WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta radiation dosimetry

  1. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...

  2. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  3. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy β radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were β spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy β radiation field a moderated spectrum from a 14C source (Eβ,max =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 μm in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for 147Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for β radiation from 14C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to β radiation for radiation fields with maximum β energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum β energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a β dose higher than about 10 μGy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the βenergy for Eβ,max values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs

  4. History, biological effects, and dosimetry of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a renewed interest in the dosimetry of beta radiation, particularly in the nuclear power industry. This interest is fueled by the current regulatory concern over exposure to hot particles. Hot particles are small, usually microscopic particles of fuel material or activated products produced as a result of neutron activation in a nuclear reactor. In addition, these particles are characterized as having very high specific activity and being composed primarily of beta-emitting radionuclides. Of primary interest in the dosimetry of hot particles is the absorbed dose and/or dose equivalent to the basal layer of the skin. Current federal regulations, as well as international and national radiation protection standards, do not address adequately the exposure of small areas of the skin from a single point source. In this paper, the history of beta dosimetry is reviewed with an emphasis on early beta-radiation exposures, such as those associated with fallout from nuclear weapons. Beta burns due to the black rain associated with the Japanese bombings and fallout studies at the Nevada test site and in the Pacific testing area provided much of the earliest data. Many survivors of the Japanese bombings were exposed to high-intensity beta radiation when they were caught in a rainout of material that had been sucked up into the fireball of the weapon

  5. Some methods for calibration and beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calibration of beta radiation was studied from the point of view of primary and secondary standardization, using extrapolation chambers and examining several effects. The properties of a commercial ionization chamber were investigated, and the possibility of its use in calibration and dosimetry of 90Sr- 90Y beta radiation was demonstrated . A secondary standard calibration facility was developed and the results obtained with this facility were compared with those obtained from a primary system directly or indirectly. Nearly energy independent response was obtained in.the range 60 keV to 0,8 MeV with this secondary standard. Two solid state techniques namely thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) were also used for beta dosimetry. Various characteristics like reproducibility, response with dose,energy dependence, etc. were studied for the materials: LiF, CaF2,Li2B4O7, Be O, CaSO4 and Al2O3. TL detectors of thickness 0,9 mm underestimate the dose 60 μm thick CaSO4:Tm embedded on a thin aluminium plate gave energy independent response behind skin layers of 7 mg/cm2. Mixed field of beta, X and gamma radiation was analysed using this detector. Quartz based Be O and graphite based alpha beta-Al2O3 were found to be good beta radiation detectors when the TSEE technique is used. Energy independent CaSO4:Tm TL dosimeters were used in international comparison for dose measurements and the results obtained were in agreement with the actual given doses within 10%. The TL detectors were also used for dose rate measurements from glazed painted tiles used in construction industry and a 85Kr source used in textile and metal industries. Results obtained in the later case were Q compared with those using the secondary standard facility. (author)

  6. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  7. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  8. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry performance of natural Brazilian topaz exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has become the technique of choice in many areas of dosimetry. Natural materials like topaz are available in large quantities in Brazil and other countries. They have been studied to investigate the possibility of use its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for dosimetric applications. In this work, we investigate the possibility of utilising the OSL properties of natural Brazilian topaz in dosimetry. Bulk topaz samples were exposed to doses up to 100 Gy of beta radiation and the integrated OSL as a function of the dose showed linear behaviour. The fading occurs in the first 20 min after irradiation but it is <6% of the integrated OSL measured shortly after exposure. We conclude that natural colourless topaz is a very suitable phosphor for OSL dosimetry. (authors)

  10. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of new phosphors of Zn O exposed to beta radiation; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de nuevos fosforos de ZnO expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Barboza F, M.; Bernal, R. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence dosimetry of a new Zn O phosphor obtained by annealing of Zn S powder precipitated when Zn S films were grown by employing a CBD method. The collected Zn S powder was pressed in a die to form pellets which were subjected to different thermal treatments under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of Zn S to Zn O. The phosphors thus obtained were exposed to high doses of beta radiation and their thermoluminescent dosimetry show that these new phosphors are materials suitable to be used in high dose thermoluminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  12. Direct ion storage dosimetry systems for photon, beta and neutron radiation with instant readout capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter is a new type of electronic dosemeter from which the dose information for both Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) can be obtained instantly at the workplace by using an electronic reader unit. The number of readouts is unlimited and the stored information is not affected by the readout procedure. The accumulated dose can also be electronically reset by authorised personnel. The DIS dosemeter represents a potential alternative for replacing the existing film and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) used in occupational monitoring due to its ease of use and low operating costs. The standard version for normal photon and beta dosimetry, as well as a developmental version for neutron dosimetry, have been characterised in several field studies. Two new small size variations are also introduced including a contactless readout device and a militarised version optimised for field use. (author)

  13. NF ISO 15382. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure of radioprotection dosimetry monitoring in nuclear facilities for the external exposure to weakly penetrant radiations, in particular the beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international standard specifies a dosimetry monitoring procedure for the radiation protection inside nuclear facilities and concerns the external exposure to weakly penetrant radiations, i.e.: beta, beta +, conversion electrons, and photons with an energy < 15 keV. It describes the procedure of radioprotection organization and control, and the measurements and analyses to be implemented. It applies to the operations regularly performed in nuclear reactors, like maintenance, handling of wastes and dismantling activities. These recommendations can be transferred to other nuclear domains, including the fuel fabrication and reprocessing, the accelerators, and the nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities. (J.S.)

  14. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  16. Radiation therapy dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New therapeutic treatments generally aim to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity. Many aspects of radiation dosimetry have been studied and developed particularly in the field of external radiation. The success of radiotherapy relies on monitoring the dose of radiation to which the tumor and the adjacent tissues are exposed. Radiotherapy techniques have evolved through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments or radiosurgery and robotic radiation therapy. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care by improving the precision of the absorbed dose delivered. This paper presents state-of-the art radiation therapy dosimetry techniques as well as the value of integral dosimetry (INDOS), which shows promise in the fulfillment of radiation therapy dosimetry requirements. - highlights: • Pre-treatment delivery and phantom dosimetry in brachytherapy treatments were analyzed. • Dose distribution in the head and neck was estimated by physical and mathematical dosimetry. • Electron beam flattening was acquired by means of mathematical, physical and “in vivo” dosimetry. • Integral dosimetry (INDOS) has been suggested as a routine dosimetric method in all radiation therapy treatments

  17. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO2-a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H3 and Zr-O2. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO2-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO2-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  18. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  19. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  20. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors...... international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference...

  1. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  2. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  3. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  4. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank H

    2013-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  5. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been or are...... being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in...

  6. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  7. Radiation dosimetry in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyprus is a small island in the eastern part of the mediterranean sea with a population of 700,000. A small Physics Department in the Nicosia General Hospital is responsible for all matters related to ionising radiation. The main applications of ionising radiation are in medicine, some applications of radioisotopes in agriculture and hydrology research and very few applications in industry with sealed radiation sources. The same problems in radiation dosimetry are encountered as in any other countries but on a smaller scale. These have to be solved locally, because of the island's geographic isolation. All the infrastructure including Secondary Standard Dosemeters, field instruments and calibration sources is needed in order to achieve this, but the financial resources available are very limited. For this reason improvisation is often necessary. The Co-60 and other X-ray units intended for radiotherapy or other clinical use, are used as radiation sources for dosimetry and calibration of the instruments. Simple, locally made phantoms are designed in order to decrease costs whenever possible. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  8. OSL and TL in LiF:Mg,Ti following alpha particle and beta ray irradiation: Application to mixed-field radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) following irradiation by beta and alpha particles was investigated by the measurement of the excitation and emission spectra of OSL and comparison with thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. Measurements were also carried out on nominally pure LiF monocrystals. The preferential excitation of OSL compared to TL following high-ionisation density (HID) alpha irradiation is naturally explained via the identification of OSL with the 'two-hit' F2 or F3+ centre, whereas the major component of composite TL glow peak 5 is believed to arise from a 'one-hit' complex defect. This discovery allows near-total discrimination between HID radiation and low-ionisation density radiation and may have significant potential in mixed-field radiation dosimetry. (authors)

  9. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book informs of the whole range of the physical foundations of dosimetry. In the chapter dealing with the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter the processes are described of the interaction between the individual types of ionizing radiation and matter and the effects of ionizing radiation on matter. The chapter dealing with dosimetric quantities and units gives a survey and definitions of quantities and their inter-relations. The chapters relating to the determination of basic dosimetric quantities and to integral dosimetric methods give a detailed description of the individual methods. The chapter relating to radionuclides in the environment concerns the occurrence of natural radionuclides in the environment and in the human organism, cosmic radiation and artificial sources of radioactivity connected with the development of civilisation and technology. The chapter related to radiation protection gives guidelines for the calculation of shielding for individual types of radiation. The supplement contains a list of the properties of certain radionuclides widespread in the environment, their basic physico-chemical and biological characteristics, parameters of metabolism and values of maximum permissible concentrations. (M.D.)

  10. Radiation dosimetry instrumentation and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Shani, Gad

    2000-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry has made great progress in the last decade, mainly because radiation therapy is much more widely used. Since the first edition, many new developments have been made in the basic methods for dosimetry, i.e. ionization chambers, TLD, chemical dosimeters, and photographic films. Radiation Dosimetry: Instrumentation and Methods, Second Edition brings to the reader these latest developments. Written at a high level for medical physicists, engineers, and advanced dosimetrists, it concentrates only on evolvement during the last decade, relying on the first edition to provide the basics.

  11. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  12. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  13. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter

  14. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, Michael G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  15. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  16. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  17. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  18. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  19. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range......, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state...

  20. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  1. Radiation protection, dosimetry and archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities performed by the radiation protection, dosimetry and archeometry group of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities during 1999-2001 are briefly described, they include: internal radiation protection (a pilot project based on select x-ray diagnostics investigations where the surface dose was measured and compared against the EU standards), dose rates for patients and personnel during radiological check up, environmental monitoring. In the field of dosimetry, a new dosimeter material (CaF2:Tm was investigated), an active and a passive Bonner-Kugel-spectrometer to measure the neutron spectrum and their dose at high altitudes was built. In the project phantom during 600 days the energy distribution and equivalent dose in a human phantom was measured. Dosimetry and spectrometry (neutrons) on high mountains and airplanes were performed. Earlier cells apoptosis after irradiation with 60Co gamma radiation and neutrons was investigated and age estimation was performed on samples from middle Neolithic period, Bronze age an Roman empire. (nevyjel)

  2. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

  3. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  4. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Detectors for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For our purposes in this review, we note the following points: (1) for charged particle detection, these counters can be filled with any noble gas-quenching gas mixture that produces satisfactory electrical signals; (2) neutron counters, in which the neutrons are detected by their interaction with the specific filling of the chamber to yield an ionizing particle, require special gas mixtures containing 3He or BF3, an alternative approach is to coat the inner surface of the cathode with a boron or lithium compound; (3) proportional counters are used if there is any need to discriminate between different types of radiation incident on the chamber by the magnitude of the ionizing energy retained within the sensitive volume of the counter; (4) proportional counters can operate at higher speeds than Geiger counters, typically up to 107 cts/sec versus less than 105/sec for the Geiger counters; and (5) Geiger counters produce very large uniform pulses which can be scaled by very simple electronics, hence, they are often used in survey meters and other portable monitoring instruments

  6. Basics of the ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry basic physics issues, ionizing irradiation interaction with the substance and the radiation parameter regulation principles were considered. The special attention was paid to the methods of the ionizing radiation measurement. The edition is the manual on the dosimetry principles and is intended, first of all, for the university students of the technical and engineering specialties

  7. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  8. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  9. High dose dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing today offers various advantages in the field of sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, food preservation, treatment of chemical materials and a variety of other products widely used in modern society, all of which are of direct relevance to health and welfare. The safety and economic importance of radiation processing is clearly recognized. It is understood that reliable dosimetry is a key parameter for quality assurance of radiation processing and irradiated products. Furthermore, the standardization of dosimetry can provide a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and form the basis of international clearance for free trade. After the initiation of the Agency's high dose standardization programme (1977), the first IAEA Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry was organized in 1984. As a result, concern as to the necessity of reliable dosimetry has greatly escalated not only in the scientific community but also in the radiation processing industry. The second International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing was held in Vienna from 5 to 9 November, 1990, with a view to providing an international forum for the exchange of technical information on up to date developments in this particular field. The scientific programme held promises for an authoritative account of the status of high dose dosimetry throughout the world in 1990. Forty-one papers presented at the meeting discussed the development of new techniques, the improvement of reference and routine dosimetry systems, and the quality control and assurance of dosimetry. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Review of the current deficiencies in personnel beta dosimetry, with recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the design and use of personnel dosimeters used by the nuclear power industry to monitor occupational radiation exposure. It then shows why the monitoring method is inaccurate when personnel are exposed to beta particles. Then the report describes alternatives that would lead to improved measurements. The report also critiques the dosimetry processor testing criteria developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. Survey instruments are shown often to be inaccurate when used to measure beta dose rates

  11. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  12. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  13. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  14. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  15. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  16. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry

  17. Dosimetry in radiation processing- Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a method for producing chemical, physical, and microbiological changes in substances by exposing to ionizing radiation. Availability of high intensity cobalt-60 gamma ray sources and high power electron beam accelerators has led to a continuous growth of radiation processing industry in India. Commercial viability and safe operation of these radiation-processing plants depends on accurate dosimetry. Depending on the purpose to be achieved, a widespread dose range, from few grays to few hundred kilo grays, is encountered in radiation processing technology and this necessitates the use of different dosimetry systems. In the present paper, current status of radiation processing facilities in India has been reviewed. Various indigenously developed dosimetry systems such as Alanine/glutamine (Spectrophotometric readout), FBX and ceric-cerous (potentiometry) are being used for quality assurance and routine plant dosimetry. Fricke dosimeter is used as a reference standard for calibrating other dosimetry systems. Glutamine (Spectrophotometric read out) dosimeter, used as transfer standard for Q.A. has traceability to NPL, UK and has shown an agreement within ±2% during dose intercomparisons carried out with various international standards laboratories. Performance of these dosimeters was found to be better than ±10% during dose measurements in radiation sterilization and food irradiation plants. (author)

  18. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  19. Application of radiation damage effects in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    some general aspects of radiation dosimetry are outlined. The techniques of radiophotoluminescence, radiothermoluminescence and exo-electron emission are discussed individually. It is thought that the trend in personnel dosimetry is such that thermoluminescence will steadily replace film and photoluminescence techniques over the next decade, and that more unusual techniques, such as exo-electron emission, will make inroads only for special purposes. (B.R.H.)

  20. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  1. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  2. Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. The Beta Secondary Standard setup of the IPEN calibration laboratory was utilized. This system, developed by the Physikalisch-Tecknische Bundesanstalt, Brunswick (Germany) and manufactured by Buchler and Co., consists of a source stand, a control unit with timer and four interchangeable beta sources: 90Sr-90Y (1850 and 74 MBq), 204Tl (18,5 MBq) ionization current detection. The variable volume ionization chamber of cylindrical form is provided with different collecting electrodes of tissue equivalent material and Mylar entrance windows of different thickesses

  3. Aspects of dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation sensitive gels for dosimetry measurements was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. However, due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were suggested. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have subsequently been reported in the literature. In Fricke gels, Fe2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe2+ ions are converted to Fe3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements. In polymer gels, monomers are also dispersed in a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a three-dimensional polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties. The growth in polymer also results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. This thesis investigates various aspects of radiation dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels. Image processing software was developed to calculate NMR relaxation images of dosimetry gels. Measurements were undertaken to investigate the diffusion problem in Fricke gels. Radiological properties were theoretically modelled for both Fricke and polymer gels. A methodology was developed for the preparation of polymer gels. Vibrational spectroscopic studies were undertaken to investigate the underlying mechanism involved in the radiation-induced formation of polymer. MRI pulse

  4. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  5. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  6. Long term nuclear data needs for internal radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is the principle source of nuclear data for internal radiation dosimetry and is, therefore, described briefly. Nuclear data needs and accuracy requirements for internal radiation dosimetry are summarized. Currently available sources of internal radiation dosimetry data are outlined and the need for traceability and documentation of these data is discussed. (author)

  7. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  8. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  10. Radiation dosimetry activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands Commission for Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) was officially established on 3 September 1982 with the aim of promoting the appropriate use of dosimetry of ionizing radiation both for scientific research and practical applications. The present report provides a compilation of the dosimetry acitivities and expertise available in the Netherlands, based on the replies to a questionnaire mailed under the auspices of the NCS and might suffer from some incompleteness in specific details. The addresses of the Dutch groups with the names of the scientists are given. Individual scientists, not connected with a scientific group, hospital or organization have not been included in this list. Also the names of commercial firms producing dosimetric systems have been omitted. (Auth.)

  11. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  12. Dosimetry and control of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight invited papers on the general theme of 'Dosimetry and Control of Radiation Processing', presented at a one day symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, are collected together in this document. Seven of the papers are selected and indexed separately. (author)

  13. Anniversary Paper: Fifty years of AAPM involvement in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the involvement of the AAPM in various aspects of radiation dosimetry over its 50 year history, emphasizing the especially important role that external beam dosimetry played in the early formation of the organization. Topics covered include the AAPM's involvement with external beam and x-ray dosimetry protocols, brachytherapy dosimetry, primary standards laboratories, accredited dosimetry chains, and audits for machine calibrations through the Radiological Physics Center

  14. Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The research activities of the Department in 1999, similarly to the previous year were focused on the following problems: -Dosimetry for medical purposes, - Microdosimetry at the nanometre level, -Numerical modelling of interaction of radiation with matter. The following activities should be emphasized: - DOSIMETRY: The method for standardisation of a scintillation detector with NE102A organic scintillator in the terms of absorbed dose has been accomplished. The method is based on the use of small size ionisation chamber ''pipe type'' with sensitive area of 0.8 cm2. The response of the chamber has been traced in SSDL laboratory against secondary standards. This scintillation detector has been used for standardisation of the of the absorbed dose depth dependence in water for the 106Ru ophthalmic applicators. A new type of an ionisation chamber, called Ring Ionisation Chamber for standardising of absorbed dose from beta-radioactive wires, used for endovascular brachytherapy has been designed. This activity is supported by Grant KBN Nr 4P05C01417. -MICRODOSIMETRY: After a prolonged time of research the success has ben achieved in developing the method for measuring the ion cluster spectra at the nanometre level. The ion clusters spectra created along nanometre size track of alpha particles with energy of 4.6 MeV were measured with the Jet Counter set up. The ion cluster spectra of nanometre size with dimension ranging from 0.15 to 13 nm (at unit density scale) have been measured. The deconvolution method, converting the measured spectra to the true ones has been developed. The results are the first of this kind ever obtained. This activity was supported by IV CEC Framework as well as by Polish Commission for Scientific Research. - NUMERICAL MODELLING: MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code was used for modelling electron penetration in water eye ball phantom. Depth dose distributions in eye phantom have been calculated for different shapes of

  15. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  16. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  17. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pandya; S G Vaijapurkar; P K Bhatnagar

    2000-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

  18. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  19. Reference radiation fields of dosimetry quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reference radiation fields are used for transmission of the scales of dosimetry quantities to measuring units and to determining their response as a function of radiation quality .The reference dosimetric fields one can divide into therapy level (> 10 Gy/h) and radiation protection level << 10 Gy/h) ranges. In this contribution we will deal with gamma and electron therapy reference fields and with gamma and neutron radiation protection reference fields. X-ray reference fields will be described at the separate article. Ranges of reference radiation field determine the calibration capabilities. There are specific requirements for production reference radiation at individual radiation qualities, predominantly determined by international recommendations and at the relevant STN ISO standards. Quality of reference fields at individual calibration distances from source was verified by measurements of area distribution around the main axis of radiation. Quality of calibration services is confirmed by results of international comparisons measurements (EUROMET, COOMET, EA). (authors)

  20. Monte Carol-Based Dosimetry of Beta-Emitters for Intravascular Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.K.

    2002-06-25

    Monte Carlo simulations for radiation dosimetry and the experimental verifications of the simulations have been developed for the treatment geometry of intravascular brachytherapy, a form of radionuclide therapy for occluded coronary disease (restenosis). Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, has been used to calculate the radiation dose from the encapsulated array of B-emitting seeds (Sr/Y-source train). Solid water phantoms have been fabricated to measure the dose on the radiochromic films that were exposed to the beta source train for both linear and curved coronary vessel geometries. While the dose difference for the 5-degree curved vessel at the prescription point of f+2.0 mm is within the 10% guideline set by the AAPM, however, the difference increased dramatically to 16.85% for the 10-degree case which requires additional adjustment for the acceptable dosimetry planning. The experimental dose measurements agree well with the simulation results

  1. US accreditation programmes for personal radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to verify an acceptable level of safety in the workplace, it is necessary to measure the quantity of ionising radiation to which radiation workers could be, or actually are, exposed. At present, there are organisations capable of providing measurement results with good accuracy and precision. These organisations may provide personal dosimetry services to their own facilities, or to others on a contractual basis. They generally have high quality equipment and well trained personnel. However, in today's climate, it is important to demonstrate and document that these systems and services to others meet national standards of quality. In order to provide a higher level of confidence in the results generated by organisations that provide personal dosimetry services in the US, two accreditation programmes have been established. They are the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) and the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). These two programmes will be described and results will be given, along with plans for future development. (author)

  2. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  3. Dosimetry of beta sources utilized in nuclear medicine and biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of high energy pure beta sources (i.e., 32P= 1.71 MeV/des) is common in medicine (intratumoral therapy or treatment of non-malignant illness as restenosis) and in biochemistry (molecular biology). The external dosimetry of these sources offers some important points that must be considered: 1) beta particles emitted by the source are not monoenergetic; 2) the range (R0) vary with the source energy and the Z of the absorber; 3) below an energy of 1 MeV, the specific ionization in the absorbent medium (air, water, lucite) increases as the beta energy (Eβ) decreases; 4) the range of beta particles, Rβ, is independent from Z of the material, provided Z is low and the material has no hydrogen; in this case, the expression: Rβ δ1 = Rβ δ2 is valid; 5) the calculation of the external beta dosimetry must consider that since the used sources are not punctual there is self-absorption which should be taken into account. However, in the range of the fractions of activities for the above mentioned practices a theoretical model for punctual sources can be used; in this case, it is valid to use the expression: Dose Rate: = A (S/δ)Eβ e-S/δδx/4 π d2, where: (S/δ) is the absorbent Mass Stopping Power and represents the loss of energy by unit mass thickness; it depends from Eβ and it is independent from Z; (δx) is the mass thickness of the absorber. By this way, e -S/δδx is the attenuation of the beta particles flow. From the application of this formula it can be deduced that, for sources of 1 mCi of 32P activities, as those employed in biochemistry, a small thickness of lucite is enough shield. When the source has higher activities, as those used in radiotherapy, the operator should take into account the regulations for a strict dosimetric control. These formulae allow a simplified calculation of the 32P dosimetry of sources used in nuclear medicine and biomedical practices. (author)

  4. Utilization of photodiodes for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of silicon photodiodes as detector, for gama and x-ray dosimetry is discussed. Measurements were realized with photodiodes operating in the photovoltaic mode, the current produzed was detected in the eletrometer constructed in the DEN/UFPE. The results obtained showed that the photodiode response is linear with the dose and that variation of 40 degrees in the incidence angule of the radiation caused a variation of 5% in the dose determination. (author)

  5. Reassessment of Atomic Bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past several years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence produced by gamma rays in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). To be useful in radiation risk assessment, DS86 must be individualized or applied to the assertions of particular individuals as to their whereabouts at the time of the bombing. New DS86 estimates, in terms of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs, are available for 106,001 of the 141,635 individuals in current follow-up study populations. For the other individuals, it has been impossible to make DS86 estimates for 9,026 exposed individuals, and there are 26,608 unexposed individuals who were not in either city at the time of bombing. The DS86 estimates are discussed and compared with early dose estimates which were designated as Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D) and were used as a basis for radiation risk assessment throughout the 1970's

  6. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimetry and of optically stimulated luminescence of diamond films grown up by the chemical vapor deposition technique exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the dosimetric properties through the thermoluminescence (Tl) and Optically stimulated luminescence (Lobe) in diamond films grown up by the chemical vapor deposition (Dq) techniques was realized.The films under study have thickness of 6, 12, 180 and 500 microns. The dose range was from 0 to 1.5 KGy, observing for the case of the thermoluminescent dosimetry a linear behavior in the range 0-300 Gy and a supra linearity effect in the range from 300-1500 Gy. For the case of the dosimetry by means of LOE a linear behavior in the range (0-300 Gy) without be enough for the saturation was observed, although some samples exhibit a linear behavior until 1500 Gy (6 microns). The irradiation was realized with a source of Strontium 90 of (40 mCi) and the photoestimulation for realizing the measures of LOE was realized using diodes emitting of laser light (470 nm) which generate until 50 MW/cm2. The Tl peak which was used to realize the dosimetry such Tl as LOE was that located around 340 C degrees in the brilliance curve which presents another peaks centered around of 110, 190, and 340 C degrees, depending on the film. It was realized a study of the Tl signal drop and it was observed that after 3 hours the signal was stable reaching a decay of 15 %. the analysis of the drop in the Tl signal, immediately after to irradiate and after to photoestimulate with the blue light laser for observing the LOE, indicated that exists a fall in all the Tl peaks, decaying in greater proportion those of more low temperature. (Author)

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, R. (Universidad de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru)); Marticorena, B. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter.

  10. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source

  11. Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual gives in a first part up-to-date definitions and knowledge upon the most significant radiation quantities, including their interpretation which are of a major importance for the topic. In a second part, radiation hazards (for public and occupational exposure) are compared and discussed for natural and man-made sources. The concept of quantities and units is developed, as well as the analysis of exposures from various sources. This book is designed not only for nuclear industry, but also for medical practice and environmental comprehension. refs

  12. Radiation protection dosimetry - From amateur to professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection Dosimetry was founded in 1981 and there has been a close link between the journal and the solid state dosimetry series of conferences from 1983 to the present day. The background to and the creation and development of the journal is described, having started as one volume of four issues per year in 1981 rising to six volumes in 1994. During the period of development there have been considerable advances in all forms of technology, requiring continued attention to the introduction of this new technology. Some of the changes in the world of publishing over the past 25 y are quite dramatic. Whilst simplistic approaches have been adequate within a small publishing house for a considerable time, further progressive technology changes that are required in the future mean that the necessary resources are only realistically available to large publishers. The journal thus moved to Oxford Univ. Press at the beginning of 2004. It will celebrate its 25. year in 2005. (authors)

  13. Radiation Dosimetry Management: Quality Assurance and Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a litigation-prone society, it is prudent for any business to evaluate its potential exposure to legal action, initiated by either an employee or a member of the general public. This potential is exacerbated when the phobia of radiation exposure and radioactive materials is interjected into the equation. This phobia is fuelled by the perceived risks of radiation exposure, be they fact or fantasy. With the current cancer incidence rate being approximately 1 in every 2.5 individuals (for all types of cancer), it is imperative that all facilities take a proactive look at their business vulnerability. When radiation exposure is the issue, records documentation is a critical factor, and a significant amount of effort should be expended to implement a comprehensive records management system. A comprehensive Radiation Dosimetry Management Program is essential if a business is going to mitigate any regulatory or legal intervention. This lecture will address appropriate Records Quality Assurance, and, the appropriate requirements for investigations of dosimetry results. (author)

  14. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  15. Radiation dosimetry of binary pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Eichler, D; Eichler, David; Nath, Biman B

    1995-01-01

    Companion stars exposed to high energy radiation from a primary neutron star or accreting black hole can experience significant spallation of their heavy elements, so that their atmospheres would be extremely rich in lithium, beryllium, and especially boron. In this paper we note that the detection or non-detection of these elements, and their relative abundances if detected, would provide a diagnostic of the high energy output of the primary, and possibly the shock acceleration of particles at the companion's bow shock in a pulsar wind.

  16. Personnel monitoring and dosimetry (beta and gamma) - external

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel monitoring is the periodic measurement (monthly or quarterly service) of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The monitoring/service period for a given institution is mainly decided by the potential of receiving doses/exposures by occupational radiation workers. Ionizing radiations viz. neutrons, photons (X-rays and gamma) and beta particles are commonly encountered by radiation workers and contribute towards radiation doses. The main aim of personnel monitoring is to ensure that the dose limits as stipulated by the regulatory authorities are followed. It may also help in the segregation of various personnel as per dose received in case of emergency/radiation accidents. In addition, external monitoring provides information on the external radiation exposure of individuals working with radioactive materials and/or radiation producing devices and assist in work planning, allow control of doses at the workplace

  17. Personal dosimetry for external radiation exposure in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a report on harmonisation and dosimetric quality assurance in individual monitoring for external radiation, published by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS). The report comprises three parts: (1) procedures and regulations in countries of the European Union and Switzerland with respect to personal dosimetry; (2) a catalogue with descriptions of dosimetry systems in the fore-mentioned countries; and (3) performance testing of dosimetric services in EU Member States and Switzerland. 17 refs

  18. Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Josane C.

    1991-02-01

    This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared

  19. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO3), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  20. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  1. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'generalized radius', calculated as 3V/S, where V is the ellipsoid volume and S its surface. Radiation-specific parametric functions were obtained in order to calculate the absorbed fraction of a given radiation in a generic ellipsoidal volume. The dose from a generic radionuclide can be calculated through a process of summation and integration over the whole radionuclide emission spectrum, profitably implemented in an electronic spreadsheet. We compared the results of our analytical calculation approach with those obtained from the OLINDA/EXM computer software, finding a good agreement in a wide range of sphere radii, for the high-energy pure beta emitter 90Y, the commonly employed beta-gamma emitter 131I, and the pure alpha emitter 213Po. The generality of our approach makes it useful an easy to implement in clinical dosimetry calculations as well as in radiation safety estimations when doses from internal radionuclide uptake are to be taken into account.

  2. Collection of abstracts. 6. national symposium on radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts are given of the total of 137 papers presented at the symposium. The papers discussed radiation dosimetry methods, dosemeters and detectors, the metrology and calibration of radiation sources, calibration standards, and radioactivity monitoring. (J.P.)

  3. Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

  4. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  5. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  6. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  7. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS web site (www.eurados.org). (authors)

  8. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  9. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well as stan...

  10. Methods and procedures for internal radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, internal radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability

  11. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  12. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  13. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  14. EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Peter

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and γ rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a

  15. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  16. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  17. Proceedings of the recent developments in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst 'Dosimetry' in its original sense deals with methods for a quantitative determination of energy deposited in a given medium by directly or indirectly ionizing radiations, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. Dosimetry is used extensively for radiation protection and is routinely applied to ensure radiological safety of occupational radiation workers. Internal dosimetry due to the ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials relies on a variety of physiological or imaging techniques. External dosimetry, due to irradiation from an external source is based on measurements with a dosimeter, or inferred from other radiological protection instruments. Radiation dosimetry is one of the important research areas of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). This research work is centered on the facilities such as nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants, high energy accelerators (research/industry/medical), radiation standards, food processing, radiation technology development, etc. In each of these facilities, radiation field environment is different and the associated dosimetry concepts are different. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Radiation dosimetry of radioiodinated thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based compartmental model for T4 and T3 metabolism in man was used to generate time-activity curves for residence of radioiodine in key organs. T4 and T3 labeled with 123I, 124I, 125I, and 131I were studied. Conditions modeled included radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) values of 0%, 1%, 5%, 15% and 25%, and RAIU of 15% combined with various degrees of pharmacologic block of thyroidal RAIU. Using the MIRD S tables, rad doses were generated for each condition. While the shapes of the time-activity curves varied widely with alterations in physical and biological turnover and with changes in steady-state due to iodine administration, it was possible to calculate overall effective half-lives for each organ of interest from the integral of the time-activity curve projected by solution of the model. This overall effective half-life of the hormone for the body's exchangeable hormone compartments correlated well with calculated radiation dose to the thyroid in the unblocked state. With progressive degrees of iodine block, this correlation persisted, though with proportionately reduced thyroid radiation doses. Use and manipulation of a compartmental model, rather than the usual multiexponential model, for radiation dosimetry facilitates conceptualization and the projection of the effects of interventions such as iodide block

  19. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  20. Radiation dosimetry for quality control of food preservation and disinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters that are sufficiently stable and reproducible, it is possible to monitor minimum and maximum radiation absorbed dose levels and dose uniformity for a given processed foodstuff. The dosimetry procedure is especially important in the commisioning of a process and in making adjustments of process parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes.

  1. European radiation dosimetry group: history, state of art, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) was established in 1981. Working Group operating in connection with EURADOS program are listed. Key milestones of EURADOS activities since the beginning up to now are presented. Future actions of the EURADOS are reviewed

  2. Methods and procedures for external radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, external radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document provides a description of the methods and procedures for external radiation metering, monitoring, dosimetry, and records which are in effect at ORNL July 1, 1981. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability

  3. Spectrometry and in core dosimetry of neutron radiation. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 8 invited papers discussing current problems of spectrometry and in core neutron dosimetry with regard to applications in nuclear power engineering. The papers deal with the following areas: reactor physics and in core dosimetry; calculations of the spatial and energy distribution of neutrons in the reactor core and shielding; proton-recoil neutron spectrometry; determining neutron spectra with activation detectors; assessment of measurement system used in core dosimetry; in core measurement and monitoring of the reactor radiation field; monitoring the radiation damage to reactor structural materials. (J.P.)

  4. Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The research activities of the Department in 1998, similarly to the previous year were focused on the following problems: Dosimetry for medical purposes; Microdosimetry at the nanometer level; Numerical modelling of interaction of radiation with matter; DOSIMETRY: Based on experience gained in previous years in absolute and relative measurements of absorbed dose for 106Ru applicators, the detectors and methods for dosimetry of β radiation applied in intravascular brachytherapy have been undertaken. A new, small size scintillation probe with NE102A scintillator 1 mm dia. by 1 mm coupled to a 30 cm long flexible light guide and to a 9524S photomultiplier has been assembled and tested. The GAF Chromic foils, MDSS, have been found to be very promising detectors for intravascular and ocular brachytherapy. A miniature ionisation chamber for Kerma in air measurements in radiation field of a ''photon needle'' (small size X-ray tube operated at 30 KV) has been assembled and tested. MICRODOSIMETRY: The absolute efficiency of two types of electron multipliers, i.e. discrete dynode electron multiplier DM205IG and channel electron multiplier X719BL for Ar+ ions in energy range 1 keV to 10 keV has been determined in an experiment performed in cooperation with the Weizmann Institute of Science. These electron multipliers are used in the set up ''JET COUNTER'' as detectors for ion cluster studies. A method for measuring the spectra of ion clusters created along a charged particles track has been proposed. The ion clusters spectra produced by alpha particles 241Am source passed a distance of 3.6 to 10 nm (in units of density scale) in nitrogen have been measured. Also, preliminary measurements of ion clusters created by low energy electrons 50 and 100 eV have been carried out. Activities in this field were supported by IV CEC Framework Programme as well as by the Polish State Commission for Scientific Research. NUMERICAL MODELLING: Monte Carlo simulation is direct and

  5. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  6. Quality audit service of the IAEA for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency includes assistance to Member States to establish nuclear technologies safely and effectively. In pursuit of this, a quality audit service for dosimetry relevant to radiation processing was initiated as a key element of the High-Dose Standardization Programme of the IAEA. The standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing provides a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and their unrestricted international trade. In recent times, the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory has placed concentrated effort towards establishing a quality assurance programme based on the ISO 9000 series documents. The need for reliable and accurate dosimetry for radiation processing is increasing in Member States and we can envisage a definite role for the SSDLs in such a programme. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  7. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  8. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  9. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  10. GENII-S, Environmental Radiation Dosimetry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: GENII-S is the result of implementing GENII in the SUNS software shell. SUNS was developed to simplify the application of Monte Carlo methods of uncertainty analysis to a variety of problems. The GENII portion of the GENII-S package contains the program which was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII, which is available as CCC-0601, is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs which allow the user to effectively address the parameters required for scenario generation and data input, internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. There also exist pull-down help menus which provide the user with a description of the input parameter and the possible options. The programs in GENII-S analyse environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. GENII-S can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII-S can perform 10,000-years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations. HEDL contributed additional data to the CCC-0601/GENII package in March

  11. Evaluation of the instrument correction factors needed in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the same survey instruments used for the measurement of gamma dose rates are used for monitoring beta fields by making measurements with and without a shield over the detector to separate the penetrating and nonpenetrating components of the radiation field. Survey meters are calibrated using fields that uniformly irradiate the detector volume with the center of the volume used as a reference point. However, under field survey conditions, sources are frequently encountered that have irregular shape and large or small dimensions compared with the detector volume. When the distance from the source to the detector volume (reference point) is small such sources produce non-uniform radiation fields in the detector. Similarly, low energy beta sources cause non-uniform irradiation of the volume due to attenuation of the radiation. In addition, when survey meters are used close to the source, the surveyor is generally interested in dose rates at contact or within a few centimeters of the source. In these cases the reference point is the center front surface of the detector. The resulting readings from such fields are based on an average of the uneven distribution of energy deposition occurring within the detector. In general, this reading would be significantly less than the actual dose existing at the surface of the meter entrance window. To compensate for this discrepancy, correction factors are applied to the readings to give the actual dose. These factors can be in excess of a factor of 100. This paper summarizes observations on energy, angular and source geometry response of survey instruments

  12. Lyoluminescence dosimetry of the radiation in industrial doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-rays lyoluminescence (LL) dosimetry study is presented. The basic principles involved, both in the method and radiation dosimetry, the equivalence between water and lyoluminescent materials, apparatus, irradiation technique and calibration method are discussed. The LL response dependence with environmental conditions are presented. These were temperature, humidity, storage time and the dependence on dissolved mass. A pre-reading thermal treatment was developed to overcome previous difficulties. The developed technique was applied to dose intercomparisons. (M.A.C.)

  13. The thermoluminscent dosimetry service of the radiation protection bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent materials have been used in radiation dosimetry for many years, but their application to nationwide personnel dosimetry has been scarce. An undertaking of this nature requires that methods be established for identification of dosimeters and for fast interpretation and communication of dose to the users across the country. It is also necessary that records of cumulative dose of individual radiation workers be continuously updated, and such records be maintained for a prolonged period. To do this many problems pertinent to associated equpment, vis. the computer, TL reader, their interfacing, and to the operational procedures of the service had to be resolved. Since April 1977, the Radiation Protection Bureau has been providing a Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Service to Canadian radiation workers. This document describes the RPB dosimeter, its characteristics, various aspects of the service, objectives of the service, and how the objective goals of the service are achieved. (auth)

  14. Radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dosimetry system for 3D dose distribution measurements based on the Fricke dosimeter and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed. The dosimeter consists of a ferrous sulphate solution incorporated in an agarose gel, which together constitute the dosimeter gel. The absorbed dose to the gel is measured by means of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 in an MR scanner. The dose distribution to an arbitrary slice within a dosimeter gel phantom can thus be determined. The chemical yield of the dosimeter gel is significantly higher than that of the for Fricke solution, and is strongly dependent of the initial ferrous sulphate concentration, assuming that the gel is bubbled with oxygen during preparation. A gel of 1.5 mM [Fe2+] and 50 mM [H2SO4] has a sensitivity of 0.108 s-1Gy-1 and is linear up to 50 Gy. The dosimeter gel has uniform dose response over large volumes. Above 50 mM[H2SO4] the yield increases only slightly, but the gel strength decreases and results in gel phantoms with non-uniform dose response. Below 50 mM[H2SO4] the sensitivity of the dosimeter falls rapidly due to the decreased relaxivity of the ferric ions. The high chemical yield can be explained by a chain reaction and a reaction scheme is accordingly proposed. The dosimeter gel shows no dependence on dose rate or radiation quality and can be regarded as water-equivalent with respect to the interaction of the radiation. The diffusion coefficient of the ferric ions in the agarose gel is 1.19x10-2 cm2/h. The diffusion blurs the dosimeteric image, but poses only a minor problem if the MR measurements are completed within the first two hours after irradiation. Dose distribution data from external radiation therapy units have been determined using the dosimeter gel and MRI with good accuracy, but the precision is poor, about 5-10%. (au) (84 refs.)

  15. Computational methods in several fields of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry has to cope with a wide spectrum of applications and requirements in time and size. The ubiquitous presence of various radiation fields or radionuclides in the human home, working, urban or agricultural environment can lead to various dosimetric tasks starting from radioecology, retrospective and predictive dosimetry, personal dosimetry, up to measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental and food product and, finally in persons and their excreta. In all these fields measurements and computational models for the interpretation or understanding of observations are employed explicitly or implicitly. In this lecture some examples of own computational models will be given from the various dosimetric fields, including a) Radioecology (e.g. with the code systems based on ECOSYS, which was developed far before the Chernobyl reactor accident, and tested thoroughly afterwards), b) Internal dosimetry (improved metabolism models based on our own data), c) External dosimetry (with the new ICRU-ICRP-Voxelphantom developed by our lab), d) Radiation therapy (with GEANT IV as applied to mixed reactor radiation incident on individualized voxel phantoms), e) Some aspects of nanodosimetric track structure computations (not dealt with in the other presentation of this author). Finally, some general remarks will be made on the high explicit or implicit importance of computational models in radiation protection and other research field dealing with large systems, as well as on good scientific practices which should generally be followed when developing and applying such computational models

  16. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  17. Beta dosimetry in intraperitoneal administration of 166Ho-chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer, was labeled with 166Ho and was administered intraperitoneally in ovarian cancer patients by diffuse intraperitoneal spread. More than 30% of administered 166Ho-chitosan complex was observed to be bound to the peritoneal surface. For the peritoneal dosimetry, all radiation emitted from 166Ho either bound to the peritoneal surface or in the peritoneal fluid should be considered. The volume of ascites is measured by dividing the 166Tc-HSA injected dose by 99mTc-HSA concentration in the ascites. The fraction of 166Ho-chitosan bound to the peritoneal surface is obtained in an indirect method by subtracting the activity in the ascites of known volume from the total adminstered activity and dividing it by standard surface area. This method has been demonstrated by applying the procedure to rats and comparing the results with the actual counts of activity concentration both on the peritoneal surface ad in the intraperitoneal fluid. For rats, about 70% of 166Ho-chitosan injected was found to attach to the peritoneal surface. With 1 mCi of 166Ho-chitosan injection, the activity was 1.3 μCi/cm2 and 2.4 μCi/ml on the peritoneal surface and in the ascites, respectively. For this specific case, the peritoneal surface dose was 105 Gy from 166Ho on the peritoneal surface and 17.8 Gy from 166Ho in the ascites. Dose estimation was performed by Monte Carlo simulation using the EGS4 code. More realistic dose estimation by applying this procedure to patients can help improve the treatment planning of ovarian cancer with 166Ho-chitosan complex

  18. Medical irradiation dosimetry and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 1995 Azerbaijan started implementation of the comprehensive programme of economic reforms in order to solve problems, connected with change-over to market economy.In the public health sector important reforms are being carried out. They are aimed towards effectiveness and quality increase, widening of access to medical care. The mentioned above programme will also include working out of legislation in the field of medical irradiation protection (laws, rules, safety manuals, etc.), introduction of national suggested radiation dose levels, perfection of regulative control over medical sources and medical practice, improvement of diagnostic radiation system, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, introduction of clinical control system. (authors)

  19. The CIEMAT programme on radiation dosimetry: a space for collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents an overview of the technical and scientific activities presently carried-out at the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Unit. The aim of the presentation is to facilitate the identification of possible areas of common interest with the Portuguese dosimetry community. The activities described are in areas of both, external and internal dosimetry, and include research and also services. The CIEMAT dosimetry services have evolved and nowadays they are more focused towards quality control activities serving the whole national community rather than to routine services, whenever these kind of services can be provided by other Spanish companies or institutions. Several research lines have been implemented, some of them very recently, chosen with criteria of opportunity and interest and also considering our technical possibilities and experience. (author)

  20. Reliability, calibration and metrology in ionizing radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cundin, Luisiana X

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry systems are complex systems, comprised of a milieu of components, designed for determining absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation. Although many materials serve as absorbing media for measurement, thermoluminescent dosimeters represent some of the more desirable materials available; yet, reliability studies have revealed a clear and definite decrement in dosimeter sensitivity after repeated use. Unfortunately, repeated use of any such material for absorbing media in ionizing radiation dosimetry will in time experience performance decrements; thus, in order to achieve the most accuracy and/or precision in dosimetry, it is imperative proper compensation be made in calibration. Yet, analysis proves the majority of the measured decrement in sensitivity experienced by dosimeters is attributable to drift noise and not to any degradation in dosimeter performance, at least, not to any great degree. In addition to investigating dosimeter reliability, implications for metrological tracea...

  1. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  2. Determination of transmission factors for beta radiation using Al 2O 3:C commercial OSL dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T. N. O.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has been used in personal dosimetry, and aluminum oxide (Al 2O 3:C) has become a very useful material for this technique. The objective of this work was the determination of the transmission factors for beta radiation using Al 2O 3:C commercial dosimeters and the OSL method. The obtained results were similar to the transmission factors reported in the beta source calibration certificates.

  3. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  4. Beta dosimetry in teeth from SR-90 exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth enamel is a well recognized dosimeter for retrospective dose reconstruction of individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurements of the absorbed dose in tooth enamel is conventionally carried out with the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique. Tooth enamel is sensitive to all kind of ionizing radiation. Its response to photons has been widely investigated. For application to contaminated teeth with 90Sr, one of the most common osteo tropic radionuclides, the effectiveness of tooth enamel response to the β spectrum needs be evaluated. The response function to 90Sr of the EPR/tooth enamel systems, its linearity and reproducibility have been investigated under a controlled geometry, and the results will be presented and compared to those obtained with photons. When the subject has been exposed to both external and internal radiation, a combined EPR/T.L. method can be used to distinguish the internal from the external contribution to the cumulative dose in tooth (Gosku et al., 2002;=Veronese et al. 2004, Shishkina et al. 2005). The T.L. measurement, performed putting thin ± Al2O3:C dosimeters at contact with the tooth surfaces, enables to estimate the beta dose rate due to the radionuclides present in tooth. The combination of this information with that coming from EPR allows, under specific assumptions, to evaluate separately the internal and external contribution to the tooth dose. In a previous work (Veronese et al., 2004) the dose in enamel measured by EPR in a tooth contaminated with 90Sr of a Techa River resident was compared to the dose rate measured by TLDs. The test has been extended to a larger number of 90Sr contaminated teeth. EPR measurements have been also performed in other portions of the teeth, i.e. tooth dentin and root. The correlation between the results, obtained from EPR and TLD measurements, and the evaluation of the relative proportion of internal and external dose are presented and discussed. (authors)

  5. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  6. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  7. Design and building of an extrapolation ionization chamber for beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extrapolation chamber was designed and built to be used in beta dosimetry. The basic characteristics of an extrapolation chamber are discussed, together with fundamental principle of the dosimetric method used. Details of the chamber's design and properties of materials employed are presented. A full evaluation of extrapolation chamber under irradiation from two 90Sr + 90Y beta sources is done. The geometric parameters of the chamber, leakage current and ion collection efficiency are determined. (Author)

  8. Neutron dosimetry for radiation damage in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to the safety and economics of nuclear energy. In high-level radiation environments, neutron metrology is accomplished predominantly with passive techniques which require detailed knowledge about many nuclear reactions. The quality of neutron dosimetry has increased noticeably during the past decade owing to the availability of new data and evaluations for both integral and differential cross sections, better quantitative understanding of radioactive decay processes, improvements in radiation detection technology, and the development of reliable spectrum unfolding procedures. However, there are problems caused by the persistence of serious integral-differential discrepancies for several important reactions. There is a need to further develop the data base for exothermic and low-threshold reactions needed in thermal and fast-fission dosimetry, and for high-threshold reactions needed in fusion-energy dosimetry. The unsatisfied data requirements for fission reactor dosimetry appear to be relatively modest and well defined, while the needs for fusion are extensive and less well defined because of the immature state of fusion technology. These various data requirements are examined with the goal of providing suggestions for continued dosimetry-related nuclear data research

  9. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  10. Evaluation of the instrument correction factors need in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of portable survey instruments using Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors, ionization chambers, or scintillation detectors exists for the measurement of gamma dose rates. Generally, the same instruments are used for beta monitoring, but the beta response of these instruments has been secondary to their development, calibration, and use; information on the beta response is difficult to obtain and seldom provided by the manufacturer. This paper summarizes observations on energy, angular, and source-geometry response of survey instruments

  11. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  12. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  13. Digital computerized eletrometric system for radiation dosimetry with electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Digital Computerized Eletrometric System for radiation dosimetry with electrets is presented. The measurement of the charge on the dosimeter and corresponding dose as well as the identification of up to 1024 users are reported. The operation in automatic and manual mode such as the use of the system as 'clock register' are described. (M.A.C.)

  14. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  15. Testing a ring-shaped ionization chamber in standard beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ring-shaped ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was tested in standard beta radiation fields. This ionization chamber was primarily developed to be used as a monitor chamber in X-ray diagnostic radiology beams. It has a large sensitive volume and parallel-plate aluminium electrode. Its entrance window is made of a thin aluminized polyester foil, which allows the collection of electrons. The ring-shaped monitor chamber was already tested in X radiation beams, showing a good performance. The aim of this work was to verify the applicability of the ionization chamber for beta radiation field dosimetry at calibration distances. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation - Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISO 6980 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation: Part 1: Method of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This part 2 of ISO 6980 specifies methods for the measurement of the directional absorbed-dose rate in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom in the ISO 6980 reference beta-particle radiation fields. The energy range of the beta-particle-emitting isotopes covered by these reference radiations is 0.066 to 3.54 MeV (maximum energy). Radiation energies outside this range are beyond the scope of this standard. While measurements in a reference geometry (depth of 0.07 mm at perpendicular incidence in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom) with a reference class extrapolation chamber are dealt with in detail, the use of other measurement systems and measurements in other geometries are also described, although in less detail. The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) as used for area monitoring of strongly penetrating radiation, is not an appropriate quantity for any beta radiation, even for that penetrating a 10 mm thick layer of ICRU tissue (i.e. Emax > 2 MeV). If adequate protection is provided at 0.07 mm, only rarely will one be concerned with other depths, for example 3 mm. This document is geared towards organizations wishing to establish reference-class dosimetry capabilities for beta particles, and serves as a guide to the performance of dosimetry with the reference class extrapolation chamber for beta-particle dosimetry in other fields. Guidance is also provided on the statement of measurement uncertainties

  17. Thorium survey using thermoluminescence radiation dosimetry (Cerro Impacto, Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF were utilized to map the radiation flux 0.5m beneath the surface of a thorium-rare-earth elements deposit in southern Venezuela. The isorad map obtained from measurements of the thermoluminescence induced in the buried dosimeters during their eight-month exposure period at the site, agrees well with the mapped thorium concentration at the surface of the deposit. The results indicate that thermoluminescence radiation dosimetry can be used for radiometric prospecting

  18. Dosimetry practices at the Radiation Technology Centre (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry practices undertaken to support research and pilot scale gamma irradiation activities at the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission are presented. The Fricke dosemeter was used for calibrating the gamma field of the gammacell-220. The Fricke system and the gammacell-220 were then used to calibrate the ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosemeter. The Fricke and ECB dosemeter systems have become routine dosemeters at the centre. Dosimetry work has covered a wide range of research specimens and pilot scale products to establish the relevant irradiation protocol and parameters for routine treatment. These include yams, pineapple explants, blood for feeding tsetseflies, cocoa bud wood and cassava sticks. Pilot scale dosimetry studies on maize, medical devices like intravenous infusion sets and surgical gauze have also been completed. The results and observations made on some of these products are reported. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  19. Laser heating of thermoluminescent films: Dose mapping applied to beta dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Setzkorn, R.; Prévost, H.; Gasiot, J.; Christensen, P.

    This work addresses radiation dose mapping based on scanning of laser heated thermoluminescent foils used for dose distribution analyses of beta radiation fields. Results are presented from dose homogeneity measurements, determination of depth-dose profile in tissue and studies of energy and...... suitable as extremity dosemeters for monitoring in beta radiation fields....

  20. Personnel radiation monitoring by thermoluminescence dosimetry (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel radiation monitoring which is the dose assessment of individual doses from external radiation received by radiation workers has been carried out by Thermoluminescence Dosimetry system consisting of a Vinten Toledo TLD reader, LiF dosimeters and associated equipment. The exposed TLD dosimeters were measured by TLD reader and the dose evaluation and dose registration were done on personal computer. Due to the records of 1995-96, most of the radiation workers complied with the permissible dose recommended by IAEA and ICRP 60. (author)

  1. Brief introduction to space radiation dosimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It mainly introduced: The first, the primary sources in space radiation, which include Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Solar Particle Events (SPEs), Trapped Radiation formed by charged particles trapped in geomagnetic field, secondary particles radiation produced due to interactions between charged particles and Earth's atmosphere. The second the contributions of mostly components to radiation dose. The third the methods for measuring space radiation, includes passive and active detectors, and their advantages and disadvantages. (authors)

  2. The development of consensus standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee E10.01 open-quotes Dosimetry for Radiation Processingclose quotes of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), comprised of 165 diverse experts from 45 countries, is developing standards on dosimetry for radiation processing. Eight standards will be published in the 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards and an additional 16 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the balance are relevant for all radiation processing applications, including food processing. When complete, the set will be published as a separate handbook. In addition, the group encourages the use of these standards through publications, workshops, and training courses; and identifies areas where new standards are needed. A related effort is underway to promote the inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by groups such as the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) and the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers

  3. Twenty ninth IARP national conference on recent advances in radiation dosimetry: souvenir/book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topical theme of the conference covers a wide spectrum from radioecology, nuclear fuel cycle, naturally occurring radioactive materials industry to medical and air crew dosimetry. Recent developments in multidisciplinary areas of low dose effects, occupational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, high energy dosimetry, high dose dosimetry, neutron dosimetry, neutron monitors for pulsed radiation fields, time dependent energy deposition at nanometer scale and nanodosimetry have also been covered. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO4:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO4:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO4:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO4:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  5. Dosimetry of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators: Comparison of different measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international intercomparison of the dosimetry of three beta particle emitting ophthalmic applicators was performed, which involved measurements with radiochromic film, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), alanine pellets, plastic scintillators, extrapolation ionization chambers, a small fixed-volume ionization chambers, a diode detector and a diamond detector. The sources studied were planar applicators of 90Sr-90Y and 106Ru-106Rh, and a concave applicator of 106Ru-106Rh. Comparisons were made of absolute dosimetry determined at 1 mm from the source surface in water or water-equivalent plastic, and relative dosimetry along and perpendicular to the source axes. The results of the intercomparison indicate that the various methods yield consistent absolute dosimetry results at the level of 10%-14% (one standard deviation) depending on the source. For relative dosimetry along the source axis at depths of 5 mm or less, the agreement was 3%-9% (one standard deviation) depending on the source and the depth. Crucial to the proper interpretation of the measurement results is an accurate knowledge of the detector geometry, i.e., sensitive volume and amount of insensitive covering material. From the results of these measurements, functions which describe the relative dose rate along and perpendicular to the source axes are suggested

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimeter-direct reading dosimeter dose discrepancy: studies on the role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry studies pertaining to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and direct reading dosimeter (DRD) have been performed for photons, beta fields and mixed field of photons and beta particles. In lab conditions, for pure photon radiation fields, the doses estimated using DRD and TLD match within the acceptable limits whereas in the mixed fields of photons and high energy beta particles, it has been found that the DRD doses are always higher than the corresponding whole body doses estimated by the TLD. This is due to the fact that DRD responds to high energy beta particles and the typical response of the DRD to high energy beta particles is observed to be in the range of 15-30%. This may lead to TLD-DRD dose discrepancy at workplaces where the skin doses received by the radiation workers from high energy beta sources in a given monitoring period are significant. The paper also provides a comparison of three different TLD-DRD discrepancy identification criteria available in literature for exposure conditions with a significant dose due to beta radiations. In addition, estimate of threshold beta dose which may lead to discrepancy as per the criteria have been studied. The results reported in this paper would be helpful in understanding the discrepancy arising out of variable response of DRD to beta radiations and will be useful in resolving the discrepancy in such cases. (author)

  7. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.;

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU was...... accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...

  8. Freeware for reporting radiation dosimetry following the administration of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development of a software application for reporting patient radiation dosimetry following radiopharmaceutical administration. The resulting report may be included within the patient's medical records. The application was developed in the Visual Basic programming language. The dosimetric calculations are based on the values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The software is available in both Spanish and English and can be downloaded at no cost from (www.radiopharmacy.net). - Highlights: • Freeware for reporting radiation dosimetry of administered radiopharmaceuticals. • Printing of reports that can be included within the patient's medical records. • User-friendly and intuitive interface in both English and Spanish

  9. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  10. Freeware for reporting radiation dosimetry following the administration of radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Perales, Jesús Luis; García Mendoza, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a software application for reporting patient radiation dosimetry following radiopharmaceutical administration. The resulting report may be included within the patient's medical records. The application was developed in the Visual Basic programming language. The dosimetric calculations are based on the values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The software is available in both Spanish and English and can be downloaded at no cost from www.radiopharmacy.net. PMID:26092354

  11. ESR/alanine dosimetry applied to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation processing of food products is specified in terms of absorbed dose, and processing quality is assessed on the basis of absorbed dose measurements. The validity of process quality control is highly dependent on the quality of the measurements and associated instrumentation; in this respect, dosimetry calibration by an Organization with official status provides an essential guarantee of validity to the quality control steps taken. The Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants (L.M.R.I.) is the primary standards and evaluation laboratory approved by the Bureau National de Metrologie (B.N.M.), which is the French National Bureau of Standards. The LMRI implements correlation procedures in response to the various requirements which arise in connection with high doses and doserates. Such procedures are mainly based on ESR/alanine spectrometry, a dosimetry technique ideally suited to that purpose. Dosemeter geometry and design are tailored to operating conditions. Photon dosemeters consist of a detector material in powder or compacted form, and a wall with thickness and chemical composition consistent with the application. Electron dosemeters have a detector core of compacted alanine with thickness down to a few tenths of a millimeter. The ESR/alanine dosimetry technique, developed at LMRI is a flexible, reliable and accurate tool which effectively meets the various requirements arising in the field of reference dosimetry, where high doses and doserates are involved. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  13. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  14. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.; Kruska, G.; Wulf, I.

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose i...

  15. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  16. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

    2011-03-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines). PMID:21346288

  17. Targeted radiotherapy dosimetry of 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of the recently developed 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MH) for radiation synovectomy has been studied as an agent for the treatment of arthritic synovial joint diseases. This pharmaceutical formulation presents optimal properties in terms of particle size (average 4 μm) sedimentation (0.008 cm min-1) and biological behavior. Direct measurements of depth dose distributions for this beta-gamma emitter present a difficult task; therefore, calculations of depth dose profiles are an invaluable tool for investigating the effectiveness of this therapeutic technique. In spite of the importance of these calculations there are only a few studies dealing with the experimental validation of these calculated depth dose distributions. On the present work the Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) calculated beta-gamma depth dose profiles for a liquid 153Sm beta-gamma source used in radiation synovectomy are compared with experimental depth dose distribution obtained using radiochromic dye film dosimetry (GafChromic trade mark sign ). The calculated and experimental depth dose distribution showed a very good agreement (within 5%) on the region where the dose deposition is dominated by the beeta-particle component (first 800 microns depth on tissue equivalent material). The agreement worsens reaching a maximum deviation of 15% at depths close to the maximum range of the beta-particles. Finally the agreement improves for the region where the gamma component accounts for one third of the total absorbed dose (depths>1 mm). The possible contributions to these differences are discussed as well as their relevance for the application of 153Sm for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

  18. Energy and entropy in radiation dosimetry and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.D. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    In this work we present and discuss a proposal to describe the degradation of the energy of photons when they interact with matter, which can be applied in radiation dosimetry and protection. Radiation dosimetry is founded in the well known physical approach of field theory as showed by Roesch and Rossi. Fluence and energy deposited are the most fundamental quantities in radiation dosimetry allowing us to calculate absorbed dose. One of the main characteristics of absorbed dose, sometimes ignored, is that it is an intensive quantity pushing radiation dosimetry into the field of statistical physics. In radiation dosimetry it is often used what we can call collective or macroscopic concepts, such as, for example, effective energy, beam quality or beam hardening and absorbed dose. Some of these concepts are trials to describe macroscopically and with simplicity what happens microscopically with a rather higher degree of complexity. In other words, is a tentative to make a bridge between the non continuous world of atoms and photons to the continuous world of radiation protection dosimetry. In computer simulations, that allow to known accurately the energy deposited in matter, absorbed dose (or fluence) is still a very useful and used quantity; however, some issues are still open problems, source of many discussions in conferences and journals in spite of the development of microdosimetry and nano-dosimetry. In spite of that, macroscopic quantities like absorbed dose are still important quantities. One of the important and controversial open question in biological effects at low doses is the linear no threshold concept (L.N.T.). In our opinion this problem is directly related with the problem mentioned above of the bridge between microscopic and macroscopic concepts. Actually, the extrapolation to low dose region is a good expression of the challenge we have to deal in order to make the connections between both worlds, the discrete micro-world to the continuous macro

  19. Energy and entropy in radiation dosimetry and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present and discuss a proposal to describe the degradation of the energy of photons when they interact with matter, which can be applied in radiation dosimetry and protection. Radiation dosimetry is founded in the well known physical approach of field theory as showed by Roesch and Rossi. Fluence and energy deposited are the most fundamental quantities in radiation dosimetry allowing us to calculate absorbed dose. One of the main characteristics of absorbed dose, sometimes ignored, is that it is an intensive quantity pushing radiation dosimetry into the field of statistical physics. In radiation dosimetry it is often used what we can call collective or macroscopic concepts, such as, for example, effective energy, beam quality or beam hardening and absorbed dose. Some of these concepts are trials to describe macroscopically and with simplicity what happens microscopically with a rather higher degree of complexity. In other words, is a tentative to make a bridge between the non continuous world of atoms and photons to the continuous world of radiation protection dosimetry. In computer simulations, that allow to known accurately the energy deposited in matter, absorbed dose (or fluence) is still a very useful and used quantity; however, some issues are still open problems, source of many discussions in conferences and journals in spite of the development of microdosimetry and nano-dosimetry. In spite of that, macroscopic quantities like absorbed dose are still important quantities. One of the important and controversial open question in biological effects at low doses is the linear no threshold concept (L.N.T.). In our opinion this problem is directly related with the problem mentioned above of the bridge between microscopic and macroscopic concepts. Actually, the extrapolation to low dose region is a good expression of the challenge we have to deal in order to make the connections between both worlds, the discrete micro-world to the continuous macro

  20. EDISTR: a computer program to obtain a nuclear decay data base for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides documentation for the computer program EDISTR. EDISTR uses basic radioactive decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File developed and maintained by the Nuclear Data Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as input, and calculates the mean energies and absolute intensities of all principal radiations associated with the radioactive decay of a nuclide. The program is intended to provide a physical data base for internal dosimetry calculations. The principal calculations performed by EDISTR are the determination of (1) the average energy of beta particles in a beta transition, (2) the beta spectrum as function of energy, (3) the energies and intensities of x-rays and Auger electrons generated by radioactive decay processes, (4) the bremsstrahlung spectra accompanying beta decay and monoenergetic Auger and internal conversion electrons, and (5) the radiations accompanying spontaneous fission. This report discusses the theoretical and empirical methods used in EDISTR and also practical aspects of the computer implementation of the theory. Detailed instructions for preparing input data for the computer program are included, along with examples and discussion of the output data generated by EDISTR

  1. Dosimetry Methods for Human Exposure to Non-Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with human exposure to electromagnetic fields from extremely low frequencies (ELF) to GSM frequencies. The problem requires (1) the assessment of external field generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) source at a given frequency (incident field dosimetry) and then (2) the assessment of corresponding fields induced inside the human body (internal field dosimetry). Several methods used in theoretical and experimental dosimetry are discussed within this work. Theoretical dosimetry models at low frequencies are based on quasistatic approaches, while analyses at higher frequencies use the full-wave models. Experimental techniques involve near and far field measurement. Human exposure to power lines, transformer substations, power line communication (PLC) systems, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antennas and GSM base station antenna systems is analyzed. The results o are compared to the exposure limits proposed by relevant safety guidelines. Theoretical incident dosimetry used in this paper is based on the set of Pocklington integro-differential equations for the calculation of the current distribution and subsequently radiated field from power lines. Experimental incident dosimetry techniques involve measurement techniques of fields radiated by RFID antennas and GSM base station antennas. First example set of numerical results is related to the internal dosimetry of realistic well-grounded body model exposed to vertical component of the electric field E = 10 kV/m generated by high voltage power line. The results obtained via the HNA model exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for public exposure (2 mA/m2) in knee (8.6 mA/m2) and neck (9.8 mA/m2) and for occupational exposure (10 mA/m2) in ankle (32 mA/m2). In the case of a conceptual model of a realistic human body inside a transformer substation room touching a control panel at the potential φ0 = 400 V and with two scenarios for dry-air between worker's hand and panel, the values of

  2. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  3. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations

  4. Quality management system in the CIEMAT radiation dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the activities realised by the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service (SDR) for the implementation of a quality management system (QMS) in order to achieve compliance with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and to apply for the accreditation for testing measurements of radiation dose. SDR has decided the accreditation of the service as a whole and not for each of its component laboratories. This makes it necessary to design a QMS common to all, thus ensuring alignment and compliance with standard requirements, and simplifying routine works as possible. (authors)

  5. Radiation processing and high-dose dosimetry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Technology group at ANSTO is part of the Physics Division and provides services and advice in the areas of gamma irradiation and high-dose dosimetry. ANSTO's irradiation facilities are designed for maximum dose uniformity and provide a precision irradiation service unique in Australia. Radiation Technology makes and sells reference and transfer standard dosimeters which are purchased by users and suppliers of commercial irradiation services in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region. A calibration service is also provided for dosimeters purchased from other suppliers

  6. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association Contract covers a range of research domains that are important to the Radiation Protection Research Action, especially in the areas 'Evaluation of Radiation Risks' and 'Understanding Radiation Mechanisms and Epidemiology'. Three research projects concentrate on radiation dosimetry research and two projects on the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. The following list gives an overview on the topics and responsible scientific project leaders of the Association Contract: Study of radiation fields and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Dose reconstruction. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Experimental data for the induction of cancer by radiation of different qualities. (orig.)

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  8. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  9. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic

  10. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For 18F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic anatomical model provides

  11. Solid-state radiation detectors for active personal dosimetry and radiations source tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design of the readout electronics using PIN diode radiation detector of 5 mm thickness for nuclear safety and active personal dosimetry. Our effort consisted in designing and fabricating the electronics to reflect the needs of gamma radiations dosimetry and hybrids PIN diode arrays for charged particle detectors. We report results obtained during testing and characterizing the new devices in gamma fields, operating at room temperature. There were determined the energy spectrum resolution, radiation hardness and readout rate. Also, data recording methods and parallel acquisition problems from a transducer matrix are presented. (authors)

  12. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  13. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance are...

  14. Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research activities of the Department concentrated in 1996 on the following areas: - Numerical modeling of interaction of radiation with matter; - Metrology of absorbed dose in macro and microscopic scale; -Methods for low-level neutron monitoring. Within these activities the following specific research works were carried out: MCNP code has been adapted for range of the tasks for radiation shielding purposes. Gamma radiation field above fallout-contaminated ground has been studied using the ANISN transport code. The numerical code system WIDMA for aerial monitoring of contaminated area has been developed. Interactions of protons and high energy ions with the spallation targets were investigated in collaboration with JINR Dubna. Nuclear interactions and particle transport for uranium, thorium and lead targets with high energy ion beams and secondary hadrons were simulated using Monte Carlo method. The results were used to study a heavy ion beam driven electronuclear process. In collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, the mathematical model of nuclear physics processes occurring in the spallation targets was developed. A new experimental set up, JET COUNTER, to study the ion creation pattern in the gas cavities equivalent to nanometer sizes in unit density scale has been assembled and tested. Activities within ''nanodosimetry'' are in collaboration with INFN, Legnaro under the IV CEC Framework programme. A linear array of 32 ionization chambers, for studying of the radiation beam performances, has been assembled and are under tests. The new method for the simultaneous measurements of gamma and neutron radiation especially for low-level monitoring, based un use of 3He and BF3 proportional counters has been devised. The results of research were published in the literature, in the reports of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) and in the internal reports. (author)

  15. Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pszona, S. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Research activities of the Department concentrated in 1996 on the following areas: - Numerical modeling of interaction of radiation with matter; - Metrology of absorbed dose in macro and microscopic scale; -Methods for low-level neutron monitoring. Within these activities the following specific research works were carried out: MCNP code has been adapted for range of the tasks for radiation shielding purposes. Gamma radiation field above fallout-contaminated ground has been studied using the ANISN transport code. The numerical code system WIDMA for aerial monitoring of contaminated area has been developed. Interactions of protons and high energy ions with the spallation targets were investigated in collaboration with JINR Dubna. Nuclear interactions and particle transport for uranium, thorium and lead targets with high energy ion beams and secondary hadrons were simulated using Monte Carlo method. The results were used to study a heavy ion beam driven electronuclear process. In collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, the mathematical model of nuclear physics processes occurring in the spallation targets was developed. A new experimental set up, JET COUNTER, to study the ion creation pattern in the gas cavities equivalent to nanometer sizes in unit density scale has been assembled and tested. Activities within ``nanodosimetry`` are in collaboration with INFN, Legnaro under the IV CEC Framework programme. A linear array of 32 ionization chambers, for studying of the radiation beam performances, has been assembled and are under tests. The new method for the simultaneous measurements of gamma and neutron radiation especially for low-level monitoring, based un use of {sup 3}He and BF{sub 3} proportional counters has been devised. The results of research were published in the literature, in the reports of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) and in the internal reports. (author).

  16. Beta particle dosimetry of the trabecular region of a thoracic vertebra utilizing NMR microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisch, Derek William

    Radiation damage to the hematopoietic bone marrow represents the primary limiting factor to the further development of internal emitter therapies such as radioimmunotherapy and the use of incorporated radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. Improvements in radiation dosimetry of bone marrow are believed to be a prerequisite to accurate predictions of myelotoxicity for these radionuclide therapies. Current radiation dosimetry models for the prediction of marrow dose utilize a scheme in which separate calculations of cumulated activity and dose per transition (radionuclide S value) must be made. The selection of an appropriate S value is generally limited to one of only three sources, all of which use as input the trabecular microstructure of an individual measured 20 years ago, and the tissue masses derived from different individuals measured 70 years ago. This work improves on previously developed methods, which may be used to expand the microstructural database (particularly for non-Reference Man patients). Techniques were developed to avoid voxel effects that arise when taking microstructural measurements across a digitized image. In addition, this work developed a basis for comparison of the existing dosimetry models to an accurate methodology allowing for radiation transport in a voxelized image. The images used are obtained using NMR microscopy methods. This work will be the first of its kind in skeletal dosimetry in that it will allow for S- value calculation using microstructural and mass data from the same source. A new method for performing skeletal dosimetry was developed, and absorbed fraction results are found to be consistent in shape with other models. At electron energies less than 100 keV, all models studied were found to be consistent for all source and target combinations. Finally, a dose example comparing accepted methodologies with the one developed in this study illustrated the variance and importance of skeletal tissue masses used in

  17. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed a...

  18. Radiation dosimetry properties of smartphone CMOS sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, Olivier; Salavrakos, Alexia; Marques, Antonio; Nagao, Alexandre; Willems, Ruben; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Nascimento, Luana F

    2016-03-01

    During the past years, several smartphone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smartphone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h(-1). Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. PMID:26041476

  19. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.;

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples of...

  20. Recombination methods in the dosimetry of mixed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work describes the state of art of recombination methods developed for the dosimetry of mixed radiation fields. The existing theories of initial recombination of ions in gases is given. Recombination methods developed in IAE are reviewed in detail. The methods described here can be applied in mixed radiation fields of poorly known composition and practically unlimited energy range. Main dosimetric parameters such as absorbed dose, photon component to the absorbed dose, radiation quality factor, dose equivalent, ambient dose equivalent and some other quantities can be determined in single instrument. A novel method has been developed for determination of the energy loss distribution in the nanometric region. Experimental tests showed that the method is promising not only for radiation protection but also for radiobiological investigations. (author). 166 refs, 62 figs, 16 tabs

  1. Recombination methods in the dosimetry of mixed radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The work describes the state of art of recombination methods developed for the dosimetry of mixed radiation fields. The existing theories of initial recombination of ions in gases is given. Recombination methods developed in IAE are reviewed in detail. The methods described here can be applied in mixed radiation fields of poorly known composition and practically unlimited energy range. Main dosimetric parameters such as absorbed dose, photon component to the absorbed dose, radiation quality factor, dose equivalent, ambient dose equivalent and some other quantities can be determined in single instrument. A novel method has been developed for determination of the energy loss distribution in the nanometric region. Experimental tests showed that the method is promising not only for radiation protection but also for radiobiological investigations. (author). 166 refs, 62 figs, 16 tabs.

  2. Computational anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms are computer models of human anatomy used in the calculation of radiation dose distribution in the human body upon exposure to a radiation source. Depending on the manner to represent human anatomy, they are categorized into two classes: stylized and tomographic phantoms. Stylized phantoms, which have mainly been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), describe human anatomy by using simple mathematical equations of analytical geometry. Several improved stylized phantoms such as male and female adults, pediatric series, and enhanced organ models have been developed following the first hermaphrodite adult stylized phantom, Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD)-5 phantom. Although stylized phantoms have significantly contributed to dosimetry calculation, they provide only approximations of the true anatomical features of the human body and the resulting organ dose distribution. An alternative class of computational phantom, the tomographic phantom, is based upon three-dimensional imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The tomographic phantoms represent the human anatomy with a large number of voxels that are assigned tissue type and organ identity. To date, a total of around 30 tomographic phantoms including male and female adults, pediatric phantoms, and even a pregnant female, have been developed and utilized for realistic radiation dosimetry calculation. They are based on MRI/CT images or sectional color photos from patients, volunteers or cadavers. Several investigators have compared tomographic phantoms with stylized phantoms, and demonstrated the superiority of tomographic phantoms in terms of realistic anatomy and dosimetry calculation. This paper summarizes the history and current status of both stylized and tomographic phantoms, including Korean computational phantoms. Advantages, limitations, and future prospects are also discussed

  3. Radiation dosimetry of florbetapir F 18

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Abhinay D.; Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Adler, Lee; Michael G. Stabin; Skovronsky, Daniel M; Carpenter, Alan P; Mark A. Mintun

    2014-01-01

    Background Florbetapir is one of several 18F-labeled amyloid plaque imaging tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). As the bio-distribution and radiation dose of PET tracers in human research are important for estimating the relative risks and benefits, a study was conducted to obtain this information on florbetapir. Methods Nine cognitively normal subjects (six females and three males, age 58 ± 10 years, weight 81 ± 17 kg) received an intravenous bolus injection of 395 ± 27.9 MBq of ...

  4. Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dose and biological half-life was assessed for radioimmunotherapy. Mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator consecutive processing and for inter-operator processing was less than 15% for all tissues. The mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator processing over 2 wk or inter-operator processing comparing an experienced and less experienced operator was generally greater, and particularly so for tumors. Satisfactory reproducibility was achievable using visual determination of regions of interests after 80 h of training

  5. Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui Shen; DeNardo, Gerald L.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Aina, Yuan; DeNardo, Diane A.; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    1997-01-01

    Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dose and biological half-life was assessed for radioimmunotherapy. Mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator consecutive processing and for inter-operator processing was less than 15% for all tissues. The mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator processing over 2 wk or inter-operator processing comparing an experienced and less experienced operator was generally greater, and particularly so for tumors. Satisfactory reproducibility was achievable using visual determination of regions of interests after 80 h of training.

  6. Air-crew radiation dosimetry - last development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to cosmic radiation increases rapidly with the altitude. At the flight levels of commercial aircraft it is of the order of several μSv per hour. The most of air-crew are exposed regularly to the effective dose exceeding 1 mSv per year, the limit of exposure of non-professionals defined in ICRP 60 recommendation. That is why this problem has been intensively studied from many aspects since the beginning of 90's. This contribution summarises new developments in the field during last two years. First, new international activities are presented, further, new achievement obtained mainly in the author's laboratory are presented and discussed. (authors)

  7. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  8. Patient dosimetry in intravascular radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a well-accepted method for nonsurgical myocardial revascularization. However, the long-term success of this method is limited by the occurrence of restenosis. Endovascular brachytherapy has been put forward as a means to avoid restenosis. Since this technique involves the placement of a radioactive source in a catheter in the patient's arteries, the possible radiation risk should be considered. In this paper the effective dose of the patient associated with the use of Iridium-192 for IRT treatment has been calculated using Monte Carlo techniques. To put the results into perspective the effective dose form the PTCA procedure was also calculated using the same techniques. Calculations were based on the measurement of DAP (Dose Area Product) for the procedure. We found a mean effective dose of 9 mSv for both the PTCA procedures as for the IRT treatment. Thus leading to the conclusion that, from the perspective of radiation burden, the elimination of one PTCA procedure through the use of IRT is a benefit for the patient. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiations dosimetry: new results in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial irradiation for food preservation, medical sterilization and plastic processing is in great expansion and an accurate dosimetry in the megagray range is required. It is also required for safety purposes around nuclear reactors or waste storage sites. The study of photon-matter interaction leads us to consider high-dose dosimeters among the solids in which radiolysis occurs. Organic conductors are indeed good candidates for high-dose dosimetry. These materials show original properties due to the great anisotropy of their electronic system. Radiation effects, especially on the resistivity and on the (E.S.R.) Electron Spin Resonance linewidth, are very important. We show that a simple resistance measurement allows an accurate monitoring of the absorbed dose, in the range 0.01 - 50 MGy, for X-rays, gamma-rays and electron irradiations. The E.S.R. linewidth measurements permits the use of small dosimeters between 1 and 100 MGy. Finally, some organic conductors are proposed as high-temperature dosimeters for irradiation performed up to 1200C. The irradiated pure silica contains a large variety of defects. Only the E' center seems helpful for dosimetry purposes, and its electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) signal is simply related to the absorbed dose in the range 0.1 - 3 MGy or even, 0.5 kGy - 5 MGy

  10. Development of a portable graphite calorimeter for radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakama, Makoto; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Fukumura, Akifumi

    2008-01-01

    We developed and performance-tested a portable graphite calorimeter designed to measure the absolute dosimetry of various beams including heavy-ion beams, based on a flexible and convenient means of measurement. This measurement system is fully remote-controlled by the GPIB system. This system uses a digital PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control method based on the LabVIEW software. It was possible to attain stable conditions in a shorter time by this system. The standard deviation of the measurements using the calorimeter was 0.79% at a dose rate of 0.8 Gy/min in 17 calorimeter runs for a (60)Co photon beam. The overall uncertainties for the absorbed dose to graphite and water of the (60)Co photon beam using the developed calorimeter were 0.89% and 1.35%, respectively. Estimations of the correction factors due to vacuum gaps, impurities in the core, the dose gradient and the radiation profile were included in the uncertainties. The absorbed doses to graphite and water irradiated by the (60)Co photon beam were compared with dosimetry measurements obtained using three ionization chambers. The absorbed doses to graphite and water estimated by the two dosimetry methods agreed within 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. PMID:21976250

  11. Application of an alanine dosimetry system for industrial irradiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the application of alanine dosimetry in radiation processing. Continuous checks of the EPR measuring conditions as well as using high-quality alanine dosimeters and consistent technique for dose determination guarantee an accuracy of about ± 3% intermediate dose levels. The alanine dosimetry system was applied for dose mapping measurements during irradiator qualification and performance qualification of different products, routine dosimetry, and special radiation protection applications within the gamma irradiator. (author)

  12. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  13. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in the high dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews briefly methods of dose evaluation after exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Validation of two methods also is described: micronucleus (Mn) frequency estimation according Muller and Rode and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) combined with painting of 3 pairs of chromosomes in human lymphocytes. According to Muller and Rode, micronucleus frequency per binucleated cells with at least one Mn linearly increases with dose up to 15 Gy and is suitable end-point for biological dosimetry. These authors, however, examined cells from only one donor. The data reported below were obtained for 5 donors; they point to a considerable individual variation of thus measured response to irradiation. Due to the high degree of inter-donor variability, there is no possibility to apply this approach in biological dosimetry in the dose range 5 - 20 Gy gamma 60Co radiation. A linear response up to 10 Gy was observed only in the case of certain donors. In contrast, determination of the dose-effect relationship with the PCC method gave good results (small inter-individual variation, no plateau effect up to dose 10 Gy), so that with a calibration curve it could be used for dose estimation after exposure to doses up to 10 Gy of X or gamma 60Co radiation. (author)

  14. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  15. Comparative study of Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented the comparative study of Si diodes response for gamma radiation dosimetry. The diodes investigated, grown by float zone (Fz) and magnetic Czochralski (MCz) techniques, were processed at the Physics Institute of Helsinki University in the framework of the research and development of rad-hard silicon devices. To study the dosimetric response of these diodes they were connected in the photovoltaic mode to the input of a digital electrometer to measure the photocurrent signal due to the incidence of gamma-rays from a 60Co source (Gammacell 220). The dosimetric parameter utilized to study the response of these devices was the charge, obtained trough the integration of the current signals, as a function of the absorbed dose. Studies of the influence of the pre-irradiation procedures on both sensitivity and stability of these diodes showed that the sensitivity decreased with the total absorbed dose but after a preirradiation of about 873 kGy they became more stable. Radiation damage effects eventually produced in the devices were monitored trough dynamic current and capacitance measurements after each irradiation step. Both samples also exhibited good response reproducibility, 2,21% (Fz) and 2,94% (MCz), obtained with 13 consecutive measurements of 15 kGy compared with the equivalent 195 kGy absorbed dose in one step of irradiation. It is important to note that these results are better than those obtained with routine polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters used in radiation processing dosimetry. (author)

  16. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method

  17. The employment of quartz glasses for dosimetry of ionic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detectors were created for dosimetry of the 60Co gamma and proton radiations and the gamma-component of reactor radiation based on the glasses KI fused from the quartz of the Volyn deposit. The absorbed dose within the dose interval of 10 to 5.103 Gy can be measured by the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity and within the interval of 5.103 to 2.105 Gy is by the induced optical density at 550 nm. The detectors based on the quartz glasses KV and KU-1 measuring the absorbed dose by the induced optical density at 215 nm were proposed for the gamma-radiation dose interval from 5.105 to 5.107 Gy

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring around nuclear power plant using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was undertaken at the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, BNPP, and surrounding areas from August 1996 to August l997 as a part of a pre-operational program to establish the natural background radiation level for this region. The purpose of this project was to study environmental background radiation which was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosimetry. 18 TLD stations were set up and distributed around the nuclear power plant up to distance s of 30 km radius. The selected dosimeters consisted of two Calcium Sulfate (Titanium doped), CaSO4:Tm, disks. Dosimeters were calibrated and utilized according to the ANSI N545 -1975 standard procedure. The measured exposure rates of the background radiation level from all the stations were in the range of (0.03 - 0.12 μSv/h) with the mean value of 0.075 μSv/h. (Author)

  19. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M; Menichelli, D.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Bucciolini, M. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Nava, F. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to {gamma}-radiation from{sup 60}Co and {sup 167}Cs {gamma}-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n{sup +} type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a {gamma}-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented.

  20. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to γ-radiation from60Co and 167Cs γ-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n+ type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a γ-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented

  1. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  2. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  3. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification

  5. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  6. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  7. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Alanine/ Bromophenol Blue Polymeric Films For Radiation Dosimetry Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polymeric dyed flexible films are considered to be the most commonly used dosimeters for routine dose monitoring in ionizing-radiation processing. Dyed polymer films prepared by simple technique of casting aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) containing bromophenol blue on horizontal glass plate are useful for high dose dosimetry. Different concentrations of L-alanine were added in presence of bromophenol blue mixed inside PVA films producing a blue film. The color has a variable absorbance with applied dose in the range from 1-35 kGy. Spectrophotometric evaluation at 602 nm for the absorbance intensity of this color was investigated as a function of dose. The used work method is uncomplicated and very easy for routine application. The radiation chemical yield G (value) was calculated in the presence and absence of alanine. Humidity during irradiation was also studied. These films show a good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions

  9. Statistical methods to evaluate thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Matoso, Erika; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMSP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation levels, evaluated through the exposure of CaF{sub 2}:Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD- 200), have been monitored at Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, since 1991 resulting in a large amount of measurements until 2009 (more than 2,000). The data amount associated with measurements dispersion, since every process has deviation, reinforces the utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results, procedure also imposed by the Brazilian Standard CNEN-NN-3.01/PR- 3.01-008 which regulates the radiometric environmental monitoring. Thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data are statistically compared in order to evaluate potential CEA's activities environmental impact. The statistical tools discussed in this work are box plots, control charts and analysis of variance. (author)

  10. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  11. An integrated ultrasound-computer dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly interactive on-line computer-based radiation therapy planning system has been developed to allow first-hand participation by the physician for maximum input of clinical judgement in treatment planning. The system utilizes an ultrasound scanning device for acquisition of the patient's contour and anatomical information for simultaneous evaluation by the therapist and processing by the computer. The man-machine interaction and graphic data entry are achieved through a sonic graph pen digitizer mounted on the screen of a multi-colour video monitor. A second graph pen digitizer on a radiograph view box is used for digitization and entry to the computer of other graphic data sources. Radiation treatment parameters are graphically entered directly on the echogram of the patient's cross-sectional anatomy. The radiation dose distribution for a proposed plan is then computed and displayed superimposed in a contrasting colour on the echogram for further scrutiny by the therapist and possible modification. When an acceptable plan is produced, the radiation fields are accurately marked on the patient body in reference to the radiation ports displayed. The system is used for external beam planning with simple, multiple, and irregular fields and intracavitary and interstitial implant dosimetry. Since in this system the radiation delivery is planned based on the cross-sectional anatomy, it is well suited for planning of heavy particle beam therapy which utilizes the stopping characteristics of the accelerated particles in the absorbing medium. (author)

  12. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  13. Angular dependence of OSL commercial detectors in standard beta radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a very successful dosimetry technique, in particular using the Al2O3:C crystals as dosimeter. This detector has become the main OSL material as a personal dosimeter. Commercial dosimeters of Al2O3:C have been developed and tested; however, most of the tests have been performed with gamma beams. Beta radiation dosimetry might be performed with Al2O3:C detectors, if the crystals are sufficient thin to avoid the radiation attenuation. The dosimeter thickness is also important to allow a satisfactory accuracy of the measured dose, despite the incidence radiation angle or the beta energy. Previous studies show that the Al2O3:C dosimeters present a very high energy dependence that can be minimized by using filters. This work aims to compare the angular dependence of commercial Al2O3:C dosimeters with and without the filters used to minimize the beta energy dependence of Al2O3:C, when the detectors were exposed to standard beta beams. The beta irradiations of the OSL detectors were performed using the beta secondary standard system of the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN, with 90Sr + 90Y, 85Kr and 147Pm sources, manufactured by Buchler GmbH and Co, Germany, calibrated by the primary standard laboratory Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The OSL measurements were evaluated using a microStar reader and software of Landauer. The angular dependence was determined by using a goniometer. The incident radiation angle was varied from 0 deg to 180 deg. The results show that that the angular dependence curves present similar behavior, despite the use of filters

  14. FDA's requirements for radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceutical drug products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary concern of the Office of Drug Research and Review of the Food and Drug Administration in the field of radiation dosimetry is to ensure that radiopharmaceutical drug products are safe when used as investigational drugs (INDs) and are both safe and effective when a new drug application (NDA) is approved. In order to accomplish this, the sponsor of either an IND or applicant in the case of NDA must provide information that clearly describes the radiation dose that a patient will receive from the administration of the drug. The submitted numerical estimates of the radiation dose should be based on an absorbed fraction method of radiation dose calculation, such as the system set forth by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine or the system set forth by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This presentation will describe in detail the data that a sponsor of an IND needs to submit to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Examples will be given of common mistakes and omissions by sponsors in their presentation of data

  15. Quality assurance in radiation processing. Dosimetry and control methods for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of radiation processing, the process control of the treatment is vitally important. In addition to the irradiation parameters checks, the main control in this process is the dose measurement in the three major aspects of quality control as described in different standards or guides: Irradiation facility qualification, Process validation, Routine process control. In this paper, an example is given for each aspect of the quality control for E-beam, X-Rays and gamma irradiation plant as well. These examples show that the use of a traceable and validated dosimetry system is the appropriate tool to realize irreproachable controls. The choice of the dosimeter type and its calibration against traceable laboratories is also essential to prove the quality of the radiation treatments. Concerning the dosimetry readout equipment, a flexible dosimeter analysis and computerized equipment is developed by Aerial in order to bring a major contribution to the quality control in the field of radiation processing. New developments for industrial ESR dosimetry readout equipment are presented. The adapted ESR software analyses the measured spectrum, checks the measurement parameters, and calculates the dosimetry system response, absorbed dose and associated uncertainty as well. (author)

  16. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helt-Hansen, J

    2000-11-01

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50{mu}m/150{mu}m/7000{mu}m covered by a 2 {mu}m thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  17. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50μm/150μm/7000μm covered by a 2 μm thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  18. radiation dosimetry in cases of normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive materials in various fields of medicine, industry, agriculture and researches has been increasing steadily during the last few decades. A lot of radiation sources, radiopharmaceuticals, labeled compounds and other radioactive materials are sold and used throughout the world each year. Historically, accidents have occurred during the production, transport and use of radioactive materials. If an accident does occur, it is necessary to cope with it as soon as possible in order to control radiological human exposures and contamination of the environment and to restore normal conditions. Examination of individuals that deal with radioactive isotopes should be carried out in cases of nuclear medicine units, and in other applications including radiotherapy unit and gamma irradiation facility. Identification of the feasibility and efficiency of the counting detectors of internal and external radiation dosimetry, and preparedness in normal and emergency situations are included in the present work. Furthermore, this study also deals with the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiation dose estimation for applications of gamma irradiation, and cobalt-60 treatment unit. Hence, operator dose can be estimated in case of malfunction or stuck of the radioactive source. Three methods were used to measure the radiation dose: (1) TL dosimeters with Harshaw (TLD- 4000) reader were used for measurement of external exposures. (2) FASTSCAN and (3) ACUUSCAN II whole body counters were used for measurement of internal exposures.

  19. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β1D + β2D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  20. Thermoluminescent characteristics of diopside-teflon composites for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diopside - Teflon composites were been studied in relation to their dosimetric properties for high-dose dosimetry. Diopside from Minas Gerais, Brazil, CaMg(Si2O6), was obtained in form of rude mineral with inclusions of quartz. The samples were prepared and only Diopside grains obtained. Pellets of Diopside-Teflon composites were prepared in the proportion of 2(Teflon): 1 (Diopside).The TL response repeatability presented a maximum coefficient of variation of 7.5%. The calibration curve is linear between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. TL emission spectra present three emissions of similar intensities at 570 nm, 590 nm and between 610-635 nm. The results suggest that the material presents good characteristics for use as high-dose radiation detectors. (Author)

  1. Radiation patterns and dosimetry in the Enterprise Radiation Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-radiation exposure was monitored by lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters placed in such a manner that both horizontal and vertical exposure distributions could be determined around the 10,000-Ci 137Cs source. Radiation attenuation by tree trunks was 50 percent or greater near the source, but, beyond 40 to 50 m from the source, there was no significant difference between exposures on the side facing the source vs. the side away from the source. At distances beyond 20 m, radiation attenuation in the Enterprise Radiation Forest was greater than in similar experiments at the Savannah River Plant and Brookhaven National Laboratory and less than at El Verde, Puerto Rico, Rain Forest

  2. Radiation exposure and radiation protection dosimetry. Trial of a critical balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the state of radiation protection dosimetry of external irradiation is given. From the point of view of practical radiation protection a clear and unambiguous regulation system with unequivocal measurement and evaluation rules is more important than an apparently accurate determination of a risk equivalent radiation exposure. After a survey of the calculations of conversion coefficients between effective dose, operational quantities and primary quantities for photons and neutrons it is demanded that the results of a relevant ICRP/ICRU Task Group are published as soon as possible to create a binding and durable basis of radiation protection area and individual dosimetry. The special problem of evaluation of measured individual doses, if protective clothing in diagnostic radiology is worn, is discussed. Furthermore the following basic problems are dealt with: Required measuring ranges, state of the available measuring instruments, requirements for measurement accuracy and prototype testing. An analysis of surveillance results shows that on the one hand trivial exposures are monitored with great effort by means of personal dosemeters, on the other hand much higher exposures, on e.g. due to radon progeny, are controlled only by area monitoring. Despite the unsolved problems still to be worked on, all in all the state of radiation protection dosimetry is satisfactory. (orig.)

  3. Ion-kill dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  4. Radiation Dosimetry Using Three-Dimensional Optical Random Access Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilizing radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm3) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a color change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight.) The laser produces color changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original color (''bit-flips'') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory (TST) predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable ''bit-flips''. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes

  5. Radiation dosimetry using three-dimensional optical random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilising radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm3) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a colour change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight). The laser produces colour changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original colour ('bit-flips') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable 'bit-flips'. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes. (author)

  6. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  7. Whole body [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [11C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [11C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [11C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  8. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  9. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance are...... materials and detector/filter geometry. Improvements in the energy and angular response of dosemeters for the measurements of doses from beta and low energy photon radiation can be achieved essentially through two different approaches: either by using thin detectors or multi-element dosemeters. Their...

  10. Dosimetry in radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M; Theis, C

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry at high-energy proton accelerators is a difficult task because of the complexity of the stray radiation field. A good knowledge of this mixed radiation field is very important to be able to select the type of detectors (active and/or passive) to be employed for routine area monitoring and to choose the personal dosimeter legally required for estimating the effective dose received by individuals. At the same time, the response function of the detectors to the mixed field must be thoroughly understood. A proper calibration of a device, which may involve a complex series of measurements in various reference fields, is needed. Monte Carlo simulations provide a complementary – and sometimes the principal – mean of determining the response function. The ambient dose equivalent rates during operation range from a few hundreds of μSv per year to a few mSv per year. To measure such rates one needs detectors of high sensitivity and/or capable of integrating over long periods. The main challenge...

  11. Radiation Protection Instrumentation for Personnel Dosimetry, Area and Environmental Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel dosimetry presents several problems for the instrument designer. For example, it is not possible to determine accurately the dose absorbed from external γ-radiation using personal dosimeters. However, their design and calibration should minimize the uncertainty of dose estimation. Several kinds-of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. Area monitoring is the measurement of radiation and radioactivity in an area to determine the hazards to which workers there are exposed. Portable and fixed area monitors suffer from different limitations and their use is complementary, The nature of the uncertainties in assessing the hazard is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Environmental monitoring provides a classic example of the need to discriminate against background. When the principle of keeping the environmental doses as low as reasonably achievable is adopted the γ doses to be measured may be smaller than the fluctuations in natural background. In this case it is necessary to discriminate between man-made and natural radiation on the bases of temporal fluctuation and photon energy differences. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system. (author)

  12. The application of EPR dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudynski, R. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Medical Physics); Kudynska, J.; Buckmaster, H.A. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the first clinical trial of the application of the continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) spectrum of alanine to determine the radiation dose received by a patient. The results of these measurements are compared with those obtained using thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) simultaneously. The 9 GHz EPR measurements were made at 13[sup o]C. The time stability of the radiation induced radicals in alanine was confirmed. The fractionated radiation doses received in the clinical trial were determined from a calibration curve (linear regression coefficient r = 0.9995) obtained by irradiating L-alanine samples with 60-800 cGy doses using cobalt 60 gamma rays obtained from an Eldorado 8 Cobalt 60 unit at a rate of [approx] 60 cGy/min. It is shown that the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material can be determined using EPR spectroscopy with an accuracy of [approx] 3% at low dose levels (60 cGy) whereas the error using TLD is [approx] 5% and that this method of dose determination is preferable to the present TLD method because it is simpler and more accurate. (author).

  13. Radioluminescence (RL) probe dosimetry using Al2O3:C for precise calibration of beta sources applied in luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioluminescence (RL) phenomenon is widely known as prompt luminescence or fluorescence of synthetic materials, like Al2O3 and LiF as well as of natural dosimeter materials, like feldspar and quartz, during interaction with ionising radiation, especially electron rays. Almost all of these materials show increasing RL flux with increasing absorbed beta dose. Only potassium rich feldspars (microcline and orthoclase) show a RL emission at 1.45 eV of decreasing intensity with rising delivered dose. For a number of reasons, this RL emission is suitable for dating purposes. Accuracy and reproducibility of the RL dating method are much more advantageous compared to TL and OSL methods. Carbon doped Al2O3 (TLD 500) shows a much more higher RL intensity than, e.g., feldspar and the stability of the stored electrons as well as the linearity of RL yield versus primary electron energy, qualifies this dosimeter material to be a useful tool in source calibration, using radioluminescence. However, the accuracy of a luminescence dating method depends largely on the calibration of the used irradiation sources. To prevent calibration uncertainties due to the use of natural dosimeters with a high scattering of luminescence yield, a new method is suggested. This method bases on probe dosimetry using a very small amount of Al2O3:C as probe and, consequently, the material that should be calibrated (e.g. feldspar). The amount of Al2O3:C may disturb the electron fluence within the material to be calibrated only insignificantly. The sample mix is irradiated by an exactly known Gamma or Beta radiation source and the absorbed dose is treated as absorbed dose in the appropriated material. In contrast to conventional calibration methods, the suggested performance uses the dose dependent RL signal of Al2O3:C at 3.00 eV. This shows a good reproducibility, even with a tiny amount of the applied synthetic probe material. (author)

  14. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  15. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  16. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  17. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  18. Developments in personal dosimetry for external radiations over the past twenty-one years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 when SRP was founded the basic philosophy and the techniques employed in personal dosimetry have continuously been developed. New measurement quantities have been recommended by ICRP and ICRU, primary radiation standards have been extended and reference radiations specified. Substantial effort has been spent on the development of new measuring techniques as well as the introduction of automation and computerised dose record keeping systems. This article highlights the major changes in personal dosimetry introduced during the past 21 years. (author)

  19. Radiation dosimetry by neutron or X ray fluorescence activation of residual silver in ionographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global measuring technique which is sensitive enough to detect small silver contents in films for dosimetry applications is presented. The applications studied are neutron dosimetry by measuring residual silver due to recoil protons in developed emulsions and high dose dosimetry by the detection of photolytic silver in fixed emulsions. An individual fast neutron dosimeter which can be used in radiation protection was developed, along with an automatic data analysis and readout system. Application of this technique to the measurement of high radiation doses (100 to 1 million Gy) via the measurement of photolytic silver in fixed, but undeveloped, emulsions confirms the usefulness of the method

  20. Standards for radiation protection and diagnostic radiology at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International standardization in dosimetry is essential for the successful exploitation of radiation technology. The IAEA dosimetry programme is focused into services provided to Member States through the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), to radiotherapy centres and radiation processing facilities. Radiation protection quantities defined by ICRU and ICRP are used to relate the risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation to a single quantity, irrespective of the type of radiation, which takes into account the human body as a receptor. Two types of quantities, limiting and operational, can be related to basic physical quantities which are defined without need for considering specific aspects of radiation protection, e.g. air kerma for photons and fluence for neutrons. The use of a dosimeter for measurements in radiation protection requires a calibration in terms of a physical quantity together with a conversion from physical into protection quantities by means of a factor or a coefficient

  1. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.; Colgan, T.; Hyvonen, H.; Stadtmann, H.

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU was...... accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...... services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discusses in detail...

  2. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel plate chamber and variable volume based on the Bragg-Gray theory. It determines in absolute mode, with high accuracy the dose absorbed by the extrapolation of the ionization current measured for a null distance between the electrodes. This camera is used for dosimetry of external beta rays for radiation protection. This paper presents the characterization of an extrapolation chamber in a 90Sr/90Y beta radiation field. The absorbed dose rate to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm was calculated and is (0.13206±0.0028) μGy. The extrapolation chamber null depth was determined and its value is 60 μm. The influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on the value of the corrected current was also evaluated. Temperature is the parameter that has more influence on this value and the influence of pressure and the humidity is not very significant. Extrapolation curves were obtained. (Author)

  3. Radiation dosimetry of polymer gel dosimeters using Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For several years polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) have been used for radiation therapy gel dosimetry. More recently FT-Raman spectroscopy has provided direct measurements of the concentration of monomers, post-irradiation, as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Adapting this work to Raman microscopy is an attractive proposition as it may enable dose to be measured to spatial resolutions of one micron. The composition of the PAG dosimeter was 3% acrylamide, 3% N,N'- methylene-bis-acrylamide, 5% gelatin and 89% water by weight. The PAG was irradiated from one end of a quartz glass slide of dimensions, 8 mm γ 38 mm γ 0.2 mm using electrons from a 6 MeV linear accelerator. Raman spectra were obtained using a Renishaw Raman microprobe with a nominal resolution of one micron. A helium neon laser operating at 8 mW and 633 nm was used for excitation. The depth dose measurement using the Raman microprobe compared to a calibrated ion chamber is illustrated. Raman microscopy of PAG dosimeters shows great potential in determining dose distributions with high spatial resolution and may have potential in areas such as cardiovascular brachytherapy. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  5. Comparison of radiation dosimetry for several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123-labeled free fatty acids, an I-123-labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but his compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123-labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3-0.4 Gy/MBq, kidneys 8.6 Gy/MBq). Doses for the I-123-labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 15 Gy/MBq, heart wall 18 Gy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4-7 Gy/MBq, heart wall 4 Gy/MBq, skeleton 15 Gy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half-life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 37 references, 11 tables

  6. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 48-A Vorovsky, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Wieser, A. [GSF, Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Ingolstaedter Landstr (Germany); Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M. [ZAO, Closed Corporation ' Company GEOSPETSECOLOGIA' (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for

  7. Gamma radiation processing dosimetry with commercial silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work envisages the development of dosimeters based on Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry from 1 Gy up to 100 Gy. This dose range is frequently utilized in radiation processing of crystal modifications, polymers crosslinking and biological studies carried out in the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dosimeter was constructed by a commercial SFH00206 (Siemens) Si diode, operating in a photovoltaic mode, whose electrical characteristics are suitable for this application. The current generated in the device by the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation from the Irradiators types I and II was registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. In all measurements, the current signals of the diode registered as a function of the exposure time were very stable. Furthermore, the device photocurrent was linearly dependent on the dose rate within a range of 6.1x10-2 Gy/min up to 1.9x102 Gy/min. The calibration curves of the dosimeters, e.g., the average charge registered as a function of the absorbed dose were obtained by the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results showed a linear response of the dosimeter with a correlation coefficient better than 0.998 for total absorbed dose up to 120 Gy. Finally, due to the small experimental errors 5 % it was also possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalto- 60 radioactive sources in irradiation facilities used in this work. (author)

  8. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for teeth older

  9. Determination of the dose rapidity of a 90 Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a 90 Sr-90 Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  10. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  11. Thermoluminescence and radioluminescence properties of tissue equivalent Cu-doped Li2B4O7 for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) and radioluminescence (Rl) properties of lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) doped with different concentration of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under gamma and beta irradiation has been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li2B4O7 was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and boric acid (H3BO3) and a solution of CuCl2 as dopant. The glow curve, of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li2B4O7:Cu 0.5 wt %), shows a main stable peak centered at 225 degrees C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 degrees C. The low temperature peak disappears completely after 24 hours of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 degrees C for 10 seconds. The main peak of the Li2B4O7:Cu remains constant. The Tl response of Li2B4O7:Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of Rl signals of the borate have been studied and the Li2B4O7:Cu (0.5 wt %) shown the higher Rl emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that Li2B4O7:Cu has prospects to be used in gamma and beta radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  12. Depth dose determination for a mixed radiation field using a thin plastic scintillator dosimetry system

    OpenAIRE

    Aydarous Abdulkadir; Waker Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Plastic scintillators, due to their favorable characteristics compared with other dosimetry techniques, were used as detectors to estimate dose distributions in high gradient dose fields. In this study, a thin plastic scintillator (type BC-408) was coupled to a photomultiplier tube and multichannel analyzer as a technique for real-time dose measurements. The well-defined beta, gamma, and beta-gamma emitters (137Cs, 133Ba, 22Na, 109Cd, 55Fe, and 241Am) have enabled parallel depth dose me...

  13. Novel fiber optic radiation sensor for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of ionizing radiation dose during radiotherapy planning and treatment is critically important to avoid damage to surrounding tissue. This is due to the close threshold between the dose required to destroy cancerous tissue and that which can damage surrounding tissue. Further, due to variations in tissue density, it is not always possible to exactly predetermine the proper dose a given region should receive. In order to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy, i.e., maximizing the dose delivered to the cancerous region without damaging surrounding tissue, a real-time in vivo dosimetry technique would be desirable for directly measuring the delivered dose. The primary method presently known to be suitable for direct dose measurements in vivo is by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). TLD's can be used as dosimeters since they will produce a visible luminescence upon heating which is proportional to a prior radiation exposure. For in vivo applications, a suitable TLD material can be packaged or inserted into a catheter which in turn is placed in the cancerous region. After the region has been exposed to ionizing radiation, the TLD is removed and placed in a reader which heats the material to several hundred degrees Celsius resulting in the emission of luminescence. The magnitude of the luminescence output (or so-called glow curve) is proportional to the dose absorbed by the TLD material. Unfortunately, TLD's will only provide integrated dose information some time after the patient has been irradiated. Therefore, the radiotherapist cannot adjust the exposure in real-time to ensure that the proper dose is delivered to the desired region. Additional limitations of TLD's include their poor dose reproducibility, limited dynamic range and sensitivity, and nonlinear response in certain cases

  14. Radiation dosimetry using nano-BaSO{sub 4}:Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.; Sharma R, K. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, Benito Juarez Road, Dhaula Kuan, 110021 New Delhi (India); Bahl, S.; Kumar, P. [Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, 110029 New Delhi (India); Pal L, S., E-mail: apandey@svc.ac.in [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067 New Delhi (India)

    2015-10-15

    Nanocrystalline barium sulfate doped with europium (BaSO{sub 4}:Eu) was successfully prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique and its thermoluminescence (Tl) dosimetry characteristics were studied for gamma radiation. Initially the dopant (Eu) concentration was varied, starting from 0.05 mol % to up to 1.00 mol %, and it was found that the nano phosphor BaSO{sub 4}:Eu with the dopant concentration of 0.2 mol % had the highest sensitivity within the given lot. The nano phosphor was also optimized for its annealing temperature in order to obtain the best results and was thereafter tested for its reusability and fading features. Further the nano phosphor was compared with the commercially available standard Tl dosimeter material LiF:Mg,Ti (popularly referred to as TLD-100) and it was found that the nano phosphor not only had a higher Tl sensitivity compared to the standard material over a wide range of doses but also had a Tl response which was linear even beyond the dose of 1 kGy. Linearity in Tl response to up to such high doses (∼1 kGy) is typical of nanocrystalline Tl phosphors. All the samples were irradiated by Co-60 source (having 1.25 MeV average energy) of gamma radiation. In order to test the energy independence of the nano phosphor (an important characteristic of an ideal Tl dosimeter) further studies are being carried out to examine the response of the nano phosphor to ionizing radiations of different energies. (Author)

  15. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs

  16. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolisis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (author)

  17. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs

  19. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  20. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Monte Carlo technique applications in field of radiation dosimetry at ENEA radiation protection institute: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report summarizes the activities concerned with numerical dosimetry as carried out at the Radiation Protection Institute of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) on photon dosimetric quantities. The first part is concerned with MCNP Monte Carlo calculation of field parameters and operational quantities for the ICRU sphere with reference photon beams for the design of personal dosemeters. The second part is related with studies on the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom using the SABRINA and MCNP codes. The results of other Monte Carlo studies carried out on electron conversion factors for various tissue equivalent slab phantoms are about to be published in other ENEA reports. The report has been produced in the framework of the EURADOS WG4 (numerical dosimetry) activities within a collaboration between the ENEA Environmental Department and ENEA Energy Department

  2. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of ionizing radiations using ZrO2 prepared at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) it is a versatile tool for an evaluation of dose of ionizing radiation. A great variety of ceramic materials and their different physical forms allow a determination of the ionizing radiation in a wide dose interval. In this work the results of studying those thermoluminescent characteristics (TL) of the zirconium oxide obtained by means of the sol-gel technique to low temperatures are presented. To these temperatures the material was obtained in its amorphous state (ZrO2-a). The structural characteristics of ZrO2-a they were obtained by means of X-ray diffraction. The TL characteristics studied were: TL curve, reproducibility of the TL signal and the fading of the information. The powders of ZrO2-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90Sr/ 90Y, they presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 260 C. The fading of the information of the one ZrO2-a it was of 20% during the first two hours starting from this time there was one lost of information of 5% to the finish of the 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. (Author)

  4. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  5. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry; Les codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  6. Development of CaSO4:Dy TL dosimetry badge system for mixed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personnel dosimetry badge system is designed using CaSO4:Dy TL material for discriminating energy components in mixed radiation fields. The new badge system consists of four dosimetry filtered area. Each of these areas utilizes a unique set of filters to provide specific dosimetric information. This TLD badge system is designed by using MCNP code. The prototype TLD badge is also tested by experimental irradiation on PMMA slab phantom. The results of experimental test satisfy the criteria for testing personnel dosimetry systems specified in the ANSIN13.11(1983). (2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  7. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

    The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

  8. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: josevedelago@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica E. Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  9. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  10. The EURADOS/CONRAD activities on radiation protection dosimetry in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation gives an overview on the research activities that EURADOS coordinates in the field of radiation protection dosimetry in medicine. EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. EURADOS operates by setting up Working Groups dealing with particular topics. Currently funded through the CONRAD project of the 6th EU Framework Programme, EURADOS has working groups on Computational Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces, and Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff. The latter working group coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated by sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1: Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2: Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons, especially to determine personal doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterisation, but also in CT-fluoroscopy and some nuclear medicine developments (e.g. use of Re-188); and 3: Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (author)

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on characterization and evaluation of high dose dosimetry techniques for quality assurance in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many Member States the use of large cobalt-60 gamma ray facilities and electron beam accelerators with beam energies from about 0.1 to 10 MeV for industrial processing continues to increase. For these processes, quality assurance relies on the application of well established dosimetry systems and procedures. This is especially the case for health regulated processes, such as the radiation sterilization of health care products, and the irradiation of food to eliminate pathogenic organisms or to control insect pests. A co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated by the IAEA in June 1995. Research contracts and research agreements in areas of high dose dosimetry were initiated to meet these challenges. The major goals of this CRP were to investigate the parameters that influence the response of dosimeters and to develop reference and transfer dosimetry techniques, especially for electron beams of energy less than 4 MeV and for high energy X ray sources (up to 5 MV). These will help to unify the radiation measurements performed by different radiation processing facilities and other high dose dosimetry users in Member States and encourage efforts to obtain traceability to primary and secondary standards laboratories. It will also aim to strengthen and expand the present International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) provided by the IAEA

  12. Dosimetry services for monitoring occupational external radiation exposures at nuclear research center (1999-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry Services are performed to monitor personnel where radiation sources are used. At the Nuclear Research Center of Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, personnel monitoring are carried out by two alternative methods. These are the traditional film badge and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Dosimetry unit at radiation protection department, keeps records of doses of individuals during their work at the center. Normal monitoring periods are every three months, but can be reduced to one month. Analysis for the effective doses was carried out for the period of 1999-2003. Radiation risk estimates was evaluated for the workers of this period

  13. Development of a dosimetry system for personal monitoring in mixed beta and gamma field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetric thermoluminescent system for the determination of strongly and weakly penetrating radiation dose Hp(10) and Hp(0,07), respectively, was developed. The system consists of CaSO4:Dy as T L active material, a polyethylene badge and different metallic filters used for radiation attenuation. For the system development and design parameter calculation different computer codes were used. After the definition of the dosemeter an experimental validation of the whole system was performed. The research was directed towards the optimization of the design parameters. The determination of the energy deposited by beta and gamma radiations in the dosimetric material as a function of chemical composition and densities was calculated using computer codes that simulate those process. The dosemeter calibration was performed in standard fields. The angular dependency of T L response and its behavior in a mixed field was studied. The validation of the dosimetric system was performed for beta nad gamma radiations doses between 0,1 mSv and 200 MSv. Ana analysis of associated uncertainties shows that the developed dosemeters are in accordance with the ICRP-35 requirements of energetic and angular dependence for personal dosemeters. (author)

  14. Academic Training - The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...

  15. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for dosimetry of high-energy ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.I. [Institute of Materials, Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of New Perspective Developments

    1995-10-01

    The possible application of amorphous chalogenide semiconductors as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energy (E>1 MeV) dosimetry systems are analyzed. It is shown that some of these materials are characterized by a broader region of absorbed doses and low-temperature thresholds of radiation induced bleaching than conventional colouring oxide glasses. (author).

  16. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for dosimetry of high-energy ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible application of amorphous chalogenide semiconductors as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energy (E>1 MeV) dosimetry systems are analyzed. It is shown that some of these materials are characterized by a broader region of absorbed doses and low-temperature thresholds of radiation induced bleaching than conventional colouring oxide glasses. (author)

  17. Absolute and secondary dosimetry at the cyclotron ion beam radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the characteristic features of ion beam radiation experiments is that the absolute methods of dosimetry are more convenient than secondary ones. In this paper the absolute method used in the course of the radiation experiments performed on the U-400 Dubna cyclotron is presented in detail. Some remarks dealing with the secondary methods are also given. (author)

  18. Development of dose calibrators Tandem systems and establishment of beta dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quality control program at Nuclear Medicine Services includes the checking of all equipment used for diagnostics and treatment, and the individual monitoring of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations. In this work the main quality control tests were performed with three dose calibrators using standard radiation sources of 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co. Tandem systems of dose calibrators were established and characterized using four cylindrical absorbers of different materials for an additional quality control test in Nuclear Medicine. The main utility of this new test is the possibility of impurity detection in radiopharmaceuticals, when the ratio of the measurements with different absorbers is different from that obtained at the laboratory in ideal conditions. The dosimetric characteristics of three types of CaS04:Dy + Teflon pellets were studied for an appropriate choice of the material to be used for individual monitoring of workers. The thermoluminescent detectors were irradiated using beta sources of 90Sr+90Y, 204TI, 147Pm, 153Sm and 32P. A wrist badge for beta individual monitoring was developed for workers that handle beta radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine Services. (author)

  19. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  20. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  1. T violation in radiative $\\beta$ decay and electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, W G

    2015-01-01

    In radiative $\\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\\beta$ decay.

  2. Internal Dosimetry Of I-131 For Radiation Workers Based On Analysis Of The Human Urine And Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal dosimetry of I-131 for radiation workers based on analysis of the human urine, measuring radioactivity by the liquid scintillation system, and dose calculation by the specialized code has been firstly studied at the Nuclear Research Institute. Urine samples from the subjects internally contaminated with I-131 through respiratory ways were collected, chemically processed, measured beta radioactivities of I-131 by the liquid scintillation system of ALOKA-LSC-6100, and then thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body were calculated by using the specialized code of LUDEP 2.0. Based on chemically separation procedure for I-131 in urine samples and the low background HPGe gamma spectrometer of Canberra for measuring radioactivity, efficiency for chemical separation was determined to be (86.1 ± 5.0)%. The experimental results for 9 subjects with urine samples to be collected during 4 operating courses of Dalat nuclear reactor with production of I-131 (from June to September, 2010) were shown that thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body for each course of I-131 production were in ranges of from 0.11 to 13.00 mSv and from 0.01 to 0.71 mSv, respectively. Therefore, totally average doses per year for thyroid and whole-body were less than the correlative levels of permissible doses. Besides, the liquid scintillation method was also compared experimentally with the gamma spectrometry (measuring directly urine samples by the gamma spectrometer to be carried out at the Institute before) was shown that errors on dosimetric results between them were less than 12%. This was proved the dosimetry has had a confidence, and it could be applied for internal dosimetry for radiation workers contacting with unsealed sources of I-131 in radiation installations as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic patients in health ones. (author)

  3. Application of gel dosimetry - A preliminary study on verification of uniformity of activity and length of source used in Beta-Cath system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the intraluminal irradiation of coronary arteries following balloon angioplasty is found to reduce proliferation of smooth muscle cells and restenosis. Among the isotopes used for the intracoronary irradiation, 90Sr/Y appears to be ideal (H I Almos et al, 1996). In 1984 Gore et al proposed that radiation induced changes in the well-established Fricke solution could be probed with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements rather than using conventional spectrophotometry measurements. This was a major step in the development of gel dosimetry and since then gel dosimetry has been one of the major advances in the dosimetry of complex radiation fields has been in the area of gel dosimetry. In this preliminary work on gel dosimetry we present the verification of uniformity of activity along the length of the source train and verification of the length of the source used in the Beta-Cath system used for intracoronary brachytherapy with ferrous gel dosimeter. The Beta-Cath system obtained from Novoste, Norcross, GA was used in this study. It consists of a source train of 16 90Sr/Y sources each of length 2.5mm. The total length of the source train is 40mm. For preparation of the Ferrous-Gelatin Gel, the recipe provided by the London Regional Cancer Center, London Ontario, Canada was used. Stock solutions of 50mM H2SO4, 0.3 mM ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.05mM Xylenol orange was first prepared. The gel was prepared by mixing 4% gelatin with distilled water while stirring in a water bath at 40-42 deg. C. Acid solution, Ferrous ammonium sulphate solution and Xylenol orange were added and stirred in the water bath for about an hour to allow aeration. The mixture was poured in to three 20ml syringes to form the gel and stored in the refrigerator at 5 deg. C. For irradiation with Beta-Cath, the gel was prepared in three cylindrical 20ml syringes. A nylon tube having the same dimension as that of the delivery catheter used in intra-coronary was placed at

  4. European questionnaire on the use of computer programmes in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of a potential reduction of necessary experimental efforts, the combination of measurements and supplementing calculations, also in the field of radiation dosimetry, may allow time and money to be saved if computational methods are used which are well suited to reproduce experimental data in a satisfactory quality. The dramatic increase in computing power in recent years now permits the use of computational tools for dosimetry also in routine applications. Many institutions dealing with radiation protection, however, have small groups which, in addition to their routine work, often cannot afford to specialise in the field of computational dosimetry. This means that not only experts but increasingly also casual users employ complicated computational tools such as general-purpose transport codes. This massive use of computer programmes in radiation protection and dosimetry applications motivated the Concerted Action Investigation and Quality Assurance of Numerical Methods in Radiation Protection Dosimetry of the 4th framework programme of the European Commission to prepare, distribute and evaluate a questionnaire on the use of such codes. A significant number of scientists from nearly all the countries of the European Community (and some countries outside Europe) contributed to the questionnaire, that allowed to obtain a satisfactory overview of the state of the art in this field. The results obtained from the questionnaire and summarised in the present Report are felt to be indicative of the situation of using sophisticated computer codes within the European Community although the group of participating scientist may not be a representative sample in a strict statistical sense

  5. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade.

  6. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  7. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  8. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  9. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual’s working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  10. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  11. A Finnish national code of practice for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A national Code of Practice (CoP) for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy in Finland will be established during 2002 and will be implemented from the beginning of 2003. The CoP will cover dosimetry of the conventional radiotherapy modalities used in Finland i.e. external radiotherapy with megavoltage photon and electron beams, external radiotherapy with low energy kilovoltage X-ray beams and brachytherapy. The formalisms for external radiation beam dosimetry are those of TRS 389. For brachytherapy the formalism will follow the general guidelines of TECDOC-1274. The CoP will be prepared by the SSDL of STUK in close co-operation with the Finnish radiotherapy physicists. For external beam radiotherapy, the main objective of the national Code of Practice for radiation therapy dosimetry is to maintain the achieved good level of consistency of the dosimetry procedures in external beam radiotherapy as the 'absorbed dose to water' based approach of TRS 389 is implemented in Finland. In the CoP the dosimetry the procedures are described for the whole dosimetry chain starting from the calibration of the ionisation chambers at the SSDL of STUK and ending to the calibration of the beam monitor ionisation chamber of a linear accelerator. For brachytherapy dosimetry the aim is to fix the national practice for reference air kerma rate calibrations both for radioactive sources and for well-type ionisation chambers. Although the dosimetry procedures are described independently of the SSDL service, CoP makes use of the special features of the calibration service offered by the SSDL of STUK. For ionisation chambers used for photon dosimetry the calibration factors for the user measurement chain are given not only for the actual reference beam quality (60Co) but also for a set of user beam qualities. Furthermore, SSDL of STUK offers calibration services for plane parallel ionisation chambers in an electron beam of a user linac. For brachytherapy SSDL of STUK has

  12. Guidance on approval of dosimetry services under the ionising radiations regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation 15 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 gives the Health and Safety Executive the power to approve suitable dosimetry services for the purpose of Regulations 13 (dose assessment), 14 (accident dosimetry) and 27 (contingency plans). Part 3 of notes for guidance for dosimetry services wishing to apply to the HSE for approval is presented. This describes those aspects which are relevant to co-ordination of inputs from contributing approved dosimetry services (ADS's) and record keeping of assessed doses. It sets out the functions of the co-ordinating ADS's, gives guidance on interpretation of dose quantities, specifies the minimum content of dose records and describes suitable types of dose record storage. Finally the basis on which HSE will assess a service for approval is outlined. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation-induced signals analysed by EPR spectrometry applied to fortuitous dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry based on the detection by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of ionizing radiation-induced radicals is an established method for the retrospective dosimetry of past exposures and the dosimetry of potentially exposed persons in radiological emergencies. The dose is estimated by measuring the physical damage induced in materials contained in objects placed on or next to the potentially exposed person. The aim of this paper is to survey the current literature about methodologies and materials that have been proposed for EPR dosimetry, in order to identify those that could be suitable for population triage according to criteria such as ubiquity, non invasiveness and easy sample collection, presence of a post-irradiation EPR signal, negligible background signal, linearity of dose-response relationship, minimum detection limit and post-irradiation signal stability. The paper will survey the features of sugar, plastics, glass, clothing tissues, and solid biological tissues (nails, hair and calcified tissues).

  14. Beta Radiation Exposure of Personnel in Radiosynovectomy and at the Production of Eye Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Beta radionuclides are increasingly used in nuclear medicine therapy. In a study of exposure at working places with supposed enhanced radiation risk the followings are monitored: 1. Production of eye applicators (106Ru/106Rh) for therapy of intraocular tumours. During the processes radionuclides are used in sealed and unsealed form. 2. Radiosynovectomy (RSO). This therapy is often used in treatment of inflammatory joint disease. The radionuclides 169Er, 186Re and 90Y are applied in form of radioactive solutions. A complex of problems has to be solved here: Handling of high activities (several GBq per day), very small distances between source and skin, high risk of skin contamination, unsatisfactory dose measurement techniques. In our investigations high sensitive thin thermoluminescence dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were used to determine the skin dose of the hands especially fingertips during preparation and application of the radioactive substances at several institutions. During production of eye applicators we found hand doses essentially below the annual limit. But direct radiation at RSO caused more than 100 mSv at the fingertips per working day in some cases. Even higher doses (more than 50% of the annual limit for skin during a working day) were caused by contamination of the hands. By use of manipulators, wearing of appropriate protection gloves and by improvement of directions for work, the radiation exposure could be reduced dramatically. Consequences for individual beta dosimetry and with respect to license of use of beta radionuclides are discussed. (author)

  15. Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Proceedings of an International Symposium. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the IAEA programme in human health is to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of health problems through the application of nuclear techniques. The mandate arises from Article II of the IAEA's Statute: 'the Agency shall accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to health, peace and prosperity throughout the world.' Accurate measurements in radiation dosimetry are vital in a wide range of medical and industrial applications where the results are critical in reaching decisions relating to human health and safety of radiation workers and members of the public. The development of standards by primary dosimetry laboratories followed by their dissemination to secondary standards dosimetry laboratories and to end-users ensures traceability of measurements to the international system of units. Dosimetry codes of practice (or protocols) are used in conjunction with the dosimetry standards to ensure optimized use of radiation in medicine. Uniformity is equally important in dosimetry, especially for collaborative multicentre studies or clinical trials. In dosimetry for radiation protection, the uncertainty may be greater than for therapy and diagnostic X rays, but proper traceability of the measurements with a defined level of uncertainty is equally important. In recent years, new developments have occurred in dosimetry standards, audits and QA guidance, especially in the field of external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology. The International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS) was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna from 9 to 12 November 2010 to foster the exchange of information along the whole dosimetry chain and highlight recent developments in this field. Three hundred and seventy two delegates representing 66 Member States, 45 observers and 12 international and

  16. Dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology: international commission on radiation units and measurements and IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetric quantities are used in diagnostic and interventional radiology for the establishment of guidance or diagnostic reference levels and for the assessment of comparative risk; only a limited number of measurements serve for the assessment of potential risk. An additional objective of dosimetry in medical imaging is the assessment of equipment performance. The present situation in dosimetry for medical X ray imaging clearly indicates the need for international recommendations on appropriate radiation quantities and units. In addition, guidance on the calibration of instruments and measurements in hospitals is also needed.This has been recognized by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and resulted in the establishment of an ICRU report committee on patient dosimetry in medical imaging. The ICRU proposes a harmonized system of quantities and units for patient dosimetry in medical X ray imaging. New symbols are proposed for various quantities. General information is provided on measurement methods, the calibration of dosimeters and methods of determining organ and tissue doses. The IAEA is developing an international code of practice for dosimetry in X ray diagnostic radiology.The main objective is to help to achieve and maintain a high level of quality in dosimetry, to improve the implementation of traceable standards at the national level and to ensure the control of dose in X ray medical imaging worldwide. Compared with the ICRU, the IAEA puts more emphasis on the practical aspects of establishing proper calibration facilities, for example at the secondary standards dosimetry laboratories, and provides more detailed recommendations for clinical dosimetry. Coordination between ICRU and IAEA activities is considered important by both organizations. This has been taken into account in part by having a person who is a member of both committees.The intention is to have a restricted overlap between both documents and to harmonize

  17. Radiation protection of medical staff: a coordinated action by EURADOS on extremely dosimetry and the use of active personnel dosemeters (CONRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of workers constitutes an integral part of any radiological protection program. However, unresolved issues in radiation protection of medical staff still remain. Research and establishment of guidelines are necessary on a variety of issues such as extremity dosimetry (fingers, eye lenses, etc), the use of double dosimetry above and below lead aprons, or the use of electronic personal dosimeters in interventional procedures. Medical practices are also evolving fast, and new techniques with ionising radiation emerge very regularly, thus implying the need of radiation protection measures for medical staff, and the implementation of new monitoring programs. In some medical applications of radiation there is an increased risk of high local exposures because of direct handling of sources or the use of beta-emitters. However, despite the large number of workers that are exposed in the medical field worldwide, only few measurements of extremity doses have been reported in the literature. Some activities of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) were sponsored by the European Commission in the CONRAD project. This CONRAD project was aiming at the coordination of research on radiation protection at the workplace. Working group 9 has been involved in the coordination and promotion of European research in the field of Radiation Protection Dosimetry for Medical Staff. One of the objectives of this working group was to formulate the state of the art and to identify areas in which improvements were needed. For some of these medical applications the skin of the fingers is the limiting organ from the point of view of individual monitoring of external radiation. The wide variety of radiation field characteristics in a medical environment, and the difficulty of measuring a local dose that is representative for the maximum skin dose (usually with one single detector), makes it difficult to perform extremity dosimetry with an accuracy similar to whole-body dosimetry. Therefore a

  18. The role of the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory in the dissemination of standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the IAEA is taking every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements are traceable to Primary Standards. The Agency has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs involved in measurements on diagnostic x-ray generators, including an x-ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory are described

  19. Dosimetry verification using radiochromic film for intensity- modulated radiation surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well known acceptance criteria for dose difference between calculated and measured dose distribution is 5%. But, when the technique of intensity modulated radiation is used in radiosurgery (IMRS) the high dose delivery imply to carry out a commissioning to verify these recommendations. This work proposes a methodology to verify the dose distributions in IMRS treatments using radiochromic film. The experimental methodology to measure the spatial dose distributions use radiochromic films GafChromic MD-55-2 previously calibrated in the same linear accelerator, for which it settled down a protocol in its handling and analysis according to the recommendations for film dosimetry. For that purpose an spherical phantom of 16 cm of diameter MAPM (meth-acrylate of poli-methyl or acrylic) was designed and constructed to simulate a head in whose interior it is possible to interchange pieces capable to simulate an injury and to place the films. According to the protocol suggested by the AAPM-TG55 all the films were cut to fit the phantom dimensions 24 hours before being irradiated and read it 48 hours later. The reading was performed using a commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200) in transmission mode. The films were digitized using 16 bits/pixel per channel in RGB mode color depth and 300 dpi. The analysis was performed using in-house software. In the analysis the isodoses curves that were measured experimentally and calculated by the system were compared, obtaining the discrepancies among them. The results showed that the best agreement between isodoses curves happens for the high doses (80% and 60%), whose deviations are in Table 1; for the low isodoses curves the discrepancies are greater, a possible answer of this difference is the sensitivity of the film that is of order of 3 Gy, comparable with the dose that is moderate in those curves, combined to it, this sensitivity depends on the scanner response. With the use of radiochromic films, GafChromic MD-55-2 implemented a

  20. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Adam K.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water.

  1. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute of Ph...

  2. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  3. Thermally stimulated current in PTFE and its application in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurement was made on PTFE (Polytetrafluoro ethylene) in an attempt to develop an integrating radiation dosimeter material and the system. TSC spectra, dose response, energy response, fading and background charge stability characteristics were used as a measure of suitability of various untreated and heat treated PTFE samples for dosimetry applications. For practical TSC dosimetry system, it was discovered that the PTFE samples should be subjected to a specific heat treatment in order to produce samples with better dosimeter characteristics. A treatment at a temperature of 240 C produces a high dose response and low fading characteristics. It was found that the spurious charges due to storage and low sensitivity to irradiation caused the limitation in the measurement of low doses with PTFE samples for personnel protection. However, a TSC Dosimetry system using PTFE is proposed which is suitable for radiation doses in the radiotherapy range from *approx* 50 to *approx* 800 mGy. (author)

  4. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  5. Brazilian Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ): Report 2000-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and has eight chapters: 1) history; 2) main designations and attributions; 3) metrology and assays; 4) conformity evaluation; 5) assistance to radiological and nuclear emergencies; 6) capacity and training; 7) infrastructure of information technology and 8) operational indicators

  6. Zoning, optimal survey and verification of surface radiation fields dosimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents original procedures for zoning, survey optimization and verification of surface radiation fields dosimetry data. These procedures give an opportunity to find unambiguous solutions for the problems of zoning and survey routing of the above fields at any scope of input data, as well as an opportunity to verify field measurements data acquired at any measurement grid and using any methods

  7. Mathematics in medicine: tumor detection, radiation dosimetry, and simulation in psychotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellman, R.; Kashef, B.; Smith, C.P.; Ueno, S.; Vasudevan, R.

    1975-05-01

    Work done in the application of mathematics to medicine over the last 20 years is briefly reviewed. Scan-rescan processes, radiation dosimetry, and medical interviewing are discussed. The first uses dynamic programming, the second invariant imbedding, and the third simulation. (ACR)

  8. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, Charlotte, E-mail: charlavender@gmail.com; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  9. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study

  10. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Charlotte; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C; Muresan, Petronella A; Adams, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study. PMID:24332484

  11. Study of some thermoluminescent phosphors for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry techniques are reviewed and interactions radiation matter are recalled. The need for new phosphors is evidenced. Numerous phosphors are examined and calcium, strontium and barium sulfides are synthetized and deposited on glass supports. The thermoluminescence of the dosimeters obtained with these materials is analyzed

  12. Photon dosimetry using plastic scintillators in pulsed radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott W. Watson

    2007-04-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to explore using a plastic scintillator as a dosimetry probe in the vicinity of a pulsed bremsstrahlung source in the range 4 to 20 MeV. Taking advantage of the tissue-equivalent properties of this detector in conjunction with the use of a fast digital signal processor near real-time dosimetry was shown to be possible. The importance of accounting for a broad energy electron beam in bremsstrahlung production, and photon scattering and build-up, in correctly interpreting dosimetry results at long stand-off distances is highlighted by comparing real world experiments with ideal geometry simulations. Close agreement was found between absorbed energy calculations based upon spectroscopic techniques and calculations based upon signal integration, showing a ratio between 10 MeV absorbed dose to 12 MeV absorbed dose of 0.66 at a distance of 91.4 m from the accelerator. This is compared with an idealized model simulation with a monoenergetic electron beam and without scattering, where the ratio was 0.46.

  13. Micro-Fabricated Solid-State Radiation Detectors for Active Personal Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Active radiation dosimetry is important to human health and equipment functionality for space applications outside the protective environment of a space station or vehicle. This is especially true for long duration missions to the moon, where the lack of a magnetic field offers no protection from space radiation to those on extravehicular activities. In order to improve functionality, durability and reliability of radiation dosimeters for future NASA lunar missions, single crystal silicon carbide devices and scintillating fiber detectors are currently being investigated for applications in advanced extravehicular systems. For many years, NASA Glenn Research Center has led significant efforts in silicon carbide semiconductor technology research and instrumentation research for sensor applications under extreme conditions. This report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments toward characterization of radiation-sensing components for the recommendation of their fitness for advanced dosimetry development.

  14. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  15. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Dosimetry of beta particles using Li:Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the experimental results of determining the thermoluminescence (Tl) response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe pellets excited with 90Sr/90Y beta radiation. The glow curve exhibited three peaks which appear at 121 C, 178 C and 217 C . Its relative sensitivity is 49 with respect to that of the TLD-100 dosemeter taken as a reference. The minimal dose that could be measured was 750 mGy. The Tl response as a function of dose was linear in the range of 0.7 mGy to 22.5 mGy. The study of the repeatability of the information contained in the pellets showed a standard deviation of 2 %. (Author)

  17. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the application of the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) methods to individual survivors in the major study populations of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The author concludes that the new dosimetry is capable of computing organ doses for three age groups, for several postures and for various orientations, and that the end result is more reliable and precise for estimates of organ doses for individual survivors, but that on average the new organ doses are about the same as before because of compensating differences in the T65D (tentative 1965 dose) house-transmission and absorbed-dose factors for gamma rays. (UK)

  18. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy applied to radiation dosimetry and other fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction to the theory and practice of ESR spectroscopy is given. ESR alanine dosimetry for low and high LET (linear energy transfer) ionising radiation is described, indicating its advantages over traditional methods. Problems arising in the therapy dose range (below 5 Gy), and possible future developments, are mentioned. The application of ESR to the radiation processing of materials and foodstuffs, to geological dating, biology, molecular chemistry and to medicine is discussed. Some examples of chemical analyses are also presented. (orig.)

  19. 103Pd versus 125I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy: preoperative comparative radiation dosimetry for 319 uveal melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Paul T; Zhou, Di; Kalach, Nina; Semenova, Ekaterina; Choi, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to compare the relative, clinical intraocular dose distribution for palladium-103 (103Pd) versus iodine-125 (125I) ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy. Methods Preoperative comparative radiation dosimetry was performed to evaluate 319 consecutive uveal melanomas treated between 2006 and 2012. Results There were 68 (21.3 %) anterior (iris and/or ciliary body) and 251 (78.7 %) choroidal melanomas examined in this study. According to AJCC staging, 7th edition, ...

  20. Methodology development for dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators;Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para dosimetria de aplicadores de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    The {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y applicators, used in beta therapy for prevention of keloids and pterigio, are imported and its dosimetric features are only illustrated by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents a methodology development for dosimetry in two {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y beta therapy applicators of the Amersham brand. The Monte Carlo code MCNP 4 C was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves. The experimental measurements of the radiation attenuation had been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber. The results of the experimental measures had been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage deep dose curves, the theoretical and the experimental ones, had presented similar behavior, which may validate the use of the MCNP 4 C for these simulations, strengthening the usage of this method at procedures of dosimetry of these beta radiation sources. (author)

  1. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  2. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.; Mehta, K. K.

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  3. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  4. Laboratory of research for environmental radiation and its dosimetry in the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are to learn on the methodology that should be continued for the investigation of such a specialized topic as it is a radiation laboratory and to develop the executive project of a building that contains laboratories focused to the investigation of the radiation levels in the environment and their dosimetry. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), is the place where are carried out many of the investigations related to the field of the physics and chemistry in Mexico besides being the center of nuclear research more important of Latin America and it is for that reason that here is proposed the Laboratory of Low Radiation and its Dosimetry, since the Institute accounts with the whole infrastructure and necessary safety for this type of laboratories. (Author)

  5. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on neutron dosimetry. Radiation protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantities, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  6. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, J.; Draganic, I.; Hering, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  7. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  8. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams (37Cs and 60Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation (90Sr+9'0Y e 204Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  9. Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. There is a correlation between the captured light and expected dose under certain conditions, yet discrepancies have also been observed and a complete examination of the theoretical differences has not been done. In this study, a fundamental comparison between the Cherenkov emission and absorbed dose was explored for x-ray photons, electrons, and protons using both a theoretical and Monte Carlo-based analysis. Based on the findings of where dose correlates with Cherenkov emission, it was concluded that for x-ray photons the light emission would be optimally suited for narrow beam stereotactic radiation therapy and surgery validation studies, for verification of dynamic intensity-modulated and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans in water tanks, near monoenergetic sources (e.g., Co-60 and brachy therapy sources) and also for entrance and exit surface imaging dosimetry of both narrow and broad beams. For electron use, Cherenkov emission was found to be only suitable for surface dosimetry applications. Finally, for proton dosimetry, there exists a fundamental lack of Cherenkov emission at the Bragg peak, making the technique of little use, although post-irradiation detection of light emission from radioisotopes could prove to be useful. (paper)

  10. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface

  11. Quality assurance in personal dosimetry of external radiation: present situation and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The mandate has been given to the Personal Dosimetry, (secondary standard dosimetry laboratories) S.S.D.L., (Malaysian institute for nuclear energy research) M.I.N.T. to assure the individual monitoring for radiation workers in Malaysia. In 2005, the S.S.D.L;-M.I.N.T. supply, process and read out of personal dosemeters of nearly 13,000 dosimeters monthly, whereby. 12,000 are films and 1,000 are T.L.D.s. The objective of individual monitoring is not limited to the measurement of doses delivered to individuals, but it should demonstrate that limits of exposure have not been exceeded and that working conditions have not unexpectedly deteriorated. Dosimetry measurements are an important component of radiation protection programs and must be of high quality. The exposure of workers to radiation must be controlled and monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements. S.S.D.L.-M.I.N.T; demonstrates that its performance is at an acceptable level by implementing overall system performance, as evidenced by the ISO 9001 certification of the Personal Dosimetry Service in 2002 and ISO/I.E.C. 17025 accreditation to the calibration laboratory in 2004. The certification and accreditation processes achieved the goal by formalizing the recognition of satisfactory performance, and providing evidence of this performance. Overall performances are assessed, personnel operating the system will be trained and are well qualified and all actions will be documented. The paper describes the overview of the Q.M.S. carried out at the S.S. D.L.-M.I.N.T.. During the implementation of Q.M.S. a few areas has been identified for future consideration. These include performance specification and type testing of dosemeters, which provide a

  12. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  13. External dosimetry for ionising radiation. From the national standard to the users in radiotherapy and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations for the protection of the human being. Looking at this topic, at first we are confronted with its diversity: the protection of the workers and the public against radiations, the medical exposures for radiotherapy, diagnosis and surgery, and the accidental situations. These aspects are often artificially separated so that the global comprehension becomes more difficult. We underline the points of convergence and the bonds which exist between the concepts of dosimetry adopted to deal with its different aspects. It also appeared useful to avoid proposing a dictionary of definitions copied in the reports of the international commissions, and adopting the formalism of the ICRU reports. This is why the definitions, when they are essential, are put in appendix. This text presents the reasons which led to the adoption of the system of quantity used today for the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations. After an introduction dealing with the general principle, the first chapter deals with the 'physical' quantities and the methods used for the determination of the national references. The second chapter, through the protection against radiation of the workers and the public, describes the bonds between the measurable 'operational' quantities and the non measurable 'protections' quantities which allow establishing the radiation protection limits and check that they are respected. The third chapter deals with the difficulties encountered for the measurements in area and personal dosimetry. The fourth chapter deals with the specificities of the medical exposures with the 'practical' quantities, the principle of optimisation and how radiotherapy is implemented. The fifth chapter briefly describes the case of the concerted exposures and of the accident. In conclusion, we analyse the needs and some potential new avenues of work for the metrology of the ionising radiations. (author)

  14. Dosimetry for ultraviolet radiation exposure of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-07-01

    The eye is exposed daily to UVR from skylight and ground reflections when outdoors in sunlight. Additional exposure occurs daily from artificial sources such as fluorescent lamps. Some workers, notably welders, are exposed to industrial sources of UVR. The geometry of exposure critically influences the actual UVR dose to the cornea and lens. When exposed to bright light, squinting reduces UVR exposure. the optical properties of the eye and behavioral responses to bright light both contribute to limiting actual UVR exposure. The actual daily dos of UVR is considerably less than what many previous investigators have assumed. The geometrical, as well as temporal and spectral, aspects of ocular dosimetry will be reviewed in order to allow participants a better insight into the practical impact of many laboratory studies of UVR effects upon ocular tissues.

  15. Neutron spectral adjustment and radiation damage calculations for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear data needs for retrospective reactor dosimetry, including requested evaluated cross sections for 54Fe(n,γ)55Fe, 62Ni(n,γ)63Ni, and 93Nb(n,γ)94Nb are presented. The latest version of the SPECTER computer code, which calculates dpa, pka atomic recoil spectra, and gas production for 40 elements and selected compounds, has been made available to the IAEA-NDS for potential inclusion in IRDF-2002. A PC version of the STAY'SL computer code, which performs neutron spectral adjustments, has also been made available. The STAY' SL data libraries can be updated with the new IRDF-2002 cross sections and covariances, when these data become available. (a.n.)

  16. EURADOS trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU was accomplished. This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (Hp(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discussed in detail the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test. (author)

  17. Ion storage dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  18. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  19. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-01-01

    In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation i...

  20. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors

  1. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years ± 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V0-20Gy, V20-40Gy, V40-65Gy) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V0-20Gy, p = 0.01; V20-40Gy, p 40-65Gy, p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location

  2. Use of thermoluminescence dosimetry for evaluation of internal beta dose-rate in archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental technique is described for the absolute determination of beta dose-rate in pottery. The calibrated system utilizes thermoluminescent dosimeters (natural calcium fluoride) which are located external to the pottery sample. These measurements give an evaluation of the dose-rate at the centre of the pottery that is effectively independent of the relative importance of the thorium, uranium and potassium content (typically 12 ppm Th, 3 ppm U and 1% K2O in pottery). This has been checked using analysed uranium, thorium and potassium materials. A dose-rate evaluation may be made after 10-14 d with an accuracy of +-5%, where the dose-rate to the dosimeter is of the order of 0.3 mrad d-1. Although the background dose-rate due to cosmic radiation and that arising from radioactive impurities in the calcium fluoride is significant (one third), measurements have shown that it may be accurately established. The technique described is to be preferred to other systems used in pottery dating because of its independence of relative radioisotope concentration. (orig.)

  3. Use of thermoluminescence dosimetry for evaluation of internal beta dose-rate in archaeological dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailiff, I. K.; Aitken, M. J.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental technique is described for the absolute determination of beta dose-rate in pottery. The calibrated system utilizes thermoluminescent dosimeters (natural calcium fluoride) which are located external to the pottery sample. These measurements give an evaluation of the dose-rate at the centre of the pottery that is effectively independent of the relative importance of the thorium, uranium and potassium content (typically 12 ppm Th, 3 ppm U and 1% K 2O in pottery). This has been checked using analysed uranium, thorium and potassium materials. A dose-rate evaluation may be made after 10-14 d with an accuracy of ±5%, where the dose-rate to the dosimeter is of the order of 0.3 mrad d -1. Although the background dose-rate due to cosmic radiation and that arising from radioactive impurities in the calcium fluoride is significant (one third), measurements have shown that it may be accurately established. The technique described is to be preferred to other systems used in pottery dating because of its independence of relative radioisotope concentration.

  4. Optimization of the preparation method of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and study of its thermoluminescent properties to be used in ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the preparation and dosimetric properties of the thermoluminescence phosphor LiF doped with magnesium, copper and phosphorus are studied. In chapter 1 luminescence phenomenon in solids is described, emphasizing the importance of thermally stimulated luminescence known as thermoluminescence (TL) as well as its application in ionizing radiation dosimetry. The models used to determine the kinetics parameters in the TL phenomenon are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, the dosimetric characteristics of a TL materials and its requirements for dosimetry are analyzed. The preparation method of LiF: Mg, Cu, P is presented in chapter 4 studying its general characteristics for dosimetry. The concentrations of dopants, glow curve structure, TL response to gamma, beta and alpha exposures are studied along with those of LiF: Mg, Cu, P prepared for other authors and with those of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100). The kinetic parameters of the phosphor were determined by the deconvolution method. Pellets of this new phosphor powder were made by pressing it at room temperature and sintering in inert atmosphere at 700 Centigrade degrees. Dosimetric characteristics of these pellets were also studied. Chapter 5 presents the results and conclusions of this study. The new dosimeter exhibited three peaks in its glow curve at 140, 180 and 220 Centigrade degrees respectively. Its TL response to gamma radiation was linear from 43.5 μ Gy to 100 Gy. This dosimeter is reusable and stable without significant loss of sensitivity. Its sensitivity was about 30 times higher than that of TLD-100. Fading of this dosimeter was negligible at room temperature as well as at body temperature (37 Centigrade degrees), and 65% at 60 Centigrade degrees. In conclusion, this dosimeter meets all the requirements of the ANSI standard. These and other characteristics render this dosimeter useful in diverse applications of radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  5. Angular and energetic dependence of photographic dosemeters for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photographic dosemeters (Agfa-Gevaert) used in personal monitoring at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil) are studied. The angular (between O and 1800) and energetic dependence in beta radiation exposures are discussed. The dosemeters are analysed with and without dosemeter - holder and retroscatter material. (M.A.C.)

  6. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  7. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation with thermoluminescence dosimetry system in Turkey, In 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual annual dose information on classified workers who are occupationally exposed to extended radiation sources by using thermoluminescence dosimetry system, in Turkey, was assessed and analysed by the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre (ANAEM) dosimetry service at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) for the year 2003. A total of 3721 persons were monitored with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using TLD technology in 2003. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in different fields of activities and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. (authors)

  8. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garduño, O. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Suárez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT® radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  9. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region

  10. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TLD is used for Radiation Dosimetry, the calibration curve is produced by plotting increasing TL intensity as function of dose. There are cases where the TL intensity decreases as dose increases and can be used in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals we can show that if we irradiate with increasing γ-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If we take one of these crystals and irradiate with dose Dm and we irradiate with doses from low values up to 400-500 Gy we obtain a curve of decreasing TL intensity, such curve can be used as calibration curve. (authors)

  11. Cerium-activated sol–gel silica glasses for radiation dosimetry in harsh environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Helou, Nissrine Al; Bouwmans, Géraud; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Duhamel, Olivier; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Mahiou, Rachid; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Cerium-doped silica glass has been prepared for ionizing radiation dosimetry applications, using the sol–gel route and densification under different atmospheres. In comparison with the glass densified under air atmosphere, the one obtained after sintering the xerogel under helium gas presents improved optical properties, with an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield up to 33%, which is attributed to a higher Ce3+ ions concentration. Such a glassy rod has been jacketed in a quartz tube and then drawn at high temperature to a cane, which has been used as active material in a fibered remote x-ray radiation dosimeter. The sample exhibited a reversible linear radioluminescence intensity response versus the dose rate up to 30 Gy s‑1. These results confirm the potentialities of this material for in vivo or high rate dose remote dosimetry measurements.

  12. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  13. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry; Codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  14. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?)waterair, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?)waterair can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy of

  15. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  16. Radiochromic film containing methyl viologen for radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.G.;

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films containing methyl viologen (MV2+) that colours blue upon exposure to ionizing radiation were investigated as possible dosimeters for use in radiation processing applications. In order to find the most suitable composition of the PVA-MV2+ film, different concentrati......Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films containing methyl viologen (MV2+) that colours blue upon exposure to ionizing radiation were investigated as possible dosimeters for use in radiation processing applications. In order to find the most suitable composition of the PVA-MV2+ film, different...

  17. High resolution 3D dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy using optical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical Computed Tomography (CT) is a promising technique for dosimetry of Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), providing high resolution 3D dose maps. Here different MRT irradiation geometries are visualised showing the potential of Optical CT as a tool for future MRT trials. The Peak-to-Valley dose ratio (PVDR) is calculated to be 7 at a depth of 3mm in the radiochromic dosimeter PRESAGE®. This is significantly lower than predicted values and possible reasons for this are discussed

  18. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance; Dosimetria de radiaciones ionizantes por resonancia paramagnetica electronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  19. Window-based MU calculator for independent dosimetry check in routine radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is estimated that over one hundred thousand deaths are associated with medical errors each year in the USA alone. Most of these errors are preventable. Calculation errors in medical physics are no exception which are mostly preventable through sound quality assurance programmes. Preventable radiation dosimetry errors in Panama have resulted in numerous deaths. Confirmation of Monitor Unit (MU)/treatment time on a radiation producing machine by a second check forms the backbone of a dosimetry QA programme in any radiation oncology setup. The existing MU computer programs are either incorporated in treatment planning systems or they are marketed as stand alone programs to double check the calculations. Such programs, though robust in nature, are not affordable for most developing countries because of their cost. A trend has been evolving to use window based MU calculators for photon and electron dosimetry. A simple window based monitor unit program has been designed and developed using Visual C++ software for independent MU check. The program reads TMR data from a data file. The data file is organized for each scanned field size and depth in a two dimensional matrix. Field size and depth in between the existing data are interpolated by the program. The pull-down menus allow the user to select tray, compensator and wedges, if used. Field sizes, depth and other information are typed in for computation. It has been tested against our existing dosimetry calculation and found within 1% of hand calculation for different field sizes and depth interpolations. The computed results may be printed out as hard copy for record. The calculator is easily programmable for a particular radiation machine by tailoring the TMR/PDD data tables and other parameters. The existing programming platform may be modified for contour based planning system in future. The existing module provides a second check to improve the QA by verifying the computed MU independently. (author)

  20. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs

  1. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  2. Self-expanding stent effects on radiation dosimetry in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samual R; Anker, Christopher J; Wang, Brian; Williams, Greg V; Cox, Kristen; Adler, Douglas G; Shrieve, Dennis C; Salter, Bill J

    2013-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to evaluate how self-expanding stents (SESs) affect esophageal cancer radiation planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients were evaluated, for whom a SES was placed before radiation. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained before stent placement was fused to the post-stent CT simulation scan. Three methods were used to represent pre-stent PTVs: 1) image fusion (IF), 2) volume approximation (VA), and 3) diameter approximation (DA). PTVs and OARs were contoured per RTOG 1010 protocol using Eclipse Treatment Planning software. Post-stent dosimetry for each patient was compared to approximated pre-stent dosimetry. For each of the three pre-stent approximations (IF, VA, and DA), the mean lung and liver doses and the estimated percentages of lung volumes receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 30 Gy, and heart volumes receiving 40 Gy were significantly lower (p-values benefits for treating patients with significant dysphagia, physicians considering stent placement and radiation therapy must realize the effects stents can have on the dosimetry. PMID:23835387

  3. From HEP to medical radiation dosimetry – The silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy physics (HEP) experiments and research gave rise to the development of high spatial resolution tracking vertex detectors and the accompanying data acquisition systems (DAQ) capable of high temporal resolution measurements. The technology translation from HEP to the day to day medical radiation dosimetry is gradual but certain. This paper discusses the design and development of a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm pitch) silicon strip detector referred to as the Dose Magnifying Glass designed and prototyped by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong. The DMG has 128 phosphor implanted n+ strips on a p-type silicon wafer coupled to a TERA readout system. The preirradiated low resistivity device was found to be dose rate independent (1.1%) for the dose rate of 9.45 × 10−5 to 2.72 × 10−4 Gy/pulse. The effect of detector packaging was studied. The application of DMG in small field dosimetry was demonstrated in the real time measurement of stereotactic radiosurgery cone profiles and the imaging of 125I brachytherapy seeds. The DMG, a concept once started in the HEP experiments, now offers new possibilities in medical radiation dosimetry.

  4. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis; Dosimetria biologica de las radiaciones ionizantes mediante el analisis de aberraciones cromosomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y ={alpha} + {beta}{sub 1}D + {beta}{sub 2}D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Bio-dosimetry for radiation-exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of civil populations to genotoxic chemicals or radioactive hazard is an increased concern. It is not only an industrial risk (chemistry plant accident for example) but also a national security problem due to the threat of radiological and nuclear terrorism. It is important to anticipate the need of a bio-dosimetry tool aimed at identifying exposed population in the absence of acute syndrome, in order to assure the medical care that would prevent carcinogenic consequences. DNA repair is a bio-marker of exposure to geno-toxics in individuals. A DNA repair signature can be assessed from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) that reflects the exposure history of the individuals, using a functional enzymatic assay on bio-chip. A proof of concept was obtained using PBMCs from patients undergoing radiotherapy regimen. We identified two classes of responses among patients, if we except a very atypical signature in one patient that could reflect defects in DNA repair. Interestingly, repair of the major oxidative lesions increased during the course of the radiotherapy. We propose to implement this fast, quantitative, possibly automatized assay to identify bio-markers of exposure to geno-toxics and to validate the exposure bio-markers through ex vivo exposure of blood from volunteers. (authors)

  6. Photon dosimetry methods outside the target volume in radiation therapy: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and radiophotoluminescence (RPL) dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry methods outside the target volume are still not well established in radiotherapy. Luminescence detectors due to their small dimensions, very good sensitivity, well known dose and energy response are considered as an interesting approach in verification of doses outside the treated region. The physical processes of thermoluminescence (TL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are very similar and can be described in terms of the energy band model of electron-hole production following irradiation. This work is a review of the main dosimetric characteristics of luminescence detectors which were used in experiments performed by EURADOS Working Group 9 for in-phantom measurements of secondary radiation (scattered and leakage photons). TL LiF:Mg,Ti detectors type MTS-7 (IFJ PAN, Poland), types TLD-100 and TLD-700 (Harshaw), OSL Al2O3:C detectors type nanoDot™ (Landauer Inc.) and RPL rod glass elements type GD-352M (Asahi Techno Glass Coorporation) are described. The main characteristics are discussed, together with the readout and calibration procedures which lead to a determination of absorbed dose to water. All dosimeter types used show very good uniformity, batch reproducibility and homogeneity. For improved accuracy, individual sensitivity correction factors should be applied for TL and OSL dosimeters while for RPL dosimeters there is no need for individual sensitivity corrections. The dose response of all dosimeters is linear for a wide range of doses. The energy response of GD-352M type dosimeters (with Sn filter) used for out-of-field measurements is flat for medium and low energy X-rays. The energy dependence for TLDs is low across the range of photon energies used and the energy correction was neglected. A significant over response of Al2O3:C OSLDs irradiated in kilovoltage photon beams was taken into account. The energy correction factor fen was calculated by using the 2006 PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. With suitable

  7. European Radiation Dosimetry Group: History, State of Art, Perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František

    Bratislava, 2003, s. 1-4. ISBN 80-88806-43-7. [IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe.. Bratislava (SK), 22.09.2003-26.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0151; GA ČR GA202/01/0710 Grant ostatní: EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : history-EURADOS * radiation protection * radiation therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  8. Radiation dosimetry in developing a radioactive stent for therapeutic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Jang Hee; Chung, Wee Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Research Goal: A new radioation therapy protocol of the esophageal carcinoma has been proposed. A metal stent coated with beta-emitting radioisotope would be inserted into the lesion of malignant esophageal obstruction and irradiate it. In this study, dose to the esophageal wall is estimated to suggest the selection of radioisotope, total activity, and the activity distribution pattern over the stent. Result: Dose distribution of the esophageal wall is determined by the energy spectrum of beta particles emitted from the radioisotope used in the stent activation. The endpoint energy of the beta spectrum corresponds to a range in liquid water, which determines the depth into the esophageal wall where the dose is significant. With a stent of constant areal activity density, dose to the esophageal wall increases with an increasing stent height until reaching a saturation value. Dose is maximum at the esophageal wall surface. The degree of dose decreasing as the target moves into the esophageal wall varies among different radioisotopes. However, dose decreases by similar degree among different radioisotopes as the target moves from the stent central height toward the stent end. For a stent of 2 cm in diameter, more than 4 cm in heigh, and 10 {mu}Ci/cm{sup 2} in activity, dose at the esophageal wall surface and at the stent central height is {approx}70 Gy, {approx}60 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}25 Gy, and {approx}15 Gy for {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 32}P, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 192}Ir, respectively. Applications: Dose estimates provided in this study and the experimental results from the researchers at Yonsei University, who applied the radioactive stent to animals, will be used to analyze the relationship between the stent design and the corresponding therapeutic effect. This helps utilizing the new protocol of treating the esophageal carcinoma. 37 refs., 18 tabs., 27 figs. (author)

  9. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.bartzsch@icr.ac.uk; Oelfke, Uwe [The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble Cedex 9 38043 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  10. Dosimetry methods for the estimation of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations, by their nature, have required for their detection the use of suitable devices generically referred detecting systems. The detection of secondary particles arising during the processes of ionization and excitation to the passage of radiation in the environment, have constituted the basis of the measurement methods. A detector system is a device that converts the energy of the incident radiation on a signal (electrical, photochemical, etc.) that is easily processable from the technological point of view, but without distorting the original information. These devices have provided qualitative or quantitative information about the radiation of interest. The detector system is a set of a detector together with a processing system. This system has based its operation in methods of: gas ionization, scintillation, semiconductor, film, thermoluminescence, among others. (author)

  11. Radiation dosimetry in FLASH tunnel using passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophisticated electronic devices comprised of sensitive microelectronic components have been installed in the close proximity of the 720 MeV superconducting electron linear accelerator (linac) driving FLASH, the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, presently in operation at DESY in Hamburg. Microelectronic chips are inherently vulnerable to ionising radiations, usually generated during routine operation of high-energy particle accelerator facilities like FLASH. Hence, in order to assess the radiation effect on microelectronic chips and to develop suitable mitigation strategy, it becomes imperative to characterise the radiation field in the FLASH environment. We have evaluated the neutron and gamma energy (spectra) and dose distributions at critical locations in the FLASH tunnel using superheated emulsion (bubble) detectors, GaAs light emitting diodes (LED), LiF-Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic (Gafchromic EBT) films. This report highlights the application of the passive dosimeters for an accurate analysis of the radiation field in produced by high-energy electron linear accelerators. (orig.)

  12. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  13. Study of the calorimetric methods for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetric techniques of radiation measurement were developed with self-designed calorimeters in Romania. Various experimental arrangements with calorimeters have been made in order to improve its accuracy for the measurement of radiation intensity and absorbed doses. A total energy absorption calorimeter was built and tested for the determination of the half-life of radioactive source (Polonium, alfa emitter) placed in the calorimeter. A water calorimeter was also designed to measure absorbed doses

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure and individual radiosensitivity in people exposed to radiation using methods of physical and biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined people professionally in contact with sources of ionizing radiation.The incidence of chromosomal aberrations, the radionuclide content in the urine of the radiochemical method and calculation of internal doses based on the results of direct measurement of the concentration of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am using human radiation spectrometer (HRS). According to the results of physical and biological dosimetry identified individual cumulative doses and the ratio defined cohort surveyed by radiosensitivity Key words: chromosomal aberrations, physical methods of dosimetry, radiation sensitivity, ionizing radiation, biodosimetry

  15. A thin film radiation monitoring label and dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin plastic film was fabricated by casting on a polyester base a thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in aqueous solution with a mixture of dissolved sodium salt of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP-Na) (a blue dye) and Sandolan Yellow N-3Gl dye (SYN-3GL). This flexible, coated plastic film dosimeter undergoes a color change from green to yellow, with a sensitivity depending on DPIP-Na concentration. By changing the concentration of DPIP-Na in the film, one can predict the dose region at which the film will change its color from green to yellow. The response range of this dosimeter depends, in fact, on the DPIP-Na concentration and, in the case of 0.2 phr (by weight), it can be used up to absorbed doses of about 25 kGy, with a minimum useful dose of about 2 kGy. The effects of variation in concentration of DPIP-Na and thickness of film on response have been studied. The effects of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature and relative humidity during irradiation and post-irradiation storage and exposure to daylight on dosimeter performance are also discussed. The usefulness of this dyed-film detector depends on its application. Using different concentrations of DPIP-Na, it can be applied as a green-to-yellow visual go-no-go monitor in the absorbed dose region 8-32 kGy. For dosimetry by spectrophotometry at 641 nm, the films show a linear response from 1 to 12 kGy. (author)

  16. Characterization of several types of solid state detectors for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several undyed and dyed polymer films are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation fields, especially for radiation processing of food and sterilisation of medical devices. The effects of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation stability, on the response of these dosimeters are of importance to operators of irradiation facilities. The present study investigates the effects of temperature during irradiation by 2.2MeV electrons beam accelerator and post irradiation storage on the response of several types of dosimeter films. All dosimeters showed a significant effect of temperature during irradiation and post-irradiation storage. (Author)

  17. Development of ion exchange membrane for possible use in radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polyvinylbutyral (PVB) film has been carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. The grafted film of PVB-g-PAAc was allowed to react with solutions of two ionic dyes (ion exchange), namely brilliant green (BG) or methylene green (MEG). The results show that these new dosimeter films of PVBBG and PVBMEG may be useful for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications. We concluded that, the useful absorbed dose range of the dyed films extends up to about 400 and 300 kGy respectively. (author)

  18. Radiation chemistry of L-Alanine: application to EPR dosimetry (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy ionizing radiation leaves stable radicals to certain organic materials, such as alanine and tartrate. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification and quantification of these radiation-induced radicals. An EPR method has been applied to study the radical characteristics of L-alanine after gamma radiation dose in the range of ∼mGy to 60 kGy. The free radicals induced by gamma radiation were fairly stable, and EPR intensity, radical concentration, was proportional to the absorbed dose up to 60 kGy. From the results of our EPR measurements, it can be concluded that an alanine/EPR method is a useful technique for gamma radiation dosimetry from very low to high dose range

  19. Retrospective ESR dosimetry for persons chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an electron spin resonance (ESR) method to estimate the dose of persons chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. Methods: ESR method was used to detect the ESR signal intensities of tooth enamel samples from two persons chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The external calibration curve method and the additive dose method were used to reconstruct the irradiation doses of those teeth in order to find whether it is feasible to estimate the chronic dose by enamel ESR. And the effects of radiation energy on the ESR signal intensities were also observed. Results: The estimated doses of two teeth from each person were similar using two methods. Compared 1.25 MeV with 6 MeV X rays, the regression coefficients of the calibration curve were similar, and the doses estimated after combined irradiation were the same as the actually exposed doses. Conclusion: Reconstruction of dose for persons chronically exposed to radiation can be achieved using tooth enamel ESR measurement. The radiation energy, between 1.25 MeV and 6 MeV has little effect on tooth enamel ESR measurement

  20. Computer-assisted planning and dosimetry for radiation treatment of head and neck cancer in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation was part of a multicenter, multinational study sponsored by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (Vienna) to investigate a simple, reliable computer-assisted planning and dosimetry system for radiation treatment of head and neck cancers in developing countries. Over a 13-month period (April 1992-April 1993), 120 patients with histologically-proven head or neck cancer were included in the evaluation. In each patient, planning and dosimetry were done both manually and using the computer-assisted system. The manual and computerized systems were compared on the basis of accuracy of determination of the outer contour, target volume, and critical organs; volume inequality resolution; structure heterogeneity correction; selection of the number, angle, and size of beams; treatment time calculation; availability of dosimetry predictions; and duration and cost of the procedure. Results demonstrated that the computer-assisted procedure was superior over the manual procedure, despite less than optimal software. The accuracy provided by the completely computerized procedure is indispensable for Level II radiation therapy, which is particularly useful in tumors of the sensitive, complex structures in the head and neck. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  1. A new approach to the beta dosimetry of ceramics for thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to determining the internal beta dose-rate in ceramics for thermoluminescence dating was investigated. It consisted of using grains of quartz as thermoluminescence beta dosimeter employing the 1100C peak with the grains maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature to avoid fading. Beta dose-rates were also measured by CaSO4 : Mn dosimeters for comparison. The tests were carried out on clay powders and on simulated potsherds which had been fired at different temperatures. The dose-rates found for the powdered clays and the different ceramics, both dry and wet, are compared and discussed. (orig.)

  2. Molecular dosimetry based on radiation induced degradation of polyisobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project investigates the possibility of qualitative measurement of radiation doses through detection of changes in the average molecular weight in the polymer Polyisobutylene (PIB). Changes in molecular weight and molecular weight distribution is detected by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The aim of the project is to decide whether or not it is possible to determine a quality difference between α-radiation (241Am, 5,5 MeV) and γ-radiation (60Co, 1,25 MeV) in the dose range 0,5 to 10 kGy by irradiation of PIB. Irradiation with 60Co changes the average number molecular weight Mn by 12% per kGy and the average weight molecular weight Mw by 23% per kGy. The presence of antioxidant in the irradiated sample inhibits a change in average molecular weight by 5% and 16% for Mn and Mw respectively. (au)

  3. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEWTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation of UNIDOS 'Dosemeter' using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEWTM graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEWTM as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  4. A new highly sensitive low-Z LiF-based OSL phosphor for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new low-Z lithium fluoride-based optical stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor is developed. The phosphor shows good OSL properties, and its sensitivity is comparable with that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.) phosphor. For the luminescence averaged over initial 3 s, blue stimulated luminescence (BSL) and green stimulated luminescence (GSL) sensitivities were found to be 0.27 and 4 times, respectively, than that of Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.). The BSL decay is fast, and the whole signal decays within 3 s; the GSL decay is relatively slow, and the signal decays in 25 s. The fast decay, good sensitivity, good linearity and its near tissue equivalence (Zeff ∼8.14) will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry particularly in personnel as well as in medical dosimetry. (authors)

  5. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEW™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.

    2011-10-01

    Automation of UNIDOS "Dosemeter" using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW™ graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW™ as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  6. Study of radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in quartz and its possible use in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new EPR dosimetry system has been developed based on the radiation-formed stable paramagnetic centers in quartz. The first part of the thesis includes the preparation of quartz rods (diameter = 3 mm, length = 10 mm) where quartz powder was mixed with molten mixture of paraffin wax and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The binding-mixture EVA / paraffin do not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation to high doses. The quartz rods were prepared by different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 %). The rods (30 %) show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. The second part is concerned with studying the dosimetric characteristics of gamma irradiation sensitive rods where the radiation-formed stable free radicals (E-center, peroxy radical and non-bridging oxygen hole center) which analyzed by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. Unirradiated rods have no EPR signals. The useful dose range of these rods was found to range from 0.1 to 80 kGy depending on concentration of quartz powder, indicating their suitability for low and high dose gamma radiation applications. Also it was found that quartz rod exhibits a linear dose response in the dose regions 0.1-2.34 and 2.34-26 kGy at optimum EPR parameters. The dosimeter response was assessed using the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first-derivatives EPR spectrum. Its EPR signal was found unchanged in shape with different doses and different concentrations. A signal line spectrum attributed to the E-center was observed after irradiation, and this radical is insensitive to temperature, light independence as well as it have a very low decay (4.768 % per year). The overall uncertainty for quartz rod dosimeters at 2σ (σ is standard deviation) was found to be 3.8436 %. The dosimetric parameters, e. g. dose response, effect of temperature during irradiation on response as well as pre- and post-irradiation stability at different storage conditions

  7. Cost effective distributed computing for Monte Carlo radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An inexpensive computing facility has been established for performing repetitive Monte Carlo simulations with the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes of linear accelerator beams, for calculating effective dose from diagnostic imaging procedures and of ion chambers and phantoms used for the Australian high energy absorbed dose standards. The facility currently consists of 3 dual-processor 450 MHz processor PCs linked by a high speed LAN. The 3 PCs can be accessed either locally from a single keyboard/monitor/mouse combination using a SwitchView controller or remotely via a computer network from PCs with suitable communications software (e.g. Telnet, Kermit etc). All 3 PCs are identically configured to have the Red Hat Linux 6.0 operating system. A Fortran compiler and the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes are available on the 3 PCs. The preparation of sequences of jobs utilising the Monte Carlo codes is simplified using load-distributing software (enFuzion 6.0 marketed by TurboLinux Inc, formerly Cluster from Active Tools) which efficiently distributes the computing load amongst all 6 processors. We describe 3 applications of the system - (a) energy spectra from radiotherapy sources, (b) mean mass-energy absorption coefficients and stopping powers for absolute absorbed dose standards and (c) dosimetry for diagnostic procedures; (a) and (b) are based on the transport codes BEAM and FLURZnrc while (c) is a Fortran/EGS code developed at ARPANSA. Efficiency gains ranged from 3 for (c) to close to the theoretical maximum of 6 for (a) and (b), with the gain depending on the amount of 'bookkeeping' to begin each task and the time taken to complete a single task. We have found the use of a load-balancing batch processing system with many PCs to be an economical way of achieving greater productivity for Monte Carlo calculations or of any computer intensive task requiring many runs with different parameters. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and

  8. Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Proceedings of an International Symposium. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is employed in a wide variety of applications and processes in technologically advanced countries. Dosimetry is the science of measuring ionizing radiation and understanding it is essential for the safe and effective use of nuclear technology. Medical radiation dosimetry deals with those applications in which patients are irradiated. These proceedings embody a selection of refereed papers that were presented at the International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry held in Vienna from 9 to 12 November 2010. More than 370 delegates representing 66 Member States, 45 observers and 12 international and professional organizations attended the meeting, at which 75 oral presentations were delivered, 4 round table discussions were held and 187 posters were presented. Owing to its dual role in disseminating radiation measurement standards and verifying the accuracy of dosimetry applied at the hospital level, the IAEA is well positioned to convene international meetings focused on dosimetry. The previous meeting was held in Vienna in November 2002. Since then, three major developments have helped progress medical radiation dosimetry. Firstly, Member States have rapidly adopted new treatment technologies, e.g. intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and they have continued to acquire sophisticated diagnostic capabilities, e.g. computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography scanning. Unfortunately, the adoption of these technologies has not always been trouble-free. News stories in various countries have highlighted radiation accidents during IMRT due to dosimetric errors. In addition, overuse of CT scanning and failure to adopt clinical protocols appropriate to patient size, particularly in paediatric cases, have caused concern. Measurement of radiation dose properly necessitates adoption of new technologies and, consequently, much research has been devoted to improving dosimetry, particularly

  9. DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS WITH TIMEPIX IN MIXED RADIATION FIELDS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ploc, Ondřej; Uchihori, Y.; Molokanov, A. V.; Pinsky, L.

    Vol. 34. Bratislava : SMU - Faculty of Public Health, 2014. s. 119-119. ISBN 978-80-89384-08-2. [XXXVI.Dny radiační ochrany. 10.11.2014-14.11.2014, Poprad] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : radiation fields * Timepix * LET spectra Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  10. Megagray Dosimetry (or Monitoring of Very Large Radiation Doses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Uribe, R.M.; Miller, Arne

    A number of suitably calibrated plastic and dyed films and solid-state systems can provide mapping of very intense radiation fields with high spatial resolution and reasonable limits of uncertainty of absorbed dose assessment. Although most systems of this type suffer from rate dependence and...

  11. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, Jorma [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Eastern Finland Univ., Kuopio (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  12. Individual dosimetry for external radiation: evolution of practices and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professional practices involving ionizing radiation are evolving and require an adequate individual monitoring of workers. Dosimetric techniques are also in constant development with, for example, new electronic personal dosimeters, particularly for neutrons, and a larger choice of available techniques (TLD, O.S.L., R.P.L.) for passive dosimeters. The dosimetric workplace study is now mandatory. Among its objectives, it is aimed at to choosing passive and electronic techniques from the determination of the characteristics of the encountered radiation fields. The passive dosimeters distributed by the approved dosimetric services are satisfactory overall. Moreover, many different models, covering almost all needs, of electronic personal dosimeters are commercialized. To ensure the correct implementation of passive dosimetric techniques by the approved dosimetric services, it is important to organize intercomparisons. National and international intercomparisons are carried out regularly in order to account for new developments, evolution of practices and situations. (authors)

  13. Age-dependent small-animal internal radiation dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Rats at various ages were observed to present with different radiosensitivity and bioavailability for radiotracers commonly used in preclinical research. We evaluated the effect of age-induced changes in body weight on radiation dose calculations. A series of rat models at different age periods were constructed based on the realistic four-dimensional digital rat whole-body (ROBY) computational model. Particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fractions (AFs) a...

  14. Cytogenetic effects of low ionising radiation doses and biological dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gricienė, Birutė

    2010-01-01

    The intensive use of ionising radiation (IR) sources and development of IR technology is related to increased exposure and adverse health risk to workers and public. The unstable chromosome aberration analysis in the group of nuclear energy workers (N=84) has shown that doses below annual dose limit (50 mSv) can induce chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Significantly higher frequencies of the total chromosome aberrations were determened in the study group when compa...

  15. Luminescence properties of porcelain ceramics relevant to restrospective radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Markey, B.G.; Poolton, N.R.J.;

    1996-01-01

    When applied to porcelain products, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a potentially viable method for use in dose reconstruction following contamination from nuclear accidents. However, dose sensitivities are highly variable, depending on what type of porcelain is being measured. This ap...... to have the highest sensitivities to radiation dose. Moreover, the presence of these phases is easily identifiable by characteristic signatures in the luminescence emission spectra....

  16. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Gregg F., E-mail: grobinson@medicaldosimetry.org [American Association of Medical Dosimetrists, Herndon, VA (United States); Mobile, Katherine [American Association of Medical Dosimetrists, Herndon, VA (United States); Yu, Yan [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  17. Radiation dosimetry using junction field-effect transistor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of junction field effect transistors (JFET) has been studied by connecting them in a bridge circuit. With a suitable back-up circuit, it was possible to measure doses as well as dose-rates. It was possible to alter the sensitivity of the JFET bridge by varying the biasing components of the JFET. Easy temperature compensation was also possible. However, response of the JFET to radiation showed energy dependency similar to that of semiconductor diodes. (author)

  18. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field

  19. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  20. Obtention of a thermoluminescent material for dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters are small crystals which suffer changes in their structure by the radiation effect, being displaced the electrons toward higher energy levels. On heating the previously irradiated crystals, the electrons come back to their base state emitting light photons. The light quantity emitted is proportional to the received radiation dose. The light quantity emitted is proportional to the received radiation dose. The lithium fluoride is one of the thermoluminescent materials considered as tissue equivalents by having a low effective atomic number (Zef). At present, the more used commercial product used of this type is the TLD-100*. In this work the obtained results in the preparation of the lithium fluoride thermoluminescent material are presented. This is activated with magnesium (Mg) and titanium (Ti), which we have labelled as: LiF: Mg, Ti. The results from the tests performed for verifying his thermoluminescent properties are presented too, as powder form as in pellets form. These tests were performed in simultaneous form with TLD-100 samples, which is considered as reference. The LiF: Mg, Ti thermoluminescent material manufactured in the ININ presents similar dosimetric characteristics to those ones of the TLD-100. Therefore being able to replace the imported dosemeters. * (TLD-100 is a commercial trademark registered by Harshaw/Filtrol (US) for LiF: Mg, Ti Tl dosemeters) (Author)

  1. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Instituto Mario Penna, Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Hospital Luxemburgo

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  2. What happens when spins meet for ionizing radiation dosimetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Juliana F.; Neves-Junior, Wellington F. P.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to measure radiation dose deposited in different milieu through its effects. Radiation can break chemical bonds and if they produce stable free radicals, ESR can measure their concentration through their spins and a dose can be inferred. Ionizing radiation can also promote polymerization and in this case proton relaxation times can be measured and an image weighed by T2 can be produced giving spatial information about dose. A review of the basics of these applications is presented concluding with an end-to-end test using a composite Gel-Alanine phantom to validate 3-dimensionally dose distribution delivered in a simulation of Volume Modulated Arch Therapy on the simultaneous treatment of multiple brain metastases. The results obtained with the gel and alanine dosimeters are consistent with the expected by the treatment planning system, showing the potential of this multidosimetric approach and validating dosimetrically the multiple brain metastases treatment using VMAT.

  3. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Luxemburgo Hospital, Mario Penna Institute, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  4. The application of radiation-induced free radicals signals in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some materials and biological samples, free radicals can be induced after ionizing radiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy can detect free radical signal and its intensity can reflect the dose of the ionizing radiation. It is a typical way to estimate the radiation dosimetry by using the ESR spectroscopy of teeth. In recent years, many researchers studied on ESR of easy-getting materials such as finger (toe) nail, hair, cell phone screen, in order to investigate the relationship between signal intensity and radiation dose. The aim of this paper is to survey the current literature about methodologies and the materials on background signal, linearity of dose-response relationship, minimum detection limit and post-irradiation signal stability, so that more data will be provided for nuclear accident dose estimation. (authors)

  5. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 μM. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry. - highlights: • Our biosensor is able to measure produced superoxide radical during water radiolysis. • It has suitable linearity range, good detection limit and long term stability. • It also has proper sensitivity and high performance for low LET ionizing radiation. • The electrochemical method is as good as traditional methods for radiation dosimetry

  6. Pitfalls and modelling inconsistencies in computational radiation dosimetry: Lessons learnt from the QUADOS intercomparison. Part II: Photons, electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'QUADOS', a concerted action of the European Commission, has promoted an intercomparison aimed at evaluating the use of computational codes for dosimetry in radiation protection and medical physics. This intercomparison was open to all users of radiation transport codes. Eight problems were selected for their relevance to the radiation dosimetry community, five of which involved photon and proton transport. This paper focuses on a discussion of lessons learned from the participation in solving the photon and charged particle problems. The lessons learned from the participation in solving the neutron problems are presented in a companion paper (in this issue). (authors)

  7. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels (Pages) are used for magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the copolymerization of polyacrylamide gels in the spectral range of 200-3500 cm-1. Vibrational bands of 1285 cm-1 and 1256 cm-1 were assigned to acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH2 δCH2 binding modes. Bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose as a result of copolymerization. Principal component regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy. Two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of the variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. Results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionizing radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels. (author)

  8. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  9. Internal radiation dosimetry of orally administered radiotracers for the assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide imaging using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm is commonly undertaken for the clinical investigation of gastric emptying, intestinal motility and whole gut transit. However the documented evidence concerning internal radiation dosimetry for such studies is not readily available. This communication documents the internal radiation dosimetry for whole gastrointestinal transit studies using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm labeled formulations. The findings were compared to the diagnostic reference levels recommended by the United Kingdom Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee, for gastrointestinal transit studies. - Highlights: • Internal radiation dose estimates for radionuclide GI transit were calculated. • The ICRP 30 GI tract model, MIRDOSE 3.1 and OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software applications were used. • The calculated equivalent dose and effective dose for organs were reported. • The radiation doses among 153Sm, 111In and 99mTc formulations were compared. • The calculated doses were in good agreement with the ARSAC published values

  10. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  11. Monte Carlo simulation for internal radiation dosimetry based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese models is important in nuclear medicine. Most of the existing models are based on the physical and anatomical data of Caucasian, whose anatomical structure and physiological parameters are quite different from the Chinese, may lead significant effect on internal radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the model based on the Chinese ethnic characteristics, and applied to radiation dosimetry calculation. In this study, a voxel model was established based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The transport procedure of photon and electron was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were calculated and S-factors and mean absorbed doses for organs with 99mTc located in liver were also obtained. In comparison with those of VIP-Man and MIRD models, discrepancies were found to be correlated with the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The internal dosimetry data based on other models that were used to apply to Chinese adult population are replaced with Chinese specific data. The obtained results provide a reference for nuclear medicine, such as dose verification after surgery and potential radiation evaluation for radionuclides in preclinical research, etc. (authors)

  12. Cosmic radiation protection dosimetry using an electronic personal dosemeter (Siemens EPD) on selected international flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of an Electronic Personal Dosemeter (Siemens EPD) for cosmic-radiation dosimetry at aviation altitudes was examined on eight international flights between March and September, 1998. The EPD values (Hepd) of the dose equivalent from penetrating radiation, Hp(10), were assumed to be almost the same as the electron absorbed doses during those flights. Based on the compositions of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and the 1977 ICRP recommendation, an empirical equation to conservatively estimate the personal dose equivalent (Hp77) at a depth of 5 cm was derived as Hp77=3.1 x Hepd. The personal dose equivalent (Hp90) based on the 1990 ICRP recommendation was given by Hp90=4.6 x Hepd; the conservative feature of Hp90 was confirmed in a comparison with the calculated effective doses by means of the CARI-6 code. It is thus expected that the EPD will be effectively used for radiation protection dosimetry on selected international flights. (author)

  13. Use of thermoluminescent dosimetry in gamma radiation fields studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth-dose curves for gamma rays in material of interest to agronomy were obtained using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters. The dose conversion factors for LiF were determined from curves of the absorved dose versus depth in water, wood and soil. Mathematics equations were chosen to best fit these curves. In the view of the results we came to the conclusion that in the studied materials the absorved radiation dose presents a great variation to the depth and could be correlated through of the exponential regression. (author)

  14. Summary of current radiation dosimetry results on manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.

    Measurements of radiation exposures aboard manned space flights of various altitudes, orbital inclinations and durations were performed by means of passive radiation detectors, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), and in some cases by active electronic counters. The TLD's and electronic counters covered the lower portion of the LET (linear energy transfer) spectra, while the nuclear track detectors measured high-LET produced by HZE particles. In Spacelab (SL-1), TLD's recorded a range of 102 to 190 millirad, yielding an average low-LET dose rate of 11.2 mrad per day inside the module, about twice the dose rate measured on previous space shuttle flights. Because of a higher inclination of the SL-1 orbit (57° versus 28.5° for previous shuttle flights), substantial fluxes of highly ionizing HZE particles were also observed, yielding an overall average mission dose-equivalent of about 135 millirem, about three times higher than measured on previous shuttle missions. A dose rate more than an order of magnitude higher than for any other space shuttle flight was obtained for mission STS-41C, reflecting the highest orbital altitude to date of 519 km.

  15. Radiation dosimetry properties of smart-phone CMOS sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past years, several smart-phone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smart-phone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h-1. Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. (authors)

  16. Use of Cresol Red Indicator for Gamma Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the development of a new gamma-radiation dosimeter, which is a 2.08 10-5M solution of cresol red indicator (α -cresol sulphonephthalein, mol. weight =382.4) either in alkaline on in acidic medium .A specially designed wooden rack was used to hold the tubes at the central spatial position of the irradiation chamber, in order to get a good reproducibility and accuracy of the measured absorbed radiation doses. The γmax value was 575 nm in alkaline, 425 nm in neutral and 523 nm in acidic solution. The indicator solution was found to be stable within 4 weeks and perhaps within longer periods of time. The stability was also maintained against temperature changes within ± 5 degree. The calculated G-value was found to be 5.45 7 X 10-2 100ev)-1 in the basic solution and 0.1634(100ev)-1-1 in the acidic solution.

  17. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5 fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-5-fluorouracil is currently used in a few nuclear centers as a diagnostic aid in predicting response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The advantage of this radiopharmaceutical, which has a radionuclide with a short physical half-life (tsub(1/2) = 110 minutes), in addition to its permitting a non-invasive diagnostic technique is balanced by the fact that high doses of the drug must be administered in order to obtain a good scan 12 hours after its administration. This is the optimal time for obtaining a high tumor:blood ratio and involves doses of up to 20 mCi of the drug injected intravenously as a bolus. Assuming the same distribution of the label in humans as in the investigated rat models, we calculated the radiation-dose to the various organs in millirad per mCi injected, according to the MIRD system. This was estimated to 12 main target organs of a reference-man, as if injected with 18F-5-fluorouracil. The organs are: liver, muscle, kidneys, blood, bone, lungs, pancreas, spleen, heart, genitals, thyroid and adrenals. The calculated values suggest that diagnostic doses of up to 20 mCi 18F-5-fluorouracil emit internal absorbed radiation which is within the doses experienced in similar procedures of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  18. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  19. Relationship of external radiation doses to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized, especially in the area of external fractionated radiotherapy, that differing radiation dose, time, and fractionation patterns influence the effect of radiation on normal tissues. The nominal standard dose (NSD) concept was introduced to provide radiotherapists with a method for planning treatments utilizing a variety of radiotherapy delivery patterns which result in equal biological effects on normal tissues. This concept has been extended to implant brachytherapy and to nuclear medicine therapy with internally deposited radionuclides and labeled compounds. This chapter presents computational procedures needed to evaluate the effects of treatments by the three therapy methods either alone or in combination, and the results of calculations using these procedures to estimate the hazard to marrow associated with the internal use of 131I and 125I-sodium iodide; 32P and 33P-EHDP; and 35S-sulfate. The theory of Douglas and Fowler is shown by a procedure suggested by them to be consistent with the empirical normalization used to quantitatively compare the effects of fractionated and continuous radiotherapy

  20. Radiotherapy dosimetry audit: A European programme to improve quality and safety in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy the dose needed for local tumour control is often very close to the dose level that might cause serious and, in some cases, life threatening complications. The optimal dose level is related to the treated volume, the sensitivity of the organs at risk close to or inside the target volume and the fractionation schedule. Radiation oncologists rely on experience of different treatment regimes at their own or other centres. In order to make use of this vast experience the dosimetry must be coherent in time and for different types of irradiation setups, both inside and between centres. The IAEA and the World Health Organization has successfully introduced a thermoluminescent dosimetry audit system to reduce uncertainty in reference dosimetry. The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology has extended this system. Checks of non-reference irradiation geometries are also included. A detailed analysis has been carried out of data from 282 centres, which includes 654 beams. This programme shows that dosimetrical accuracy is fairly good in the reference situation, but improvements are often needed in non-references conditions, that is in irradiation geometries that closely simulate those used in patient treatments. (author)

  1. Quality assurance programme in the external dosimetry laboratory of the center for radiation protection of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the central dosimetry service of the country, which assures the individual monitoring on a monthly basis of about 5500 workers in 1000 establishments and maintains the National Dose Registry System. A project for upgrading the personal dosimetry service was started in 2000. In March 2001 film dosimeters began to gradually replaced by TLDs, the latter becoming the only official dosimeter a year later. In order to maintain quality and ensure compliance with regulations and international recommendations, a quality assurance culture has been introduced into the laboratory and quality requirements have been developed and implemented in the daily work through the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) programme. The design of the QA programme is based on the criteria contained in the ISO, on the recommendations of the IEC, and IAEA, as well as on regulations of the National Accreditation Council. The present study deals with the structure of the Laboratory's QA programme and includes documentation, organizational and managerial aspects as well as the procedures that are implemented. The experience gained during the years of the use of the QA programme is also described. (author)

  2. Radiation dosimetry in radiology of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted during conventional radiography and tomography of the temporomandibular joint were examined. Absorbed doses from the lateral-oblique transcranial projection and lateral tomography were low (0.02 to 7 mGy). From the axial projection the thyroid gland and salivary glands received a substantial dose (15 to 54 mGy) which was considerably decreased using an improved design of collimator. Radiation to the lens of the eye for the transmaxillary projection and for frontal tomography was 3 to 8 mGy. This can be reduced by a factor of 25 using lead-glass eye shields. The mean energy imparted from a bilateral examination of the temporomandibular joints using axial projection, four exposures for the transcranial lateral-oblique views, two exposures in the transmaxillary projection and lateral tomography views using a multi-film cassette was 34 mJ. The axial projection accounted for 50% of this figure. (author)

  3. Physics and dosimetry aspects of synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is a growing need in the use of accelerators for various applications in the field of medicine, industry, defense, environmental sciences, food processing and in basic and applied research. Electron accelerators are widely used nowadays in the field of diagnosis, therapy, radiography, basic research, production of synchrotron radiation etc. For applications in medicine, industry and food processing, the energy of the accelerated electrons is usually less than about 10 MeV whereas it may extend to several TeV for research applications. Most of the high energy accelerators use radio-frequency for the acceleration and hence the particle beam is bunched or pulsed. The increase in the use of such machines with higher accelerated energy and pulsed in nature raises several safety issues

  4. Personal dosimetry and the new quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ICRU Report 39, new quantities for environmental and individual monitoring are recommended which apply to all kinds of ionizing radiation. The quantities for individual monitoring raise questions as to the required spectral and angular response of monitors and the calibration procedures. It would be logical to use the directional dose equivalent as the reference quantity for their response. To start from existing practice of individual monitoring and contrary to the ICRU recommendation, it would appear reasonable to take the product of the reading of a suitably designed and calibrated monitor and its calibration factor as the 'individual dose equivalent for recording'. The relations between the new ICRU quantities and those used hitherto are discussed. Conversion functions between air kerma or neutron fluence and the new quantities are reproduced. (orig./HP)

  5. Separate dosimetry of gamma-radiation with fused quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation defect production in oxides is a serious problem for atom and solar energy, and also for nuclear waste storage. The combine effect of neutrons and gamma-rays on dielectrics was studied widely. It was believed that neutrons of > 100 keV are capable of displacing atoms and the gamma-component causes only heating the materials. However -1.25 MeV gamma of 60Co was shown to displace light anions (O, F) in crystals and glasses by inelastic mechanism. Therefore the aim of this work was to determine separately neutron and gamma-flux in the active core of the running nuclear reactor WWR-SM, and also the gamma-dose rate of the shut-down reactor in the energy range of 0.2-7 MeV. The neutron flux of > 1 MeV was determined by Ni-threshold detector, which is insensitive to gamma-rays. We studied the possibility of generation of the known oxygen defect pair in highly pure fused quartz under effect of gamma-radiation of the stopped reactor: E' - center (absorption band at 215 nm) related with generation of an oxygen vacancy, and a displaced oxygen atom called non-bridging oxygen (photoluminescence band at 620-640 nm excited at 270 nm). Samples were irradiated upon quenching the reactor in the vertical channels close to the fuel assemblies within 3-120 hours in sequence. To avoid the radiation heating, the samples were irradiated in the water flow. The gamma-flux intensity was estimated by the ionization current. For determining the gamma-dose rate, the reference samples were irradiated in the certified 60Co gamma-source of the known dose rate of 7.65 Gy/s for the same periods. The concentration of the oxygen centers induced for the same time was assumed to be proportional to an average gamma-dose rate of the stopped reactor, which turned out 15 and 30 Gy/s at stationary regions. The growth of the above mentioned centers pair was found to be in the gamma-dose range of 5·105- 5·106 Gy. At short irradiation ) to 1 hour) in the running reactor the mixed neutron

  6. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  7. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  8. Fast neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  9. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  10. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: isechop@emory.edu [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  11. Development and calibration of a routine dosimetry system for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and calibration of a routine dosimetry system based on commercial, low cost photodiode (SFH 206) are presented in this work. The dosimeter probe was designed to operate unbiased in the direct current mode. The radiations were performed with Cobalt-60 Panoramic Irradiator facility in the dose-rate range of 8.1 Gy/h - 125 Gy/h. The photocurrents generated in the device, in each dose-rate, were registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. The current response of the diode was measured as a function of the time in steps from 1 Gy up to 200 Gy with accumulated dose up to 15 kGy. In this range, the dose-response of the diode, given by the charge as function of dose, was linear with correlation coefficient better than 0.998. These results were compared with those obtained using Gafchromic film dosimetry often used in routine. To monitor possible gamma radiation effects produced on the diode, the current and charge sensitivities were measured as a function of the absorbed dose. For doses up to 15 kGy, it was not observed any radiation damage what confirms the reproducibility of the diode response better than 3 %. Finally, due to the small experimental errors ( 5% ) and good spatial resolution of the diode it was possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalt-60 radioactive source as well the dose rate mapping in the Panoramic Irradiator. (author)

  12. Computer aided dosimetry and verification of exposure to radiation. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, D. [SAIC Canada (Canada); Stodilka, R.Z.; Leach, K.E.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence R and D Canada (DRDC), Radiation Effects Group, Space Systems and Technology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition, the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed. (author)

  13. Reassessment of radiation dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new dosimetry system DS 86 for the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings differs considerably from the former T 65 D dosimetry system in the following items: 1) Improved simulation of the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima has corrected the neutron dose contribution to much lower values, and the free-field gamma radiation dose to higher values. 2) The gamma radiation shielding effect by buildings has been much stronger, and was assessed so far to be weaker, as the old system estimated the shielding factors for a neutron and gamma radiation field in which the neutron contribution was relatively high. 3) Organ doses per kerma in free air are clearly higher, presumably because earlier calculations have been based on a different energy spectrum. Assuming a quality factor Q = 10 for neutrons, especially for distances around 1000 m from the Hiroshima explosion calculations have revealed lower dose equivalents for the red bone marrow, the thyroid, the lungs, and the breast. There is difference calculated by the new system with regard to more deeper lying body organs such as the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  14. Computer aided dosimetry and verification of exposure to radiation. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition, the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed. (author)

  15. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [123I]ADAM in healthy human subjects: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [123I]ADAM [2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM)] has recently been shown to be a very promising imaging ligand for the detection of serotonin transporters (SERT) in human brain, because of its high specificity for SERT. [123I]ADAM has previously been used only for animal studies. In this work, we investigated the radiation dosimetry and biodistribution of [123I]ADAM based on whole-body scans in healthy human volunteers. Following the administration of 196±20 MBq (range 157-220 MBq) [123I]ADAM, serial whole-body images were performed up to 24 h. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose were calculated using the MIRDOSE 3.0 program with a dynamic bladder model. Twelve source organs were considered in estimating absorbed radiation doses for organs of the body. The highest absorbed organ doses were found to the lower large intestine wall (8.3.10-2 mGy/MBq), kidneys (5.2.10-2 mGy/MBq), urinary bladder wall (4.9.10-2 mGy/MBq) and thyroid (4.3.10-2 mGy/MBq). The effective dose was estimated to be 2.2.10-2 mSv/MBq. The results suggest that [123I]ADAM is of potential value as a tracer for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin receptors in humans, with acceptable dosimetry and high brain uptake. (orig.)

  16. Development and evaluation of a phantom for multi-purpose dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Yih [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kum, O Yeon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    A LEGO-type multi-purpose dosimetry phantom was developed for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), which requires various types of challenging dosimetry. Polystyrene, polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and polyurethane foam (PU-F) were selected to represent muscle, fat, bone, and lung tissue, respectively, after considering the relevant mass densities, elemental compositions, effective atomic numbers, and photon interaction coefficients. The phantom, which is composed of numerous small pieces that are similar to LEGO blocks, provides dose and dose distribution measurements in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The phantom includes dosimeter holders for several types of dosimeters that are frequently used in IMRT dosimetry. An ion chamber and a diode detector were used to test dosimetry in heterogeneous media under radiation fields of various sizes. The data that were measured using these dosimeters were in disagreement when the field sizes were smaller than 1.5 x 1.5 cm{sup 2} for polystyrene and PTFE, or smaller than 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} for an air cavity. The discrepancy was as large as 41% for the air cavity when the field size was 0.7 x 0.7 cm{sup 2}, highlighting one of the challenges of IMRT small field dosimetry. The LEGO-type phantom is also very useful for two-dimensional dosimetry analysis, which elucidates the electronic dis-equilibrium phenomena on or near the heterogeneity boundaries

  17. Real-time dosimetry system in catheterisation laboratory: utility as a learning tool in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Workers at the catheter laboratory are among the most exposed to ionising radiation in hospitals. However, it is difficult to be certain of the radiation doses received by the staff, as personal dosemeters are often misused, and thus, the dose history is not reliable. Moreover, the information provided by personal dosemeters corresponds to the monthly accumulated dose, so corrective actions tends to be delayed. The purpose of this work is, on the one hand, to use a real-time dosimetry system to establish the occupational doses per procedure of workers at the catheter laboratories and, on the other hand, to evaluate its utility as a learning tool for radiation protection purposes with the simultaneous video recording of the interventions. (authors)

  18. Analysis of population dosimetry data in the high level natural radiation areas, Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Indian scenario, Kerala has huge monazite bearing sand deposits on the west coast thereby having high natural background radiation levels. Extensive studies on the radiation dosimetry as well as effects on the human health are therefore being carried out in the region. We have recently completed a dosimetric survey aimed for epidemiological studies using case control methodology. This study, in collaboration with two local colleges in Kollam, Kerala, was taken up to study the relationship of congenital malformations and radiation exposures, if any. The two conditions that were selected were mental retardation and cleft lip-palate. Stringent selection criteria were set in selecting the cases and suitable controls. A ratio of 1:3 for case:control was selected for getting the optimum statistical significance from the data generated. The paper describes the methodology of dosimetric survey and the analysis of dose data based on case and controls

  19. Comparison of environmental radiation dosimetry and γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1975-1980, direct radiation dose rates were measured at 16 fixed locations in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL, by exposure of TLDs which were read quarterly. The average quarterly dose rates using LiF chips varied widely over the 6-yr period and were divided into 2 distinct population groups of 4 and 2 yr each, corresponding to the vendor labs supplying and reading the TLDs. The simultaneous exposure of CaSO4:Dy TLDs for 2 yr gave a third set of values which fell between the 2 LiF groups. During the period December 1976-November 1980, simultaneous pressurized ion chamber (PIC) and in situ Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy measurements were made at the same locations at approximately 6-month intervals. The average PIC dose rate values were in good agreement with the average 2-yr LiF TLD values. Also, good agreement resulted from converting the in situ radioactivity values to dose rates using conversion values previously published. The natural radioactivity and fallout 137Cs in the soil showed little variation for a specific site, but varied widely between some sites. With the event of rain at the end of a long dry period, there was a large increase in 214Pb activity detected. Short half-life manmade radionuclides were seen for a few months following several atmospheric nuclear tests by the People's Republic of China

  20. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry; Optimisation de la radioprotection en medecine nucleaire: de la dosimetrie de reference a la dosimetrie personnalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-09-09

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  1. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  2. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  3. A study of radiation dosimetry for child in dentistry, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients in pedodontics usually do not appeal appropriately the symptom of their own disease because of their immaturness. For this reason X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. It is considered that radiation injury for children is generally more severe than that for adults under the same exposure dose. Therefore it is necessary to detect the effective minimum exposure dose as accurately as possible for protection. The exposure dose was surveyed by use of TLD combined with the 6-films technique for children (child intraoral technique) currently used in the dental clinic. Firstry the reliability of TLD, the effect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested. Secondly the distribution of exposure dose in the intraoral technique for children was examined by water phantom. The following results were obtained. 1. It was necessary to select the stabilized TLD as the measuring values were comparatively scattered. 2. Measuring of the effect of scattered rays showed that it was the least in use of Pb, value of which was 101 for air dose 100. This indicated that Pb was the best for scatter protection. 3. For the indicator dependence it was unnecessary to adjust the glancing angle in case it was below 60 degrees. 4. TLD showed a stable result even in the increased time of exposure, and at the same time there was no error with the electric timer. 5. The result of the basic experiment of water phantom required further investigation as to the overlapped exposure in treatment of child patients with much smaller dental arches where the irradiation field was bigger than in that of adult patients with larger dental arches. (author)

  4. Biological dosimetry by the radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cases of partial body over-exposure, the dose estimation with personal monitors or with reconstruction of exposed conditions is often impossible without considerable error. Clinical signs of irradiated skin, such as epilation or moist desquamation have been used as the indicators of doses in the radiological accidents, because each sign has the threshold dose. As hair growth is known to be sensitive to radiation, the dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and the reduction in hair length of mice after irradiation were examined to investigate if they can be used as biological dosimeters. Hairs on the dorsal skin of 290 ICR mice (8 weeks old) were shaved and irradiated with a Sr-90/Y-90 β-ray source in the early anagen and the midanagen stages of the hair cycle. Skin doses were from 0.5 to 10 Gy. The time of hair regrowth and the hair length were examined with the scaling loupe. Dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and reduction in hair length were both clearly dose dependent, fitting the L-Q or L function depending on the stage. Dose estimation functions were derived from the dose-effect relationship curves. The histological observations suggested that hair growth retardation caused by irradiation in midanagen might be due to the cell death and the depression of mitosis in the hair matrix cells. This dose estimation method was applied to the case who was over-exposed to X-ray on his hand and fingers. The findings showed that hair regrowth delay was a sensitive biological dosimeter in the case of partial body over-exposure, which could be applied as early as a few days after over-exposure. The method was simple and non-invasive to the exposed patient. (author)

  5. Monte Carlo technique applications in the field of radiation dosimetry at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Technologie l'Energia e l'Ambiente) Institute of Bologna (Italy) many years of various activities have been carried out in the field of experimental dosimetry and radiation protection. As far as the external radiation monitoring is concerned, these activities dealt with the design, development and type test of photon personal dosemeters as well as routine reading and control of dosemeters, calibration activities etc. As far as the internal dosimetry activities are concerned a whole body counter (WBC) has been built and used many years both for research activities and for routine assessment of internal doses. The WBC has been extensively used in the recent years, especially after the Chernobyl accident, to assess doses from intake of radioactive nuclides for Italian workers employed in Russia as well as normal population mainly living in the north-eastern Italian areas. In recent years, the necessity of improving the general dose assessment capabilities and to provide accurate field parameters and operational quantities, according to the international recommendations, outlined the importance of coupling experimental work with Monte Carlo radiation transport modelling. The present paper summarizes some studies carried out with Monte Carlo in the framework of the ENEA contribution to the activities of the EURADOS Working Group 4; they are concerned with computations of field parameters and operational quantities for the ICRU sphere with reference photon beams and modelling and calculations for photon internal and external dose assessment with the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom

  6. Determination of the dose rapidity of a {sup 90} Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Determinacion de la rapidez de dosis de una fuente de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a {sup 90} Sr-{sup 90} Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  7. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh ophthalmic applicators;Respostas de diferentes dosimetros termoluminescentes na dosimetria beta de aplicadores oftalmicos de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, D.F.P.; Daros, K.A.C.; Segreto, R.A.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  8. Laser heating of thermoluminescent films: Dose mapping applied to beta dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Setzkorn, R.; Prévost, H.; Gasiot, J.;

    1996-01-01

    angular responses of CaSO4:Dy-based TL foils for irradiation in air with beta rays (Pm-147, (TI)-T-204 and Sr-90/Y-90). Laser scanning results are compared with results from measurements using very thin graphite-mixed MgB4O7Dy TL detectors. Results show that detectors based on CaSO4:Dy films will be...

  9. Monte Carlo investigation of single cell beta dosimetry for intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syme, A M [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Kirkby, C [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Riauka, T A [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B G [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); McQuarrie, S A [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3118 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada)

    2004-05-21

    Single event spectra for five beta-emitting radionuclides (Lu-177, Cu-67, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90) were calculated for single cells from two source geometries. The first was a surface-bound isotropically emitting point source and the second was a bath of free radioactivity in which the cell was submerged. Together these represent a targeted intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy. Monoenergetic single event spectra were calculated over an energy range of 11 keV to 2500 keV using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. Radionuclide single event spectra were constructed by weighting monoenergetic single event spectra according to radionuclide spectra appropriate for each source geometry. In the case of surface-bound radioactivity, these were radionuclide beta decay spectra. For the free radioactivity, a continuous slowing down approximation spectrum was used that was calculated based on the radionuclide decay spectra. The frequency mean specific energy per event increased as the energy of the beta emitter decreased. This is because, at these energies, the stopping power of the electrons decreases with increasing energy. The free radioactivity produced a higher frequency mean specific energy per event than the corresponding surface-bound value. This was primarily due to the longer mean path length through the target for this geometry. This information differentiates the radionuclides in terms of the physical process of energy deposition and could be of use in the radionuclide selection procedure for this type of therapy.

  10. Performance studies of an optical fiber OSL/RL dosimetry system in pulsed high-intensity radiation beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Dusseau, Laurent; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Glaser, Maurice; Ravotti, Federico

    2010-01-01

    The SrS:Ce,Sm phosphor is suitable for operation in harsh radiation environments where real-time dosimetry measurements are needed to survey the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) damage in electronic components. For these applications, the OSL and RL emissions from this phosphor can be exploited by mounting the SrS crystal at the edge of a single, radiation-hard, optical fiber. In this work we present an exhaustive characterization of this real-time OSL/RL probe including stability, repeatability of the measured signals, dosimetry performance and measurements of the temporal behavior of the RI signal in pulsed particle beams. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dosimetry requirements in support of an in-reactor radiation chemistry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactors are now used as radiation sources in a wide range of studies. In some, the changes observed result from the interaction of the irradiated material with only one type of radiation present in the reactor; in others, a number of different radiations may produce the observed effect. In any investigation of the effects of radiation on matter, it is necessary to know the spectrum of the radiation used. This information should be available in the form of the variation of photon or particle flux density with photon or particle energy. The amount of change observed in an irradiated material will always be the product of the radiation flux density and an interaction function, integrated over the radiation spectrum. The nature of this interaction function will vary with the type of study being performed. The radiation spectra in reactors are complex in form and cover wide ranges of photon and particle energies. Given sufficient information about the fission reaction, and about the geometry and materials of construction of a reactor, it is possible, in principle, to calculate the spectra of the reactor radiations. It is then possible, in principle, to calculate the rates of production of change in irradiated materials. In this paper the conventions used in radiation chemistry are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of calorimeters which can be used for dosimetry, with some remarks about their limitations. The reasons for choosing an isothermal-type calorimeter for the work at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) are given, followed by a description of the construction, characteristics, and calibration of the calorimeters in use. It is shown that under the proper conditions these calorimeters measure the ideal absorbed dose-rate, or kerma rate. By the use of three calorimeters, as described, containing respectively graphite, anthracene, and an empty can, measurements were made of the dose rates in graphite and in anthracene, and

  12. Gel-layer dosimetry for dose verification in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, S.; Carrara, M.; Gambarini, G.; Marchesini, R.; Valente, M.

    2007-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique in which the radiation fluence within each of the treatment beams is not uniformly distributed. This allows the patient dose to follow the boundaries even of a target volume of complex shape, and, virtually, to spare critical healthy organs at risk. The agreement between planned and delivered IMRT dose is verified by means of standard dosimetric methods such as film dosimetry or semiconductors array dosimetry. In this paper, we compare the output of a commercial device using an array of diodes for IMRT absolute dose verification with the output of a gel dosimeter, composed by a 10×8 cm 2 rectangular layer of a tissue-equivalent gel matrix in which a proper chemical dosimeter has been incorporated. The dose distribution is derived from the images of visible light transmittance, detected with a CCD camera before and after the gel exposure. The analysis was carried out on a single IMRT field chosen among those archived at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. The radiation field was examined in an area common to both dosimeters. The agreement between the two detectors was good, as shown by analysis of dose profiles, especially for doses above 15-20 cGy. Gel dosimeter was in good agreement with the planned dose too, with a percentage of dosimeter points passing a dose to agreement test ranging between 90% and 93%. Although preliminary, our data suggest that gel dosimetry is a reliable method for IMRT dose verification. Due to the good spatial resolution and to the tissue equivalent properties of its composition, it would be suitable also for 3D IMRT dose reconstruction and verification in the form of multiple piled-up gel layers.

  13. Gel-layer dosimetry for dose verification in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomatis, S.; Carrara, M. [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, Milan 20133 (Italy); Gambarini, G. [Physics Department of University of Milan and INFN - National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, Milan 20133 (Italy)], E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it; Marchesini, R. [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, Milan 20133 (Italy); Valente, M. [Physics Department of University of Milan and INFN - National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, Milan 20133 (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique in which the radiation fluence within each of the treatment beams is not uniformly distributed. This allows the patient dose to follow the boundaries even of a target volume of complex shape, and, virtually, to spare critical healthy organs at risk. The agreement between planned and delivered IMRT dose is verified by means of standard dosimetric methods such as film dosimetry or semiconductors array dosimetry. In this paper, we compare the output of a commercial device using an array of diodes for IMRT absolute dose verification with the output of a gel dosimeter, composed by a 10x8 cm{sup 2} rectangular layer of a tissue-equivalent gel matrix in which a proper chemical dosimeter has been incorporated. The dose distribution is derived from the images of visible light transmittance, detected with a CCD camera before and after the gel exposure. The analysis was carried out on a single IMRT field chosen among those archived at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. The radiation field was examined in an area common to both dosimeters. The agreement between the two detectors was good, as shown by analysis of dose profiles, especially for doses above 15-20 cGy. Gel dosimeter was in good agreement with the planned dose too, with a percentage of dosimeter points passing a dose to agreement test ranging between 90% and 93%. Although preliminary, our data suggest that gel dosimetry is a reliable method for IMRT dose verification. Due to the good spatial resolution and to the tissue equivalent properties of its composition, it would be suitable also for 3D IMRT dose reconstruction and verification in the form of multiple piled-up gel layers.

  14. SU-D-213-06: Dosimetry of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Using Fricke Gel Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) has been proposed as an effective modality for treatment of superficial targets. MERT utilizes multiple beams of different energies which are intensity modulated to deliver optimized dose distribution. Energy independent dosimeters are thus needed for quantitative evaluations of MERT dose distributions and measurements of absolute doses delivered to patients. Thus in the current work we study the feasibility of Fricke gel dosimeters in MERT dosimetry. Methods: Batches of radiation sensitive Fricke gel is fabricated and poured into polymethyl methacrylate cuvettes. The samples were irradiated in solid water phantom and a thick layer of bolus was used as a buildup. A spectrophotometer system was used for measuring the color changes (the absorbance) before and after irradiation and then we calculate net absorbance. We constructed calibration curves to relate the measured absorbance in terms of absorbed dose for all available electron energies. Dosimetric measurements were performed for mixed electron beam delivery and we also performed measurement for segmented field delivery with the dosimeter placed at the junction of two adjacent electron beams of different energies. Dose measured by our gel dosimetry is compared to that calculation from our precise treatment planning system. We also initiated a Monte Carlo study to evaluate the water equivalence of our dosimeters. MCBEAM and MCSIM codes were used for treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation. PDDs and profiles were calculated for electron beams incident on a phantom designed with 1cm slab of Fricke gel. Results: The calibration curves showed no observed energy dependence with all studied electron beam energies. Good agreement was obtained between dose calculated and that obtained by gel dosimetry. Monte Carlo results illustrated the tissue equivalency of our Gel dosimeters. Conclusion: Fricke Gel dosimeters represent a good option for the dosimetric

  15. SU-D-213-06: Dosimetry of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Using Fricke Gel Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawad, M Abdel; Elgohary, M; Hassaan, M; Emam, M [Al Azhar University, Cairo Egypt (Egypt); Desouky, O [National center for radiation research and technology-Egyptian atomic energy, Cairo (Egypt); Eldib, A [Al Azhar University, Cairo Egypt (Egypt); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) has been proposed as an effective modality for treatment of superficial targets. MERT utilizes multiple beams of different energies which are intensity modulated to deliver optimized dose distribution. Energy independent dosimeters are thus needed for quantitative evaluations of MERT dose distributions and measurements of absolute doses delivered to patients. Thus in the current work we study the feasibility of Fricke gel dosimeters in MERT dosimetry. Methods: Batches of radiation sensitive Fricke gel is fabricated and poured into polymethyl methacrylate cuvettes. The samples were irradiated in solid water phantom and a thick layer of bolus was used as a buildup. A spectrophotometer system was used for measuring the color changes (the absorbance) before and after irradiation and then we calculate net absorbance. We constructed calibration curves to relate the measured absorbance in terms of absorbed dose for all available electron energies. Dosimetric measurements were performed for mixed electron beam delivery and we also performed measurement for segmented field delivery with the dosimeter placed at the junction of two adjacent electron beams of different energies. Dose measured by our gel dosimetry is compared to that calculation from our precise treatment planning system. We also initiated a Monte Carlo study to evaluate the water equivalence of our dosimeters. MCBEAM and MCSIM codes were used for treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation. PDDs and profiles were calculated for electron beams incident on a phantom designed with 1cm slab of Fricke gel. Results: The calibration curves showed no observed energy dependence with all studied electron beam energies. Good agreement was obtained between dose calculated and that obtained by gel dosimetry. Monte Carlo results illustrated the tissue equivalency of our Gel dosimeters. Conclusion: Fricke Gel dosimeters represent a good option for the dosimetric

  16. EPR and TL-based beta dosimetry measurements in various tooth components contaminated by {sup 90}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: ivan.veronese@unimi.it; Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Cantone, M.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Coste, V. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Giussani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Shishkina, E.A. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, 454076 Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    Thermoluminescence-based beta dosimetry, previously proposed for the estimate of the internal contamination in teeth, and EPR has been used in this paper to investigate the homogeneity of {sup 90}Sr contamination and of dose within nine teeth of one person born in the year of the onset of waterborne radioactive releases of the Mayak plutonium facility. A large deviation of dose and activity distributions in both enamel and radical dentine of the various teeth was observed. Average dose was 27{+-}7Gy in enamel and 0.90{+-}0.31Gy in radical dentine. Average {sup 90}Sr concentration was 52{+-}8Bq/g in enamel and 5{+-}2Bq/g in radical dentine. The observed deviation around the mean value of dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration can be explained due to the specific mineral evolution of each tooth at the time of Sr intake. In the same donor, a negative correlation was also observed between radical dentine and enamel for the {sup 90}Sr specific activity as well for the dose. Similar analyses performed on one massive molar belonging to a second donor revealed absence of correlation between dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration in the same tissue, indicating a dose contribution from {sup 90}Sr present in neighbouring tissue compartments. Systematic differences in cumulated dose and activity levels between the lingual and the buccal parts of crown dentine and of enamel were also observed.

  17. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al 2 O 3 :C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al 2 O 3 :C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF 3 :Eu 2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al 2 O 3 :C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once every month. A regular read-out is indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of your personal dose. You must read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Film badges are no longer valid at CERN and holders of film badges are no longer allowed to enter the controlled radiation areas or work with a source. Dosimetry Service Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Ge-doped optical fibers with different dimensions for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important thermoluminescence (TL) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge-doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new TL material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase to produce Ge-doped optical fibers with five (5) different core sizes. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge-doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab (SSDL) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1 Gy to 10 Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are TL linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5 cm length are annealed at temperature of 400 °C for 1 h period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1 h at 400 °C and subsequently 2 h at 100 °C to yield the highest sensitivity. TL responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100 μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20 μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Zeff) is found in the range (13.25–13.69) which is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6–13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. TL properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in

  20. Thermoluminescence characteristics of different dimensions of Ge-doped optical fibers in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new Tl material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1 Gy to 10 Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are Tl linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5 cm length are annealed at temperature of 400 grades C for 1 hour period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1 hour at 400 grades C and subsequently 2 hours at 100 grades C to yield the highest sensitivity. Tl responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100 μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20 μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Zeff) is found in the range (13.25 to 13.69) that is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. Tl properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. (author)

  1. Thermoluminescence characteristics of different dimensions of Ge-doped optical fibers in radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, M.; Mizanur R, A. K. M.; Abdul R, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Begum, M. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, E-12/A, Agargaon, Sher-e-Blanga Nagar Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh); Mat-Sharif, K. A. [Lingkaran Teknokrat Timur, Telekom Research and Development, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Amin, Y. M. [University of Malaya, Faculty of Science, Depatment of Physics, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bradley, D. A., E-mail: go2munmun@yahoo.com [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Important thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new Tl material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1 Gy to 10 Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are Tl linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5 cm length are annealed at temperature of 400 grades C for 1 hour period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1 hour at 400 grades C and subsequently 2 hours at 100 grades C to yield the highest sensitivity. Tl responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100 μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20 μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) is found in the range (13.25 to 13.69) that is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. Tl properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. (author)

  2. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in canine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used for measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. We have now developed EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel extracted from canines. Molars and incisors from canines were cleaned by processing in supersaturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The dosimetric signal in canine tooth enamel was found to increase linearly as a function of laboratory added dose from 0.44±0.02 to 4.42±0.22 Gy. The gamma radiation sensitivity of the canine molar enamel was found to be comparable to that of human tooth enamel. The dosimetric signal in canine enamel has been found to be stable up to at least 6 weeks after in vitro irradiation. A dosimetric signal variation of 10-25% was observed for canines ranging from in age 3 years to 16 year old

  3. Dosimetry of a 3-5 MeV linear electron accelerator for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the multiple uses of a 3-5 MeV linear electron accelerator of the Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics (Beijing Radiation Center) at Beijing Normal University, the dosimetry of the linac for radiation processing has been studied. The graphite and water calorimeters have been used for routine dosimeter calibrations and reference measurements of absorbed dose for 4 MeV electron beam. Under the same irradiation condition, the polymer-alanine/ESR film and RCD dosimeters were calibrated in order to be used for routine process control. The polymer-alanine/ESR film dosimeter was also used as a transfer dosimeter for both 60Co gamma rays and 4 MeV electron beam because of its good dosimetric properties. (author)

  4. Standard Guide for Dosimetry In Radiation Processing of Fluidized Beds and Fluid Streams

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes several dosimetry systems and methods suitable for the documentation of the irradiation of product transported as fluid or in a fluidized bed. 1.2 The sources of penetrating ionizing radiation included in this guide are electron beams, X-rays (bremsstrahlung) and gamma rays. 1.3 Absorbed doses from 10 to 100,000 gray are considered, including applications such as disinfestation, disinfection, bioburden reduction, sterilization, crosslinking and graft modification of products, particularly powders and aggregates. 1.4 This guide does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with the use of fluidized beds and streams incorporating sources of ionizing radiation. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine compliance with regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Contribution of the SLDC to the metrology of the ionizing radiations dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration (SLDC), assigned to the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations of the ININ had its beginnings in the eighties, with the purpose of having a specialized area to develop and to establish measure patterns of the dosimetric magnitudes and units. In the year 2000 the National Center of Metrology of the country, delegated its functions to the SLDC, as regards to develop and to maintain the national patterns in the area of ionizing radiations. In this chapter a brief review is presented on the magnitudes and units used in dosimetry and and absorbed dose, as well as some of the activities of dosimetric calibration that have been made by part of the SLDC to the radiotherapy centers in Mexico and some applications to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  6. Characterization of Tandem systems of commercial ionization chambers for radiation dosimetry (radiotherapy level)

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, E P

    1998-01-01

    The use of X rays for radiotherapy purposes is of great importance for Medicine, and it is necessary to control periodically the performance of the ionization chambers and the radiation beams in order to obtain the best results. The verification of the beam characteristics is made by using standard dosimetry procedures which include the determination of the half-value layers and the exposure rates or the absorbed dose rates in air. Several Tandem systems were set up and tested, using commercial ionization chambers in the energy interval from 14 up to 130 KeV at the Instrumentation Calibration Laboratory of IPEN and at other three institutions, in substitution to the routine conventional procedure of determination of half-value layers using absorbers. The obtained results show the usefulness of these Tandem system for the routine dosimetric procedures of radiotherapy X radiation beams.

  7. Uses of polymer-alanine film/ESR dosimeters in dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine ESR dosimetry is a reliable method, used in a various fields of ionizing radiation. The polymer-alanine film/ESR dosimeters of 0.3 -0.4 mm thickness were prepared and their dosimetric properties were studied for 60Co γ photons and 3 - 5 MeV electrons in the dose range from 20 Gy to 100 kGy. The results show that under normal conditions the alanine calibration curves are linear in the dose range from 100 Gy to 10kGy. The dose profiles at the electron radiation field were measured with the film alanine dosimeters. The polymer-alanine film dosimeters were used for ion implantation of 400 keV ion implantor. Their dose response and energy dependence were investigated initially. (Author)

  8. Intercomparison of dispersed radiation readings among film dosimetry, electronic and OSL with X-rays for low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the personal dosimetry methods more used for several decades is the dosimetry type film, characterized to possess readings with certain margin of trust. Today other methods exist that many times are presupposed more reliable due to the nature of the detection like the electronic dosimeters or the OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dosimetry. With the purpose of comparing different methods and to can determining the existent differences among each method has been carried out an intercomparison assay. The different dosimeters have been exposed to dispersed radiation generated by a Hemodynamics equipment of the type -arch in C- and a dispersing system of the primary beam. Film dosimeters have been used; OSL (In Light), OSL (Nano Dots) and Electronic with the purpose of knowing and to valorize the existent differences among its readings. Always, the intercomparison exercises have demonstrated to be an useful tool when establishing the measurement capacity and the quality of the results emitted by the laboratories of personal dosimetry services. Also, this type of assays allows obtaining quality indicators of the laboratory performance and they are habitual part of the procedures for accreditation of the same ones. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence is a technology that has grown in Argentina so much in the area of personal dosimetry as in dosimetry in vivo (radiotherapy area). In this intercomparison study, the answers corresponding to each technology were looked for oneself irradiation of the disperse type, that is to say, of very low energy. (Author)

  9. Classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis regarding human reactivity to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most important mutagen agents in developing different types of cancer is the action of ionizing radiation. The main events induced by irradiation are: chromosome breakage, chromosome rearrangements and genomic instability. The chromosomal aberrations are very useful biomarkers as intermediate end points in evaluating harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. So, the main objectives of this work were: the study of human genome reactivity to beta radiation by classic microscopy; the study of the integrity/modification of the telomeres after irradiation and the analysis of the amplification of the RNA telomerase compound by FISH technique. Irradiations were performed at Electron Accelerators Laboratory, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania. The samples were irradiated using an ALIN 10 linear electron accelerator. ALIN 10 is a travelling wave type linac operating at 2.998 GHz, 6.5 MeV mean energy, with a 0.1 mm Al foil exit window. Improved Fricke, ferrous sulphate, cupric sulphate and sulphuric acid in triple distilled water dosimetry system has been used to perform preliminary dose measurements. The conventional Hungerford method on short-term cultures for 72 hrs was adapted for human chromosome investigation. The peripheral blood was collected from aged 27, healthy, non-smoker donor. The doses used to irradiate human blood cultures were: 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. The slides for optic microscopy were prepared by air-drying and stained with a 10% Giemsa solution. For FISH technique was used Chromosome In Situ Hybridization Kit. The probes were: one satellite probe - for revealing the telomere and the second one for the RNA telomerase compound. A large spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements was induced by beta irradiation in humans in vitro: complex chromosomal interchange involving at least two nonhomologous chromosomes, double minutes (DM), acentric fragments

  10. Calibration System for Dosimetry and Radioactivity of Beta-Emitting Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Ye, Sungjoon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwangjae; Park, Uljae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to develop a calibration system for radioactivity of beta sources using a calibration constant which derived from comparing measurement and simulation. It is hard to measure the activity of beta emitter isotope due to self absorption and scattering. So the activity involves high levels of uncertainty. The surface dose of Sr/Y-90 standard isotope was measured using extrapolation chamber and calculated using Monte Carlo. The activity (4.077 kBq) of source was measured by NIST measurement assurance program. And several correction factors were calculated Monte Carlo method. The measurement result was corrected by correction factors. The calibration constant was defined as the ratio of surface dose to activity. It was 4.5Χ10{sup -8} and 6.52Χ10{sup -8} for measurement and Monte Carlo, respectively. There was about 15.4% difference in the calibration constant determined by the two techniques. The depth uncertainty makes the difference because of high dose gradients. Some correction factors have error due to scattering by detector geometry. A test source will be produced by HANARO. The activity will be calculated using calibration constant. The activity will be performed cross-calibration with NIST. Finally, the system will provide accurate information of sources.

  11. Depth dose determination for a mixed radiation field using a thin plastic scintillator dosimetry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydarous Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic scintillators, due to their favorable characteristics compared with other dosimetry techniques, were used as detectors to estimate dose distributions in high gradient dose fields. In this study, a thin plastic scintillator (type BC-408 was coupled to a photomultiplier tube and multichannel analyzer as a technique for real-time dose measurements. The well-defined beta, gamma, and beta-gamma emitters (137Cs, 133Ba, 22Na, 109Cd, 55Fe, and 241Am have enabled parallel depth dose measurements with Monte-Carlo calculations to be critically compared. The measurements of doses were made for depths range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. The MCNP dose results were comparable with the plastic scintillator detector and can be used to approximately estimate the dose rate values from mixed electron-photon fields. The minimum dose rate that can be measured by the plastic scintillator system was ~2 µGy/h and was for 109Cd source of activity 222 Bq.

  12. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  13. Thermoluminescence and radioluminescence properties of tissue equivalent Cu-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M. [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco / UNICEN, Gral. Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guarneros, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Altamira Km 14.5, 896000 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Pacio, M. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Ciencias, Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Av. 14 Sur, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Palomino, R., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, 72570 Puebla Pue. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) and radioluminescence (Rl) properties of lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) doped with different concentration of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under gamma and beta irradiation has been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and a solution of CuCl{sub 2} as dopant. The glow curve, of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu 0.5 wt %), shows a main stable peak centered at 225 degrees C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 degrees C. The low temperature peak disappears completely after 24 hours of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 degrees C for 10 seconds. The main peak of the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu remains constant. The Tl response of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of Rl signals of the borate have been studied and the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu (0.5 wt %) shown the higher Rl emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu has prospects to be used in gamma and beta radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  14. Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest radiograms represent the basic radiological examinations of thorax. The basis for radiation protection especially in pediatrics is the exact determination of doses. The risk estimation of genome damages can be received in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline version of Comet Assay. The aim of this work was assessment and quantification of the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children during airways X-ray examinations of chest and to compare data to the dose of exposure. Doses were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry and radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimetry system. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, ages between 5 and 14 years were assessed. Dose measurements were conducted for poster-anterior (PA) projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. We used a 150 kV Shimadzu CH-200 M X-ray unit. Peripheral blood samples were taken from children after and prior to X-ray exposure and were examined with the alkaline Comet Assay. Comet Assay is one of the standard techniques for assessing genome damage with variety applications in genotoxicity testing as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of group after irradiation was 14.04 ± 1.74 as opposed to mean value of group before irradiation that was 13.15 ± 1.33. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). In addition, correlation was found between doses in primary beam (measured on the back) and the ratio of tail length (DNA damage) before and after irradiation. Doses measured with TL and RPL dosimeters showed satisfactory agreement and both dosimetry methods are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics. (author)

  15. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [11C]DASB in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The serotonin transporter has been implicated in a variety of conditions including mood disorders and suicidal behavior. In vivo human brain studies with positron emission tomography and the serotonin transporter antagonist [11C]DASB ([11C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile) are ongoing in several laboratories with the maximum administered activity based on dosimetry collected in rodents. We report on the biodistribution and dosimetry of [11C]DASB in the baboon as this species may be a more reliable surrogate for human dosimetry. Methods: Four baboon studies (two studies in each of two baboons) were acquired in an ECAT ACCEL camera after the bolus injection of 183±5 MBq/2.3±1.0 nmol of [11C]DASB. For each study, six whole-body emission scans were collected in 3D mode over 6/7 bed positions for 2 h. Regions of interest were drawn on brain, lungs, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys, small intestine and bladder. Since no fluid was removed from the animal, total body radioactivity was calculated using the injected dose calibrated to the ACCEL image units. Results: Uptake was greatest in lungs, followed by the urinary bladder, gallbladder, brain and other organs. The ligand was eliminated via the hepato-billiary and renal systems. The largest absorbed dose was found in the lungs (3.6x10-2 mSv/MBq). The absorbed radiation doses in lungs and gallbladder were four and nine times larger than that previously estimated from rat studies. Conclusion: Based on our baboon biodistribution and dose estimates, the lungs are the critical organs for administration of [11C]DASB. In the United States, the absorbed dose to the lungs would limit [11C]DASB administered with the approval of a Radioactive Drug Research Committee to 1400 MBq (37 mCi) in the adult male and 1100 MBq (30 mCi) in the adult female

  16. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  17. Radiation defects in solid matrix as a physical base of EPR-dosimetry. The results of international experiment 'Intercomparison'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The very high sensitivity of EPR method at radiation defects in solid matrixes registration caused for last decade an intensive development of a new field - EPR-dosimetry. The suitable work substances had been found in a result of prolonged wide investigations, that allowed successful development both an operative dosimetry, and, that is especially important, the retrospective one. Nowadays the retrospective dosimetry on tooth enamel is adopted by IAEA and WHO as the main method of the radiation accidents consequences analysis for suffered population. In the report the methodical peculiarities of EPR-dosimetry are reviewed, the possible sources of the dose characteristics nonlinearity occurrence are analyzed as well other sources of errors and the ways of their elimination are considered. The review of the results of the international experiments 'Intercomparison' on EPR-dosimetry on tooth enamel series, held for last years under IAEA aegis is given. Practically all leading worldwide labs, including NMR laboratory of the INP NNC RK, took part in these experiments. The main goal was estimation of accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of summary dose values, having been reconstructed on base of EPR-signal of radiation defects in tooth enamel. The last experiment 'Intercomparison 3' has shown a considerable progress achieved lately in this area. Now the Japanese scientists from Hiroshima are preparing a further continuation of these Intercomparisons. Researches of radiation-induced EPR signals, stabilized in solid matrix, have been found out also rather useful and productive for the purposes of geological and archaeological dating, in criminalistics, in radiation chemistry and so on. Probably, this method will be rather perspective and at identification of radiation-sterilized food-stuffs, which come up now on world markets more and more often, however, studies in this direction are still on an incipient stage only

  18. Results for NRPB dosimetry services in the 2000 Eurados Trial Performance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000 a trial performance test for individual monitoring services in Europe was organised by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS), covering whole-body beta/photon, whole-body neutron and extremity beta/photon dosimetry for both monoenergetic and simulated workplace fields. The UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), which supplies routine dosemeters to some 50,000 wearers in the UK and overseas, participated in this trial performance test. This paper presents the results obtained for the NRPB whole-body TLD, neutron (PADC) and extremity dosimetry services and comments on their performance in comparison with the overall results. (author)

  19. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotskova, O; Jenkins, C; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed.

  20. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed