basic radiation chemistry of cement grout needs to be developed in parallel with the wider study of understanding the effects at the elevated temperatures expected to be present in a repository. (author)

  20. Enzastaurin (LY317615), a Protein Kinase C Beta Selective Inhibitor, Enhances Antiangiogenic Effect of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, Christopher D.; Xiao Dakai; Tu Tianxiang; Kim, Kwang Woon; Moretti, Luigi; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Tawtawy, Mohammed N.; Quarles, Chad C. Ph.D.; Lu Bo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Angiogenesis has generated interest in oncology because of its important role in cancer growth and progression, particularly when combined with cytotoxic therapies, such as radiotherapy. Among the numerous pathways influencing vascular growth and stability, inhibition of protein kinase B(Akt) or protein kinase C(PKC) can influence tumor blood vessels within tumor microvasculature. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether PKC inhibition could sensitize lung tumors to radiation. Methods and Materials: The combination of the selective PKCβ inhibitor Enzastaurin (ENZ, LY317615) and ionizing radiation were used in cell culture and a mouse model of lung cancer. Lung cancer cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined using immunoblotting, cytotoxic assays including cell proliferation and clonogenic assays, and Matrigel endothelial tubule formation. In vivo, H460 lung cancer xenografts were examined for tumor vasculature and proliferation using immunohistochemistry. Results: ENZ effectively radiosensitizes HUVEC within in vitro models. Furthermore, concurrent ENZ treatment of lung cancer xenografts enhanced radiation-induced destruction of tumor vasculature and proliferation by IHC. However, tumor growth delay was not enhanced with combination treatment compared with either treatment alone. Analysis of downstream effectors revealed that HUVEC and the lung cancer cell lines differed in their response to ENZ and radiation such that only HUVEC demonstrate phosphorylated S6 suppression, which is downstream of mTOR. When ENZ was combined with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in H460 lung cancer cells, radiosensitization was observed. Conclusion: PKC appears to be crucial for angiogenesis, and its inhibition by ENZ has potential to enhance radiotherapy in vivo.

  1. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  2. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is utilized as a model system for studying dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the DNA of the epidermis, including strand breaks and thymine dimers, are measured and compared to the temporal and dose related aspects of tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molecular lesions are compared to split dose recovery as modified by sensitizers and type of radition of oncogenic damage

  3. Utility of Normal Tissue-to-Tumor {alpha}/{beta} Ratio When Evaluating Isodoses of Isoeffective Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve a better understanding of the effect of the number of fractions on normal tissue sparing for equivalent tumor control in radiation therapy plans by using equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) isoeffect calculations. Methods and Materials: The simple linear quadratic (LQ) model was assumed to be valid up to 10 Gy per fraction. Using the model, we formulated a well-known mathematical equality for the tumor prescription dose and probed and solved a second mathematical problem for normal tissue isoeffect. That is, for a given arbitrary relative isodose distribution (treatment plan in percentages), 2 isoeffective tumor treatment regimens (N fractions of the dose D and n fractions of the dose d) were denoted, which resulted in the same BED (corresponding to 100% prescription isodose). Given these situations, the LQ model was further exploited to mathematically establish a unique relative isodose level, z (%), for the same arbitrary treatment plan, where the BED to normal tissues was also isoeffective for both fractionation regimens. Results: For the previously stated problem, the relative isodose level z (%), where the BEDs to the normal tissue were also equal, was defined by the normal tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratio divided by the tumor {alpha}/{beta} times 100%. Fewer fractions offers a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue located outside the isodose surface, z, whereas more fractions offer a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue within the isodose surface, z. Conclusions: Relative isodose-based treatment plan evaluations may be useful for comparing isoeffective tumor regimens in terms of normal tissue effects. Regions of tissues that would benefit from hypofractionation or standard fractionation can be identified.

  4. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilseia Aparecida Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    heterogeneous eye model, indicating that the homogeneous water eye model is a reasonable one. The determined isodose curves give a good visualization of dose distributions inside the eye structures, pointing out their most exposed volume....................................................Cite this article as:Barbosa NA, da Rosa LAR, de Menezes AF, Reis JP, Facure A, Braz D. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(3:02038. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0203.8

  5. Losses in magnetic flux compression generators: Part 2, Radiation losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.

    1988-06-01

    This is the second monograph devoted to the analysis of flux losses in explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. In the first monograph, flux losses from magnetic field penetration into conductor walls was studied by conventional diffusion theory. In the present report flux loss by radiation from the outer conductor walls is treated. Flux leakage rates through walls of finite thickness are first obtained by diffusion theory. It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product of wall thickness and wall conductivity. This remains true when the wall thickness is reduced to zero at unchanged conductance. In this case the wall is said to be coalesced. Solutions for a cavity bounded by a perfect conductor on one side and a coalesced wall on the other are then obtained using the complete Maxwell wave equations in both the cavity and free space beyond the coalesced wall. Several anomalies, noted earlier, that arise from diffusion analysis are resolved by the wave treatment. Conditions for the validity of the diffusion treatment are noted, and an expression is obtained within the framework of diffusion theory for energy radiated into space from the cavity walls. The free space wave equations are solved by using the method of characteristics in both the cavity and free space regions. An extension of the characteristic method to situations where the constitutive relations are non-linear is outlined in an appendix. For a special class of these relations, Riemann-like invariants are determined explicitly and used to solve a particular example

  6. Real-time, automated characterization of surfaces for alpha and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    A new data collection system, called ABACUS trademark, has been developed that automates and expedites the collection, conversion, and reporting of radiological survey data of surfaces. Field testing of the system by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Environmental Technology Section is currently underway. Preliminary results are presented. The system detects, discriminates, and separately displays the results for alpha and beta contamination scans on floors and walls with a single pass. Fixed-position static counting is also possible for quantitative measuring. The system is currently configured with five 100 cm 2 dual-phosphor plastic scintillation detectors mounted in a lightweight aluminum fixture that holds the detectors in a fixed array. ABACUS trademark can be configured with other detectors if desired. Ratemeter/scalars traditionally coupled to individual detectors have been replaced by a single unit that houses the power supply and discriminator circuit boards to support up to five detectors. The system is designed to be used by a single operator. Each detector's position and data are transmitted once per second and recorded on a nearby laptop computer. The data are converted to appropriate units, color-coded, and mapped to display graphically the findings for each detector in real-time. Reports can be generated immediately following the survey. Survey data can be exported in a variety of formats. Benefits of ABACUS trademark are: (1) immediate feedback to decision makers using the observational approach to characterization or remediation, (2) thorough documentation of survey results, (3) increased statistical confidence in scans by recording counts every second, (4) reduced paperwork and elimination of transcription errors, and (5) time and cost savings for collection, conversion, mapping, evaluating, and reporting data over traditional methods

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  8. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  9. Calculation of absorbed dose for skin contamination imparted by beta radiation through the VARSKIN modified code for 122 interesting isotopes for nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the VARSKIN code for calculation of absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by Beta emitting is presented. The modification consists on the inclusion of 47 isotopes of interest even Nuclear Plants for the dose evaluation in skin generated by 'hot particles'. The approach for to add these isotopes is the correlation parameter F and the average energy of the Beta particle, with relationship to those 75 isotopes of the original code. The methodology of the dose calculation of the VARSKIN code is based on the interpolation, (and integration of the interest geometries: punctual or plane sources), of the distribution functions scaled doses in water for beta and electrons punctual sources, tabulated by Berger. Finally a brief discussion of the results for their interpretation and use with purposes of radiological protection (dose insurance in relation to the considered biological effects) is presented

  10. Study of radiation formation of methyl-iodide Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, B.; Schweiner, Z.; Bednar, J.; Hladky, E.

    1975-01-01

    Purified methane, ethylene, iodine, methyl iodide, ethyl iodide and hydrogen iodide were irradiated and/or pyrolyzed in Pyrex ampoules by 60 Co-γ-radiation at temperatures between 150 and 450 deg C. The results on radiolysis and pyrolysis were as follows: 1., The most thermally stable product is hydrogen iodide in which already at 450 deg C essen-tially all originally present iodine appears. 2., The radiolytic formation of methyl iodide and hydrogen iodide is positively influenced by the rise in temperature, This and the absolute values of yields indicate a chain mechanism of radiolytic (and pyrolytic) decomposition of the mixture. 3., The ratio of equilibrium concentrations [HI]/[CH 3 I] increases with increasing temperature of pyrolysis showing that HI is the end product of the thermal chain reaction. Methyl iodide is likely to contribute (by its thermal decomposition) to the initiation and propagation of this chain reaction. 4., The negligible temperature dependence of G(H 2 ) and the absence of molecular hydrogen among the products of pyrolytic decomposition of methane-iodine mixtures shows, that (up to 450 deg C) H atoms do not play any role in the thermal chain decomposition of these mixtures. (K.A.)

  11. Radiation fibrosis of guinea pig skin after. beta. irradiation and an attempt at its suppression with proline analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohuchi, K.; Chang, L.F.; Tabachnick, J.

    1979-08-01

    The skins of adult, male albino guinea pigs were irradiated with a dose of 3500-rad ..beta.. rays from a /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y sealed source on 25 x 25-mm flank areas. Abnormal collagen deposition (fibrosis) occurred between the first and fourth months as evidenced by the replacement of the normal thick random whorls of collagen fibers by embryonic-like thin fibers parallel to the hyperplastic epidermis. These histologic changes were confined primarily to about 0.4 mm of upper dermis. By the fourth month and up to 2.5 years postirradiation, there was a decreased content of acid-soluble and -insoluble collagen in the irradiated upper dermis concomitant with an increase in noncollageneous protein. With the exception of occluded arterioles in the lower dermis, there were no obvious chemical or histological changes in collagen of remaining dermis. Injection for 4 months or longer of the proline analogs, DL-3,4-dehydroproline, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, or cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline significantly decreased the small amount of metabolically active soluble collagen but had no effect on the content of insoluble fibrous collagen nor the abnormal deposition of collagen fibers in the upper dermis. The data indicate that the proline analogs are of little or no value in suppressing radiation fibrosis in skin.

  12. Deletion of glutamate dehydrogenase in beta-cells abolishes part of the insulin secretory response not required for glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Frigerio, Francesca; Rubi, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    Insulin exocytosis is regulated in pancreatic ss-cells by a cascade of intracellular signals translating glucose levels into corresponding secretory responses. The mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is regarded as a major player in this process, although its abrogation has not been...... tested yet in animal models. Here, we generated transgenic mice, named betaGlud1(-/-), with ss-cell-specific GDH deletion. Our results show that GDH plays an essential role in the full development of the insulin secretory response. In situ pancreatic perfusion revealed that glucose-stimulated insulin...... secretion was reduced by 37% in betaGlud1(-/-). Furthermore, isolated islets with either constitutive or acute adenovirus-mediated knock-out of GDH showed a 49 and 38% reduction in glucose-induced insulin release, respectively. Adenovirus-mediated re-expression of GDH in betaGlud1(-/-) islets fully restored...

  13. TL and LOE dosimetric evaluation of diamond films exposed to beta and ultraviolet radiation; Evaluacion dosimetrica TL y LOE de peliculas de diamante expuestas a radiacion beta y ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado F, S.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 13 y A.P. 5-088, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Schreck, M. [Universitaet Augsburg, Institut fuer Physik D-86135 (Germany); Cruz Z, E. [ICN, UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The diamond possesses a privileged position regarding other materials of great technological importance. Their applications go from the optics, microelectronics, metals industry, medicine and of course as dosemeter, in the registration and detection of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. In this work the results of TL/LOE obtained in two samples of diamond of 10 {mu}m thickness grown by the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) assisted by microwave plasma. The films were deposited in a silicon substrate (001) starting from a mixture of gases composed of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and 750 ppm of molecular nitrogen as dopant. The samples were exposed to beta radiation (Sr{sup 90}/ Y{sup 90}) and ultraviolet, being stimulated later on thermal (TL) and optically (LOE) to evaluate their dosimetric properties. The sample without doping presented high response TL/LOE to the ultraviolet and beta radiation. The TL glow curve of the sample without doping showed two TL peaks with second order kinetics in the range of 520 to 550 K, besides a peak with first order kinetics of more intensity around 607 K. The TL efficiency of the non doped sample is bigger than the doped with nitrogen; however the LOE efficiency is similar in both samples. The results indicate that the CVD diamond possesses excellent perspectives for dosimetric applications, with special importance in radiotherapy due to it is biologically compatible with the human tissue. (Author)

  14. Beta calibration and dosimetry at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefullness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  15. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  16. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  17. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Radiation damage has presented a new design parameter for the selection of materials to be used in fuel and cladding elements, moderators, structural components and pressure vessels in nuclear reactors. The severe and novel requirements for certain optimum combinations of physical and nuclear properties have emphasized the need for a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of radiation damage. This knowledge is not only essential for progress in the field of nuclear energy, but has direct applications to space technology and semi-conductor research as well. The IAEA, as part of its programme of promoting nuclear technology, therefore convened the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials, 7-11 May 1962. At the invitation of, and with generous material assistance from, the Government of Italy, the Symposium was held at Venice. The Symposium was primarily concerned with the investigation of the fundamental processes of radiation that underlie the behaviour of metals, alloys and ceramics that are actually useful or potentially useful reactor materials. Two sessions were devoted to studies of irradiation effects on simple metals, as these effects are easiest to interpret. Other topics included general theory, alloys, fissionable and moderator materials and special experimental techniques for radiation damage studies. The properties influenced by irradiation which were of main concern were those of primary importance to the behaviour of solids as reactor materials (e. g. dimensional stability, phase transformation, radiation hardening, fracture, fission-gas escape from uranium and its compounds). Other properties, such as optical, electrical and magnetic properties, and effects on semiconductors, ionic and other non-metallic crystals are also of interest in that these studies can increase our knowledge of the mechanism of radiation damage in solids and provide a tool for investigation into the physics of the solid state by offering a means of

  18. Transforming growth factor beta 1 dependent regulation of Tenascin-C in radiation impaired wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Roedel, Franz; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G.; Amann, Kerstin; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Following preoperative radiotherapy prior to ablative surgery of squamous epithelial cell carcinomas of the head and neck region fibrocontractive wound healing disorders occur. Tenascin-C is significantly increased in fibrotic tissue conditions and can be stimulated by the transcription factor NFκB p65. Previous studies showed a reduction of irradiation induced fibrosis during the wound healing process by anti-TGFβ 1 -treatment. The aim of the study was to clarify the question whether Tenascin-C expression is elevated in radiation impaired wounds and whether anti-TGFβ 1 -treatment is capable to influence Tenascin-C and NFκB expression. Material and methods: Wistar rats (male, weight 300-500 g) underwent preoperative irradiation of the head and neck region with 40 Gy, fractionated four times 10 Gy (16 animals), whereas 8 non-irradiated animals served as a control. Four weeks after irradiation a free myocutaneous gracilis flap taken from the groin was transplanted to the neck. Eight animals additionally received 5 μg anti-TGFβ 1 into the graft bed by intradermal injection prior to each fraction of irradiation and on days 1-7 post-operation. On day 14 and 28 following surgery immunohistochemistry (ABC-POX method) was performed assessing the cytoplasmic NFκB and Tenascin-C staining in the transition area between transplant and graft bed. For quantitative considerations the labeling index (ratio: positive cells/total cells) was determined. Results: A significantly altered expression of Tenascin-C in the preirradiated tissue was observed following anti-TGFβ 1 -treatment. NFκB protein was upregulated in irradiated animals and was significantly reduced in the anti-TGFβ 1 treated group on day 28 after transplantation. Conclusions: Tenascin-C expression is prolonged in irradiated animals as compared to non-irradiated tissue. Tenascin-C seems to be regulated by TGFβ 1 as the application of TGFβ 1 -neutralizing antibodies reduces Tenascin-C expression

  19. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-12-31

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}) or high PAR (HL; 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F{sub v}/F{sub max} and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  1. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 μmol m -2 s -1 ) or high PAR (HL; 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F v /F max and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.)

  2. A study on the efficacy and adverse effects of post-operative beta-radiation in the prevention of recurrence of Pterygium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Nisa, L.; Kabir, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Beta irradiation by Strontium (Sr-90) has been in use for about 20 years in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate its efficacy and the risk and incidence of complications, both short-term and long-term. A retrospective analysis was done of all 417 patients receiving post-operative beta irradiation from January 2001 to January 2006.There were 303 males and 114 females, age ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean of 38 years. Each patient received 2500cGy to the post-operative sclera surface in five fractions by hand held Sr-90 surface applicator from Amersham International. The patients were followed up at one week, one month, six months and one year after beta irradiation. All 417 cases reported for follow up at one week. But then gradually some patients did not turn up according to the schedule. The number of patients who reported for follow up at one month, 6 months and one year were 401, 325 and 288 respectively. Eighteen cases had recurrence within one year and received a second dose of beta radiation. Short-term complications included conjunctivitis, photophobia, watering of eyes etc. As for long term complications, two patients developed cataract and one patient developed ophthalmomalacia. The short-term complications were self limiting and had no serious effects. The two cases who developed cataracts were over 50 years old, so it could not be clearly understood whether the normal ageing process or the radiation contributed more in the development of the cataract. The rare ophthalmo-malacia developed in a case, which had simultaneous Graves' disease. All other patients in the study are doing well with significant improvement in visual acuity. The results of this retrospective study reveal that Sr- 90 beta irradiation is an effective and safe treatment option to prevent recurrence of Pterygium. (author)

  3. Radiation damage in the mouse female germ cell: a two-part study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, B.

    1978-07-01

    In 1977 the average annual airborne gross beta activity in Livermore Valley air samples was 1.2 x 10 -13 μCi/ml, nearly twice the average observed during 1976 (7.6 x 10 -14 μCi/ml). The increase was partly due to an atmosphere nuclear test by the Peoples Republic of China. Concentrations of various radionuclides ( 235 U, 238 U, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and tritium in samples of surface air, surface waters, groundwater, soils, and food are reported. Results of aerial radiological surveys are included

  4. Damocles' sword: the history of radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Second part: the 1940s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1999-01-01

    The main theme of this book is the Manhattan project, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the military and political background for the development of the nuclear weapons. These facts have been of great importance for the development of nuclear power and for the nuclear power debate, and also for the development of radiation protection, which is the head subject for this series of books

  5. Fabrication of new phosphors of NaCl: Cu and their thermoluminescent characterization to be exposed to beta radiation; Fabricacion de nuevos fosforos de NaCl: Cu y su caracterizacion termoluminiscente al ser expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, R.; Perez S, R.; Barboza F, M. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Tostado G, W.C.; Cruz V, C. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of new NaCl:Cu phosphors manufactured by following a previously reported sintering method. The samples were made from mixtures of commercially available Na CI and Cu Cl high purity powders. Tl glow curves obtained after exposing the samples to beta radiation exhibit two main intense peaks at 117 and 310 when a 2 C/s heating rate is used. These peaks positions differ from those reported for NaCl:Cu monocrystals. The first peak vanishes in ca. 3 h, while the high temperature one remains with no meaningful changes. The position, as well as the remarkable stability of the high temperature peak indicates that this new phosphors have better properties than the monocrystals present to be applied as detectors and dosimeters of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  6. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Remembrances of the early fifteen years of radiation protection at the National Atomic Energy Commission. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placer, Alejandro E.

    2005-01-01

    Personal memories on the origin of radiation protection activities in Argentina. This third part covers the period from 1963 to 1973 and describes the persons and facts that led to the future development of radiation protection in the country [es

  8. {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC receptor-targeted alpha-radionuclide therapy induces remission in neuroendocrine tumours refractory to beta radiation: a first-in-human experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruchertseifer, F.; Apostolidis, C.; Morgenstern, A. [European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boll, R.; Murphy, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radiopeptide therapy using a somatostatin analogue labelled with a beta emitter such as {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC is a new therapeutic option in neuroendocrine cancer. Alternative treatments for patients with refractory disease are rare. Here we report the first-in-human experience with {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC targeted alpha therapy (TAT) in patients pretreated with beta emitters. Seven patients with progressive advanced neuroendocrine liver metastases refractory to treatment with {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC were treated with an intraarterial infusion of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC, and one patient with bone marrow carcinosis was treated with a systemic infusion of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC. Haematological, kidney and endocrine toxicities were assessed according to CTCAE criteria. Radiological response was assessed with contrast-enhanced MRI and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT. More than 2 years of follow-up were available in seven patients. The biodistribution of {sup 213}Bi-DOTATOC was evaluable with 440 keV gamma emission scans, and demonstrated specific tumour binding. Enduring responses were observed in all treated patients. Chronic kidney toxicity was moderate. Acute haematotoxicity was even less pronounced than with the preceding beta therapies. TAT can induce remission of tumours refractory to beta radiation with favourable acute and mid-term toxicity at therapeutic effective doses. (orig.)

  9. 213Bi-DOTATOC receptor-targeted alpha-radionuclide therapy induces remission in neuroendocrine tumours refractory to beta radiation: a first-in-human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Apostolidis, C.; Morgenstern, A.; Boll, R.; Murphy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopeptide therapy using a somatostatin analogue labelled with a beta emitter such as 90 Y/ 177 Lu-DOTATOC is a new therapeutic option in neuroendocrine cancer. Alternative treatments for patients with refractory disease are rare. Here we report the first-in-human experience with 213 Bi-DOTATOC targeted alpha therapy (TAT) in patients pretreated with beta emitters. Seven patients with progressive advanced neuroendocrine liver metastases refractory to treatment with 90 Y/ 177 Lu-DOTATOC were treated with an intraarterial infusion of 213 Bi-DOTATOC, and one patient with bone marrow carcinosis was treated with a systemic infusion of 213 Bi-DOTATOC. Haematological, kidney and endocrine toxicities were assessed according to CTCAE criteria. Radiological response was assessed with contrast-enhanced MRI and 68 Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT. More than 2 years of follow-up were available in seven patients. The biodistribution of 213 Bi-DOTATOC was evaluable with 440 keV gamma emission scans, and demonstrated specific tumour binding. Enduring responses were observed in all treated patients. Chronic kidney toxicity was moderate. Acute haematotoxicity was even less pronounced than with the preceding beta therapies. TAT can induce remission of tumours refractory to beta radiation with favourable acute and mid-term toxicity at therapeutic effective doses. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia State, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna; Uzochukwu, Francis C.

    2016-01-01

    The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE are 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) X 10"-"3, (3.529 ± 0.547) X 10"-"3, and (3.210 ± 0.748) X 10"-"3; and are above the world average limit of 0.29 X 10"-"3. Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 X 10"-"4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users. (author)

  11. Overview of the revised 10 CFR Part 20, standards for protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, H.T.; Cool, D.A.; Buchanan, J.D.; Cool, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 is based upon the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection and is generally consistent with the 1987 recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The revised Part 20 contains significant changes from past practice and procedures for estimating, measuring, combining, recording and reporting doses. These changes are associated with the introduction of new concepts and methods of assessing doses

  12. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  13. Detection of hard {beta} radiation in water using the Cerenkov effect; Detection des {beta} durs dans l'eau par effet Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    The light emitted from a liquid during the passage of a particle of sufficiently high energy can be used to determine the contamination of water by {beta}-emitters. The detector based on this principle requires no special treatment of the water. Particular attention has been paid to the optical yield of the detector. However the excellent sensitivity to which this principle leads can only be attained if the background noise is considerably reduced. The electronics associated with detector make it possible to detect a contamination of 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} of strontium-90 in water in about ten minutes. The apparatus presents the double advantage of having a high sensitivity and of being easy to use. Its characteristics make it possible for it to be used for the continuous control of water. (author) [French] La lumiere emise au sein d'un liquide au passage d'une particule suffisamment energetique peut permettre de determiner la contamination d'une eau en emetteurs {beta}. Le detecteur realise sur ce principe ne necessite aucun traitement special de l'eau. Un soin tout particulier a ete apporte a l'etude du rendement optique du detecteur. Cependant l'excellente sensibilite attachee au principe ne peut etre utilisee que si l'on reduit considerablement le bruit de fond. L'electronique associee au detecteur permet de reperer l'existence d'une contamination de 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} de strontium-90 dans l'eau en un temps d'une dizaine de minutes. L'appareil presente l'avantage d'allier une grande sensibilite a la facilite d'emploi. Ses performances autorisent son utilisation au controle continu des eaux. (auteur)

  14. Radiative corrections for semileptonic decays of hyperons: the 'model independent' part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.; Szegoe, K.; Margaritis, T.

    1984-04-01

    The 'model independent' part of the order α radiative correction due to virtual photon exchanges and inner bremsstrahlung is studied for semileptonic decays of hyperons. Numerical results of high accuracy are given for the relative correction to the branching ratio, the electron energy spectrum and the (Esub(e),Esub(f)) Dalitz distribution in the case of four different decays. (author)

  15. Detecting part of the transition radiation detector for the GINES installation at UNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhliarov, K.K.; Gavalian, V.G.; Aginian, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The detecting part of an X-ray transition radiation detector based on thin-walled mylar straws is considered in this paper. The performance of xenon-filled straws in the self-quenching mode is studied in detail. The measurements have been carried out both with radioactive sources and under the electron beam of the Yerevan synchrotron. (orig.)

  16. The RBE of tritium-beta exposure for the induction of the adaptive response and apoptosis; cellular defense mechanisms against the biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreham, D.R.; Bahen, M.E.; Dolling, J-A.

    1997-01-01

    Adaption to radiation is one of a few biological responses that has been demonstrated to occur in mammalian cells exposed to doses of ionizing radiation in the occupational exposure range. The adaptive response has been well characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although the doses required to induce the response are higher than in mammalian cells. When yeast cells are primed with sublethal doses of gamma-radiation, they subsequently undergo an adaptive response and develop resistance to radiation, heat the chemical mutagens in a time and dose dependent manner. We have used this model system to assess the relative ability of tritium-beta radiation to induce the adaptive response the examined tritium-induced radiation resistance, thermal tolerance and suppression of mutation. The results show that sublethal priming doses of tritium caused yeast cells to develop resistance to radiation, heat, and a chemical mutagen MNNG. The magnitude and kinetics of the response, per unit dose, were the same for tritium and gamma-radiation. Therefore, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium induction of the adaptive response was about 1.0. Apoptosis is a genetically programmed cell death or cell suicide. Cells damaged by radiation can be selectively removed from the population by apoptosis and therefore eliminated as a potential cancer risk to the organism. Since we have previously shown that apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of radiation damage in human lymphocytes exposed to low doses, we have used this endpoint to investigate the potency of tritium-beta radiation. Initially, tritium was compared to X-rays for relative effectiveness at inducing apoptosis. The results showed the lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with X-rays or tritium had similar levels of apoptosis per unit dose. Therefore the relative biology effectiveness of tritium for induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes was also about 1. In the work presented here, we have demonstrated that

  17. Transcription profiling of human MCF10A cells subjected to ionizing radiation and treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic...

  18. Proceedings of the Third international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Popok, V.N.; Prikhod'ko, Zh.L.

    1999-10-01

    The 128 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the third forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the second part of the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Properties modification of materials ' and 'Equipment and technologies'

  19. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  20. Reference radiation fields - Simulated workplace neutron fields - Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to the basic quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    ISO 8529-1, ISO 8529-2 and ISO 8529-3, deal with the production, characterization and use of neutron fields for the calibration of personal dosimeters and area survey meters. These International Standards describe reference radiations with neutron energy spectra that are well defined and well suited for use in the calibration laboratory. However, the neutron spectra commonly encountered in routine radiation protection situations are, in many cases, quite different from those produced by the sources specified in the International Standards. Since personal neutron dosimeters, and to a lesser extent survey meters, are generally quite energy dependent in their dose equivalent response, it might not be possible to achieve an appropriate calibration for a device that is used in a workplace where the neutron energy spectrum and angular distribution differ significantly from those of the reference radiation used for calibration. ISO 8529-1 describes four radionuclide based neutron reference radiations in detail. This part of ISO 12789 includes the specification of neutron reference radiations that were developed to closely resemble radiation that is encountered in practice

  1. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants – Part I: Quantification of radiation exposure and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, K.G.; Remec, I.; Pape, Y. Le

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron and gamma rays fields in concrete biological shield are calculated. • An extensive database on irradiated concrete properties has been collected. • Concrete mechanical properties decrease beyond 1.0 × 10 19 n/cm 2 fluence. • Loss of properties appears correlated with radiation induced-aggregate swelling. • Commercial reactor bio-shield may experience long-term irradiation damage. - Abstract: A large fraction of light water reactor (LWR) construction utilizes concrete, including safety-related structures such as the biological shielding and containment building. Concrete is an inherently complex material, with the properties of concrete structures changing over their lifetime due to the intrinsic nature of concrete and influences from local environment. As concrete structures within LWRs age, the total neutron fluence exposure of the components, in particular the biological shield, can increase to levels where deleterious effects are introduced as a result of neutron irradiation. This work summarizes the current state of the art on irradiated concrete, including a review of the current literature and estimates the total neutron fluence expected in biological shields in typical LWR configurations. It was found a first-order mechanism for loss of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete is due to radiation-induced swelling of aggregates, which leads to volumetric expansion of the concrete. This phenomena is estimated to occur near the end of life of biological shield components in LWRs based on calculations of estimated peak neutron fluence in the shield after 80 years of operation

  2. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  3. Radiation effects on ion-exchange resins. Part II. Gamma irradiation of Dowex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Horrell, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were determined of gamma radiation on the anion exchange resin, Dowex 1. Part I on Dowex 50W was reported May 10, 1974. The exchange capacity (both strong and weak base), moisture content, radiolysis products, and physical deterioration of the resin were analyzed after irradiation with doses up to 6.9 x 10 8 rads. The resin capacity decreased approximately 50 percent after a radiation dose of 4 x 10 8 rads. Resin irradiated, when air dried in the nitrate form, showed more stability than resin irradiated in 7N nitric acid (HNO 3 ), which in turn showed more stability than resin irradiated when air dried in the chloride form. Radiation decreased the strong base capacity to a greater extent than the total capacity. The result indicates that some of the quarternary ammonium groups were transformed to secondary and tertiary amine groups that have weak base ion-exchange capability. (U.S.)

  4. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Srivastava, J N; Roy, Sukhdev

    2013-01-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  5. The diagnosis of the gastric cancer using catheter-type semiconductor radiation detector. Comparison of diagnostic values of. beta. -emitting radionuclide label with. gamma. -emitting label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, R; Iwase, T [Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. for Adult Diseases; Sugita, T; Iio, M

    1975-06-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of /sup 32/P-phosphate for human gastric cancer, using a catheter-type semiconductor radiation detector (CASRAD) combined with gastrofiberscope technique, has already been reported by the authors. They have in addition used sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin, sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline in the diagnosis of experimental rabbit gastric cancer, too. In the present study, further refinement of the technique for the ..beta..-ray labeled substance (/sup 32/P-phosphate) for detection of the gastric cancer was compared with that of ..gamma..-ray labeled substance (sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline). A more correct diagnosis of the gastric cancer by in vivo measurement of beta activity could be obtained, when the collimater, made of stainless steel, was attached to the top of the detector. In this way contribution to the count from the adjacent tissues or organs could be eliminated. They were unable to produce an effective and useful collimater for ..gamma..-ray labeled substance which could to be used safely in vivo. Because of the unsatisfactory collimater, radioactivities of the adjacent organs caused on increase in the radioactivity of the background. Therefore inspite of the recent introduction of various sup(99m)Tc-tumor agents, these labels were not applicable to the CASRAD method. For such a small detector system, ..beta..-labels, represented by /sup 32/P-phosphate, was still prefererable to ..gamma..-labels.

  6. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  7. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  8. Addendum report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (2). When and how should the dosimetry of beta H_p(3) be made?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Kawaura, Chiyo; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Tsujimura, Norio; Hayashida, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2015-01-01

    In a mixed field of photon and beta radiations, the same dose assigned to skin is normally assigned to the dose to the lens of the eye as a conservative estimate of H_p(3). In exceptional cases where a very high beta dose might be imparted of the same order with the dose limit, however, the conservatively biased dose must be too limiting, and thereby an accurate estimate of beta H_p(3) is desirable. This addendum report of the Japan Health Physics Society Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye presents a practical proposal of when and how the dosimetry of beta H_p(3) should be made. (author)

  9. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  10. Beta radiation induced luminescence of polycrystalline Cu-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Marcazzó, J.; Santiago, M. [Instituto de Física Arroyo Seco (UNCPBA) and CIFICEN (UNCPBA – CICPBA – CONICET), Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Guarneros, C. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia y Tecnología Avanzada- IPN, Carretera Puerto Industrial Altamira Km 14.5, 896000 Altamira, Tamaulipas, México (Mexico); Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, 03940 México D.F., México (Mexico); Pacio, M. [Centro de Investigación en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Instituto de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. 14 Sur, 72570 Puebla, México (Mexico); Palomino, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, 72570 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2016-11-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and radioluminescence (RL) properties of polycrystalline lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) doped with different concentrations of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under beta irradiation have been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and a solution of CuCl{sub 2} as dopant. The glow curve of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu 0.5 wt %) shows a main stable peak centered at 225 °C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 °C. The low temperature peak fades completely after 24 h of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 °C for 10 s. The main peak of the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu remains constant. The TL response of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of RL signals of the borate have been studied and the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu (0.5 wt %) shows the higher RL emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that polycrystalline Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu has prospects to be used in beta radiation dosimetry. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu-doped lithium tetraborate (LTB) was obtained by high temperature solid state reaction. • Beta-irradiated LTB:Cu (0.5 wt %) showed to have the highest TL and RL response. • A very good TL linearity in the dose range from 0.01 up to 100 Gy was obtained. • No fading is observed when an annealing at 120 °C for 10 s is carried out. • Results show that LTB:Cu has good prospects to be used in beta radiation dosimetry.

  11. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  12. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  13. Thermoluminescence response of new KClxBr1-x :EuCl3 sintered phosphors exposed to beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Burruel-Ibarra, S. E.; Rivera-Flores, M. J.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Alkali halides crystals have been the subject of intense research for an understanding of their radiation-induced defects and luminescence properties. They exhibit noteworthy thermoluminescence (TL) properties when exposed to ionising radiation. Currently, these materials are grown employing expensive and rather complicated techniques. In this work, the results on the TL properties of new alkali halides phosphors fabricated by a simple and inexpensive procedure are presented. The samples were made by mixing KCl, KBr and EuCl 3 salts, and compressing them at a pressure of 3.2 x 10 7 Pa during 3 min, followed by sintering at 700 deg. C during 24 h under air atmosphere. The dosimetric response of the samples showed an increase with radiation dose in the 1.5-20.0 Gy dose range for beta and gamma radiation. The TL glow curves in sintered samples presented significant differences in their peak structures compared with monocrystalline samples, indicating that the nature of the trapping states and the recombination mechanisms may be different. (authors)

  14. Dose rate measurements in the beta-photon radiation field from UO2 pellets and glazed ceramics containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, the handling of UO 2 pellets results in a significant exposure, mainly due to beta rays. Depth dose distributions have been investigated at source-to-detector distances of 5 to 80 cm using LiF detectors of different thicknesses. Detailed data for the dose equivalent quantities H(0.07), H(3) and H(10) are presented. These data are compared with those found for the use of glazed tiles and ceramics containing natural uranium. (author)

  15. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part IV: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  16. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Susan; Halkett, Georgia; Sale, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development

  17. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Susan [Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Halkett, Georgia [Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Sale, Charlotte [Radiation Oncology, Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Vic. (Australia); Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Collaboration: Grad Cert Grief & Pall Care Counselling, MIR

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development.

  18. Variation in radiation sensitivity and repair kinetics in different parts of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamus-Gorka, Magdalena; Brahme, Anders; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Lind, Bengt K.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The spinal cord, known for its strongly serial character and high sensitivity to radiation even when a small segment is irradiated, is one of the most critical organs at risk to be spared during radiation therapy. To compare the sensitivity of different parts of the spinal cord, data for radiation myelopathy have been used. Material and methods. In the present study, the relative seriality model was fitted to two different datasets of clinical radiation myelitis concerning cervical spinal cord after treating 248 patients for head and neck cancer and thoracic spinal cord after treating 43 patients with lung carcinoma. The maximum likelihood method was applied to fit the clinical data. The model parameters and their 68% confidence intervals were calculated for each dataset. The α/β ratio for the thoracic cord was also was also found to be 0.9 (0-3.0) Gy. Results. The dose-response curve for the more sensitive cervical myelopathy is well described by the parameters D 50 =55.9 (54.8-57.1) Gy, γ=6.9 (5.0-9.2), s=0.13 (0.07-0.24), whereas the thoracic myelopathy is described by the parameters D 50 =75.5 (70.5-80.8) Gy, γ=1.1 (0.6-1.6), s=36 (3.3-8). Discussion and conclusions. Large differences in radiation response between the cervical and thoracic region of spinal cord are thus observed: cervical myelopathy seems to be characterized by medium seriality, while thoracic spinal cord is characterized by a highly serial dose-response. The much steeper dose-response curve for cervical spinal cord myelopathy can be interpreted as a higher number of functional subunits consistent with a higher amount of white matter close to the brain

  19. Radiation therapy of the oral cavity: sequelae and management, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, J.; Curtis, T.; Harrison, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    This is the concluding portion of a two-part series dealing with the effects and manifestations in the oral cavity of radiation therapy of head and neck tumors. Preradiation and postradiation extractions in dentulous patients, as well as dental maintenance of such patients (including fluoride treatments follow-up, and restorative care), are discussed. Guidelines for the dental management of edentulous patients are also presented at length (this section covers risk of bone necrosis, soft liners, timing of denture placement, dentures and preexisting bone necrosis, soft-tissue necrosis and dentures, morbidity, and prosthodontic procedures). The article concludes with a brief discussion of osteoradionecrosis and soft-tissue necrosis

  20. Synchrotron radiation and x-ray topography. Part II. Examples of some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Synchrotron x-radiation topography is a powerful tool for studying defects in ''bulk'' metals and alloys. The general features of this technique, including both advantages and disadvantages, have been discussed in Part I of this review. This second report concentrates on some applications of the white beam topography method to studies of flow and fracture of materials and indicates fruitful areas for possible future application. Research investigations on cleavage surfaces of some bcc and hcp metals and alloys are reviewed and contrasted to other more usual methods of studying the morphology of the resulting microstructures

  1. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  2. Differences in inhibition by beta-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) of radiation induced DNA damage repair in exponentially growing and plateau-phase CHO-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Seaner, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of beta-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) on the repair of radiation induced DNA damage, as measured by the DNA unwinding technique, was studied in exponentially growing and plateau-phase CHO-cells after exposure to X-rays. Induction of DNA damage by radiation was found to be similar in exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells. In the absence of araA, repair of radiation induced DNA damage proceeded with similar kinetics in exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells. AraA at concentrations between 0-1500 μM inhibited DNA repair both in exponentially growing and in plateau-phase cells. However, the degree of inhibition was significantly higher (by a factor of 3) in plateau-phase cells. A similar degree of repair inhibition by araA was observed in plateau-phase cells treated in their conditioned medium, as well as in plateau-phase cells that were transferred in fresh growth medium just before treatment initiation. These results indicate the importance of biochemical parameters associated with alterations in the growth state of the cells for the inhibitory effect of araA and may help in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying repair inhibition by inhibitors of DNA replication. (orig.)

  3. Remembrances of the early fifteen years of radiation protection at the National Atomic Energy Commission. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placer, Alejandro E.

    2005-01-01

    Personal memories on the origin of radiation protection activities in Argentina. This second part covers the period from 1957 to the early sixties and describes the persons and facts that led to the future development of radiation protection in the country [es

  4. Heavy density concrete for nuclear radiation shielding and power stations: [Part]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second part of the paper entitled 'Heavy density concrete for nuclear radiation shielding and power stations'. In this part, some of the important properties of heavy density concrete are discussed. They include density, water retentivity, air content, permeability with special reference to concrete mixes used in India's nuclear power reactors. All these properties are affected to various extents by heating. Indian shield concrete is rarely subjected to temperatures above 60degC during its life, because of thermal shield protection. During placement, the maximum anticipated rise in temperature due to heat of hydration is restricted to around 45degC by chilling, if necessary to reduce shrinkage stresses and cracks. (M.G.B.)

  5. Non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation act via TGF-beta to promote mammary carcinogenesis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a genome-wide approach to identifying genes persistently induced in the mouse mammary gland by acute whole body low dose ionizing radiation (10cGy) 1 and 4...

  6. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 1, Control of the working environment, dosimetry and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Kalinic, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. It is stated that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  7. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  8. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry. 9. Metal ions and complexes. Part A: Cobalt, rhodium, iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M Z; Ross, A B

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order.

  9. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  10. Modernisation of Radiation Monitoring Room as a Part of Slovenian Emergency Response Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvari, A.; Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002 the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) moved to the new premises therefore it had to rearrange some of its rooms for the emergency situation. SNSA does not operate with a dedicated Emergency Response Centre (ERC), instead of it the SNSA has to rearrange the existing rooms in case of an emergency. Modernisation of the equipment, with the help of government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for the emergency situation was carried out, especially in the monitoring room. The radiation monitoring system, which is placed in the monitoring room, continuously collects, processes and archives the incoming data of exposure to radiation and meteorological parameters on the Slovenian territory (A model national emergency response plan for radiological accidents, IAEA, Vienna, 1993. IAEA-TECDOC-718). In the emergency situation the monitoring room transforms into the room for the Dose Assessment Group (DAG), which is part of ERC (IAEA emergency response network, IAEA, Vienna, 2000, EPR-ERNET (2000)). The modernisation of monitoring room and within the DAG room with new equipment and its purpose is described in this article. Modernisation of the monitoring room and the room for DAG showed to be inevitably needed. Modernisation of the monitoring room has brought the SNSA a sophisticated and reliable system of controlling the external exposure to radiation on the Slovenian territory. The equipment, especially the equipment for the use in the emergency situation, brought novelties for the Dose Assessment Group. The group has now better and easier control of radiation situation in case of an accident. In overall this modernisation has put the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration a step forward in having a dedicated Emergency Response Centre, since it does not need to rearrange the room for the Dose Assessment Group. (author)

  11. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1990-09-01

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  12. Role of Internal Mammary Node Radiation as a Part of Modern Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vivek; Vicini, Frank; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Khan, Atif J.; Wobb, Jessica; Edwards-Bennett, Sophia; Desai, Anand; Shah, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite data from multiple randomized trials, the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation as a part of regional nodal irradiation (IMLN RT–RNI) remains unanswered. Recent noteworthy data and modern RT techniques might identify a subset of patients who will benefit from IMLN RT–RNI, lending insight into the balance between improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity. We evaluated the current role of IMLN RT–RNI by analyzing randomized, prospective, and retrospective data. Methods and Materials: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a review of the published data was performed using PubMed to evaluate published studies from 1994 to 2015. The information evaluated included the number of patients, follow-up period, technical aspects of RT, and outcomes (clinical outcomes, complications/toxicity). Results: We included 16 studies (4 randomized, 4 nonrandomized, 7 retrospective, and 1 meta-analysis). Although older randomized trials failed to show differences in clinical outcomes or toxicity with IMLN RT–RNI, recent randomized data suggest the potential for improved outcomes, including overall survival, with IMLN RT–RNI. Furthermore, nonrandomized data have suggested a potential benefit for central tumors with IMLN RT–RNI. Although recent data have suggested a potential increase in pulmonary complications with IMLN RT–RNI with the use of advanced radiation techniques, toxicity rates remain low with limited cardiac toxicity data available. Conclusions: Increasing data from recent randomized trials support the use of IMLN RT–RNI. IMLN RT can be considered based on the inclusion of IMLN RT as a part of RNI in recent trials and the inclusion criteria from IMLN RT–RNI trials and for patients with central or medial tumors and axillary disease.

  13. Role of Internal Mammary Node Radiation as a Part of Modern Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Wobb, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Edwards-Bennett, Sophia [21st Century Oncology, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (United States); Desai, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Chirag, E-mail: csshah27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Despite data from multiple randomized trials, the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation as a part of regional nodal irradiation (IMLN RT–RNI) remains unanswered. Recent noteworthy data and modern RT techniques might identify a subset of patients who will benefit from IMLN RT–RNI, lending insight into the balance between improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity. We evaluated the current role of IMLN RT–RNI by analyzing randomized, prospective, and retrospective data. Methods and Materials: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a review of the published data was performed using PubMed to evaluate published studies from 1994 to 2015. The information evaluated included the number of patients, follow-up period, technical aspects of RT, and outcomes (clinical outcomes, complications/toxicity). Results: We included 16 studies (4 randomized, 4 nonrandomized, 7 retrospective, and 1 meta-analysis). Although older randomized trials failed to show differences in clinical outcomes or toxicity with IMLN RT–RNI, recent randomized data suggest the potential for improved outcomes, including overall survival, with IMLN RT–RNI. Furthermore, nonrandomized data have suggested a potential benefit for central tumors with IMLN RT–RNI. Although recent data have suggested a potential increase in pulmonary complications with IMLN RT–RNI with the use of advanced radiation techniques, toxicity rates remain low with limited cardiac toxicity data available. Conclusions: Increasing data from recent randomized trials support the use of IMLN RT–RNI. IMLN RT can be considered based on the inclusion of IMLN RT as a part of RNI in recent trials and the inclusion criteria from IMLN RT–RNI trials and for patients with central or medial tumors and axillary disease.

  14. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    altitude is complex, with many types of ionizing radiation present, with energies ranging up to many GeV. The determination of ambient dose equivalent for such a complex radiation field is difficult, and the purpose of this International Standard is to give the conceptual basis for performing such measurements and for the calibration of instruments used for this purpose. In many cases, the methods used for the determination of ambient dose equivalent in aircraft are similar to those used at high-energy accelerators in research laboratories. Therefore, it is possible to recommend dosemetric methods and methods for the calibration of dosemetric devices, as well as the techniques for maintaining the traceability of dosemetric measurements to national standards. dosemetric measurements taken to evaluate ambient dose equivalent must be performed using accurate and reliable methods that ensure the quality of readings provided to workers and regulatory authorities. The future Part 2 of ISO 20785 will give procedures for the characterization of the response of instruments for the determination of ambient dose equivalent in aircraft. Requirements for the determination and recording of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced into the national legislation of EU Member States and other countries. Harmonization of methods used for determining ambient dose equivalent and for calibrating instruments is desirable to ensure the compatibility of measurements performed with such instruments. This International Standard is intended for the use of primary and secondary calibration laboratories for ionizing radiation, by radiation protection personnel employed by governmental agencies, and by industrial corporations concerned with the determination of ambient dose equivalent for aircraft crew

  15. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  16. Converting the GSR part3 into a national regulations for the protection and safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatim, Abdulrahman

    2016-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources depends on a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. The project aimed at converting the IAEA GRS Part 3 into National regulations in Sudan for the protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources. The regulations developed covered general requirements for radiation protection, verification of safety, planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situation. The Government of Sudan is expected to empower the Sudanese Nuclear Radiological Regulatory Authority (SNRAA) and other relevant authorities to undertake the conversion of IAEA GSR Part 3 into national regulations to be used to regulate all facilities and activities in Sudan. (au)

  17. Radiative corrections to light neutrino masses in low scale type I seesaw scenarios and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pavon, J. [SISSA and INFN - sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Molinaro, E. [CP-Origins and Danish Institute for Advanced Study, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Petcov, S.T. [SISSA and INFN - sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Kavli IPMU (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan)

    2015-11-05

    We perform a detailed analysis of the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino mass matrix within low scale type I seesaw extensions of the Standard Model and their implications in experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that a sizable contribution to the effective Majorana neutrino mass from the exchange of heavy Majorana neutrinos is always possible, provided one requires a fine-tuned cancellation between the tree-level and one-loop contribution to the light neutrino masses. We quantify the level of fine-tuning as a function of the seesaw parameters and introduce a generalisation of the Casas-Ibarra parametrization of the neutrino Yukawa matrix, which easily allows to include the one-loop corrections to the light neutrino masses.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups and 3 of them were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th day of gestation. Their offsprings received cumulative dose of 0.036, 0.071 and 0.213 Gy, respectively. Offspring of mice were observed for postnatal growth (body weight), the appearance of four physiologic makers (eye opening, pinna detachment, testes decent, vaginal opening), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (cloff avoidance, air righting) and sensuous functions (auditory startle, pain threshold), movement and coordination functions and activity (pivoting, foot splay, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditioning reflex). It was found that results for the parameters in 0.036 or 0.071 Gy group were differed significantly from those for the controls, and for most parameters, a dose dependent effect was found

  19. Thermoluminescence characterization of LiMgF3: DyF3 phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, R.; Alday S, K.R.; Brown, F.; Cruz V, C.; Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E.; Kitis, G.

    2006-01-01

    LiMgF 3 : DyF 3 phosphors were obtained as polycrystalline solids from the melting of component salts, with two DyF 3 concentrations, 2.02 % mol, and 4.04 % mol. In order to guarantee the homogeneity of composition, the samples were crushed and the resulting powder was pressed to form pellet-shaped phosphors, some of which were sintered at 700 C for 5 h under air atmosphere. Thermoluminescence measurements of beta irradiated samples show that these phosphors exhibit adequate properties to be considered for development of thermoluminescence dosimeters. Integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose displays a linear dependence with dose for doses below 20.0 Gy. (Author)

  20. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  1. Background radiation accumulation and lower limit of detection in thermoluminescent beta-gamma dosimeters used by the centralized external dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.; Ahmed, A.B.

    1991-12-01

    A value for ''average background radiation'' of 0.75 mR/week has been determined from a total of 1680 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) exposed in 70 houses for periods up to one year. The distribution of results indicates a rather large variation among houses, with a few locations exhibiting backgrounds double the general average. Some discrepancies in the short-term background accumulation of TLD's have been explained as being due to light leakage through the dosimeter cases. In addition the lower limit of detection (L D ) for deep and shallow dose equivalents has been determined for these dosimeters. The L D for occupational exposure depends strongly on the time a dosimeter is exposed to background radiation in the field. The L D can vary from a low of 2.4 mrem for high energy gamma rays when the background accumulation period is less than a few weeks to values as high as 66 mrem for uranium beta particles when background has been allowed to accumulate for more than 21 weeks

  2. Heavy density concrete for nuclear radiation shielding and power stations: [Part]3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the third part of the paper entitled 'Heavy density concrete for nuclear radiation shielding and power stations'. Specific considerations relevant to natural but manufactured heavy aggregates like haematite used in India are briefly discussed. They include water-cement ratio, strength versus water-cement ratio, mix design strength and aggregate grading. Some typical mix proportions in haematite concretes used in India are given. Equipment for heavy density concrete is mentioned. Quality control methods and tests for heavy density concrete are described under the heading: type and chemical composition of the rock, specific gravity and surface absorption of the aggregates, grading of aggregates, cement, batching, mixing, compressive strength, and density. Construction aspects such as form work, placement, vibration, finishing, and temperature control are discussed. Finally it is pointed out that for optimising the design and economy of heavy density concrete, it is necessary to carry out country-wide survey of suitable materials, to study their properties, suitability and effectiveness in shielding radiation. (M.G.B.)

  3. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part I: Radiation oncology as an important part of multi-modal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Christopher M.; Botnick, Leslie E.; Hinkle, Milton; Linden, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Radiation Oncology is an important component in multi-modality cancer care. Managed care has defined a number of different ways that radiation oncologists can interact with the other members of the cancer team. This course will review those options. The change in health care delivery is forcing radiation oncologists to examine every aspect of how they organize themselves, deliver care, evaluate that care, and how they are reimbursed for this process. This course will attempt to examine how the pressures of the new paradigms of health care delivery; managed care and outcomes research are impacting upon radiation therapy practice, and what radiation oncologists can do to maintain patient care standards. I. Introduction: A. Managed Care: What it is and where it is going 1. PPO's 2. HMO's 3. POS plans 4. Carve-outs B. Outcomes Research: What it can and cannot do 1. Patterns of care and SEER 2. Rand 3. ''Surrogate outcomes:'' patient satisfaction, quality of life indicators II. Moving from QA and CQI and Benchmarking A. Radiation Oncologists cannot take anything for granted B. Using analytical tools to evaluate all aspects of the radiation oncology practice. 1. Capital Purchases 2. Operational Aspects III Evaluating Staffing Needs A. What traditional jobs in the department should stay? B. Is the cross-training seen in the rest of the hospital appropriate in radiation oncology C. Outsourcing and multi-department organization as ways to improve efficiency D. What about physician extenders? E. What residents, newly trained radiation oncologists, and physician-practice managers must acknowledge to each other IV. Evaluating Technology A. See second and third talks in this series B. Improving efficiency: how does this help when one is not at capacity C. Increasing throughput D. Decreasing cost V. Informatics A. See second and third talks in this series B. What should one expect the computer to do for you C. Some personal observations VI. Gains from Share Services A. Should

  4. Temperature Distribution in Radioactive Solid Wastes. Part I - Beta-Active Solids; Repartition des Temperatures dans les Dechets Radioactifs Solides. Partie I - Solides Radioactifs Beta; 0420 0410 0421 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Distribucion de la Temperatura en los Desechos Radiactivos Solidos. Parte I - Desechos Solidos Emisores de Radiaciones Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotewale, D. A.; Ganguly, A. K. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (India)

    1960-07-01

    The paper deals with the calculations for temperature distribution over time in a radioactive sphere and in a finite radioactive cylinder buried in a medium having the same thermal properties. Formulae are given for such calculations. Numerical results on temperature build-up are presented graphically for the cases where the activity is due to beta-emitters such as P{sup 32}, Sr{sup 89}, Cs{sup 135} and Sr{sup 90} + (Y{sup 90}). General graphs for calculation of temperature build-up for any long-lived beta-emitter at certain points of interest in a sphere and in a cylinder of particular dimensions and diffusivity are presented. (author) [French] Ce memoire a trait aux calculs servant a evaluer la variation des temperatures en fonction du temps dans une sphere radioactive et dans un cylindre radioactif limite enfouis dans un milieue ayant les memes proprietes thermiques. Les formules utilisees dans ces calculs sont indiquees. Les resultats numeriques concernant la formation des temperatures sont representes graphiquement pour les cas ou l'activite est due a des emetteurs beta tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 135}Cs et {sup 90}Sr + ({sup 90}Y). Le memoire contient des abaques pour le calcul de la formation des temperatures dans les emetteurs gamma de longue periode a certains points interessants des spheres et des cylindres ayant des dimensions et une capacite de diffusion particulieres. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se estudia el calculo de la distribucion de temperaturas en funcion del tiempo en una esfera radiactiva y en un cilindro radiactivo finito enterrados en un medio de identicas propiedades termicas. Se dan formulas para efectuar dicho calculo. En el caso en que la actividad se deba a emisores beta, tales como {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 135}Cs y {sup 90}Sr + ({sup 90}Y), se representan graficamente los resultados numericos relativos al incremento de ]a temperatura. Asimismo, se proporcionan graficos generales para calcular el incremento de la

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Studies of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. Growing in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi-Bergaoui, Afifa; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% [w/w]), determined by GC-FID and GC/MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH · , ABTS +· , catalase, and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and anti-tyrosinase activities. The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC 50  = 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/ml) and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC 50  = 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/ml. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayse; Alikamanoglu, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M(1)V(1)-M(1)V(3) generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20gl(-1) PEG6000. Of the M(1)V(3) plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10gl(-1) PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayse; Alikamanoglu, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0–75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M 1 V 1 –M 1 V 3 generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl −1 PEG6000. Of the M 1 V 3 plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l −1 PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  8. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayse, E-mail: senayse@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Alikamanoglu, Sema [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M{sub 1}V{sub 1}-M{sub 1}V{sub 3} generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl{sup -1} PEG6000. Of the M{sub 1}V{sub 3} plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l{sup -1} PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  9. Toward a theory of the initiation of cancer by alpha, beta, and x radiation: the twin doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning the basic mechanics of interaction of radiation with matter at both the cellular and the molecular levels may now be sufficient to allow an extension of the cellular model of cancer induction to the level of individual particle tracks, ionizations, and particular bonds in the DNA molecule. The Doublet model appears promising as a candidate for the initial damage to DNA involved in cell killing, mutation, and a single cancer initiation

  10. Effect of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to HTO (tritiated water) on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats were studied by determination of multiple parameters. Methods: Pregnant adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, of which 3 groups were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by one single intraperitoneal injection on the 13th day of gestation. Offspring of these rats received cumulative doses of 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy utero, respectively, and were observed for the appearance of three physiologic markers (eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (surface righting, negative geotaxis) and sensuous function (auditory startle), movement and coordination functions and activity (forelimb hanging, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditional reflex). Results: Results for most parameters in the 0.044 and 0.088 Gy groups were different significantly from those in the controls and for most parameters a dose-dependent effect was found. Conclusion: Offspring of rats having received prenatal low dose irradiation from HTO showed delayed growth and abnormal neurobehavior

  11. Radiation-induced biologic bystander effect elicited in vitro by targeted radiopharmaceuticals labeled with alpha-, beta-, and auger electron-emitting radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Marie; Ross, Susan C; Dorrens, Jennifer; Fullerton, Natasha E; Tan, Ker Wei; Zalutsky, Michael R; Mairs, Robert J

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that indirect effects of ionizing radiation may contribute significantly to the effectiveness of radiotherapy by sterilizing malignant cells that are not directly hit by the radiation. However, there have been few investigations of the importance of indirect effects in targeted radionuclide treatment. Our purpose was to compare the induction of bystander effects by external beam gamma-radiation with those resultant from exposure to 3 radiohaloanalogs of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG): (131)I-MIBG (low-linear-energy-transfer [LET] beta-emitter), (123)I-MIBG (potentially high-LET Auger electron emitter), and meta-(211)At-astatobenzylguanidine ((211)At-MABG) (high-LET alpha-emitter). Two human tumor cell lines-UVW (glioma) and EJ138 (transitional cell carcinoma of bladder)-were transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene to enable active uptake of MIBG. Medium from cells that accumulated the radiopharmaceuticals or were treated with external beam radiation was transferred to cells that had not been exposed to radioactivity, and clonogenic survival was determined in donor and recipient cultures. Over the dose range 0-9 Gy of external beam radiation of donor cells, 2 Gy caused 30%-40% clonogenic cell kill in recipient cultures. This potency was maintained but not increased by higher dosage. In contrast, no corresponding saturation of bystander cell kill was observed after treatment with a range of activity concentrations of (131)I-MIBG, which resulted in up to 97% death of donor cells. Cellular uptake of (123)I-MIBG and (211)At-MABG induced increasing recipient cell kill up to levels that resulted in direct kill of 35%-70% of clonogens. Thereafter, the administration of higher activity concentrations of these high-LET emitters was inversely related to the kill of recipient cells. Over the range of activity concentrations examined, neither direct nor indirect kill was observed in cultures of cells not expressing the NAT and, thus

  12. Efficacy of post operative adjuvant therapy with human interferon beta, MCNU and radiation (IMR) for malignant glioma: comparison among three protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, N.; Wakabayashi, T.; Kajita, Y.; Mizuno, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakayashiki, N.; Takemura, A.; Yoshida, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop ultimate adjuvant therapy for malignant gliomas, we analyzed 77 patients with malignant gliomas (29 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) and 48 glioblastoma multiformes (GMs)) treated by three protocols of IMR therapy (human interferon-beta (HuIFN-β), MCNU and radiation). In protocol 1 (n = 45 : AA = 13, GM = 32), 1 x 10 6 IU of HuIFN-β was administrated intravenously once a day for 7 days. On day 2, MCNU was administrated at a dose of 2 mg/kg b.w. intravenously and from day 3, radiation was started in five weekly fractions of 2 Gy for 6 weeks. Total dose was 60 Gy. Protocol 2 (n = 19 : AA = 11, GM = 8) was comparable with protocol 1 except HuIFN-β was administrated twice a day at a dose of 1 x 10 6 IU each. Protocol 3 (n = 13 : AA = 5, GM = 8) differed from protocol 2 only in a high dose-hyperfractionated radiation which was given twice a day at a dose of 1.5 Gy each and for a total dose of 66 Gy. Antitumor effects were evaluated by survival and response rate determined by decrease of tumor size. Significant improvement was obtained in patients with AAs by protocol 2 and 3. Response rates of patients with AAs and GMs were 46.2 % and 50 % in protocol 1, 63.6 % and 50 % in protocol 2, and 80 % and 50 % in protocol 3, respectively. One and two year survival rates in AAs were 46.4 % and 34.8 % in protocol 1, both 75 % in protocol 2, and both 100 % in protocol 3. Survival rates in GMs were not different among them. Except of radiation necrosis, which was observed in 38.5 % of the patients under protocol 3, there was no significant difference in the adverse effects among the three protocols. In the present study, the efficacy of IMR therapy for patients with malignant gliomas, especially for AAs, was confirmed. We conclude that twice a day administrations of HuIFN-β in combination with a high dose-hyperfractionated radiation provide increased efficacy in IMR therapy. (author)

  13. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  14. Improving diversity, inclusion, and representation in radiology and radiation oncology part 2: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoote, Johnson B; Fielding, Julia R; Deville, Curtiland; Gunderman, Richard B; Morgan, Gail N; Pandharipande, Pari V; Duerinckx, Andre J; Wynn, Raymond B; Macura, Katarzyna J

    2014-08-01

    The ACR Commission for Women and General Diversity is committed to identifying barriers to a diverse physician workforce in radiology and radiation oncology (RRO), and to offering policy recommendations to overcome these barriers. Part 2 of a 2-part position article from the commission addresses issues regarding diversity and inclusion in the context of career choices and professional advancement. Barriers to improving diversity and representation in RRO are reviewed. Discussion focuses on the development and implementation of concrete strategies designed to eliminate the current subspecialty disparity and highlights the need for the ACR to introduce programs and incentives with targeted and achievable goals with measurable outcomes. Recommendations are made aimed at fostering an environment of inclusion and diversity, so as to secure a successful future for all members of the RRO workforce. The future of radiology will be enhanced by increasing diversity and representation in the professional workforce, which will allow us to better address the varied needs of increasingly diverse patient populations, and to mitigate disparities in healthcare access, delivery, and outcomes. By leveraging diverse backgrounds, experiences, and skills of those in RRO, we will create new, effective ways to not only educate our trainees, medical colleagues, and patients but also improve delivery of health care and our service to society. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Diversity, Inclusion, and Representation in Radiology and Radiation Oncology Part 1: Why These Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoote, Johnson B.; Fielding, Julia R.; Deville, Curtiland; Gunderman, Richard B.; Morgan, Gail N.; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Duerinckx, Andre J.; Wynn, Raymond B.; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2015-01-01

    The ACR Commission for Women and General Diversity is committed to identifying barriers to a diverse physician workforce in radiology and radiation oncology (RRO), and to offering policy recommendations to overcome these barriers. In Part 1 of a 2-part position article from the commission, diversity as a concept and its dimensions of personality, character, ethnicity, biology, biography, and organization are introduced. Terms commonly used to describe diverse individuals and groups are reviewed. The history of diversity and inclusion in US society and health care are addressed. The post–Civil Rights Era evolution of diversity in medicine is delineated: Diversity 1.0, with basic awareness, nondiscrimination, and recruitment; Diversity 2.0, with appreciation of the value of diversity but inclusion as peripheral or in opposition to other goals; and Diversity 3.0, which integrates diversity and inclusion into core missions of organizations and their leadership, and leverages its potential for innovation and contribution. The current states of diversity and inclusion in RRO are reviewed in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity. The lack of representation and unchanged demographics in these fields relative to other medical specialties are explored. The business case for diversity is discussed, with examples of successful models and potential application to the health care industry in general and to RRO. The moral, ethical, and public health imperative for diversity is also highlighted. PMID:24993534

  16. Material and cultural assets. Part of radiation protection of the environment?; Sach- und Kulturgueter. Teil eines Strahlenschutzes der Umwelt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, R.G. [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Loebner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Since several years the protection of the environment has been discussed at various international levels as part of radiation protection. ICRP has published a number of recommendations which relate primarily to the evaluation of radiation exposures to non-human species. Nevertheless, not least because of the declaratory mention of the environment in national legislative documents, the question arises how the environment can be integrated into the radiation protection or whether the radiation protection must be even expanded to new fields. A less discussed aspect here covers material and cultural assets that are classified in environmental law as objects worthy of protection. The paper describes some issues that arise in this context and outlines a framework for the consideration of material assets in radiation protection.

  17. Calculation of absorbed dose for skin contamination imparted by beta radiation through the VARSKIN modified code for 122 interesting isotopes for nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo VARSKIN modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T [Depto. de Metrologia, ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the VARSKIN code for calculation of absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by Beta emitting is presented. The modification consists on the inclusion of 47 isotopes of interest even Nuclear Plants for the dose evaluation in skin generated by 'hot particles'. The approach for to add these isotopes is the correlation parameter F and the average energy of the Beta particle, with relationship to those 75 isotopes of the original code. The methodology of the dose calculation of the VARSKIN code is based on the interpolation, (and integration of the interest geometries: punctual or plane sources), of the distribution functions scaled doses in water for beta and electrons punctual sources, tabulated by Berger. Finally a brief discussion of the results for their interpretation and use with purposes of radiological protection (dose insurance in relation to the considered biological effects) is presented.

  18. The induced expression of heat shock proteins as a part of the early cellular response to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova, K.; Ivanova, K.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of stressful stimuli including gamma radiation can induce increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsp). This family of molecular chaperones includes members with molecular masses ranging from 10 to 150 kDa and has been identified in all organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp70 chaperones are very important. The present study aimed to characterize the radiation-induced changes in Hsp70 synthesis in human lymphocytes as a part of the early cellular response to gamma irradiation. The expression of Hsp70 was determined with Western blot and the radiation-induced apoptotic changes were registered by staining with fluorescent dyes. Part of the experiments were performed in the presence of the organic solvent DMSO. At low concentrations this reagent shows antioxidant activity and can reduce the level of the radiation-induced oxidant stress which determines the predominant biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Irradiation with 0.5 to 8 Gy caused statistically significant increase in the synthesis of Hsp70 which was strongest after irradiation with 4 Gy. In the range 0.5-2 Gy the enhancement of the radiation-induced synthesis of Hsp70 reached 60%. Our experimental results characterize changes in the Hsp70 synthesis after gamma irradiation as a part of the early cellular stress response in lymphocytes. (authors)

  19. A localized navigation algorithm for radiation evasion for nuclear facilities: Optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” criterion: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A.; Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M.; Jaradat, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for radiation evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a navigation algorithm having general utility for occupational workers at nuclear facilities and places where radiation poses serious health hazards. This novel algorithm leverages the use of localized information for its operation. Therefore, the need for central processing and decision resources is avoided, since information processing and the ensuing decision-making are done aboard a man-borne device. To acquire the information needed for path planning in radiation avoidance, a well-designed and distributed wireless sensory infrastructure is needed. This will automatically benefit from the most recent trends in technology developments in both sensor networks and wireless communication. When used to navigate based on local radiation information, the algorithm will behave more reliably when accidents happen, since no long-haul communication links are required for information exchange. In essence, the proposed algorithm is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, to compute successful navigational paths from one point to another. The proposed algorithm is tested under the “Radiation Evasion” criterion. It is also tested for the case when more information, beyond nearest neighbors, is made available; here, we test its operation for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify algorithm performance by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields

  20. A localized navigation algorithm for radiation evasion for nuclear facilities: Optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” criterion: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A., E-mail: mkha@ieee.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan); Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M., E-mail: xeinaaman@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan); Jaradat, Mohammad A., E-mail: majaradat@just.edu.jo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for radiation evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a navigation algorithm having general utility for occupational workers at nuclear facilities and places where radiation poses serious health hazards. This novel algorithm leverages the use of localized information for its operation. Therefore, the need for central processing and decision resources is avoided, since information processing and the ensuing decision-making are done aboard a man-borne device. To acquire the information needed for path planning in radiation avoidance, a well-designed and distributed wireless sensory infrastructure is needed. This will automatically benefit from the most recent trends in technology developments in both sensor networks and wireless communication. When used to navigate based on local radiation information, the algorithm will behave more reliably when accidents happen, since no long-haul communication links are required for information exchange. In essence, the proposed algorithm is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, to compute successful navigational paths from one point to another. The proposed algorithm is tested under the “Radiation Evasion” criterion. It is also tested for the case when more information, beyond nearest neighbors, is made available; here, we test its operation for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify algorithm performance by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields.

  1. Gamma-radiation effect of the ATP-ASE-activity in various parts of cotton sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimov, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    ATP-ase is a thiol enzyme whose sulfhydryl group plays an important role. The transport of substances through biological membranes is the result of the action of the sodium-potassium pump of the cell, which functions with ATP energy. The action of this transport mechanism depends on the activity of ATP-ase. It may be postulated, therefore, that the suppression of the active transport of Na + and K + ions in cells under irradiation is partially the result of a disturbance of the activity of the ATP enzyme system. The author studied the effect of gamma radiation on ATP-ase activity in various parts of seven-day-old seedlings of type 108-F cotton, which were irradiated using Co 60 gamma radiation. The results of the experiment showed that the ATP-ase activity of the cotton seedling rootlets depends on the dose and the time elapsed after irradiation (a table is given). Small radiation doses (0.2 and 0.5 krad) significantly increased ATP-ase activity in the rootlets, while heavy doses inhibited it significantly. Similar results were obtained for the stems and leaves (tables are given). It was estblished that the ATP-ase of cotton seedlings has varying sensitivity to irradiation. The most sensitive ATP-ases were those of the rootlets. The activity of background ATP-ase is less subject to change than Na + and K + activated ATP-ases. For example, while the activity of ATP-ase (without ions) was inhibited by 25% when a 25 krad irradiation dose was administered, the retardation of Na + and K + activated ATP-ases reached 41%. The author suggests that the inhibition of ATP-ase activity under irradiation is mainly the result of a disturbance of the structure of the membrane functions. It is also possible that ATP-ase activity decreases because of a lack of the enzyme substrate - ATP, which is formed during the process of oxydative phosphorylization. A table is also provided showing the effect of irradiation on the activity of ATP-ase activated by various ions in the roots of

  2. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Final report. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of research into the direct action of ionizing radiation, especially the effect of radiation temperature, primarily upon enzymes, into induced repair, and into S.O.S.-related phenomena, is presented

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 1, Radioactivity control of working environment, dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Bjelanovic, J.; Minincic, Z.; Komatina, R.; Raicevic, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. It was found that the maximum individual dose from external irradiation amounted to 8.2 mSV during past 10 months. Individual exposures for 7/10 of the personnel were less than 1/10 of the annual permissible exposure. Data are compared to radiation doses for last year and previous five years. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. The last part analyzes accidents occurred at the reactor during 1985. It was found that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  4. Beta particle detection efficiency of the radiation sensor made from a mixture of polyaniline and titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.; Miyata, H.; Katsumata, M.; Matsuda, K.; Ueno, T.; Ito, D.; Suzuki, T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new real-time radiation sensor using an organic semiconductor and measured its β-particle detection sensitivity. This sensor is fabricated by simply combining a p-type semiconductor, polyaniline (Pani), with an n-type semiconductor, TiO_2, and processing the compound. Since Pani and TiO_2 are both inexpensive materials, the sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost than inorganic semiconductor sensors. The signal of each fabricated sensor was measured by a charge sensitive ADC for the irradiation of β-particles. The response signal data of the ADC for each irradiation was measured to calculate the detection efficiency of the detector. The maximum detection efficiency measured as β-particle sensitivity of the sensor was 1%. This β-particle sensitivity is higher than that reported of Pani sensors in the past.

  5. Preparation of cobra (Naja naja) venom toxoid using gamma-radiations. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitonde, B.B.; Kankonkar, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Detoxification of venom by radiation was investigated. Two concentrations i.e. 0.01% of venom solution were irradiated with different doses of gamma-radiations from cobalt-60 source. The results obtained indicate that the toxicity of venom is markedly attenuated by gamma-radiation. (author)

  6. Beta spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Zderadicka, J.; Plch, J.; Kokta, L.; Novotna, P.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of beta spectrometry, a semiconductor spectrometer with one Si(Li) detector cooled with liquid nitrogen was designed. Geometrical detection efficiency is about 10% 4 sr. The achieved resolution for 624 keV conversion electrons of sup(137m)Ba is 2.6 keV (FWHM). A program was written in the FORTRAN language for the correction of the deformation of the measured spectra by backscattering in the analysis of continuous beta spectra. The method permits the determination of the maximum energy of the beta spectrum with an accuracy of +-5 keV. (author)

  7. Evaluation of commercial antiglobulin sera over a two-year period. Part I. Anti-beta 1A, anti-alpha 2D, and anti-beta 1E levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, P D; Issitt, C H; Wilkinson, S L

    1974-01-01

    Antiglobulin sera from nine different manufacturers have been tested, over a two-year period, for their ability to detect the complement components beta 1A, alpha 2D, and beta 1E. The results demontrate considerable variation in the abilities of sera from different manufacturers to detect these components and indicate that not all sera on the market are suitable reagents for diagnostic use and compatibility tests. The results also show that there is considerable variation between different lots of serum from some of the manufacturers. In general, the anti-complement levels of these reagents have increased during the two-year period of study but not all companies produce suitable reagents for routine use.

  8. Synthesis and thermoluminescence of new Li2SO4:Eu and Li2SO4:Dy phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, A. R.; Bustamante L, G. A.; Castro C, A. I.; Bernal H, R.; Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S. E.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Li 2 SO 4 is systematically studied for the very first concerning their dosimetric capabilities. Pellet- shaped Eu and Dy doped Li 2 SO 4 phosphors were synthesized by sintering. Some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation in order to investigate their thermoluminescence (Tl) features. Glow curves were obtained for 80 mg mass samples, showing that both, Tl sensitivity as well as the temperature at which the Tl maximum is recorded, depends upon the sample dopant. The glow curves of Li 2 SO 4 :Eu exhibit two maxima, located at 433 and 573 K, when a 5 K/s heating rate was used, being the most intense emission that observed at 573 K. The integrated Tl increases as the radiation dose was increased in the 0.25 - 5 Gy range, with no shift of the Tl maxima being observed, meaning that first order kinetics processes are involved in the Tl emission. The normalized sensitivity recorded in ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles shows a good reusability with only 5 % variability. The integrated Tl fades as a function of the elapsed time between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout of Eu and Dy doped Li 2 SO 4 phosphors is obtained. From the obtained results, we conclude that Li 2 SO 4 is a promising phosphor material to develop high performance Tl dosimeters, and a long term research work focused to understand and to improve their Tl features is absolutely justified. (Author)

  9. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This part of ISO 11137 describes methods that may be used to establish the sterilization dose in accordance with one of the two approaches specified in 8.2 of ISO 11137-1:2006. The methods used in these approaches are: a) dose setting to obtain a product-specific dose; b) dose substantiation to verify a preselected dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy. The basis of the dose setting methods described in this part of ISO 11137 (Methods 1 and 2) owe much to the ideas first propounded by Tallentire (Tallentire, 1973 [17]; Tallentire, Dwyer and Ley, 1971 [18]; Tallentire and Khan, 1978 [19]). Subsequently, standardized protocols were developed (Davis et al., 1981 [8]; Davis, Strawderman and Whitby, 1984 [9]) which formed the basis of the dose setting methods detailed in the AAMI Recommended Practice for Sterilization by Gamma Radiation (AAMI 1984, 1991 [4], [6]). Methods 1 and 2 and the associated sterilization dose audit procedures use data derived from the inactivation of the microbial population in its natural state on product. The methods are based on a probability model for the inactivation of microbial populations. The probability model, as applied to bioburden made up of a mixture of various microbial species, assumes that each such species has its own unique D 10 value. In the model, the probability that an item will possess a surviving microorganism after exposure to a given dose of radiation is defined in terms of the initial number of microorganisms on the item prior to irradiation and the D 10 values of the microorganisms. The methods involve performance of tests of sterility on product items that have received doses of radiation lower than the sterilization dose. The outcome of these tests is used to predict the dose needed to achieve a predetermined sterility assurance level, SAL. Methods 1 and 2 may also be used to substantiate 25 kGy if, on performing a dose setting exercise, the derived sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 is u ≤25 kGy. The basis of the method

  10. Practicing radiation oncology in the current health care environment - Part III: Information systems for radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijewski, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This course will review topics to be considered when defining an information systems plan for a department of radiation oncology. A survey of available systems will be presented. Computer information systems can play an important role in the effective administration and operation of a department of radiation oncology. Tasks such as 1) scheduling for physicians, patients, and rooms, 2) charge collection and billing, 3) administrative reporting, and 4) treatment verification can be carried out efficiently with the assistance of computer systems. Operating a department without a state of art computer system will become increasingly difficult as hospitals and healthcare buyers increasingly rely on computer information technology. Communication of the radiation oncology system with outside systems will thus further enhance the utility of the computer system. The steps for the selection and installation of an information system will be discussed: 1) defining the objectives, 2) selecting a suitable system, 3) determining costs, 4) setting up maintenance contracts, and 5) planning for future upgrades

  11. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  12. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  13. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhatigan, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress to better understand the environmental threat of micrometeoroid and space debris to the solar dynamic radiator for the Space Station Freedom power system is reported. The objective was to define a design which would perform to survivability requirements over the expected lifetime of the radiator. A previous paper described the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses were presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability. These included the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering. Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact (HVI) testing performed on radiator panel samples were also presented. This paper presents results of a more extensive test program undertaken to further define the response of the solar dynamic radiator to HVI. Tests were conducted on representative radiator panels (under ambient, nonoperating conditions) over a range of particle size, particle density, impact angle, and impact velocity. Target parameters were also varied. Data indicate that analytical penetration predictions are conservative (i.e., pessimistic) for the specific configuration of the solar dynamic radiator. Test results are used to define more rigorously the solar dynamic radiator reliability with respect to HVI. Test data, analyses, and survivability results are presented

  14. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  15. Energy response of imaging plates to radiation beams from standard beta sources, ortho-voltage and cobalt-60 units and linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Albin Leonel

    The response to different types of radiation beams of commercial imaging plates used for diagnostic computed radiography has been investigated in this work. Imaging plates are designed with a phosphor layer which after been irradiated; information is stored in the form of photostimulable luminescence (PSL) centers. Initial measurements of the dose distribution of a radioactive stent with the imaging plates showed similar results to those with radiochromic films, but with much shorter exposure time due to their higher sensitivity. In order to investigate further their response, the imaging plates were irradiated with calibrated beams from: standard beta sources, orthovoltage and Co-60 units and therapy linear accelerator. Initially it was found that the energy to create the storage centers (generation efficiency) when irradiated with the three standard beta sources (225 keV to 2.28 MeV) was the same. For the rest of the calibrated beams an in house reader system was built in order to perform the bleaching of the plates with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and to measure the absolute number of the emitted PSL photons (storage centers produced). Bleaching curves were then obtained for different exposure times for each beam. From the graph of the calculated area under the bleaching curves (total number of storage center) versus the absorbed dose to the phosphor layer it was possible to calculate the energy to create the storage centers (generation efficiency) for photon and electron beams. The dose to the phosphor layer was calculated in the case of the electron beams following a scaling procedure, while in the case of the photon beams Monte Carlo simulations were performed. For the photons beams the measurement of the generation efficiency energy of 126 +/- 8% eV per PSL storage center, coincide with measurements using a different approach (˜148 eV) by previous investigators. The generation efficiency for the electron beam was 807 +/- 3% eV, no reference was found in the

  16. Radiation meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1990-05-30

    Measuring means comprising first and second silicon PIN diode detectors both being covered with a thin layer of conducting material and the second detector being additionally covered with a relatively thick layer of material, the thickness being chosen such that beta radiation dose rate can be measured in beta radiation fields of high or medium energy, and in the presence of X and gamma radiation. (author). 2 figs.

  17. Entrappment of alkaline protease and {beta}-galactosidase in radiation stitched together poly-N-vinylcaprolactam.; Vklyuchenie shchelochnoj proteazy i {beta}-galaktozidazy v radiatsionno sshityj poli-N-vinilkaprolaktam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidenko, T I; Kravchenko, I A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Odessa (Ukraine). Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst.

    1996-03-01

    The gel formations by poly-N-vinylcaprolactam upon its {gamma}-irradiation by the 20-25 kGy dose as a results of partial polymer stitching together is shown, which is confirmed by the CD-and thermogravimetric data. By the alkaline protease and {beta}-galactosidase entrapment in poly-N- vinylcaprolactam stitched together by {gamma}-irradiation, the active preparations are obtained with 90-98 % and 30-35 % activity retained for alkaline protease and {beta}-galactosidase, respectively. The increased stability of alkaline protease at acidic pH values and higher temperature was noted, and for {beta}-galactosidase - the possibility of repeated use of the obtained preparation for lactose hydrolysis.

  18. American Board of Radiology Maintenance of Certification-Part IV: Practice Quality Improvement for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Bosma, Jennifer; Strife, Janet L.; Hattery, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of Certification is a physician-based response to public concerns about the quality of medical care and physician competency in a rapidly evolving, technically demanding specialty. American Board of Radiology (ABR) has previously described the first three components of the Maintenance of Certification. The ABR is currently developing a program in practice performance, completing Part IV of the competencies. The Practice Quality Improvement (PQI) program is meant to critically evaluate meaningful aspects of a physician's practice in a simple manner, using identifiable metrics and self-assessment to include an action plan for quality improvement. Each diplomate will be expected to complete three PQI projects during a full 10-year Maintenance of Certification cycle. Current diplomates with time-limited certificates will find prorated requirements determined by their year of certification on the ABR Website. Diplomates will have the option of completing zero to two Type I PQI projects (assessing factors relevant to clinical practice by peer review and self-reporting) and one to three Type II projects (i.e., at least one Type II projects of the three required, assessing parameters of practice by comparison with evidence-based guidelines, consensus statements, or peer comparisons; Type II projects are initiated and managed by professional societies). Several examples of Type I projects that might be offered by societies or directly through the ABR are provided, as well as highlights of the two Type II projects that have sought ABR qualification: American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology's Performance Assessment for the Advancement of Radiation Oncology Treatment program and American College of Radiology's RO-PEER program. An additional objective of the PQI is to develop national databases for future reference using aggregate data from the PQI projects

  19. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population residing

  20. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V. [V.N. Chukanov Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population

  1. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  2. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, N. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Jeon, B. H.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  3. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  4. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  5. Compilation of radiation damage test data part III: materials used around high-energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Beynel, P; Schönbacher, H; CERN. Geneva

    1982-01-01

    For pt.II see CERN report 79-08 (1979). This handbook gives the results of radiation damage tests on various engineering materials and components intended for installation in radiation areas of the CERN high-energy particle accelerators. It complements two previous volumes covering organic cable-insulating materials and thermoplastic and thermosetting resins.

  6. The N-Terminal Part of the Dishevelled DEP Domain Is Required for Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling in Mammalian Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacliková, P.; Bernatík, O.; Radaszkiewicz, T.W.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 18 (2017), č. článku e00145-17. ISSN 0270-7306 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : beta-catenin * tumor-suppressor * planar polarity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.398, year: 2016

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, James T.; Richardson, Richard B.; Nie, Linda H.

    2013-05-01

    Alpha (α) particles and low-energy beta (β) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking α and β emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of 223Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of 223Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from 223Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, 153Sm and 89Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from 223Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from 153Sm and 89Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from 223Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from α and β emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and 223Ra may be a more efficient

  8. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Combs, D.C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P.J. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Department of Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Elliott, S.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2015-04-11

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  9. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O`Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  10. Shaded Spacecraft Radiators to Be Used on the Daytime Surface of the Mercury Planet, the Moon, and Asteroids of the Solar System Inner Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Igrickii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the daytime a surface of the Moon, Mercury planet, and asteroids of the Solar system inner part, significantly heats up, and infrared radiation of the local soil becomes essential. At the same time direct solar radiation and reflected from the surface solar radiation reach the maximum too. These radiation fluxes can significantly decrease the efficiency of spacecraft radiators in the daytime. This effect is especially strong on the Mercury surface where direct solar radiation is 10 times stronger than solar radiation near the Earth. As a result, on the daytime surface of the Mercury the conventional low-temperature radiators become completely disabled.The article describes the development of the special shaded spacecraft radiators to be used in daytime on the Mercury and other atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system inner part. To solve this task are used mirror shades. The shape of these shades is developed to improve operation conditions of the spacecraft radiator through the appropriate scheme of radiation reflection. The task is discussed in 2D and 3D cases. A new design of shaded spacecraft radiators is proposed, and reasonable proportions of radiators are determined. The performance capability of proposed radiators for environments of the Mercury and the Moon is estimated using the zonal method in view of partial mirror reflection. The calculations showed that the developed shaded spacecraft radiators are capable to work on the Mercury surface as the low-temperature radiators even during the daytime. New radiators provide minimum accepted operating temperature of 241К (-32°С, meanwhile radiators of common design have minimum operating temperature of 479К (206°С. Using such radiators on the Moon enables us to increase effectiveness of spacecraft radiators and to decrease their minimum operating temperature from 270К (-3°С to 137К (-136°С.

  11. Change in the radiation dose at a point where an inhomogeneity partly covers the radiation field from a 60Co-γ-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.

    1976-04-01

    Measurements and calculations have been made in order to study the change of the radiation dose in a point when an inhomogeneity covers parts of the radiation field from a Co 60-source. An ionization chamber, placed in a water phantom, was used for the measurements. As inhomogeneity an air cavity was used. The measuring point was placed on the central axis of the radiation field during the measurement. The air cavity was moved in front of the measuring point 0.5 - 1 cm by steps laterally, i.e. along a line perpendicular to the radiation direction. Measurements were made at different depths behind the air cavity. The air cavity was placed at different distances from the front plate of the water phantom. Measurements and calculations show that the change of the radiation dose, when the edge of the air cavity passes the measuring point, varies with the depth distance to the air cavity. The greatest deviation is near the air cavity and at a great distance behind this. The change of the radiation dose is less than 2 percent at distances greater than 2 cm from the edge of the air cavity laterally. This change is independent of the depth distance to the air cavity. The maximum deviation 1 cm from the edge of the air cavity is 5 percent independent of the distance tothe air cavity. Used methods of calculation can be extended to be used for irregular inhomogeneities but this requires knowledge of the three-dimensional extension of the inhomogeneity. (M.S.)

  12. Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Shustikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the

  13. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices. 1985 supplement. Volume 2, part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.E.; Gauthier, M.K.; Coss, J.R.; Dantas, A.R.V.; Price, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data, are provided in graphic format for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. This volume provides data on integrated circuits. The data are presented in graphic, tabular, and/or narrative format, depending on the complexity of the integrated circuit. Most tests were done using the JPL or Boeing electron accelerator (Dynamitron) which provides a steady-state 2.5 MeV electron beam. However, some radiation exposures were made with a cobalt-60 gamma ray source, the results of which should be regarded as only an approximate measure of the radiation damage that would be incurred by an equivalent electron dose

  14. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  15. A localized navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion for nuclear facilities. Part II: Optimizing the “Nearest Exit” Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A., E-mail: mkha@ieee.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M., E-mail: xeinaaman@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Jaradat, Mohammad A., E-mail: majaradat@just.edu.jo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Malkawi, Mohammad I., E-mail: mmalkawi@aimws.com [College of Engineering, Jadara University, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this extension from part I (Khasawneh et al., in press), we modify the navigation algorithm which was presented with the objective of optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” Criterion so that navigation would optimize the criterion of “Nearest Exit”. Under this modification, algorithm would yield navigation paths that would guide occupational workers towards Nearest Exit points. Again, under this optimization criterion, algorithm leverages the use of localized information acquired through a well designed and distributed wireless sensor network, as it averts the need for any long-haul communication links or centralized decision and monitoring facility thereby achieving a more reliable performance under dynamic environments. As was done in part I, the proposed algorithm under the “Nearest Exit” Criterion is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, in computing successful navigational paths from one point to another. For comparison purposes, the proposed algorithm is tested under the two optimization criteria: “Radiation Evasion” and “Nearest Exit”, for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify the performance of the algorithm by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields. We, via simulations, also, verify the performance of the algorithm in comparison with a well-known global navigation algorithm upon which we draw our conclusions.

  16. A localized navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion for nuclear facilities. Part II: Optimizing the “Nearest Exit” Criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A.; Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M.; Jaradat, Mohammad A.; Malkawi, Mohammad I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this extension from part I (Khasawneh et al., in press), we modify the navigation algorithm which was presented with the objective of optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” Criterion so that navigation would optimize the criterion of “Nearest Exit”. Under this modification, algorithm would yield navigation paths that would guide occupational workers towards Nearest Exit points. Again, under this optimization criterion, algorithm leverages the use of localized information acquired through a well designed and distributed wireless sensor network, as it averts the need for any long-haul communication links or centralized decision and monitoring facility thereby achieving a more reliable performance under dynamic environments. As was done in part I, the proposed algorithm under the “Nearest Exit” Criterion is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, in computing successful navigational paths from one point to another. For comparison purposes, the proposed algorithm is tested under the two optimization criteria: “Radiation Evasion” and “Nearest Exit”, for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify the performance of the algorithm by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields. We, via simulations, also, verify the performance of the algorithm in comparison with a well-known global navigation algorithm upon which we draw our conclusions

  17. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part II: radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  18. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, RA reactor annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  19. Medical application of radionuclides and the resulting radiation exposure of parts of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, K.D.; Gloebel, B.; Andres, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a big hospital an investigation was made to find out to what extent the radionuclides used there contribute to the radiation exposure of the population living in the vicinity. The hospital used about 100 Ci of short-lived radionuclides a year. By applying the calculation basis stipulated by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the radiation exposure was calculated for unfavourable cases. As a result, up to 30 mrem/a can theoretically be reached. (orig.) [de

  20. Crystal glass used for X ray and gamma radiation shielding - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Crystal glass has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. However, properties of the radiation attenuation of crystal glass commercially available in Brazil, for the different types of energy are not known. For this reason, this work was carried out aiming to determine the radiation attenuation, transmission curves and Half Value Layer. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20 cm x 20 cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, were used. The plates were X-ray irradiated with potential constants of 60, 80, 110, 150 kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. Analysis in the properties of the 60 Co radiation attenuation of barite plaster and barite concrete commercially available in Brazil were also carried out. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. The thickness equivalent of a half value layer and deci value layer of crystal glass for all types of radiation and energies studied was also determined. (author)

  1. PUMN: part I of the WINERY radiation damage computer simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuspa, J.P.; Edwards, D.R.; Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1976-01-01

    Results of computer work to simulate the response of crystalline materials to radiation are presented. To organize this and future work into a long range program of investigation, the WINERY Radiation Damage Computer Simulation System is proposed. The WINERY system is designed to solve the entire radiation damage problem from the incident radiation to the property changes which occur in the material, using a set of interrelated computer programs. One portion of the system, the PUMN program, has been used to obtain important radiation damage results with Fe 3 Al crystal. PUMN simulates the response of the atoms in a crystal to a knock-on atom. It yields the damage configuration of the crystal by considering the dynamic interaction of all the atoms of the computational cell, up to 1000 atoms. The PUMN program provides the WINERY system with results for the number of displacements, N/sub d/, due to knock-on atoms with various energies. The values of N/sub d/ for Fe 3 Al were obtained at two different energies, 100 and 500 eV, for a variety of initial directions. These values are to be used to form a table of results for use in WINERY

  2. A new vector radiative transfer model as a part of SCIATRAN 3.0 software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Burrows, John P.

    The SCIATRAN 3.0 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.x software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. A major improvement was achieved in comparison to previous software versions by adding the vector mode to the radiative transfer model. Thus, the well-established Discrete Ordinate solver can now be run in the vector mode to calculate the scattered solar radiation including polarization, i.e., to simulate all four components of the Stockes vector. Similar to the scalar version, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typical for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer position within or outside the Earth's atmosphere. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new vector radiative transfer model will be given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, comparisons to other vector models will be shown and some example problems will be considered where the polarization of the observed radiation must be accounted for to obtain high quality results.

  3. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-01-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  4. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  5. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A; Pascual, P

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  6. Drying of Agricultural Products Using Long Wave Infrared Radiation(Part 2). Drying of Welsh Onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Han, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to clarify the intermittent drying characteristics for welsh onion use of long-wave infrared radiation. When compared with two other methods: use of air and vacuum freezing, this method showed significantly high rate of drying. The experiments were carried out analyzing the influence of different lengths of the welsh onion, different rate of radiation and different temperature of the airflow. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The rate of drying increases as the length of welsh onion decrease and the rate of radiation increase. 2. The airflow, temperature does not influence to the rate of drying. 3. The increasing of the drying time considerably aggravate the quality the dried welsh onion

  7. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part III: Information systems for radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijewski, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This course will review topics to be considered when defining an information systems plan for a department of radiation oncology. A survey of available systems will be presented. Computer information systems can play an important role in the effective administration and operation of a department of radiation oncology. Tasks such as 1) scheduling for physicians, patients, and rooms, 2) charge collection and billing, 3) administrative reporting, and 4) treatment verification can be carried out efficiently with the assistance of computer systems. Operating a department without a state of art computer system will become increasingly difficult as hospitals and healthcare buyers increasingly rely on computer information technology. Communication of the radiation oncology system with outside systems will thus further enhance the utility of the computer system. The steps for the selection and installation of an information system will be discussed: 1) defining the objectives, 2) selecting a suitable system, 3) determining costs, 4) setting up maintenance contracts, and 5) planning for future upgrades

  8. Radiation-curable impregnating agents for the conservation of archaeologic wooden objects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Wendrinsky, J.; Kalteis, H.; Grienauer, W.

    1982-12-01

    As a continuation of the work described in OEFZS Ber. No. 4165, impregnating agents curable by ionizing radiation, such as free radical polymerizable monomers or artificial resins, have been investigated. Specific weight and viscosity of the liquid mixtures have been as well determined as the specific weight and gel content of the gamma radiation-cured samples. Hardness and elastic behaviour have been estimated only. The shrinkage during hardening was found to be 5 to 12 % for low viscous mixtures (up to 600 mPa.s) and 3 to 8 % for higher viscous impregnating agents. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, RA research reactor, Part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Mandic, M.; Sipka, V.; Grsic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry and radiation protection at the RA reactor; (2) decontamination, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents and solid wastes; (3) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and (4)meteorology measurements; (3). Each of the category is described as a separate annex of this report [sr

  10. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  11. Radiation injuries of the pelvis and proximal parts of the femur after irradiation of carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanovskaya, K.; Shiman, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data relating to 244 patients with carcinoma of the cervix uteri treated by intensive radiotherapy are given. Radiation injury of bone was diagnosed in 12 cases (4.9 +/- 1.4 percent). After x-ray therapy alone they were found in five of 59 patients treated (8.5 +/- 3.6 percent), and after γ-ray therapy in one of 171 cases (0.6 +/- 0.6 percent). The minimal focal dose of x-ray therapy causing radiation injury to bone was 5,000 rads. With an increase in dose, the frequency of injuries also increased. Radiation injury was found after γ-ray therapy with an absorbed dose of 7,000 rads. The radiological features of radiation injury of bones after irradiation of malignant tumors of the pelvis are increasing osteoporosis and the appearance of foci of sclerosis and osteolysis. Necrotic areas of various sizes may be formed. A fracture of the neck of the femur may be prevented in some cases by taking precautionary measures. Healing of an injured part depends on the size of the dose given. Large doses completely suppressed the reparative powers of the bone. Unlike changes that are traumatic in nature, radiation fractures of the pelvic bones and the proximal part of the femur have a mild clinical course; sometimes the patients continue to use the lower limb, simply complaining of pain that may vary in severity. Metastasization of tumors of the uterus to the pelvic bones is possible but infrequent. Metastases are usually associated with increasing pain

  12. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, Irina; Saltanov, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    -effect' can be used for correction of chemical substance limitations in the environment in case of increased radioactive background. It is first shown that mono-factor risk assessment can be used, when negative environmental factors act on the human body at a one time, only. The results (in its part dedicated to radioactive risks) were recommended by the IAEA courses committee (Course Code C7-RER9062-017 'Regional Post Graduate Training Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources') as an introduction course for IAEA program participants, preliminary to their field experience in the Gomel region. Theoretical and experimental foundation for the necessity of integral ecological risk assessment is suggested. (author)

  13. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo Varskin modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T

    1992-06-15

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  14. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt; Medicion de curvas de extrapolacion para el patron secundario de radiacion beta Nr. 86 calibrado en rapidez de dosis absorbida para tejido equivalente por el Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1988-10-15

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  15. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  16. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-01-01

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  17. Radioactive PTT as part of screening protocol for prospecting radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nato, Alejandro Q. Jr.; Deocaris, Custer; Sajise, Sheila C.

    2002-04-01

    Heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (breast cancer)have been found to be associated with enhanced cellular radiosensitivity with impaired proliferative capacity after irradiation and could predispose increased risk of radiation-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis (1,2). Deficient repair mechanism exhibited by lymphocytes from breast cancer patients provides associated vulnerability to genotoxicity of ionizing radiation. Other genes ay also play a role in terms o clinical radiation hypersensitivity needed in predicting response to radiotherapy. However, relaxation of cell cycle checkpoints, production of micronuclei, and loss of proliferative capacity which have been exhibited by impairment of irradiated cells lacking functional BRCA1 and BRCA2, accentuate the notion that heterozygous women may respond differently to radiation. The radioactive protein truncation test (PTT), utilized as screening procedures to detect frameshift mutations, can be employed to clarify radiosensitivity of individuals carrying a mutated BRCA1 gene. It can therefore, be incorporated in the series of clinical assays used in standard screening protocols for prospective nuclear facility workers. (author)

  18. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  19. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  20. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  1. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: by-laws, decisions, non-codified decrees / Collection of legal and statutory provisions relative to radiation protection. Part 2: by-laws and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Robert; Feries, Jean; Marzorati, Frank; Chevalier, Celine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    This second part gathers texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to ionizing radiations (general measures for the protection of the population, exposure to natural radiations, general regime of authorizations and declarations, purchase, retailing, importation, exportation, transfer and elimination of radioactive sources, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical or forensics purposes, situations of radiological emergency and of sustained exposure to ionizing radiations, control), to the safety of waters and food products, and to the control of medical devices, to the protection of patients. It also contains extracts for the Labour Code related to workers protection. This document is an update of the previous version from March 2011

  2. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  3. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  4. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  5. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1992-06-01

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  6. Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation Doses at Board of Aircraft of Polish Airlines LOT. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Horwacik, T.; Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.

    2000-12-01

    Radiation doses received by a group of 30 pilots of the Polish Airlines LOT were investigated between July and October 2000. The measurement of the low-LET component of the cosmic radiation, lasting in average 2 months, was performed with 7 LiF:Mg,Ti and 7 L iF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent detectors. The neutron component was measured with the thermoluminescent albedo cassettes. Additionally for all flights, records of altitude profiles were kept and effective doses were then calculated with the CARI-6 computer code. In total, about 560 flights were included in the calculations. The highest obtained dose was about 0.8 mSv in 2 months. Results of calculations are mostly consistent with the results of measurements. (author)

  7. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  8. Calculation of neutron radiation energy deposition distribution in subcellular parts of tissue using recombination chamber microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Recombination chamber microdosimetry was used as an instrument for determination of local neutron radiation energy deposition distribution. The method allows to simulate of subcellular regions of tissue of the order of 70 nm in size. The results obtained qualitatively correspond to relationship between biological efficiency and neutron energy, and show regular differences of distributions achieved by the recombination method and distributions measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC), which simulates greater tissue regions of 1 μm in size

  9. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  10. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, RA reactor annual report, Part -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Mandic, M.; Pavlovic, S.; Grsic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and (4) radioactive wastes, decontamination and actions. Each of the category is described as a separate annex of this report [sr

  11. Radiation sterilization of the greenhouse white fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw., Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of studies of the sterilizing effect on puparia and imagoes of the greenhouse white fly (T. vaporariorum). The irradiation was made by gamma rays at the rate of 12+-5% rad/s. The parameters of radiation-induced sterility were sex determined. The sterilizing effect was expressed in emergence of dominant lethal mutations in spermatozoa accompanied by partial sperm inactivation and of partial aspermia. The absolute sterilizing doses for the two ontogenetic stage are 6 and 7 krad respectively. Radiation induced sterilization of the male parent resulted in forced arrhenotoky in F 1 and was regarded as a transformation of parthogenesis factor necessary for the normal propagation in the insect process into one that is lethal to the population factor. Radiation induced female sterility in females was expressed in the emergence of dominant lethals in oocytes. The absolute sterilizing doses for the puparium and the imago were 5 and 6 krad, respectively. Doses ≥4 krad caused partial infertility

  12. Effect of Radiation Processing as an Integral Part of Safe Recycling Kitchen Waste for Poultry Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.

    2004-01-01

    Kitchen wastes are relevant as a source of organic matter (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, minerals, and vitamins). Several microorganisms break down organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, and other organic compounds containing sulfur and halogens. Kitchen wastes are valuable whereas they are too hazardous to be rejected into the environment without any attempt to recover and recycle them in a valuable form. Recycling kitchen waste as a feedstuff could have a considerable effect on reducing costs and solving some disposal problems. Treated such wastes with ionizing radiation can make an important contribution to minimize the risk of pathogens and the emission of greenhouse gases. The study was undertaken with two hundred and thirty kitchen waste samples collected from different restaurants in Cairo, Egypt. Effect of radiation treatment at 10 kGy on crude protein, amino acids profile, available lysine and the in-vitro digestibility of kitchen waste protein have been studied. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of dried kitchen waste has a beneficial effect on recycling of such waste and permits waste to be included in poultry ration without any health hazard and nutritional problem. (author)

  13. [Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology. Part 5: organ doses in chest radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenbusch, M C; Schneider, K

    2009-05-01

    Reconstruction of organ doses of selected organs and tissues from radiographic settings and exposure data collected during chest X-ray examinations of children of various age groups performed in Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007. The dosimetric data of all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 119 150 chest radiographs of all age groups. Reconstruction of organ doses in 40 organs and tissues in X-ray examinations of the chest was performed based on the conversion factor concept. The radiation exposure of organs in projection radiography is determined by the exact site of the organs relative to the edges of the X-ray field and the beam direction of X-rays. Optimal collimation in chest radiography can reduce the exposure of organs located at the periphery of the X-ray field, e. g. thyroid gland, stomach and partially the liver, by a factor of 2 to 3, while organs located in the center of the X-ray-field, e. g. thymus, breasts, lungs, esophagus and red bone marrow, are not affected by exact collimation. The high frequency of the roentgen examination of the chest in early age groups increases the collective radiation burden to radiosensitive organs. Therefore, radiation protection of the patient during chest radiographies remains of great importance.

  14. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants, Part II: Perspective from micromechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, Y., E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov; Field, K.G.; Remec, I.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model for irradiated concrete is proposed. • Confrontation with literature data is successful. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • The nature of the aggregate alters the severity of damage to irradiated concrete. - Abstract: The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These data are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. The radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste.

  15. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants, Part II: Perspective from micromechanical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Remec, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model for irradiated concrete is proposed. • Confrontation with literature data is successful. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • The nature of the aggregate alters the severity of damage to irradiated concrete. - Abstract: The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These data are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. The radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste

  16. Practicing radiation oncology today - Part I: Meeting the challenge of managed care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnick, Leslie E.; Cohen, Hilary H.; Hinkle, Milton; Rose, Christopher M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The change in health care delivery is forcing radiation oncologists to examine every aspect of how they organize themselves, deliver care, evaluate the quality of that care, and how they are reimbursed for this process. While managed care has been implicated as the new paradigm that will change the way that health care is delivered, the authors maintain that outcomes research may be just as important a stimulus for change. This course will attempt to examine how managed care and outcomes research are impacting upon radiation oncology practice, and what radiation oncologists can do to maintain patient care standards. This course will introduce certain concepts that will be discussed in subsequent courses on Informatics and Evaluating New Technology. Topics Covered: 1. The Managed Care Nomenclature Explained: HMO's, PPO's, POS's, Carve-Outs 2. Outcomes Research: What it can and cannot do 3. Moving from QA to CQI to Benchmarking 4. Using Analytical Tools to Evaluate Capital Purchases and Operational Requirements 5. Evaluating Staffing Needs: Traditional jobs, Cross-training, Outsourcing, Physician extenders 6. Introduction to Evaluation of Technology 7. Introduction to Evaluation of Informatics 8. Potential gains from Shared Services 9. Networking vs. Mergers vs. Oncology IPA's vs. MSO's 10. Evaluating Managed Care Strategies and Contracts

  17. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhatigan, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis has been performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration has been found to depend upon mission-specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density, and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. This paper describes the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented. Plans for further analyses and testing are discussed. These efforts are expected to lead to a radiator design which will perform to Space Station Freedom requirements over the expected lifetime

  18. X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy - Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 4037 consists of the following parts, under the general title X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy: Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production methods; Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters and the measurement of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence; Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields. This part 4. of ISO 4037 gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations. This part of ISO 4037 also describes procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This part of ISO 4037 concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10) and H*(10) for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients, the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described

  19. Subsolidus phase relationships of the {beta}-sialon solid solution in the oxygen-rich part of the Nd-Si-Al-O-N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A.; Telle, R. [Rheinisch Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Gesteinshuettenkunde; Herrmann, M.; Richter, H.J.; Hermel, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe, Dresden (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    The subsolidus phase relationships in the Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system and in the Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z} (0 {<=} z {<=} 4)-''Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:AlN''-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-range of the Nd-Si-Al-O-N system have been determined. 50 three- and four-phase equilibria were established in this phase region. The phase equilibria define the regions of stable coexistence between {beta}-sialon Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z} (0 {<=} z {<=} 4) and oxide or oxynitride compounds, which are potential grain boundary phases for silicon nitride ceramics. {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coexists with N-melilite (Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 3-x}Al{sub x}N{sub 4-x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1)), N-{alpha}-wollastonite NdSi{sub 2}ON, a nitrogen-rich (Al, N)-apatite solid solution and Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Between 0 {<=} z {<=} 0.8 {beta}-sialon (Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z}) is compatible with N-melilite (Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 3-x}Al{sub x}N{sub 4-x} (x = 1)), an (Al,N)-apatite of intermediate composition and Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The equilibrium phases between z = 0.8 to z = 4 are NdAlO{sub 3} and the U-phase (Nd{sub 3}Si{sub 3-x}Al{sub 3+x}O{sub 12+x}N{sub 2-x}) as well as NdAl{sub 11+x}O{sub 18}N{sub x} (x = 1) and corundum at the Al-rich terminal composition (z = 4). (orig.)

  20. Fabrication of beta particles detector for RMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. B.; Jeong, J. E.; Hong, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    The beta particles detector for RMS (radiation monitoring system) was fabricated to detect charged beta particles. The plastic scintillator was cutted, shaped, polished to make plastic disk for beta particles. The diameter of completed plastic scintillator disk is 40 mm and thickness is 1.5 mm. The mylar film and aluminium foil were used the front of plastic scintillator to intercept light and moisture. The completed plastic detector for RMS consist of the discriminator and counter were made by ULS (Co.). The absolute efficiency of plastic detector was 45.51% for beta particles (Sr/Y - 90)

  1. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  2. Process and device for the polymerization and/or cross-linking by ionizing radiations of a resin component of a composite material part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziers, D.

    1985-01-01

    An electron beam is directed on a target for the production of X-rays with adequate dose for resin cross-linking. Means are provided for relative motion between ionizing radiations and the irradiated object for partial or total exposure to radiations. The part can be polymerized by electron-beam or X-rays in function of its thickness [fr

  3. Radiation hormesis in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) part 1: Laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of two varieties. Bintje and Baraka, with gamma radiations of Cobalt-60 at a dose of: 0.0. 2.5. 5.0 and 7.5 Gy, at the dose rate of 150 Gy per hour. Twenty eight potatoes of each variety were irradiated with each dose. Half of these potatoes were planted individually into aluminium cages of about 15 X 10 X 3 cm, using circa 120 ml of vermiculite in each cage, immediately after radiation. After seven days the rest of the potatoes was planted under the same conditions. The whole experiment was conducted into a chamber under dark conditions and temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade. Almost every two or three days each potato received circa 50 ml of plain water. After 143 to 154 days of irradiation the experiment was finished, and the following parameter were determined. Weight of potatoes without sprouts or roots; number of the eyes on which occurred sprouting; length of the longest sprout of its respective eye; humid weight of the sprouts; dry weight of the sprouts; humid weight of the roots; dry weight of the roots. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  4. TH-A-204-01: Part I - Key Data for Ionizing-Radiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. [National Institute of Standards & Technology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding “fundamental” data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee’s work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams. The changes in reference dosimetry that would result from adoption of the ICRU recommendations are of the order of 0.5% to 1%, an effect that will not impact clinical dose delivery but will be detectable in the clinical setting. This session will also outline how worldwide metrology is coordinated through the Convention of the Meter and therefore how the international dosimetry community will proceed with adopting these recommendations so that uniformity from country to country in reference dosimetry is maintained. Timelines and communications methods will also be discussed to ensure that users, such as clinical medical physicists, are not surprised when their chamber’s calibration coefficient apparently changes. Learning Objectives: Understand the background for the ICRU committee’s work on key dosimetry data. Understand the proposed changes to key data and the impacts on reference dosimetry. Understand the methodology and timeline

  5. TH-A-204-02: Part II - Worldwide Radiation Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, M. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding “fundamental” data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee’s work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams. The changes in reference dosimetry that would result from adoption of the ICRU recommendations are of the order of 0.5% to 1%, an effect that will not impact clinical dose delivery but will be detectable in the clinical setting. This session will also outline how worldwide metrology is coordinated through the Convention of the Meter and therefore how the international dosimetry community will proceed with adopting these recommendations so that uniformity from country to country in reference dosimetry is maintained. Timelines and communications methods will also be discussed to ensure that users, such as clinical medical physicists, are not surprised when their chamber’s calibration coefficient apparently changes. Learning Objectives: Understand the background for the ICRU committee’s work on key dosimetry data. Understand the proposed changes to key data and the impacts on reference dosimetry. Understand the methodology and timeline

  6. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: Part II. Application to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Toncheva, Greta; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Current methods for estimating and reporting radiation dose from CT examinations are largely patient-generic; the body size and hence dose variation from patient to patient is not reflected. Furthermore, the current protocol designs rely on dose as a surrogate for the risk of cancer incidence, neglecting the strong dependence of risk on age and gender. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for estimating patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk from CT examinations. Methods: The study included two patients (a 5-week-old female patient and a 12-year-old male patient), who underwent 64-slice CT examinations (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis at our institution in 2006. For each patient, a nonuniform rational B-spine (NURBS) based full-body computer model was created based on the patient's clinical CT data. Large organs and structures inside the image volume were individually segmented and modeled. Other organs were created by transforming an existing adult male or female full-body computer model (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. A Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for dose simulation on the LightSpeed VCT scanner was used to estimate patient-specific organ dose, from which effective dose and risks of cancer incidence were derived. Patient-specific organ dose and effective dose were compared with patient-generic CT dose quantities in current clinical use: the volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the effective dose derived from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: The effective dose for the CT examination of the newborn patient (5.7 mSv) was higher but comparable to that for the CT examination of the teenager patient (4.9 mSv) due to the size-based clinical CT protocols at our institution, which employ lower scan techniques for smaller

  7. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  8. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1992, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  10. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  11. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  12. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  13. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, Part 4: meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  14. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  15. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  16. Prey-predator dynamics driven by the solar radiation - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertorio, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper is studied a model ecosystem represented by two components: prey and predator. The predator feeds only on the prey, the prey, in turn, feeds on the solar radiation. In this scheme the two-species dynamics is no longer independent of the external physical conditions. Such independence was instead postulated in the Lotka-Volterra scheme. In this paper is considered the growth of the prey not unbounded (exponential), but logistic, where the saturation factor is governed by the available solar flux, more precisely by the percent of the solar flux that contains the photon frequencies which can drive the photosynthesis. In this way the solar flux represents the driving term of the dynamics, as it is expected in general for a realistic ecosystem. The system is asymptotically stable. The equilibrium values of the prey and predator numbers depend on several parameters. The system contains two nonlinear coupling terms and two coupling parameters. The dependence of the equilibrium point on the coupling parameters is studied in detail. According to this model, it can be defined a predator efficiency and a global solar efficiency. It is discussed the relationship between these two functions of the coupling parameters and the maximum value that the predator population can reach

  17. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 1: The solar channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hoyt, Douglas V.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment on the Nimbus-7 satellite measured the total solar irradiance plus broadband spectral components on a nearly daily basis from 16 Nov. 1978, until 16 June 1992. Months of additional observations were taken in late 1992 and in 1993. The emphasis is on the electrically self calibrating cavity radiometer, channel 10c, which recorded accurate total solar irradiance measurements over the whole period. The spectral channels did not have inflight calibration adjustment capabilities. These channels can, with some additional corrections, be used for short-term studies (one or two solar rotations - 27 to 60 days), but not for long-term trend analysis. For channel 10c, changing radiometer pointing, the zero offsets, the stability of the gain, the temperature sensitivity, and the influences of other platform instruments are all examined and their effects on the measurements considered. Only the question of relative accuracy (not absolute) is examined. The final channel 10c product is also compared with solar measurements made by independent experiments on other satellites. The Nimbus experiment showed that the mean solar energy was about 0.1 percent (1.4 W/sqm) higher in the excited Sun years of 1979 and 1991 than in the quiet Sun years of 1985 and 1986. The error analysis indicated that the measured long-term trends may be as accurate as +/- 0.005 percent. The worse-case error estimate is +/- 0.03 percent.

  18. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    As an agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is responsible for maintenance of the Australian Commonwealth standard of absorbed dose. This standard of measurement has application in radiation therapy dosimetry, which is required for the treatment of cancer patients. This report is the first in a series of reports documenting the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. The Urquhart graphite micro-calorimeters, which is used for the determination of absorbed dose under high energy photon beams, has been now placed under computer control. Accordingly, a complete upgrade of the calorimeter systems was performed to allow operation in the hospital. In this report, control and monitoring techniques have been described, with an assessment of the performance achieved being given for 6 and 18 MeV bremsstrahlung beams. Random errors have been reduced to near negligible proportions, while systematic errors have been minimized by achieving true quasi-adiabatic operation. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs

  19. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  1. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part II: Computer-controlled 3-D treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This course will describe the use of computer-controlled treatment delivery techniques for treatment of patients with sophisticated conformal therapy. In particular, research and implementation issues related to clinical use of computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy (CCRT) techniques will be discussed. The possible/potential advantages of CCRT techniques will be highlighted using results from clinical 3-D planning studies. Materials and Methods: In recent years, 3-D treatment planning has been used to develop and implement 3-D conformal therapy treatment techniques, and studies based on these conformal treatments have begun to show the promise of conformal therapy. This work has been followed by the development of commercially-available multileaf collimator and computer control systems for treatment machines. Using these (and other) CCRT devices, various centers are beginning to clinically use complex computer-controlled treatments. Both research and clinical CCRT treatment techniques will be discussed in this presentation. General concepts and requirements for CCRT will be mentioned. Developmental and clinical experience with CCRT techniques from a number of centers will be utilized. Results: Treatment planning, treatment preparation and treatment delivery must be approached in an integrated fashion in order to clinically implement CCRT treatment techniques, and the entire process will be discussed. Various CCRT treatment methodologies will be reviewed from operational, dosimetric, and technical points of view. The discussion will concentrate on CCRT techniques which are likely to see rather wide dissemination over the next several years, including particularly the use of multileaf collimators (MLC), dynamic and segmental conformal therapy, conformal field shaping, and other related techniques. More advanced CCRT techniques, such as the use of individualized intensity modulation of beams or segments, and the use of computer

  2. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  3. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  6. Impact of ultraviolet-beta radiation on two species of forest dwarf shrubs: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robakowski, P.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of UV-B radiation on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluoroscence of two dwarth shrub species was investigated. The plants originating from different latitudes were used. Three variants of ultraviolet-B radiation were applied: control = 0, lower dose = 11,32 and higher dose = 22,64 kJ/square m/day. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content were carried out. The response of dwarf shrubs to the increased UV-B radiation depended on UV-B dose, species traits and provenance

  7. Evaluation of granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, CaF2:Eu and ZnS:Ag for alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in a flow-cell radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Chotoo, S.B.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, and CaF 2 :Eu; CaF 2 :Eu coated with a fluorescent polymer, and combinations of coated and uncoated CaF 2 :Eu with ZnS:Ag were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between alpha and beta particles in a flow-cell radiation detector. The evaluations were based on the analysis of pulse shape spectra. Various granulated scintillators were packed into flow cell detectors that were coils of 3.0 mm ODx1.5 mm ID fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon[reg] tubing positioned between dual photomultiplier tubes for analysis. The best pulse shape discrimination was obtained for a combination of equal masses of uncoated CaF 2 :Eu (63-90 μm) and ZnS:Ag (10 μm), which had a 9% spillover. Additional research is needed to reduce the spillover

  8. Evaluation of granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, CaF sub 2 :Eu and ZnS:Ag for alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in a flow-cell radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Devol, T A; Fjeld, R A

    1999-01-01

    Granulated BGO, GSO:Ce, YAG:Ce, and CaF sub 2 :Eu; CaF sub 2 :Eu coated with a fluorescent polymer, and combinations of coated and uncoated CaF sub 2 :Eu with ZnS:Ag were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between alpha and beta particles in a flow-cell radiation detector. The evaluations were based on the analysis of pulse shape spectra. Various granulated scintillators were packed into flow cell detectors that were coils of 3.0 mm ODx1.5 mm ID fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon[reg] tubing positioned between dual photomultiplier tubes for analysis. The best pulse shape discrimination was obtained for a combination of equal masses of uncoated CaF sub 2 :Eu (63-90 mu m) and ZnS:Ag (10 mu m), which had a 9% spillover. Additional research is needed to reduce the spillover.

  9. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  10. Studies on assessment of health effects of radiation processed foods: Part 1. genetic toxicological evaluation in somatic and germ cells of laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, R C; Aravindakshan, M; Chauhan, P S [Genetic Toxicology and Chromosome Studies Section, Cell Biology Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1999-09-01

    The studies summarized in this report form a part of the program on the safety evaluation of radiation-processed foods, an important component of the development of radiation technology for food preservation from the public health point of view. These studies contributed significantly and critically to the acceptance of safety of radiation processed foods by regulatory agencies both at the national and international levels. This report contains only genetic studies, one aspect of this program, while the remaining studies will be summarized in a separate report.

  11. Studies on assessment of health effects of radiation processed foods: Part 1. genetic toxicological evaluation in somatic and germ cells of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Aravindakshan, M.; Chauhan, P.S.

    1999-09-01

    The studies summarized in this report form a part of the program on the safety evaluation of radiation-processed foods, an important component of the development of radiation technology for food preservation from the public health point of view. These studies contributed significantly and critically to the acceptance of safety of radiation processed foods by regulatory agencies both at the national and international levels. This report contains only genetic studies, one aspect of this program, while the remaining studies will be summarized in a separate report

  12. Studies on the preparation of immobilized enzymes by radio-polymerization, 10. Preparation of. beta. -galactosidase and its utilization for the continuous determination of lactose. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarakone, S P [Ceylon Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Hayashi, Toru; Kawashima, Koji

    1983-03-01

    ..beta..-Galactosidase of E. coli origin was immobilized in the form of beads by the radiopolymerization of different combinations of monomers using a gamma irradiation technique. With the dialysed enzyme, recoveries of over 300 % could be obtained on suitable monomer combinations containing magnesium and sodium acrylates. The recovery of the enzyme also depended on the irradiation time. The immobilized enzyme had better pH and temperature stability and was less affected by the presence of metal ions in the medium, compared to the native enzyme. The optimum pH and temperatures of the immobilized enzyme were different from those of the native enzyme and were 7.0 to 7.5 and 50 deg C respectively. The immobilized enzyme was used in a column for the continuous determination of lactose with a standard type autoanalyser. Good linearity could be observed even up to 3% lactose in the sample.

  13. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  15. Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veira, A.; Kloster, Silvia; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Kaiser, Johannes W.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires represent a major source for aerosols impacting atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry and cloud micro-physical properties. Previous case studies indicated that the height of the aerosol–radiation interaction may crucially affect atmospheric radiation, but the sensitivity to emission

  16. Determination of beta-radiation in 14C-labelled biological samples by 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, B.; Neumann, R.; Beger, J.

    1991-01-01

    2,5-Diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PPD) has been investigated for its suitability as a primary szintillator. This compound can be used together with the secondary szintillator POPOP in toluene solution for the measurement of low-energetic β-radiation in biological samples marked by 14 C. A convenient approach to laboratory syntheses is presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Portable, transportable or installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring. Part 1: Ratemeters (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 61017-1:1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2000-01-01

    This standard is applicable to portable, transportable or installed assemblies intended to measure environmental air kerma rates from 30 nGy h -1 to 10 μGy h -1 (3 μrad h -1 to 1 mrad h -1 ) due to X or gamma radiation of energy between at least 50 keV and 1.5MeV * . If the assembly is to be used to measure air measure air kerma rates in the area surrounding a nuclear reactor producing 6 MeV radiation it will be necessary to determine the response at this energy. For the purpose of radiation protection these assemblies comprise at least: - a detection sub-assembly (e.g. ionization chamber, GM counter tube, scintillation detector, etc.); - a measuring sub-assembly including a display device, which may be connected together either rigidly or by means of a flexible cable or incorporated into a single assembly. The installed assembly may also comprise a continuous recorder (e.g. chart or magnetic cassette recorder or telemetry equipment). The requirements of this standard are also applicable to assemblies that use integration of ionization current, count-rate, etc. to enable a mean air kerma rate to be indicated or determined. For the assemblies described above, this standard specifies general characteristics, general test procedures, radiation characteristics, electrical, mechanical, safety and environmental characteristics as well the identification certificate. Assemblies that indicate air kerma from integration of the detector's signal will be dealt with in the future IEC Publication 1017-2. This standard does not apply to thermoluminescence dosimetry systems or other passive integrating devices. This standard does not provide for the measurement of beta radiation

  18. Integration of radiation monitoring for nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J T; Thompson, N Y [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Forces have established Nuclear Emergency Response Teams to cope with potential radiation accidents. Previously, only gamma and high-energy beta radiation could be detected. Recently, new radiation sampling, detecting, and analytical equipment has been bought, including air samplers, beta counters, high-purity germanium gamma detectors, and multi-channel analyzers together with Gamma Vision Software to analyze gamma spectra. The purpose of the present study is to propose a way to use the new equipment, to analyze the results from the gamma and beta detectors, and to integrate the results into a format for decision making. Integration is achieved through the creation of a computer program, Radiation Integration Program (RIP). This program analyzes gross beta counts, and uses them to estimate danger to the thyroid. As well the results from Gamma Vision are converted from Bq to dose rate for several parts of the body. Overall gamma results affecting the thyroid are compared to the beta results to verify the initial estimations.

  19. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  20. Design of a Solar Greenhouse with Energy Delivery by the Conversion of Near Infrared Radiation - Part 1 Optics and PV-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gert-Jan Swinkels; Piet Sonneveld; G.P.A. Bot

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for reflecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system is described. Especially the optical parts as the spectral selective film, the properties of the circular reflector and the

  1. Design of a Solar Greenhouse with energy Delivery by the Conversion of Near Infrared Radiation. Part 1. Optics and PV-Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for reflecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system is described. Especially the optical parts as the spectral selective film, the properties of the circular reflector and the

  2. White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 2: Radiation Dose and Iodine Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, W Dennis; Shuman, William P; Siegel, Marilyn J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Boll, Daniel T; Bolus, David N; De Cecco, Carlo N; Kaza, Ravi K; Morgan, Desiree E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L

    This is the second of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its task force on dual-energy computed tomography. This paper, part 2, addresses radiation dose and iodine sensitivity in dual-energy computed tomography.

  3. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha, and electron radiation on the rat skin. Progress report, August 1, 1974--July 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.; Burns, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    The carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation (α, β, electron, and protons) on rat skin were studied in an attempt to learn more about radiation carcinogenesis, especially how various parameters of the irradiation, such as dose distribution within the tissue and dose rate, affect the yield of tumors. It was found that when the dose was localized to a small region of skin, the tumor yield was reduced and the magnitude of the reduction indicated that the region of reduced response might extend about 150 μ into the irradiated zone. The proliferative state of the hair follicles at the time of irradiation had relatively little effect on tumor induction although old animals were less susceptible than young or newborn animals. The penetration requirement of at least 0.3 mm for producing tumors suggests that the hair follicle germ cells could be the oncogenic targets. Comprehensive experiments to measure the rate of recovery for tumor induction in split-dose exposure protocols indicated a recovery halftime of about 4 hrs for electrons and significant recovery for protons, which was used in a model to predict how recovery should affect the tumor response at low dose rates. Combinations of ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light were applied to rat skin to determine whether they are additive for producing tumors. (U.S.)

  4. Numerical simulation of surface solar radiation over Southern Africa. Part 1: Evaluation of regional and global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Morel, Béatrice; Wild, Martin; Pohl, Benjamin; Abiodun, Babatunde; Bessafi, Miloud

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the performance of climate models in reproducing surface solar radiation (SSR) over Southern Africa (SA) by validating five Regional Climate Models (RCM, including CCLM4, HIRHAM5, RACMO22T, RCA4 and REMO2009) that participated in the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment program over Africa (CORDEX-Africa) along with their ten driving General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 over SA. The model simulated SSR was thereby compared to reference data from ground-based measurements, satellite-derived products and reanalyses over the period 1990-2005. Results show that (1) the references obtained from satellite retrievals and reanalyses overall overestimate SSR by up to 10 W/m2 on average when compared to ground-based measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive, which are located mainly over the eastern part of the southern African continent. (2) Compared to one of the satellite products (Surface Solar Radiation Data Set—Heliosat Edition 2; SARAH-2): GCMs overestimate SSR over SA in terms of their multi-model mean by about 1 W/m2 (compensation of opposite biases over sub-regions) and 7.5 W/m2 in austral summer and winter respectively; RCMs driven by GCMs show in their multimodel mean underestimations of SSR in both seasons with Mean Bias Errors (MBEs) of about - 30 W/m2 in austral summer and about - 14 W/m2 in winter compared to SARAH-2. This multi-model mean low bias is dominated by the simulations of the CCLM4, with negative biases up to - 76 W/m2 in summer and - 32 W/m2 in winter. (3) The discrepancies in the simulated SSR over SA are larger in the RCMs than in the GCMs. (4) In terms of trend during the "brightening" period 1990-2005, both GCMs and RCMs (driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis ERA-Interim, short as ERAINT and GCMs) simulate an SSR trend of less than 1 W/m2 per decade. However, variations of SSR trend exist among different references data

  5. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  6. Educational Activity for the Radiation Emergency System in the Northern Part of Japan: Meeting Report on "The 3rd Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists in 2016".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Yusuke; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kimura, Takaaki; Mori, Ryosuke; Yamada, Ryota; Saga, Ryo; Fujishima, Yohei; Date, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency. In the area of Hokkaido and Aomori prefectures in Japan, since 2008 an exchange meeting between Hokkaido University and Hirosaki University has been held every year to have opportunities to discuss radiation effects on human health and to collect the latest news on monitoring environmental radiation. This meeting was elevated to an international meeting in 2014 titled "Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists". The 3rd ESRAH meeting took place in 2016, with the theme "Investigating Radiation Impact on the Environmental and Health". Here we report the meeting findings on the continuing educational efforts after the Fukushima incident, what was accomplished in terms of building a community educational approaches, and future goals.

  7. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  8. Protection against the ionizing radiations coming from external sources used in medicine: Part 1. Radiodiagnosis in medicine and dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the minimum requirements for the safety use of external sources of radiations in medical and dentistry radiodiagnosis. As a matter of fact, radiations produce noxious biological effects as: cancer, genetic damages, cataract and others. Those effects can be either avoided or limited, if we dose the exposure of radiation. The use of X-rays for diagnosis causes a massive exposure of population, that can be corrected by means of the application of rules settled down in this standard

  9. Radition mutagenesis in lavender. Part 2. Effect of heat shock, moisture and post radiation storage on lavender seed radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, R.C. (Institute of the Rose, Essential Oil and Medicinal Plants, Kazanlyk (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    The influence of three factors which increase radiation tolerance of lavender seeds and reduce the biological injuries with lethal effect in case of gamma-irradiation (Cs/sup 137/) was investigated. Irradiation at -65 deg C increased radiation tolerance and led to increased doses and higher mutagenic effect. Seeds with lowered moisture had higher radiosensitivity in comparison to these having 4.5-5 times more water. Post-radiation storage at 20-22 deg C without loss of moisture increased radiation injuries, which grew along with the prolongation of the period from seed irradiation to germination.

  10. Modulation role of angelica sinensis on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) expression induced by radiation in the lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Conghua; Zhou Yunfeng; Peng Gang; Zhou Fuxiang; Zhang Gong; Liang Chen; Liu Hui; Chen Ji; Xia Mingtong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of Angelica Sinensis to affect the radiation- induced TGF-β 1 release in the animal model, so as to find an effective method to reduce the lung toxicity after thoracic irradiation. Methods: The thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either sham irradiation or single fraction of 12 Gy. Four study groups were defined: those that received neither irradiation nor Angelica Sinensis (NT group), those that received Angelica Sinensis but no irradiation (AS group), those that underwent irradiation without Angelica Sinensis (XRT group) and those that received both Angelica Sinensis and irradiation (AS/XRT group). Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were sacrificed at times corresponding to the latent period (1, 24, 72 hours and 1 week postirradiation), the pneumonic phase (2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks postirradiation), and the beginning of the fibrotic phase (24 weeks postirradiation) . The TGF-β 1 mRNA expressions in the lung tissue were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical Streptavidin-Peroxidase method and positive cell counting were used for objective quantification of TGF-β 1 protein expression. Results: NT and AS groups exhibited low levels of TGF-β 1 protein expression with positive cell counts between 9 and 31. And there is an significantly elevated level of TGF-β 1 positive inflammatory cells in XRT group (P 1 in XRT group was significantly higher than the nonirradiated groups (P 1 response on mRNA level, but the statistical comparison of the TNF-αmRNA expression between the XRT and AS/XRT treatment-group was not significant (P=0.054). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a significant radiation-induced increase of TGF-β 1 (on mRNA and protein level) in the lung tissue, and the predominant localisation of TGF-β 1 in areas of inflammatory cell infiltrates suggests involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury

  11. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha, and electron radiation on the rat skin. Progress report, August 1, 1977--January 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Albert, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial tumors are induced reproducibly in rat skin exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For these carcinogens, the comparative risk of tumor formation is being examined for clues to the generality of action and the mode of interaction of diverse carcinogens. Molecular lesions, such as, pyrimidine dimers and single-strand breaks in DNA have been measured as a basis for assessment of cellular dose. Dose-response for single doses, time response for multiple doses, and repair or recovery of oncogenic damage are major areas of current interest

  12. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin. Progress report, August 1, 1977--January 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Albert, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial tumors are induced reproducibly in rat skin exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For these carcinogens, the comparative risk of tumor formation is being examined for clues to the generality of action and the mode of interaction of diverse carcinogens. Molecular lesions, such as, pyrimidine dimers and single-strand breaks in DNA have been measured as a basis for assessment of cellular dose. Dose-response for single doses, time-response for multiple doses, and repair or recovery of oncogenic damage are major areas of current interest

  13. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) on samples are counted after treating them (e.g. aliquotation, solution, enrichment, separation). It considers, besides the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting, all other influences arising from sample treatment, (e.g. weighing, enrichment, calibration or the instability of the test setup). ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG 2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as non radioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-3 and ISO 11929-4 and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  14. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  15. Intercomparison of radiation protection protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; García, M. J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, T.; Latocha, M.; Mares, V.; Mayer, S.; Radon, T.; Reithmeier, H.; Rollet, S.; Roos, H.; Rühm, W.; Sandri, S.; Schardt, D.; Simmer, G.; Spurný, František; Trompier, F.; Villa-Grasa, C.; Weitzenegger, E.; Wiegel, B.; Wielunski, M.; Wissmann, F.; Zechner, A.; Zielczyński, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 7-8 (2009), s. 673-691 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation protection devices * radiation field * detectors * dosemeters Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2009

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta. En potent multifunktionel voekstfaktor for normale og maligne celler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    The polypeptide growth factor transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional regulator of basic cellular functions: proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and interactions with the extracellular matrix. TGF-beta is part of a regulatory network of which our knowledge is sti...... possibilities for therapeutic intervention in the physiological and patophysiological functions of TGF-beta. Udgivelsesdato: 1992-Nov-30...

  17. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  18. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  19. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  20. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  2. Radiation protection guidance to Federal agencies for occupational exposure. Recommendations approved by the President. Part II The President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Lee M.

    1987-01-01

    This memorandum transmits recommendations that would update previous guidance to Federal agencies for the protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These recommendations were developed cooperatively by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) of the States, and the Health Physics Society were consulted during the development of this guidance. These recommendations are based on consideration of (1) current scientific understanding of effects on health from ionizing radiation, (2) recommendations of international and national organizations involved in radiation protection, (3) proposed 'Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposure' published on January 23, 1981 (46 FR 7836) and public comments on that proposed guidance, and (4) the collective experience of the Federal agencies in the control of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the considerations that led to these recommendations is provided

  3. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is involved in the development of new uranium mines from the early planning stages through the development of the mine-mill facility. As a result, new facilities are designed and developed to a much higher standard of both conventional and radiation health and safety than previously. Radiation is not the most significant cause of injury to the uranium miner, and public attitudes toward radiation may result in overemphasizing these aspects to the detriment of conventional health and safety conditions in the mines. The AECB believes that one dead miner is one too many and bases its regulatory efforts on this belief

  4. Improvement of antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic producing strain of Bacillus subtilis AFCI-69 by radiation and chemical mutagens. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.

    1978-08-01

    Gamma radiation was used to select higher antibiotic yield mutants of Bacillus subtilis AECL 69. The test organisms were Aspergillus niger RAGENI 70 and Staphylococcus aureus 6571 (16) N.C.T.C. Searches for fermentation, purification and characterization of antibiotics of parent strain and its mutants were carried out

  5. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1986, Part -2, Annex 2a, Radioactivity control of the RA reactor environment (atmospheric precipitations, dust, water, soil, plants, fruit...)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, N.; Martic, M.; Jovanovic, J.

    1986-01-01

    Control of radioactivity in the biosphere in the vicinity of the RA reactor is part of the radioactivity control done regularly for the whole territory of the Vinca institute (report by the same authors included in this Annex). During 1986 control was conducted according to the plan until May 1, 1986 when a dramatic increase of the precipitations and all other samples from the biosphere was recorded. According to the measured data no significant changes have been found in the surroundings of the RA reactor, until April 29 1986. Since then more detailed control was conducted, the number of samples was increased, apart from standard measuring procedure of total beta activity measurements, gamma spectrometry of all samples was applied. High activity level of the following nuclides was found: Iodine, cerium,cesium, tellurium, ruthenium, barium, lanthanum, etc. As an example activity of ?1?3?1 I in one sample was 564±5 kBq/m 2 [sr

  6. Radiation protection review in nuclear medicine and analysis of new medical techniques. ACDOS-5-P-3 project. Final report, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, Jose L.; Rojo, Ana M.; Kunst, Juan J.

    2003-01-01

    The intravascular brachytherapy (IVB) is a new application of ionizing radiation in the interventional cardiology and radioncology and medical physics field. The source is temporarily or permanently placed inside the vessel to prevent the restenosis. The restenosis is the re-narrowing of the lumen of the artery up to 50 % in the primary site of the treatment. Its incidence is 30 to 50 % following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and 20 % after stenting. The IVB is apply to prevent peripheric and coronary restenosis. The radiation is delivered through a catheter placed across the lesion, or by implanting a radioactive stent into a targeted lesion. Both beta and gamma radiation is used depending on the depth of penetration required. There isn't a definitive conclusion regarding the advantage of each one. The experience and the knowledge about the effects of ionizing radiation reveals that the cells in high rate division are the main target. It determines the selection of this type of radiation to prevent and treat the main component of restenosis: the neo intimal hyperplasia. Recently, several clinical trials have been approved in multicenter studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of IVB in reducing the restenosis rate. During the year 2000, Cordis's Checkmate System and Novoste's Beth-Cath System received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat patients with in-stent restenosis. This approval marks a significant achievement for U.S. clinicians/researchers, who have devoted more than four years of clinical study to evaluate the effects and intricacies of vascular brachytherapy. The approval mechanism anticipates a follow up of the cases for an evaluation of the conditions of the definitive authorization. The IVB showed to be useful in the treatment of neo intimal hyperplasia post angioplasty injury and in-stent restenosis. Nevertheless there are uncertainties to be studied before the routine clinical application. These

  7. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  8. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  9. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  10. Targeting of beta 1 integrins impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of head and neck cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickreuter, E.; Eke, I.; Krause, M.; Borgmann, K.; van Vugt, M. A.; Cordes, N.

    2016-01-01

    beta 1 Integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interactions allow cancer cell survival and confer therapy resistance. It was shown that inhibition of beta 1 integrins sensitizes cells to radiotherapy. Here, we examined the impact of beta 1 integrin targeting on the repair of radiation-induced

  11. Radiation disinfestation of local sundried fisher products. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation preservation of Asian fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation in controlling the flesh fly (Parasarcophaga rusicornis), the most predominating species of flies infesting fish during sun drying, and the Dermestes carnivorous, the most prominant insect in dried fish during storage, was carried out. Naked flesh fly larvae irradiated with 50krad had a 100% mortality within a period of 12 days. This dose also prevented the larvae from developing into pupae. A complete destruction of the larvae can be obtained within 5-6 hours after exposure with an irradiation dose of 200krad. A dose of 30krad caused a 100% destruction on the eggs of the beetle. Using the same dose on the larvae, a dose of 225krad is sufficient to cause a 100% mortality right after irradiation. Pupae appeared to be more resistant to radiation than the egg. A 100% mortality was obtained at 40 and 30krads, 3 and 8 days after emergence, respectively. A dose of 250krad killed the adults immediately after radiation while 225krad gave a complete destruction one day after irradiation. The same effect of radiation was obtained on the naked and inoculated samples. Based on the organoleptic assessment, no significant difference was found between samples of unirradiated salted and dried striped mackerel and those irradiated with 225krad

  12. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  13. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  14. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernandez, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. The paper describes in detail the detectors employed in the experiment, followed by a discussion of the results. A comparison is also made with the H*(10) values predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations and those measured by the BSS systems.

  15. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  16. Use of strontium-90 beta irradiation as an adjunctive therapy for the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, L.; Momta, S.; Jehan, A.H.; Rahman, M.U.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate the effectiveness of strontium-90 beta irradiation in management of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 5 patients treated with strontium-90 beta irradiation was done. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was histologically proved in all patients who had initial surgery to remove the major part of the lesion. This was followed by beta radiation within 48 hours with Sr -90 contact applicator obtained from Amersham International. The hand held Sr- 90 eye applicator was used after appropriately instilling the eyes with local anesthetics and a total of 5000cGy was delivered in seven fractions. Follow-up period was from 6 to 12 months. Clinical response and side effects to the therapy were used as outcome measurements. Three patients showed good response with no evidence of tumor within 6 to 12 months of the follow-up period. One patient was lost to follow-up and one patient showed local recurrence within 4 months. In this patient the tumor was more extensive involving the limbal conjunctiva and the cornea. The early side effects of beta radiation reported by all five patients were temporary local irritation of the eyes with additional mild chemosis in four patients. None of the other three potentially cured patients showed any long-term adverse reactions. There were no incidence of late radiation induced complications such as corneal ulcerations, damage to cornea, eye pain, cataract or any other serious effects in these patients within the follow-up period. In conclusion, beta irradiation is an effective post-surgical therapy for local control of superficial conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. The very low and minimum side -effects of Sr-90 irradiation is an advantage, which makes it a good alternative to external beam radiation, which has serious side effects. (author)

  17. Virtual laboratory for radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiftikci, A.; Kocar, C.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation of alpha, beta and gamma radiation detection and measurement experiments which are part of real nuclear physics laboratory courses was realized with Monte Carlo method and JAVA Programming Language. As being known, establishing this type of laboratories are very expensive. At the same time, highly radioactive sources used in some experiments carries risk for students and also for experimentalists. By taking into consideration of those problems, the aim of this study is to setup a virtual radiation laboratory with minimum cost and to speed up the training of radiation physics for students with no radiation risk. Software coded possesses the nature of radiation and radiation transport with the help of Monte Carlo method. In this software, experimental parameters can be changed manually by the user and experimental results can be followed synchronous in an MCA (Multi Channel Analyzer) or an SCA (Single Channel Analyzer). Results obtained in experiments can be analyzed by these MCA or SCA panels. Virtual radiation laboratory which is developed in this study with reliable results and unlimited experimentation capability seems as an useful educational material. Moreover, new type of experiments can be integrated to this software easily and as a result, virtual laboratory can be extended.

  18. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The author establishes that radiation exposure is one of the health hazards of uranium mining and therefore has to be controlled. The jurisdictional framework for this is outlined and the role and functions of the Atomic Energy Control Board are detailed. The author then sets down seven objectives for radiation protection followed by an outline of the Canadian regulatory philosophy including an examination of two possible approaches to regulation of uranium mining and milling, and a sketch of pending new regulations. After setting down what he considers the main concerns of the AECB in mine regulation, the author details the Board's licensing process, compliance activities and relationship with workers. The conclusion includes a call for a more rational approach in considering and therefore dealing with radiation as a workplace hazard

  19. Genetic and somatic radiation doses in radiotherapy of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of bones, joints and soft parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, M.; Keinert, K.; Schumann, E. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-01-01

    Dose measurements were performed in several body regions of patients suffering from inflammatory degenerative diseases (humeral epicondylitis, humeroscapular periarthritis, gonarthrosis, axillary hidradenitis, rheumatoid arthritis, coxarthrosis, parotitis). The problem of the radiation induction of neoplasms is predominant concerning somatic as well as genetic risk, discussed by example of the most frequently occurring organ cancer. Compared to the rate of breast cancer in the highly developed industrial states (5,000 to 6,000 cancers/100,000 women) the 'radiation induction' calculated according to a mathematical model of ICRP 26 (1.25 cases of death for breast cancers/100,000 women following for example irradiation of epicondylitis) is behind several powers of ten and not demonstrable. The genetic radiation exposure is also low. Derived from the measurements it is wrong to give up reliable and approved indications of radiotherapy of non-malignant diseases because of unfounded radiophobia.

  20. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part II: Designing a radiation oncology department and setting up a clinical practice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halman, Marc A.; Szerlag, Chester

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Identify the business practices necessary to develop a successful radiation oncology department in the current health care environment. Course content will be of interest to new practitioners establishing first time programs or joining existing groups as well as experienced radiation oncologists who are challenged with redesigning programs to be competitive. Course Content: During this session, the following topics will be discussed: 1) Space planning and equipment selection 2) Personnel; creating efficiencies while promoting productivity 3) Professional and Technical Billing; establishing proper fee structures and coding procedures 4) Utilizing benchmarking as a tool to improve operations 5) Information technology in radiation oncology 6) Current and Future Trends: a) Oncology networks b) Reimbursement: managed care and capitation c) Downsizing d) Relative Value Units

  1. Study of the capability for rapid warnings of solar flare radiation hazards to aircraft. Part I. Forecasts and warnings of solar flare radiation hazards. Part II. An FAA polar flight solar cosmic radiation forecast/warning communication system study. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.; Stonehocker, G.H.

    1977-04-01

    The first part of the report provides background information on the occurrence of solar activity and the consequent sporadic production of electromagnetic and particle emissions from the sun. A summary is given of the current procedures for the forecasting of solar activity together with procedures used to verify these forecasts as currently available. A summary of current forecasting of radiation hazards as provided in support of the Concorde SST program is also given. The second part of the report describes a forecast message distribution system developed in conjunction with solar cosmic radiation forecasts and warnings of the Space Environment Laboratory of NOAA for the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine. The study analyzes the currently available and future aeronautical telecommunication system facilities to determine an optimum system to distribute forecasts to the preflight planning centers in the international flight service stations for polar-flying subsonic and supersonic transport (SST) type aircraft. Also recommended for the system are timely and reliable distribution of warnings to individual in-flight aircraft in polar areas by the responsible air traffic control authority

  2. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  3. Utilization of ionizing radiation for the sterilization of membraneous connective tissue allografts. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.

    1978-05-01

    The work carried out, covered several aspects of radiation sterilization of membraneous allografts. In general the findings show that the sterilization of biological membranes with gamma irradiation using doses of up to 3 Mrads is a very satisfactory method for the sterilization of the material, since it does not seriously alter the biological properties of allografts. As for the changes of the mechanical properties, this is not considered to be a serious draw back, because the membraneous allografts cover surgical needs where the mechanical strength is not of paramount importance

  4. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  5. Beta induced Bremsstrahlung dose rate in concrete shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dosimetric study of beta-induced Bremsstrahlung in concrete is importance in the field of radiation protection. The efficiency, intensity and dose rate of beta induced Bremsstrahlung by 113 pure beta nuclides in concrete shielding is computed. The Bremsstrahlung dosimetric parameters such as the efficiency (yield), Intensity and dose rate of Bremsstrahlung are low for 199 Au and high for 104 Tc in concrete. The efficiency, Intensity and dose rate of Bremsstrahlung increases with maximum energy of beta nuclide (Emax) and modified atomic number (Zmod) of the target. The estimated Bremsstrahlung efficiency, Intensity and dose rate are useful in the calculations photon track-length distributions. These parameters are useful to determine the quality and quantity of the radiation (known as the source term). Precise estimation of this source term is very important in planning of radiation shielding. (author)

  6. Effects of the material composition in the TL curves of alkaline halides with Eu{sup 2+} exposed to {beta} radiation; Efectos de la composicion del material en las curvas de TL de halogenuros alcalinos con Eu{sup 2+} expuestos a radiacion {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, R.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R. [Dpto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The solid state dosemeters plays a very important paper in the growing use of the ionizing radiation. When being increased the use of the radioactive isotopes in the medicine and in the industry, the necessity to have materials but adapted in each case it has increased. To synthesize such materials, it is necessary to enlarge the knowledge on the paper that its play the physical characteristics of the crystals such as the crystalline structure, the lattice constant, imbibed nano structures, dislocations, ions size, electronic states of the ions, etc., on the effects of the ionizing radiation. In the past its have been carried out many studies approaching these problems in some materials, but we consider that its are insufficient before the challenges of the applications. To contribute to the understanding of these effects, we present a study focused to alkaline halide crystals impurified with Eu{sup 2+} ions, making an analysis on the paper that its play a) the ions concentration of Eu{sup 2+} in KBr: Eu{sup 2+}, b) the different sites of trapping of electrons and holes in KBr: Eu{sup 2+}, KCl: Eu{sup 2+}, RbBr:Eu{sup 2+}, RbCl: Eu{sup 2+} and c) the composition of the crystalline solid solutions KCl{sub x}Br{sub 1-X}: Eu{sup 2+} and RbCI{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x}: Eu{sup 2+} on the thermoluminescence curve when these materials are exposed to small dose of {beta} irradiation. The increase in the concentration of Eu{sup 2+} ions produces a smaller relative intensity of the emissions of high temperature for a given dose and it is found that in a RbCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x}: Eu{sup 2+} with the greater/smaller concentration of Cl{sup -} ions, the temperature of the characteristic emission is near to the 453/373 K. The composition x of halogenous ions and not the one of alkaline in the crystalline solid solution dominates the landslide of the temperature of the emission. (Author)

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer, part II of II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: External beam radiation is a key component of the curative management of T1 and T2 prostate cancer. By combining the most recent medical literature, these Appropriateness Criteria can aid clinicians in determining the appropriate treatment delivery and personalized approaches for individual patients.

  8. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  9. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  10. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  11. Synthesis and thermoluminescence of new Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Eu and Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Dy phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, A. R.; Bustamante L, G. A.; Castro C, A. I. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal H, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S. E. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano M, V. M., E-mail: argh@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is systematically studied for the very first concerning their dosimetric capabilities. Pellet- shaped Eu and Dy doped Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} phosphors were synthesized by sintering. Some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation in order to investigate their thermoluminescence (Tl) features. Glow curves were obtained for 80 mg mass samples, showing that both, Tl sensitivity as well as the temperature at which the Tl maximum is recorded, depends upon the sample dopant. The glow curves of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Eu exhibit two maxima, located at 433 and 573 K, when a 5 K/s heating rate was used, being the most intense emission that observed at 573 K. The integrated Tl increases as the radiation dose was increased in the 0.25 - 5 Gy range, with no shift of the Tl maxima being observed, meaning that first order kinetics processes are involved in the Tl emission. The normalized sensitivity recorded in ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles shows a good reusability with only 5 % variability. The integrated Tl fades as a function of the elapsed time between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout of Eu and Dy doped Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} phosphors is obtained. From the obtained results, we conclude that Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is a promising phosphor material to develop high performance Tl dosimeters, and a long term research work focused to understand and to improve their Tl features is absolutely justified. (Author)

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the bioactivity of Peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) infesting mango, Mangifera indica L. in the North-Western part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M. Aftab.; Wadud, M. A.; Khan, Shakil A.; Islam, M. Saidul.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on the bioactivity of peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) infesting mango, Mangifera indica L. in the north-western parts of Bangladesh was evaluated. It was noted that the bioactivity of the fly decreased as eggs and larval age of the fly increased. The egg stage was observed to be more sensitive to radiation than the larval stage. The LD 50 value of gamma radiation was 2.2703, 3.6097, 7.5065 and 8.9729 Gy against 6, 12, 18 and 24 h old eggs respectively. No egg was hatched at dosages of 10, 15, 15 and 20 Gy for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h old, accordingly. The LD 50 value of gamma radiation was 26.7042, 41.3821, 65.5292, 111.1554, 170.1583 and 233.9226 Gy against 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days old larvae respectively. No adult emerged in 40, 60, 100, 150, 225 and 350 Gy for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days old larvae accordingly.(author)

  13. Higher absorbed solar radiation partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests during the 2015 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Xiao, Jingfeng; He, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Amazon forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and Earth’s climate. The vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought remains highly controversial. Here we examine the impacts of the 2015 drought on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests to understand how solar radiation and precipitation jointly control forest photosynthesis during the severe drought. We use a variety of gridded vegetation and climate datasets, including solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), the fraction of absorbed PAR (APAR), leaf area index (LAI), precipitation, soil moisture, cloud cover, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in our analysis. Satellite-derived SIF observations provide a direct diagnosis of plant photosynthesis from space. The decomposition of SIF to SIF yield (SIFyield) and APAR (the product of PAR and fPAR) reveals the relative effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis. We found that the drought significantly reduced SIFyield, the emitted SIF per photon absorbed. The higher APAR resulting from lower cloud cover and higher LAI partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, leading to a smaller reduction in SIF than in SIFyield and precipitation. We further found that SIFyield anomalies were more sensitive to precipitation and VPD anomalies in the southern regions of the Amazon than in the central and northern regions. Our findings shed light on the relative and combined effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis, and can improve our understanding of the responses of Amazon forests to drought.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

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