WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta radiation dosimetry

  1. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  2. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  3. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  4. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  5. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry performance of natural Brazilian topaz exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has become the technique of choice in many areas of dosimetry. Natural materials like topaz are available in large quantities in Brazil and other countries. They have been studied to investigate the possibility of use its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for dosimetric applications. In this work, we investigate the possibility of utilising the OSL properties of natural Brazilian topaz in dosimetry. Bulk topaz samples were exposed to doses up to 100 Gy of beta radiation and the integrated OSL as a function of the dose showed linear behaviour. The fading occurs in the first 20 min after irradiation but it is <6% of the integrated OSL measured shortly after exposure. We conclude that natural colourless topaz is a very suitable phosphor for OSL dosimetry. (authors)

  7. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  8. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of new phosphors of Zn O exposed to beta radiation; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de nuevos fosforos de ZnO expuestos a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H. [UNISON, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Barboza F, M.; Bernal, R. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence dosimetry of a new Zn O phosphor obtained by annealing of Zn S powder precipitated when Zn S films were grown by employing a CBD method. The collected Zn S powder was pressed in a die to form pellets which were subjected to different thermal treatments under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of Zn S to Zn O. The phosphors thus obtained were exposed to high doses of beta radiation and their thermoluminescent dosimetry show that these new phosphors are materials suitable to be used in high dose thermoluminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Direct ion storage dosimetry systems for photon, beta and neutron radiation with instant readout capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter is a new type of electronic dosemeter from which the dose information for both Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) can be obtained instantly at the workplace by using an electronic reader unit. The number of readouts is unlimited and the stored information is not affected by the readout procedure. The accumulated dose can also be electronically reset by authorised personnel. The DIS dosemeter represents a potential alternative for replacing the existing film and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) used in occupational monitoring due to its ease of use and low operating costs. The standard version for normal photon and beta dosimetry, as well as a developmental version for neutron dosimetry, have been characterised in several field studies. Two new small size variations are also introduced including a contactless readout device and a militarised version optimised for field use. (author)

  11. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  12. NF ISO 15382. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure of radioprotection dosimetry monitoring in nuclear facilities for the external exposure to weakly penetrant radiations, in particular the beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international standard specifies a dosimetry monitoring procedure for the radiation protection inside nuclear facilities and concerns the external exposure to weakly penetrant radiations, i.e.: beta, beta +, conversion electrons, and photons with an energy < 15 keV. It describes the procedure of radioprotection organization and control, and the measurements and analyses to be implemented. It applies to the operations regularly performed in nuclear reactors, like maintenance, handling of wastes and dismantling activities. These recommendations can be transferred to other nuclear domains, including the fuel fabrication and reprocessing, the accelerators, and the nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities. (J.S.)

  13. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  14. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  15. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO2-a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H3 and Zr-O2. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO2-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO2-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  16. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  17. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  18. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br, e-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2003-07-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  19. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  20. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  1. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, Michael G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  2. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  3. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources (60Co and 137Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided (147Pm, 204Tl and 90Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  4. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  5. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  6. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  7. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range......, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state...

  8. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  9. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed

  10. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  11. Detectors for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For our purposes in this review, we note the following points: (1) for charged particle detection, these counters can be filled with any noble gas-quenching gas mixture that produces satisfactory electrical signals; (2) neutron counters, in which the neutrons are detected by their interaction with the specific filling of the chamber to yield an ionizing particle, require special gas mixtures containing 3He or BF3, an alternative approach is to coat the inner surface of the cathode with a boron or lithium compound; (3) proportional counters are used if there is any need to discriminate between different types of radiation incident on the chamber by the magnitude of the ionizing energy retained within the sensitive volume of the counter; (4) proportional counters can operate at higher speeds than Geiger counters, typically up to 107 cts/sec versus less than 105/sec for the Geiger counters; and (5) Geiger counters produce very large uniform pulses which can be scaled by very simple electronics, hence, they are often used in survey meters and other portable monitoring instruments

  12. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  13. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  14. High dose dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing today offers various advantages in the field of sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, food preservation, treatment of chemical materials and a variety of other products widely used in modern society, all of which are of direct relevance to health and welfare. The safety and economic importance of radiation processing is clearly recognized. It is understood that reliable dosimetry is a key parameter for quality assurance of radiation processing and irradiated products. Furthermore, the standardization of dosimetry can provide a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and form the basis of international clearance for free trade. After the initiation of the Agency's high dose standardization programme (1977), the first IAEA Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry was organized in 1984. As a result, concern as to the necessity of reliable dosimetry has greatly escalated not only in the scientific community but also in the radiation processing industry. The second International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing was held in Vienna from 5 to 9 November, 1990, with a view to providing an international forum for the exchange of technical information on up to date developments in this particular field. The scientific programme held promises for an authoritative account of the status of high dose dosimetry throughout the world in 1990. Forty-one papers presented at the meeting discussed the development of new techniques, the improvement of reference and routine dosimetry systems, and the quality control and assurance of dosimetry. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  16. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  17. Review of the current deficiencies in personnel beta dosimetry, with recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the design and use of personnel dosimeters used by the nuclear power industry to monitor occupational radiation exposure. It then shows why the monitoring method is inaccurate when personnel are exposed to beta particles. Then the report describes alternatives that would lead to improved measurements. The report also critiques the dosimetry processor testing criteria developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. Survey instruments are shown often to be inaccurate when used to measure beta dose rates

  18. Dosimetry in radiation processing- Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a method for producing chemical, physical, and microbiological changes in substances by exposing to ionizing radiation. Availability of high intensity cobalt-60 gamma ray sources and high power electron beam accelerators has led to a continuous growth of radiation processing industry in India. Commercial viability and safe operation of these radiation-processing plants depends on accurate dosimetry. Depending on the purpose to be achieved, a widespread dose range, from few grays to few hundred kilo grays, is encountered in radiation processing technology and this necessitates the use of different dosimetry systems. In the present paper, current status of radiation processing facilities in India has been reviewed. Various indigenously developed dosimetry systems such as Alanine/glutamine (Spectrophotometric readout), FBX and ceric-cerous (potentiometry) are being used for quality assurance and routine plant dosimetry. Fricke dosimeter is used as a reference standard for calibrating other dosimetry systems. Glutamine (Spectrophotometric read out) dosimeter, used as transfer standard for Q.A. has traceability to NPL, UK and has shown an agreement within ±2% during dose intercomparisons carried out with various international standards laboratories. Performance of these dosimeters was found to be better than ±10% during dose measurements in radiation sterilization and food irradiation plants. (author)

  19. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  20. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry

  1. Application of radiation damage effects in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    some general aspects of radiation dosimetry are outlined. The techniques of radiophotoluminescence, radiothermoluminescence and exo-electron emission are discussed individually. It is thought that the trend in personnel dosimetry is such that thermoluminescence will steadily replace film and photoluminescence techniques over the next decade, and that more unusual techniques, such as exo-electron emission, will make inroads only for special purposes. (B.R.H.)

  2. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  3. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  4. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  5. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  6. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  7. Radiation dosimetry activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands Commission for Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) was officially established on 3 September 1982 with the aim of promoting the appropriate use of dosimetry of ionizing radiation both for scientific research and practical applications. The present report provides a compilation of the dosimetry acitivities and expertise available in the Netherlands, based on the replies to a questionnaire mailed under the auspices of the NCS and might suffer from some incompleteness in specific details. The addresses of the Dutch groups with the names of the scientists are given. Individual scientists, not connected with a scientific group, hospital or organization have not been included in this list. Also the names of commercial firms producing dosimetric systems have been omitted. (Auth.)

  8. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  9. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  10. Dosimetry and control of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight invited papers on the general theme of 'Dosimetry and Control of Radiation Processing', presented at a one day symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, are collected together in this document. Seven of the papers are selected and indexed separately. (author)

  11. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  12. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  13. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  14. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pandya; S G Vaijapurkar; P K Bhatnagar

    2000-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

  15. Properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber in beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial extrapolation chamber (PTW, Germany) was tested in different beta radiation fields and its properties investigated. Its usefulness for beta radiation calibration and dosimetry was demonstrated. The Beta Secondary Standard setup of the IPEN calibration laboratory was utilized. This system, developed by the Physikalisch-Tecknische Bundesanstalt, Brunswick (Germany) and manufactured by Buchler and Co., consists of a source stand, a control unit with timer and four interchangeable beta sources: 90Sr-90Y (1850 and 74 MBq), 204Tl (18,5 MBq) ionization current detection. The variable volume ionization chamber of cylindrical form is provided with different collecting electrodes of tissue equivalent material and Mylar entrance windows of different thickesses

  16. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  17. Utilization of photodiodes for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of silicon photodiodes as detector, for gama and x-ray dosimetry is discussed. Measurements were realized with photodiodes operating in the photovoltaic mode, the current produzed was detected in the eletrometer constructed in the DEN/UFPE. The results obtained showed that the photodiode response is linear with the dose and that variation of 40 degrees in the incidence angule of the radiation caused a variation of 5% in the dose determination. (author)

  18. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique for radiation dosimetry: emerging trends for laboratory and accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for radiation dosimetry are briefly reviewed. In particular, EPR-alanine dosimetry and accidental dosimetry using EPR signals from human tooth enamel have been discussed. The alanine dosimetry was found to be useful from low doses such as 1 Gy to high doses such as 100 kGy. The signals from tooth enamel are found to be invaluable in assessing the absorbed dose of people exposed to radiation accidents and also survivors of atomic bomb explosions. New emerging trends using EPR signals from bones exposed to radiation have also been briefly reviewed. (author)

  20. Monte Carol-Based Dosimetry of Beta-Emitters for Intravascular Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.K.

    2002-06-25

    Monte Carlo simulations for radiation dosimetry and the experimental verifications of the simulations have been developed for the treatment geometry of intravascular brachytherapy, a form of radionuclide therapy for occluded coronary disease (restenosis). Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, has been used to calculate the radiation dose from the encapsulated array of B-emitting seeds (Sr/Y-source train). Solid water phantoms have been fabricated to measure the dose on the radiochromic films that were exposed to the beta source train for both linear and curved coronary vessel geometries. While the dose difference for the 5-degree curved vessel at the prescription point of f+2.0 mm is within the 10% guideline set by the AAPM, however, the difference increased dramatically to 16.85% for the 10-degree case which requires additional adjustment for the acceptable dosimetry planning. The experimental dose measurements agree well with the simulation results

  1. Radiation Dosimetry Management: Quality Assurance and Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a litigation-prone society, it is prudent for any business to evaluate its potential exposure to legal action, initiated by either an employee or a member of the general public. This potential is exacerbated when the phobia of radiation exposure and radioactive materials is interjected into the equation. This phobia is fuelled by the perceived risks of radiation exposure, be they fact or fantasy. With the current cancer incidence rate being approximately 1 in every 2.5 individuals (for all types of cancer), it is imperative that all facilities take a proactive look at their business vulnerability. When radiation exposure is the issue, records documentation is a critical factor, and a significant amount of effort should be expended to implement a comprehensive records management system. A comprehensive Radiation Dosimetry Management Program is essential if a business is going to mitigate any regulatory or legal intervention. This lecture will address appropriate Records Quality Assurance, and, the appropriate requirements for investigations of dosimetry results. (author)

  2. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  3. Radiation dosimetry of binary pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Eichler, D; Eichler, David; Nath, Biman B

    1995-01-01

    Companion stars exposed to high energy radiation from a primary neutron star or accreting black hole can experience significant spallation of their heavy elements, so that their atmospheres would be extremely rich in lithium, beryllium, and especially boron. In this paper we note that the detection or non-detection of these elements, and their relative abundances if detected, would provide a diagnostic of the high energy output of the primary, and possibly the shock acceleration of particles at the companion's bow shock in a pulsar wind.

  4. Personal dosimetry for external radiation exposure in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a report on harmonisation and dosimetric quality assurance in individual monitoring for external radiation, published by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS). The report comprises three parts: (1) procedures and regulations in countries of the European Union and Switzerland with respect to personal dosimetry; (2) a catalogue with descriptions of dosimetry systems in the fore-mentioned countries; and (3) performance testing of dosimetric services in EU Member States and Switzerland. 17 refs

  5. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  6. Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

  7. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  8. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS web site (www.eurados.org). (authors)

  9. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  10. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y., E-mail: prezado@imnc.in2p3.fr [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France); Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N. [Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 101, Orsay 91898 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  11. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  12. Methods and procedures for internal radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, internal radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability

  13. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  14. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well as stan...

  15. Personnel monitoring and dosimetry (beta and gamma) - external

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel monitoring is the periodic measurement (monthly or quarterly service) of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The monitoring/service period for a given institution is mainly decided by the potential of receiving doses/exposures by occupational radiation workers. Ionizing radiations viz. neutrons, photons (X-rays and gamma) and beta particles are commonly encountered by radiation workers and contribute towards radiation doses. The main aim of personnel monitoring is to ensure that the dose limits as stipulated by the regulatory authorities are followed. It may also help in the segregation of various personnel as per dose received in case of emergency/radiation accidents. In addition, external monitoring provides information on the external radiation exposure of individuals working with radioactive materials and/or radiation producing devices and assist in work planning, allow control of doses at the workplace

  16. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  17. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  18. EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Peter

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and γ rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a

  19. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  20. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  1. Proceedings of the recent developments in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst 'Dosimetry' in its original sense deals with methods for a quantitative determination of energy deposited in a given medium by directly or indirectly ionizing radiations, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. Dosimetry is used extensively for radiation protection and is routinely applied to ensure radiological safety of occupational radiation workers. Internal dosimetry due to the ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials relies on a variety of physiological or imaging techniques. External dosimetry, due to irradiation from an external source is based on measurements with a dosimeter, or inferred from other radiological protection instruments. Radiation dosimetry is one of the important research areas of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). This research work is centered on the facilities such as nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants, high energy accelerators (research/industry/medical), radiation standards, food processing, radiation technology development, etc. In each of these facilities, radiation field environment is different and the associated dosimetry concepts are different. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  3. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  4. Methods and procedures for external radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, external radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document provides a description of the methods and procedures for external radiation metering, monitoring, dosimetry, and records which are in effect at ORNL July 1, 1981. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability

  5. Spectrometry and in core dosimetry of neutron radiation. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 8 invited papers discussing current problems of spectrometry and in core neutron dosimetry with regard to applications in nuclear power engineering. The papers deal with the following areas: reactor physics and in core dosimetry; calculations of the spatial and energy distribution of neutrons in the reactor core and shielding; proton-recoil neutron spectrometry; determining neutron spectra with activation detectors; assessment of measurement system used in core dosimetry; in core measurement and monitoring of the reactor radiation field; monitoring the radiation damage to reactor structural materials. (J.P.)

  6. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  7. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  8. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  9. The thermoluminscent dosimetry service of the radiation protection bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent materials have been used in radiation dosimetry for many years, but their application to nationwide personnel dosimetry has been scarce. An undertaking of this nature requires that methods be established for identification of dosimeters and for fast interpretation and communication of dose to the users across the country. It is also necessary that records of cumulative dose of individual radiation workers be continuously updated, and such records be maintained for a prolonged period. To do this many problems pertinent to associated equpment, vis. the computer, TL reader, their interfacing, and to the operational procedures of the service had to be resolved. Since April 1977, the Radiation Protection Bureau has been providing a Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Service to Canadian radiation workers. This document describes the RPB dosimeter, its characteristics, various aspects of the service, objectives of the service, and how the objective goals of the service are achieved. (auth)

  10. Radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dosimetry system for 3D dose distribution measurements based on the Fricke dosimeter and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed. The dosimeter consists of a ferrous sulphate solution incorporated in an agarose gel, which together constitute the dosimeter gel. The absorbed dose to the gel is measured by means of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 in an MR scanner. The dose distribution to an arbitrary slice within a dosimeter gel phantom can thus be determined. The chemical yield of the dosimeter gel is significantly higher than that of the for Fricke solution, and is strongly dependent of the initial ferrous sulphate concentration, assuming that the gel is bubbled with oxygen during preparation. A gel of 1.5 mM [Fe2+] and 50 mM [H2SO4] has a sensitivity of 0.108 s-1Gy-1 and is linear up to 50 Gy. The dosimeter gel has uniform dose response over large volumes. Above 50 mM[H2SO4] the yield increases only slightly, but the gel strength decreases and results in gel phantoms with non-uniform dose response. Below 50 mM[H2SO4] the sensitivity of the dosimeter falls rapidly due to the decreased relaxivity of the ferric ions. The high chemical yield can be explained by a chain reaction and a reaction scheme is accordingly proposed. The dosimeter gel shows no dependence on dose rate or radiation quality and can be regarded as water-equivalent with respect to the interaction of the radiation. The diffusion coefficient of the ferric ions in the agarose gel is 1.19x10-2 cm2/h. The diffusion blurs the dosimeteric image, but poses only a minor problem if the MR measurements are completed within the first two hours after irradiation. Dose distribution data from external radiation therapy units have been determined using the dosimeter gel and MRI with good accuracy, but the precision is poor, about 5-10%. (au) (84 refs.)

  11. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  12. Reliability, calibration and metrology in ionizing radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cundin, Luisiana X

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry systems are complex systems, comprised of a milieu of components, designed for determining absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation. Although many materials serve as absorbing media for measurement, thermoluminescent dosimeters represent some of the more desirable materials available; yet, reliability studies have revealed a clear and definite decrement in dosimeter sensitivity after repeated use. Unfortunately, repeated use of any such material for absorbing media in ionizing radiation dosimetry will in time experience performance decrements; thus, in order to achieve the most accuracy and/or precision in dosimetry, it is imperative proper compensation be made in calibration. Yet, analysis proves the majority of the measured decrement in sensitivity experienced by dosimeters is attributable to drift noise and not to any degradation in dosimeter performance, at least, not to any great degree. In addition to investigating dosimeter reliability, implications for metrological tracea...

  13. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  14. Medical irradiation dosimetry and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 1995 Azerbaijan started implementation of the comprehensive programme of economic reforms in order to solve problems, connected with change-over to market economy.In the public health sector important reforms are being carried out. They are aimed towards effectiveness and quality increase, widening of access to medical care. The mentioned above programme will also include working out of legislation in the field of medical irradiation protection (laws, rules, safety manuals, etc.), introduction of national suggested radiation dose levels, perfection of regulative control over medical sources and medical practice, improvement of diagnostic radiation system, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, introduction of clinical control system. (authors)

  15. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  16. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  17. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  18. Neutron dosimetry for radiation damage in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to the safety and economics of nuclear energy. In high-level radiation environments, neutron metrology is accomplished predominantly with passive techniques which require detailed knowledge about many nuclear reactions. The quality of neutron dosimetry has increased noticeably during the past decade owing to the availability of new data and evaluations for both integral and differential cross sections, better quantitative understanding of radioactive decay processes, improvements in radiation detection technology, and the development of reliable spectrum unfolding procedures. However, there are problems caused by the persistence of serious integral-differential discrepancies for several important reactions. There is a need to further develop the data base for exothermic and low-threshold reactions needed in thermal and fast-fission dosimetry, and for high-threshold reactions needed in fusion-energy dosimetry. The unsatisfied data requirements for fission reactor dosimetry appear to be relatively modest and well defined, while the needs for fusion are extensive and less well defined because of the immature state of fusion technology. These various data requirements are examined with the goal of providing suggestions for continued dosimetry-related nuclear data research

  19. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  20. Evaluation of the instrument correction factors needed in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the same survey instruments used for the measurement of gamma dose rates are used for monitoring beta fields by making measurements with and without a shield over the detector to separate the penetrating and nonpenetrating components of the radiation field. Survey meters are calibrated using fields that uniformly irradiate the detector volume with the center of the volume used as a reference point. However, under field survey conditions, sources are frequently encountered that have irregular shape and large or small dimensions compared with the detector volume. When the distance from the source to the detector volume (reference point) is small such sources produce non-uniform radiation fields in the detector. Similarly, low energy beta sources cause non-uniform irradiation of the volume due to attenuation of the radiation. In addition, when survey meters are used close to the source, the surveyor is generally interested in dose rates at contact or within a few centimeters of the source. In these cases the reference point is the center front surface of the detector. The resulting readings from such fields are based on an average of the uneven distribution of energy deposition occurring within the detector. In general, this reading would be significantly less than the actual dose existing at the surface of the meter entrance window. To compensate for this discrepancy, correction factors are applied to the readings to give the actual dose. These factors can be in excess of a factor of 100. This paper summarizes observations on energy, angular and source geometry response of survey instruments

  1. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  2. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  3. Beta dosimetry in intraperitoneal administration of 166Ho-chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer, was labeled with 166Ho and was administered intraperitoneally in ovarian cancer patients by diffuse intraperitoneal spread. More than 30% of administered 166Ho-chitosan complex was observed to be bound to the peritoneal surface. For the peritoneal dosimetry, all radiation emitted from 166Ho either bound to the peritoneal surface or in the peritoneal fluid should be considered. The volume of ascites is measured by dividing the 166Tc-HSA injected dose by 99mTc-HSA concentration in the ascites. The fraction of 166Ho-chitosan bound to the peritoneal surface is obtained in an indirect method by subtracting the activity in the ascites of known volume from the total adminstered activity and dividing it by standard surface area. This method has been demonstrated by applying the procedure to rats and comparing the results with the actual counts of activity concentration both on the peritoneal surface ad in the intraperitoneal fluid. For rats, about 70% of 166Ho-chitosan injected was found to attach to the peritoneal surface. With 1 mCi of 166Ho-chitosan injection, the activity was 1.3 μCi/cm2 and 2.4 μCi/ml on the peritoneal surface and in the ascites, respectively. For this specific case, the peritoneal surface dose was 105 Gy from 166Ho on the peritoneal surface and 17.8 Gy from 166Ho in the ascites. Dose estimation was performed by Monte Carlo simulation using the EGS4 code. More realistic dose estimation by applying this procedure to patients can help improve the treatment planning of ovarian cancer with 166Ho-chitosan complex

  4. Dosimetry practices at the Radiation Technology Centre (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry practices undertaken to support research and pilot scale gamma irradiation activities at the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission are presented. The Fricke dosemeter was used for calibrating the gamma field of the gammacell-220. The Fricke system and the gammacell-220 were then used to calibrate the ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosemeter. The Fricke and ECB dosemeter systems have become routine dosemeters at the centre. Dosimetry work has covered a wide range of research specimens and pilot scale products to establish the relevant irradiation protocol and parameters for routine treatment. These include yams, pineapple explants, blood for feeding tsetseflies, cocoa bud wood and cassava sticks. Pilot scale dosimetry studies on maize, medical devices like intravenous infusion sets and surgical gauze have also been completed. The results and observations made on some of these products are reported. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. Design and building of an extrapolation ionization chamber for beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extrapolation chamber was designed and built to be used in beta dosimetry. The basic characteristics of an extrapolation chamber are discussed, together with fundamental principle of the dosimetric method used. Details of the chamber's design and properties of materials employed are presented. A full evaluation of extrapolation chamber under irradiation from two 90Sr + 90Y beta sources is done. The geometric parameters of the chamber, leakage current and ion collection efficiency are determined. (Author)

  6. Freeware for reporting radiation dosimetry following the administration of radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Perales, Jesús Luis; García Mendoza, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a software application for reporting patient radiation dosimetry following radiopharmaceutical administration. The resulting report may be included within the patient's medical records. The application was developed in the Visual Basic programming language. The dosimetric calculations are based on the values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The software is available in both Spanish and English and can be downloaded at no cost from www.radiopharmacy.net. PMID:26092354

  7. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  8. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.;

    1990-01-01

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples...

  9. ESR/alanine dosimetry applied to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation processing of food products is specified in terms of absorbed dose, and processing quality is assessed on the basis of absorbed dose measurements. The validity of process quality control is highly dependent on the quality of the measurements and associated instrumentation; in this respect, dosimetry calibration by an Organization with official status provides an essential guarantee of validity to the quality control steps taken. The Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants (L.M.R.I.) is the primary standards and evaluation laboratory approved by the Bureau National de Metrologie (B.N.M.), which is the French National Bureau of Standards. The LMRI implements correlation procedures in response to the various requirements which arise in connection with high doses and doserates. Such procedures are mainly based on ESR/alanine spectrometry, a dosimetry technique ideally suited to that purpose. Dosemeter geometry and design are tailored to operating conditions. Photon dosemeters consist of a detector material in powder or compacted form, and a wall with thickness and chemical composition consistent with the application. Electron dosemeters have a detector core of compacted alanine with thickness down to a few tenths of a millimeter. The ESR/alanine dosimetry technique, developed at LMRI is a flexible, reliable and accurate tool which effectively meets the various requirements arising in the field of reference dosimetry, where high doses and doserates are involved. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  11. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  12. Evaluation of the instrument correction factors need in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of portable survey instruments using Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors, ionization chambers, or scintillation detectors exists for the measurement of gamma dose rates. Generally, the same instruments are used for beta monitoring, but the beta response of these instruments has been secondary to their development, calibration, and use; information on the beta response is difficult to obtain and seldom provided by the manufacturer. This paper summarizes observations on energy, angular, and source-geometry response of survey instruments

  13. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  14. Testing a ring-shaped ionization chamber in standard beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ring-shaped ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was tested in standard beta radiation fields. This ionization chamber was primarily developed to be used as a monitor chamber in X-ray diagnostic radiology beams. It has a large sensitive volume and parallel-plate aluminium electrode. Its entrance window is made of a thin aluminized polyester foil, which allows the collection of electrons. The ring-shaped monitor chamber was already tested in X radiation beams, showing a good performance. The aim of this work was to verify the applicability of the ionization chamber for beta radiation field dosimetry at calibration distances. (author)

  15. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  16. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association Contract covers a range of research domains that are important to the Radiation Protection Research Action, especially in the areas 'Evaluation of Radiation Risks' and 'Understanding Radiation Mechanisms and Epidemiology'. Three research projects concentrate on radiation dosimetry research and two projects on the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. The following list gives an overview on the topics and responsible scientific project leaders of the Association Contract: Study of radiation fields and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Dose reconstruction. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Experimental data for the induction of cancer by radiation of different qualities. (orig.)

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  18. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  19. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  20. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed a...

  1. Dosimetry of beta-ray ophthalmic applicators: Comparison of different measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international intercomparison of the dosimetry of three beta particle emitting ophthalmic applicators was performed, which involved measurements with radiochromic film, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), alanine pellets, plastic scintillators, extrapolation ionization chambers, a small fixed-volume ionization chambers, a diode detector and a diamond detector. The sources studied were planar applicators of 90Sr-90Y and 106Ru-106Rh, and a concave applicator of 106Ru-106Rh. Comparisons were made of absolute dosimetry determined at 1 mm from the source surface in water or water-equivalent plastic, and relative dosimetry along and perpendicular to the source axes. The results of the intercomparison indicate that the various methods yield consistent absolute dosimetry results at the level of 10%-14% (one standard deviation) depending on the source. For relative dosimetry along the source axis at depths of 5 mm or less, the agreement was 3%-9% (one standard deviation) depending on the source and the depth. Crucial to the proper interpretation of the measurement results is an accurate knowledge of the detector geometry, i.e., sensitive volume and amount of insensitive covering material. From the results of these measurements, functions which describe the relative dose rate along and perpendicular to the source axes are suggested

  2. EDISTR: a computer program to obtain a nuclear decay data base for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides documentation for the computer program EDISTR. EDISTR uses basic radioactive decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File developed and maintained by the Nuclear Data Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as input, and calculates the mean energies and absolute intensities of all principal radiations associated with the radioactive decay of a nuclide. The program is intended to provide a physical data base for internal dosimetry calculations. The principal calculations performed by EDISTR are the determination of (1) the average energy of beta particles in a beta transition, (2) the beta spectrum as function of energy, (3) the energies and intensities of x-rays and Auger electrons generated by radioactive decay processes, (4) the bremsstrahlung spectra accompanying beta decay and monoenergetic Auger and internal conversion electrons, and (5) the radiations accompanying spontaneous fission. This report discusses the theoretical and empirical methods used in EDISTR and also practical aspects of the computer implementation of the theory. Detailed instructions for preparing input data for the computer program are included, along with examples and discussion of the output data generated by EDISTR

  3. Computational anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms are computer models of human anatomy used in the calculation of radiation dose distribution in the human body upon exposure to a radiation source. Depending on the manner to represent human anatomy, they are categorized into two classes: stylized and tomographic phantoms. Stylized phantoms, which have mainly been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), describe human anatomy by using simple mathematical equations of analytical geometry. Several improved stylized phantoms such as male and female adults, pediatric series, and enhanced organ models have been developed following the first hermaphrodite adult stylized phantom, Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD)-5 phantom. Although stylized phantoms have significantly contributed to dosimetry calculation, they provide only approximations of the true anatomical features of the human body and the resulting organ dose distribution. An alternative class of computational phantom, the tomographic phantom, is based upon three-dimensional imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The tomographic phantoms represent the human anatomy with a large number of voxels that are assigned tissue type and organ identity. To date, a total of around 30 tomographic phantoms including male and female adults, pediatric phantoms, and even a pregnant female, have been developed and utilized for realistic radiation dosimetry calculation. They are based on MRI/CT images or sectional color photos from patients, volunteers or cadavers. Several investigators have compared tomographic phantoms with stylized phantoms, and demonstrated the superiority of tomographic phantoms in terms of realistic anatomy and dosimetry calculation. This paper summarizes the history and current status of both stylized and tomographic phantoms, including Korean computational phantoms. Advantages, limitations, and future prospects are also discussed

  4. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO4:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO4:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO4:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO4:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  5. Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1—For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

  6. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  7. Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui Shen; DeNardo, Gerald L.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Aina, Yuan; DeNardo, Diane A.; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    1997-01-01

    Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dose and biological half-life was assessed for radioimmunotherapy. Mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator consecutive processing and for inter-operator processing was less than 15% for all tissues. The mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator processing over 2 wk or inter-operator processing comparing an experienced and less experienced operator was generally greater, and particularly so for tumors. Satisfactory reproducibility was achievable using visual determination of regions of interests after 80 h of training.

  8. Radiation dosimetry of florbetapir F 18

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Abhinay D.; Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Adler, Lee; Michael G. Stabin; Skovronsky, Daniel M; Carpenter, Alan P; Mark A. Mintun

    2014-01-01

    Background Florbetapir is one of several 18F-labeled amyloid plaque imaging tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). As the bio-distribution and radiation dose of PET tracers in human research are important for estimating the relative risks and benefits, a study was conducted to obtain this information on florbetapir. Methods Nine cognitively normal subjects (six females and three males, age 58 ± 10 years, weight 81 ± 17 kg) received an intravenous bolus injection of 395 ± 27.9 MBq of ...

  9. Application of an alanine dosimetry system for industrial irradiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the application of alanine dosimetry in radiation processing. Continuous checks of the EPR measuring conditions as well as using high-quality alanine dosimeters and consistent technique for dose determination guarantee an accuracy of about ± 3% intermediate dose levels. The alanine dosimetry system was applied for dose mapping measurements during irradiator qualification and performance qualification of different products, routine dosimetry, and special radiation protection applications within the gamma irradiator. (author)

  10. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  11. Comparative study of Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented the comparative study of Si diodes response for gamma radiation dosimetry. The diodes investigated, grown by float zone (Fz) and magnetic Czochralski (MCz) techniques, were processed at the Physics Institute of Helsinki University in the framework of the research and development of rad-hard silicon devices. To study the dosimetric response of these diodes they were connected in the photovoltaic mode to the input of a digital electrometer to measure the photocurrent signal due to the incidence of gamma-rays from a 60Co source (Gammacell 220). The dosimetric parameter utilized to study the response of these devices was the charge, obtained trough the integration of the current signals, as a function of the absorbed dose. Studies of the influence of the pre-irradiation procedures on both sensitivity and stability of these diodes showed that the sensitivity decreased with the total absorbed dose but after a preirradiation of about 873 kGy they became more stable. Radiation damage effects eventually produced in the devices were monitored trough dynamic current and capacitance measurements after each irradiation step. Both samples also exhibited good response reproducibility, 2,21% (Fz) and 2,94% (MCz), obtained with 13 consecutive measurements of 15 kGy compared with the equivalent 195 kGy absorbed dose in one step of irradiation. It is important to note that these results are better than those obtained with routine polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters used in radiation processing dosimetry. (author)

  12. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in the high dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews briefly methods of dose evaluation after exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Validation of two methods also is described: micronucleus (Mn) frequency estimation according Muller and Rode and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) combined with painting of 3 pairs of chromosomes in human lymphocytes. According to Muller and Rode, micronucleus frequency per binucleated cells with at least one Mn linearly increases with dose up to 15 Gy and is suitable end-point for biological dosimetry. These authors, however, examined cells from only one donor. The data reported below were obtained for 5 donors; they point to a considerable individual variation of thus measured response to irradiation. Due to the high degree of inter-donor variability, there is no possibility to apply this approach in biological dosimetry in the dose range 5 - 20 Gy gamma 60Co radiation. A linear response up to 10 Gy was observed only in the case of certain donors. In contrast, determination of the dose-effect relationship with the PCC method gave good results (small inter-individual variation, no plateau effect up to dose 10 Gy), so that with a calibration curve it could be used for dose estimation after exposure to doses up to 10 Gy of X or gamma 60Co radiation. (author)

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring around nuclear power plant using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was undertaken at the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, BNPP, and surrounding areas from August 1996 to August l997 as a part of a pre-operational program to establish the natural background radiation level for this region. The purpose of this project was to study environmental background radiation which was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosimetry. 18 TLD stations were set up and distributed around the nuclear power plant up to distance s of 30 km radius. The selected dosimeters consisted of two Calcium Sulfate (Titanium doped), CaSO4:Tm, disks. Dosimeters were calibrated and utilized according to the ANSI N545 -1975 standard procedure. The measured exposure rates of the background radiation level from all the stations were in the range of (0.03 - 0.12 μSv/h) with the mean value of 0.075 μSv/h. (Author)

  14. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to γ-radiation from60Co and 167Cs γ-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n+ type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a γ-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented

  15. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M; Menichelli, D.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Bucciolini, M. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Nava, F. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to {gamma}-radiation from{sup 60}Co and {sup 167}Cs {gamma}-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n{sup +} type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a {gamma}-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented.

  16. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.;

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU was...... accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...

  17. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  18. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, E.R. E-mail: eric@erilresearch.com; Benton, E.V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars.

  20. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  1. Statistical methods to evaluate thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Matoso, Erika; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMSP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation levels, evaluated through the exposure of CaF{sub 2}:Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD- 200), have been monitored at Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, since 1991 resulting in a large amount of measurements until 2009 (more than 2,000). The data amount associated with measurements dispersion, since every process has deviation, reinforces the utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results, procedure also imposed by the Brazilian Standard CNEN-NN-3.01/PR- 3.01-008 which regulates the radiometric environmental monitoring. Thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data are statistically compared in order to evaluate potential CEA's activities environmental impact. The statistical tools discussed in this work are box plots, control charts and analysis of variance. (author)

  2. Alanine/ Bromophenol Blue Polymeric Films For Radiation Dosimetry Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polymeric dyed flexible films are considered to be the most commonly used dosimeters for routine dose monitoring in ionizing-radiation processing. Dyed polymer films prepared by simple technique of casting aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) containing bromophenol blue on horizontal glass plate are useful for high dose dosimetry. Different concentrations of L-alanine were added in presence of bromophenol blue mixed inside PVA films producing a blue film. The color has a variable absorbance with applied dose in the range from 1-35 kGy. Spectrophotometric evaluation at 602 nm for the absorbance intensity of this color was investigated as a function of dose. The used work method is uncomplicated and very easy for routine application. The radiation chemical yield G (value) was calculated in the presence and absence of alanine. Humidity during irradiation was also studied. These films show a good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions

  3. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  4. Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field external beam therapy. By delivering heat and radiation simultaneously, increased synergism is expected with a TER in the range of 2-5. Lowering radiation dose by an equivalent factor may produce lower radiation toxicity with similar efficacy, while preserving the option of

  5. FDA's requirements for radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceutical drug products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary concern of the Office of Drug Research and Review of the Food and Drug Administration in the field of radiation dosimetry is to ensure that radiopharmaceutical drug products are safe when used as investigational drugs (INDs) and are both safe and effective when a new drug application (NDA) is approved. In order to accomplish this, the sponsor of either an IND or applicant in the case of NDA must provide information that clearly describes the radiation dose that a patient will receive from the administration of the drug. The submitted numerical estimates of the radiation dose should be based on an absorbed fraction method of radiation dose calculation, such as the system set forth by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine or the system set forth by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This presentation will describe in detail the data that a sponsor of an IND needs to submit to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Examples will be given of common mistakes and omissions by sponsors in their presentation of data

  6. radiation dosimetry in cases of normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive materials in various fields of medicine, industry, agriculture and researches has been increasing steadily during the last few decades. A lot of radiation sources, radiopharmaceuticals, labeled compounds and other radioactive materials are sold and used throughout the world each year. Historically, accidents have occurred during the production, transport and use of radioactive materials. If an accident does occur, it is necessary to cope with it as soon as possible in order to control radiological human exposures and contamination of the environment and to restore normal conditions. Examination of individuals that deal with radioactive isotopes should be carried out in cases of nuclear medicine units, and in other applications including radiotherapy unit and gamma irradiation facility. Identification of the feasibility and efficiency of the counting detectors of internal and external radiation dosimetry, and preparedness in normal and emergency situations are included in the present work. Furthermore, this study also deals with the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiation dose estimation for applications of gamma irradiation, and cobalt-60 treatment unit. Hence, operator dose can be estimated in case of malfunction or stuck of the radioactive source. Three methods were used to measure the radiation dose: (1) TL dosimeters with Harshaw (TLD- 4000) reader were used for measurement of external exposures. (2) FASTSCAN and (3) ACUUSCAN II whole body counters were used for measurement of internal exposures.

  7. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β1D + β2D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  8. The application of EPR dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudynski, R. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Medical Physics); Kudynska, J.; Buckmaster, H.A. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the first clinical trial of the application of the continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) spectrum of alanine to determine the radiation dose received by a patient. The results of these measurements are compared with those obtained using thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) simultaneously. The 9 GHz EPR measurements were made at 13[sup o]C. The time stability of the radiation induced radicals in alanine was confirmed. The fractionated radiation doses received in the clinical trial were determined from a calibration curve (linear regression coefficient r = 0.9995) obtained by irradiating L-alanine samples with 60-800 cGy doses using cobalt 60 gamma rays obtained from an Eldorado 8 Cobalt 60 unit at a rate of [approx] 60 cGy/min. It is shown that the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material can be determined using EPR spectroscopy with an accuracy of [approx] 3% at low dose levels (60 cGy) whereas the error using TLD is [approx] 5% and that this method of dose determination is preferable to the present TLD method because it is simpler and more accurate. (author).

  9. Dosimetry in radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M; Theis, C

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry at high-energy proton accelerators is a difficult task because of the complexity of the stray radiation field. A good knowledge of this mixed radiation field is very important to be able to select the type of detectors (active and/or passive) to be employed for routine area monitoring and to choose the personal dosimeter legally required for estimating the effective dose received by individuals. At the same time, the response function of the detectors to the mixed field must be thoroughly understood. A proper calibration of a device, which may involve a complex series of measurements in various reference fields, is needed. Monte Carlo simulations provide a complementary – and sometimes the principal – mean of determining the response function. The ambient dose equivalent rates during operation range from a few hundreds of μSv per year to a few mSv per year. To measure such rates one needs detectors of high sensitivity and/or capable of integrating over long periods. The main challenge...

  10. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  11. Whole body [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [11C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [11C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [11C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  12. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  13. DOSIMETRY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the month of May on, the neutron dosimeter will be worn in an extra package distinct from the usual film-badge. We will give you more ample information in Weekly Bulletin No. 18/2001 of April 30, 2001. In the week following Easter (17 - 20. 4. 2001) the Individual Dosimetry Service will be opened in the mornings from 8:30 to 11:30 h only. The Service will be closed on April 30.

  14. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  15. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran; Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery,it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically.This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans.Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient,it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors.During radiotherapy,treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues.To combat this,image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine.However,it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume.Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician.Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure.Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy.Realtime dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose.They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient.In external beam radiotherapy,there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained:(1)Collimator;(2)Patient;(3)Couch;and(4)Electronic Portal Imaging Device.Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information

  16. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  17. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  18. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  19. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  20. Comparison of radiation dosimetry for several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123-labeled free fatty acids, an I-123-labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but his compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123-labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3-0.4 Gy/MBq, kidneys 8.6 Gy/MBq). Doses for the I-123-labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 15 Gy/MBq, heart wall 18 Gy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4-7 Gy/MBq, heart wall 4 Gy/MBq, skeleton 15 Gy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half-life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 37 references, 11 tables

  1. Gamma radiation processing dosimetry with commercial silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work envisages the development of dosimeters based on Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry from 1 Gy up to 100 Gy. This dose range is frequently utilized in radiation processing of crystal modifications, polymers crosslinking and biological studies carried out in the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dosimeter was constructed by a commercial SFH00206 (Siemens) Si diode, operating in a photovoltaic mode, whose electrical characteristics are suitable for this application. The current generated in the device by the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation from the Irradiators types I and II was registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. In all measurements, the current signals of the diode registered as a function of the exposure time were very stable. Furthermore, the device photocurrent was linearly dependent on the dose rate within a range of 6.1x10-2 Gy/min up to 1.9x102 Gy/min. The calibration curves of the dosimeters, e.g., the average charge registered as a function of the absorbed dose were obtained by the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results showed a linear response of the dosimeter with a correlation coefficient better than 0.998 for total absorbed dose up to 120 Gy. Finally, due to the small experimental errors 5 % it was also possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalto- 60 radioactive sources in irradiation facilities used in this work. (author)

  2. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (US-1 RADIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Richards, G. F.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation exposure in space, experiments were conducted during the 1st International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission in order to isolate genetic changes in animal cells caused by cosmic rays. The space measurements were evaluated against results from synthetic cosmic rays produced by particle accelerators on the ground. The biological material used was the tiny soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The measurements were made by thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors. The development and the chromosome mechanics in microgravity were studied, and the mutagenesis induced by radiation exposure was analyzed. The results showed that there are no obvious differences in the development, behavior and chromosome mechanics, as a function of gravity unloading (reproduction, self-fertilization and mating of males with hermaphrodites, gross anatomy, symmetry and gametogenesis, pairing, disjoining and recombination of chromosomes). A variety of mutants were isolated, and it was noted that mutants isolated from regions of identified high particles were more severely affected than those isolated by random screening. Linear energy transfer particles seem to favor large scale genetic lesions.

  3. Radiation dosimetry using nano-BaSO{sub 4}:Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.; Sharma R, K. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, Benito Juarez Road, Dhaula Kuan, 110021 New Delhi (India); Bahl, S.; Kumar, P. [Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, 110029 New Delhi (India); Pal L, S., E-mail: apandey@svc.ac.in [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067 New Delhi (India)

    2015-10-15

    Nanocrystalline barium sulfate doped with europium (BaSO{sub 4}:Eu) was successfully prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique and its thermoluminescence (Tl) dosimetry characteristics were studied for gamma radiation. Initially the dopant (Eu) concentration was varied, starting from 0.05 mol % to up to 1.00 mol %, and it was found that the nano phosphor BaSO{sub 4}:Eu with the dopant concentration of 0.2 mol % had the highest sensitivity within the given lot. The nano phosphor was also optimized for its annealing temperature in order to obtain the best results and was thereafter tested for its reusability and fading features. Further the nano phosphor was compared with the commercially available standard Tl dosimeter material LiF:Mg,Ti (popularly referred to as TLD-100) and it was found that the nano phosphor not only had a higher Tl sensitivity compared to the standard material over a wide range of doses but also had a Tl response which was linear even beyond the dose of 1 kGy. Linearity in Tl response to up to such high doses (∼1 kGy) is typical of nanocrystalline Tl phosphors. All the samples were irradiated by Co-60 source (having 1.25 MeV average energy) of gamma radiation. In order to test the energy independence of the nano phosphor (an important characteristic of an ideal Tl dosimeter) further studies are being carried out to examine the response of the nano phosphor to ionizing radiations of different energies. (Author)

  4. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs

  5. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  8. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs

  9. Development of a portable triple silicon detector telescope for beta spectroscopy and skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helt-Hansen, J

    2000-11-01

    It is now recognized that beta radiation can be a significant radiation problem for exposure of the skin. There is thus a need for a portable and rugged active beta dosemeter-spectrometer to carry out immediate measurements of doses and energies of beta particles even in the presence of photon radiation. The main objective of this report is to describe the development of such an instrument. A beta-spectrometer has been developed consisting of three silicon surface barrier detectors with the thickness: 50{mu}m/150{mu}m/7000{mu}m covered by a 2 {mu}m thick titanium window. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 50 keV to 3.5 MeV. The spectrometer is characterized by a compact low weight design, achieved by digital signal processing beginning at an early stage in the signal chain. 255 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The spectrometer is controlled by a laptop computer, which also handles all subsequent data analysis. By use of coincidence/anti-coincidence considerations of the absorbed energy in the three detector elements, counts caused by electrons are separated from those originating from photons. The electron energy distribution is multiplied by a set of conversion coefficients to obtain the dose at 0.07 mm tissue. Monte Carlo calculations has been used to derive the conversion coefficients and to investigate the influence of noise and the design of detector assembly on the performance of the spectrometer. This report describes the development of the spectrometer and its mode of operation, followed by a description of the Monte Carlo calculations carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients. Finally is the capability of the telescope spectrometer to measure beta and photon spectra as well as beta dose rates in pure beta and mixed beta/photon radiation fields described. (au)

  10. Thermoluminescence and radioluminescence properties of tissue equivalent Cu-doped Li2B4O7 for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) and radioluminescence (Rl) properties of lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) doped with different concentration of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under gamma and beta irradiation has been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li2B4O7 was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and boric acid (H3BO3) and a solution of CuCl2 as dopant. The glow curve, of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li2B4O7:Cu 0.5 wt %), shows a main stable peak centered at 225 degrees C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 degrees C. The low temperature peak disappears completely after 24 hours of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 degrees C for 10 seconds. The main peak of the Li2B4O7:Cu remains constant. The Tl response of Li2B4O7:Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of Rl signals of the borate have been studied and the Li2B4O7:Cu (0.5 wt %) shown the higher Rl emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that Li2B4O7:Cu has prospects to be used in gamma and beta radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  11. Radioluminescence (RL) probe dosimetry using Al2O3:C for precise calibration of beta sources applied in luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioluminescence (RL) phenomenon is widely known as prompt luminescence or fluorescence of synthetic materials, like Al2O3 and LiF as well as of natural dosimeter materials, like feldspar and quartz, during interaction with ionising radiation, especially electron rays. Almost all of these materials show increasing RL flux with increasing absorbed beta dose. Only potassium rich feldspars (microcline and orthoclase) show a RL emission at 1.45 eV of decreasing intensity with rising delivered dose. For a number of reasons, this RL emission is suitable for dating purposes. Accuracy and reproducibility of the RL dating method are much more advantageous compared to TL and OSL methods. Carbon doped Al2O3 (TLD 500) shows a much more higher RL intensity than, e.g., feldspar and the stability of the stored electrons as well as the linearity of RL yield versus primary electron energy, qualifies this dosimeter material to be a useful tool in source calibration, using radioluminescence. However, the accuracy of a luminescence dating method depends largely on the calibration of the used irradiation sources. To prevent calibration uncertainties due to the use of natural dosimeters with a high scattering of luminescence yield, a new method is suggested. This method bases on probe dosimetry using a very small amount of Al2O3:C as probe and, consequently, the material that should be calibrated (e.g. feldspar). The amount of Al2O3:C may disturb the electron fluence within the material to be calibrated only insignificantly. The sample mix is irradiated by an exactly known Gamma or Beta radiation source and the absorbed dose is treated as absorbed dose in the appropriated material. In contrast to conventional calibration methods, the suggested performance uses the dose dependent RL signal of Al2O3:C at 3.00 eV. This shows a good reproducibility, even with a tiny amount of the applied synthetic probe material. (author)

  12. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISONS IN EXTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG EXERCISES FOR WHOLE-BODY PHOTON, WHOLE-BODY NEUTRON, EXTREMITY, EYE-LENS AND PASSIVE AREA DOSEMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana M; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Figel, Markus; Dombrowski, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. PMID:26759475

  13. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  14. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry; Les codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  15. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

    The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

  16. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  17. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: josevedelago@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica E. Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  18. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  19. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance are...... materials and detector/filter geometry. Improvements in the energy and angular response of dosemeters for the measurements of doses from beta and low energy photon radiation can be achieved essentially through two different approaches: either by using thin detectors or multi-element dosemeters. Their...

  20. The EURADOS/CONRAD activities on radiation protection dosimetry in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation gives an overview on the research activities that EURADOS coordinates in the field of radiation protection dosimetry in medicine. EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. EURADOS operates by setting up Working Groups dealing with particular topics. Currently funded through the CONRAD project of the 6th EU Framework Programme, EURADOS has working groups on Computational Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces, and Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff. The latter working group coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated by sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1: Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2: Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons, especially to determine personal doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterisation, but also in CT-fluoroscopy and some nuclear medicine developments (e.g. use of Re-188); and 3: Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (author)

  1. Dosimetry for radiation processing. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on characterization and evaluation of high dose dosimetry techniques for quality assurance in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many Member States the use of large cobalt-60 gamma ray facilities and electron beam accelerators with beam energies from about 0.1 to 10 MeV for industrial processing continues to increase. For these processes, quality assurance relies on the application of well established dosimetry systems and procedures. This is especially the case for health regulated processes, such as the radiation sterilization of health care products, and the irradiation of food to eliminate pathogenic organisms or to control insect pests. A co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated by the IAEA in June 1995. Research contracts and research agreements in areas of high dose dosimetry were initiated to meet these challenges. The major goals of this CRP were to investigate the parameters that influence the response of dosimeters and to develop reference and transfer dosimetry techniques, especially for electron beams of energy less than 4 MeV and for high energy X ray sources (up to 5 MV). These will help to unify the radiation measurements performed by different radiation processing facilities and other high dose dosimetry users in Member States and encourage efforts to obtain traceability to primary and secondary standards laboratories. It will also aim to strengthen and expand the present International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) provided by the IAEA

  2. Dosimetry services for monitoring occupational external radiation exposures at nuclear research center (1999-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry Services are performed to monitor personnel where radiation sources are used. At the Nuclear Research Center of Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, personnel monitoring are carried out by two alternative methods. These are the traditional film badge and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Dosimetry unit at radiation protection department, keeps records of doses of individuals during their work at the center. Normal monitoring periods are every three months, but can be reduced to one month. Analysis for the effective doses was carried out for the period of 1999-2003. Radiation risk estimates was evaluated for the workers of this period

  3. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  4. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for dosimetry of high-energy ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible application of amorphous chalogenide semiconductors as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energy (E>1 MeV) dosimetry systems are analyzed. It is shown that some of these materials are characterized by a broader region of absorbed doses and low-temperature thresholds of radiation induced bleaching than conventional colouring oxide glasses. (author)

  5. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for dosimetry of high-energy ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.I. [Institute of Materials, Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of New Perspective Developments

    1995-10-01

    The possible application of amorphous chalogenide semiconductors as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energy (E>1 MeV) dosimetry systems are analyzed. It is shown that some of these materials are characterized by a broader region of absorbed doses and low-temperature thresholds of radiation induced bleaching than conventional colouring oxide glasses. (author).

  6. Academic Training - The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...

  7. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  8. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  9. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade.

  10. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  11. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual’s working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  12. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  13. A Finnish national code of practice for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A national Code of Practice (CoP) for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy in Finland will be established during 2002 and will be implemented from the beginning of 2003. The CoP will cover dosimetry of the conventional radiotherapy modalities used in Finland i.e. external radiotherapy with megavoltage photon and electron beams, external radiotherapy with low energy kilovoltage X-ray beams and brachytherapy. The formalisms for external radiation beam dosimetry are those of TRS 389. For brachytherapy the formalism will follow the general guidelines of TECDOC-1274. The CoP will be prepared by the SSDL of STUK in close co-operation with the Finnish radiotherapy physicists. For external beam radiotherapy, the main objective of the national Code of Practice for radiation therapy dosimetry is to maintain the achieved good level of consistency of the dosimetry procedures in external beam radiotherapy as the 'absorbed dose to water' based approach of TRS 389 is implemented in Finland. In the CoP the dosimetry the procedures are described for the whole dosimetry chain starting from the calibration of the ionisation chambers at the SSDL of STUK and ending to the calibration of the beam monitor ionisation chamber of a linear accelerator. For brachytherapy dosimetry the aim is to fix the national practice for reference air kerma rate calibrations both for radioactive sources and for well-type ionisation chambers. Although the dosimetry procedures are described independently of the SSDL service, CoP makes use of the special features of the calibration service offered by the SSDL of STUK. For ionisation chambers used for photon dosimetry the calibration factors for the user measurement chain are given not only for the actual reference beam quality (60Co) but also for a set of user beam qualities. Furthermore, SSDL of STUK offers calibration services for plane parallel ionisation chambers in an electron beam of a user linac. For brachytherapy SSDL of STUK has

  14. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  15. Internal Dosimetry Of I-131 For Radiation Workers Based On Analysis Of The Human Urine And Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal dosimetry of I-131 for radiation workers based on analysis of the human urine, measuring radioactivity by the liquid scintillation system, and dose calculation by the specialized code has been firstly studied at the Nuclear Research Institute. Urine samples from the subjects internally contaminated with I-131 through respiratory ways were collected, chemically processed, measured beta radioactivities of I-131 by the liquid scintillation system of ALOKA-LSC-6100, and then thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body were calculated by using the specialized code of LUDEP 2.0. Based on chemically separation procedure for I-131 in urine samples and the low background HPGe gamma spectrometer of Canberra for measuring radioactivity, efficiency for chemical separation was determined to be (86.1 ± 5.0)%. The experimental results for 9 subjects with urine samples to be collected during 4 operating courses of Dalat nuclear reactor with production of I-131 (from June to September, 2010) were shown that thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body for each course of I-131 production were in ranges of from 0.11 to 13.00 mSv and from 0.01 to 0.71 mSv, respectively. Therefore, totally average doses per year for thyroid and whole-body were less than the correlative levels of permissible doses. Besides, the liquid scintillation method was also compared experimentally with the gamma spectrometry (measuring directly urine samples by the gamma spectrometer to be carried out at the Institute before) was shown that errors on dosimetric results between them were less than 12%. This was proved the dosimetry has had a confidence, and it could be applied for internal dosimetry for radiation workers contacting with unsealed sources of I-131 in radiation installations as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic patients in health ones. (author)

  16. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute...

  17. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  18. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  19. Brazilian Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ): Report 2000-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and has eight chapters: 1) history; 2) main designations and attributions; 3) metrology and assays; 4) conformity evaluation; 5) assistance to radiological and nuclear emergencies; 6) capacity and training; 7) infrastructure of information technology and 8) operational indicators

  20. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, Charlotte, E-mail: charlavender@gmail.com; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  1. Guidelines for the Calibration of Routine Dosimetry Systems for use in Radiation Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, Peter; Miller, Arne

    A set of guidelines has been developed to assist in the calibration of routine dosimetry systems for use in industrial radiation processing plants. Topics covered include the calibration of equipment, the performance of calibration irradiations and the derivation of mathematical functions...... to represent the calibration. Guidance is also given on methods for the estimation of uncertainty....

  2. A scintillating GEM for 2D-dosimetry in radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, JH; van Vuure, TL; Bom, [No Value; van Eijk, CW; de Haas, J; Schippers, JM

    2002-01-01

    The first results of a study on the properties of a gaseous scintillation detector based on a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) are reported. The detector is designed for use in position-sensitive dosimetry applications in radiation therapy. A double GEM system, operating in a 90 10% Ar-CO2 gas mixture

  3. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study

  4. Mathematics in medicine: tumor detection, radiation dosimetry, and simulation in psychotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellman, R.; Kashef, B.; Smith, C.P.; Ueno, S.; Vasudevan, R.

    1975-05-01

    Work done in the application of mathematics to medicine over the last 20 years is briefly reviewed. Scan-rescan processes, radiation dosimetry, and medical interviewing are discussed. The first uses dynamic programming, the second invariant imbedding, and the third simulation. (ACR)

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetry and of optically stimulated luminescence of diamond films grown up by the chemical vapor deposition technique exposed to beta radiation; Dosimetria termoluminiscente y de luminiscencia opticamente estimulada de peliculas de diamante crecidas por la tecnica de DVQ expuestas a radiacion beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendrez A, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    A study of the dosimetric properties through the thermoluminescence (Tl) and Optically stimulated luminescence (Lobe) in diamond films grown up by the chemical vapor deposition (Dq) techniques was realized.The films under study have thickness of 6, 12, 180 and 500 microns. The dose range was from 0 to 1.5 KGy, observing for the case of the thermoluminescent dosimetry a linear behavior in the range 0-300 Gy and a supra linearity effect in the range from 300-1500 Gy. For the case of the dosimetry by means of LOE a linear behavior in the range (0-300 Gy) without be enough for the saturation was observed, although some samples exhibit a linear behavior until 1500 Gy (6 microns). The irradiation was realized with a source of Strontium 90 of (40 mCi) and the photoestimulation for realizing the measures of LOE was realized using diodes emitting of laser light (470 nm) which generate until 50 MW/cm{sup 2}. The Tl peak which was used to realize the dosimetry such Tl as LOE was that located around 340 C degrees in the brilliance curve which presents another peaks centered around of 110, 190, and 340 C degrees, depending on the film. It was realized a study of the Tl signal drop and it was observed that after 3 hours the signal was stable reaching a decay of 15 %. the analysis of the drop in the Tl signal, immediately after to irradiate and after to photoestimulate with the blue light laser for observing the LOE, indicated that exists a fall in all the Tl peaks, decaying in greater proportion those of more low temperature. (Author)

  6. Photon dosimetry using plastic scintillators in pulsed radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott W. Watson

    2007-04-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to explore using a plastic scintillator as a dosimetry probe in the vicinity of a pulsed bremsstrahlung source in the range 4 to 20 MeV. Taking advantage of the tissue-equivalent properties of this detector in conjunction with the use of a fast digital signal processor near real-time dosimetry was shown to be possible. The importance of accounting for a broad energy electron beam in bremsstrahlung production, and photon scattering and build-up, in correctly interpreting dosimetry results at long stand-off distances is highlighted by comparing real world experiments with ideal geometry simulations. Close agreement was found between absorbed energy calculations based upon spectroscopic techniques and calculations based upon signal integration, showing a ratio between 10 MeV absorbed dose to 12 MeV absorbed dose of 0.66 at a distance of 91.4 m from the accelerator. This is compared with an idealized model simulation with a monoenergetic electron beam and without scattering, where the ratio was 0.46.

  7. Development of dose calibrators Tandem systems and establishment of beta dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quality control program at Nuclear Medicine Services includes the checking of all equipment used for diagnostics and treatment, and the individual monitoring of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations. In this work the main quality control tests were performed with three dose calibrators using standard radiation sources of 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co. Tandem systems of dose calibrators were established and characterized using four cylindrical absorbers of different materials for an additional quality control test in Nuclear Medicine. The main utility of this new test is the possibility of impurity detection in radiopharmaceuticals, when the ratio of the measurements with different absorbers is different from that obtained at the laboratory in ideal conditions. The dosimetric characteristics of three types of CaS04:Dy + Teflon pellets were studied for an appropriate choice of the material to be used for individual monitoring of workers. The thermoluminescent detectors were irradiated using beta sources of 90Sr+90Y, 204TI, 147Pm, 153Sm and 32P. A wrist badge for beta individual monitoring was developed for workers that handle beta radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine Services. (author)

  8. RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    1999-09-10

    RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

  9. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy applied to radiation dosimetry and other fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction to the theory and practice of ESR spectroscopy is given. ESR alanine dosimetry for low and high LET (linear energy transfer) ionising radiation is described, indicating its advantages over traditional methods. Problems arising in the therapy dose range (below 5 Gy), and possible future developments, are mentioned. The application of ESR to the radiation processing of materials and foodstuffs, to geological dating, biology, molecular chemistry and to medicine is discussed. Some examples of chemical analyses are also presented. (orig.)

  10. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  11. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, J.; Draganic, I.; Hering, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  12. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on neutron dosimetry. Radiation protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantities, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  13. Laboratory of research for environmental radiation and its dosimetry in the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are to learn on the methodology that should be continued for the investigation of such a specialized topic as it is a radiation laboratory and to develop the executive project of a building that contains laboratories focused to the investigation of the radiation levels in the environment and their dosimetry. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), is the place where are carried out many of the investigations related to the field of the physics and chemistry in Mexico besides being the center of nuclear research more important of Latin America and it is for that reason that here is proposed the Laboratory of Low Radiation and its Dosimetry, since the Institute accounts with the whole infrastructure and necessary safety for this type of laboratories. (Author)

  14. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  15. T violation in radiative $\\beta$ decay and electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, W G

    2015-01-01

    In radiative $\\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\\beta$ decay.

  16. Quality assurance in personal dosimetry of external radiation: present situation and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, N. [Malaysian Institue For Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Whole body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The mandate has been given to the Personal Dosimetry, (secondary standard dosimetry laboratories) S.S.D.L., (Malaysian institute for nuclear energy research) M.I.N.T. to assure the individual monitoring for radiation workers in Malaysia. In 2005, the S.S.D.L;-M.I.N.T. supply, process and read out of personal dosemeters of nearly 13,000 dosimeters monthly, whereby. 12,000 are films and 1,000 are T.L.D.s. The objective of individual monitoring is not limited to the measurement of doses delivered to individuals, but it should demonstrate that limits of exposure have not been exceeded and that working conditions have not unexpectedly deteriorated. Dosimetry measurements are an important component of radiation protection programs and must be of high quality. The exposure of workers to radiation must be controlled and monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements. S.S.D.L.-M.I.N.T; demonstrates that its performance is at an acceptable level by implementing overall system performance, as evidenced by the ISO 9001 certification of the Personal Dosimetry Service in 2002 and ISO/I.E.C. 17025 accreditation to the calibration laboratory in 2004. The certification and accreditation processes achieved the goal by formalizing the recognition of satisfactory performance, and providing evidence of this performance. Overall performances are assessed, personnel operating the system will be trained and are well qualified and all actions will be documented. The paper describes the overview of the Q.M.S. carried out at the S.S. D.L.-M.I.N.T.. During the implementation of Q.M.S. a few areas has been identified for future consideration. These include performance specification and type testing of dosemeters, which provide a

  17. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J; Stern, R L; Daly, T P; Schwieter, C W; Jones, G E; Arnold, M L; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Goldberg, Z

    2004-04-20

    We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface.

  18. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface

  19. Interaction between {beta}-Lapachone and Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Shin, Seong Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heon Joo [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    2006-07-01

    {beta}-Lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2Hnaphtho[ 1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione)({beta}-lap) was originally isolated from the bark of the Lapacho tree growing in South America (1). This drug has attracted considerable interest in recent years because of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines through a mechanism that works independent of the cell cycle of p53 status. Interestingly, {beta}-lap has been reported to react synergistically with Taxol, mitomycin C, genistein, and ionizing radiation (IR) (2-3) in vitro against cultured cancer cells. It has also been reported that {beta}-lap inhibits the repair of potentially lethal radiation damage by converting repairable single-stranded DNA breaks into repair-resistant, double-stranded DNA breaks. Thus {beta}- lap has been thought to act as a radiation sensitizer by inhibiting DNA damage repair. In the present study, we observed that IR sensitizes cancer cells to {beta}-lap. It thus appeared that the synergistic interaction of IR and {beta}-lap in killing cancer cells was due to an increase in cellular susceptibility to {beta}-lap, probably in addition to {beta}-lap. induced radiosensitization.

  20. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  1. Role for DNA polymerase beta in response to ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Cramers, P.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a role of DNA polymerase beta in determining radiosensitivity is conflicting. In vitro assays show an involvement of DNA polymerase beta in single strand break repair and base excision repair of oxidative damages, both products of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless the lack of DNA polymer

  2. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors

  3. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years ± 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V0-20Gy, V20-40Gy, V40-65Gy) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V0-20Gy, p = 0.01; V20-40Gy, p 40-65Gy, p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location

  4. Ion storage dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  5. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TLD is used for Radiation Dosimetry, the calibration curve is produced by plotting increasing TL intensity as function of dose. There are cases where the TL intensity decreases as dose increases and can be used in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals we can show that if we irradiate with increasing γ-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If we take one of these crystals and irradiate with dose Dm and we irradiate with doses from low values up to 400-500 Gy we obtain a curve of decreasing TL intensity, such curve can be used as calibration curve. (authors)

  6. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation with thermoluminescence dosimetry system in Turkey, In 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual annual dose information on classified workers who are occupationally exposed to extended radiation sources by using thermoluminescence dosimetry system, in Turkey, was assessed and analysed by the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre (ANAEM) dosimetry service at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) for the year 2003. A total of 3721 persons were monitored with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using TLD technology in 2003. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in different fields of activities and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. (authors)

  7. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garduño, O. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Suárez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT® radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  8. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region

  9. Cerium-activated sol–gel silica glasses for radiation dosimetry in harsh environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Helou, Nissrine Al; Bouwmans, Géraud; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Duhamel, Olivier; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Mahiou, Rachid; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Cerium-doped silica glass has been prepared for ionizing radiation dosimetry applications, using the sol–gel route and densification under different atmospheres. In comparison with the glass densified under air atmosphere, the one obtained after sintering the xerogel under helium gas presents improved optical properties, with an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield up to 33%, which is attributed to a higher Ce3+ ions concentration. Such a glassy rod has been jacketed in a quartz tube and then drawn at high temperature to a cane, which has been used as active material in a fibered remote x-ray radiation dosimeter. The sample exhibited a reversible linear radioluminescence intensity response versus the dose rate up to 30 Gy s‑1. These results confirm the potentialities of this material for in vivo or high rate dose remote dosimetry measurements.

  10. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  11. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?)waterair, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?)waterair can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy of

  12. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance; Dosimetria de radiaciones ionizantes por resonancia paramagnetica electronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  13. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry; Codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  14. Radiochromic film containing methyl viologen for radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.G.;

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films containing methyl viologen (MV2+) that colours blue upon exposure to ionizing radiation were investigated as possible dosimeters for use in radiation processing applications. In order to find the most suitable composition of the PVA-MV2+ film, different concentrati......Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films containing methyl viologen (MV2+) that colours blue upon exposure to ionizing radiation were investigated as possible dosimeters for use in radiation processing applications. In order to find the most suitable composition of the PVA-MV2+ film, different...

  15. Optimization of the preparation method of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and study of its thermoluminescent properties to be used in ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the preparation and dosimetric properties of the thermoluminescence phosphor LiF doped with magnesium, copper and phosphorus are studied. In chapter 1 luminescence phenomenon in solids is described, emphasizing the importance of thermally stimulated luminescence known as thermoluminescence (TL) as well as its application in ionizing radiation dosimetry. The models used to determine the kinetics parameters in the TL phenomenon are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, the dosimetric characteristics of a TL materials and its requirements for dosimetry are analyzed. The preparation method of LiF: Mg, Cu, P is presented in chapter 4 studying its general characteristics for dosimetry. The concentrations of dopants, glow curve structure, TL response to gamma, beta and alpha exposures are studied along with those of LiF: Mg, Cu, P prepared for other authors and with those of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100). The kinetic parameters of the phosphor were determined by the deconvolution method. Pellets of this new phosphor powder were made by pressing it at room temperature and sintering in inert atmosphere at 700 Centigrade degrees. Dosimetric characteristics of these pellets were also studied. Chapter 5 presents the results and conclusions of this study. The new dosimeter exhibited three peaks in its glow curve at 140, 180 and 220 Centigrade degrees respectively. Its TL response to gamma radiation was linear from 43.5 μ Gy to 100 Gy. This dosimeter is reusable and stable without significant loss of sensitivity. Its sensitivity was about 30 times higher than that of TLD-100. Fading of this dosimeter was negligible at room temperature as well as at body temperature (37 Centigrade degrees), and 65% at 60 Centigrade degrees. In conclusion, this dosimeter meets all the requirements of the ANSI standard. These and other characteristics render this dosimeter useful in diverse applications of radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  16. Methodology development for dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators;Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para dosimetria de aplicadores de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    The {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y applicators, used in beta therapy for prevention of keloids and pterigio, are imported and its dosimetric features are only illustrated by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents a methodology development for dosimetry in two {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y beta therapy applicators of the Amersham brand. The Monte Carlo code MCNP 4 C was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves. The experimental measurements of the radiation attenuation had been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber. The results of the experimental measures had been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage deep dose curves, the theoretical and the experimental ones, had presented similar behavior, which may validate the use of the MCNP 4 C for these simulations, strengthening the usage of this method at procedures of dosimetry of these beta radiation sources. (author)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  18. Self-expanding stent effects on radiation dosimetry in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samual R; Anker, Christopher J; Wang, Brian; Williams, Greg V; Cox, Kristen; Adler, Douglas G; Shrieve, Dennis C; Salter, Bill J

    2013-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to evaluate how self-expanding stents (SESs) affect esophageal cancer radiation planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients were evaluated, for whom a SES was placed before radiation. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained before stent placement was fused to the post-stent CT simulation scan. Three methods were used to represent pre-stent PTVs: 1) image fusion (IF), 2) volume approximation (VA), and 3) diameter approximation (DA). PTVs and OARs were contoured per RTOG 1010 protocol using Eclipse Treatment Planning software. Post-stent dosimetry for each patient was compared to approximated pre-stent dosimetry. For each of the three pre-stent approximations (IF, VA, and DA), the mean lung and liver doses and the estimated percentages of lung volumes receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 30 Gy, and heart volumes receiving 40 Gy were significantly lower (p-values benefits for treating patients with significant dysphagia, physicians considering stent placement and radiation therapy must realize the effects stents can have on the dosimetry. PMID:23835387

  19. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  20. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  1. Bio-dosimetry for radiation-exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of civil populations to genotoxic chemicals or radioactive hazard is an increased concern. It is not only an industrial risk (chemistry plant accident for example) but also a national security problem due to the threat of radiological and nuclear terrorism. It is important to anticipate the need of a bio-dosimetry tool aimed at identifying exposed population in the absence of acute syndrome, in order to assure the medical care that would prevent carcinogenic consequences. DNA repair is a bio-marker of exposure to geno-toxics in individuals. A DNA repair signature can be assessed from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) that reflects the exposure history of the individuals, using a functional enzymatic assay on bio-chip. A proof of concept was obtained using PBMCs from patients undergoing radiotherapy regimen. We identified two classes of responses among patients, if we except a very atypical signature in one patient that could reflect defects in DNA repair. Interestingly, repair of the major oxidative lesions increased during the course of the radiotherapy. We propose to implement this fast, quantitative, possibly automatized assay to identify bio-markers of exposure to geno-toxics and to validate the exposure bio-markers through ex vivo exposure of blood from volunteers. (authors)

  2. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.bartzsch@icr.ac.uk; Oelfke, Uwe [The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble Cedex 9 38043 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  3. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Guan, Hui; Dong, Yuanli; Xing, Ligang; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis. Methods We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems. Results Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy). The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity. Conclusion Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. PMID:26869804

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure and individual radiosensitivity in people exposed to radiation using methods of physical and biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined people professionally in contact with sources of ionizing radiation.The incidence of chromosomal aberrations, the radionuclide content in the urine of the radiochemical method and calculation of internal doses based on the results of direct measurement of the concentration of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am using human radiation spectrometer (HRS). According to the results of physical and biological dosimetry identified individual cumulative doses and the ratio defined cohort surveyed by radiosensitivity Key words: chromosomal aberrations, physical methods of dosimetry, radiation sensitivity, ionizing radiation, biodosimetry

  5. Dosimetry methods for the estimation of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations, by their nature, have required for their detection the use of suitable devices generically referred detecting systems. The detection of secondary particles arising during the processes of ionization and excitation to the passage of radiation in the environment, have constituted the basis of the measurement methods. A detector system is a device that converts the energy of the incident radiation on a signal (electrical, photochemical, etc.) that is easily processable from the technological point of view, but without distorting the original information. These devices have provided qualitative or quantitative information about the radiation of interest. The detector system is a set of a detector together with a processing system. This system has based its operation in methods of: gas ionization, scintillation, semiconductor, film, thermoluminescence, among others. (author)

  6. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  7. Radiation dosimetry in developing a radioactive stent for therapeutic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Jang Hee; Chung, Wee Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Research Goal: A new radioation therapy protocol of the esophageal carcinoma has been proposed. A metal stent coated with beta-emitting radioisotope would be inserted into the lesion of malignant esophageal obstruction and irradiate it. In this study, dose to the esophageal wall is estimated to suggest the selection of radioisotope, total activity, and the activity distribution pattern over the stent. Result: Dose distribution of the esophageal wall is determined by the energy spectrum of beta particles emitted from the radioisotope used in the stent activation. The endpoint energy of the beta spectrum corresponds to a range in liquid water, which determines the depth into the esophageal wall where the dose is significant. With a stent of constant areal activity density, dose to the esophageal wall increases with an increasing stent height until reaching a saturation value. Dose is maximum at the esophageal wall surface. The degree of dose decreasing as the target moves into the esophageal wall varies among different radioisotopes. However, dose decreases by similar degree among different radioisotopes as the target moves from the stent central height toward the stent end. For a stent of 2 cm in diameter, more than 4 cm in heigh, and 10 {mu}Ci/cm{sup 2} in activity, dose at the esophageal wall surface and at the stent central height is {approx}70 Gy, {approx}60 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}25 Gy, and {approx}15 Gy for {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 32}P, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 192}Ir, respectively. Applications: Dose estimates provided in this study and the experimental results from the researchers at Yonsei University, who applied the radioactive stent to animals, will be used to analyze the relationship between the stent design and the corresponding therapeutic effect. This helps utilizing the new protocol of treating the esophageal carcinoma. 37 refs., 18 tabs., 27 figs. (author)

  8. Development of ion exchange membrane for possible use in radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polyvinylbutyral (PVB) film has been carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. The grafted film of PVB-g-PAAc was allowed to react with solutions of two ionic dyes (ion exchange), namely brilliant green (BG) or methylene green (MEG). The results show that these new dosimeter films of PVBBG and PVBMEG may be useful for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications. We concluded that, the useful absorbed dose range of the dyed films extends up to about 400 and 300 kGy respectively. (author)

  9. Radiation chemistry of L-Alanine: application to EPR dosimetry (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy ionizing radiation leaves stable radicals to certain organic materials, such as alanine and tartrate. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification and quantification of these radiation-induced radicals. An EPR method has been applied to study the radical characteristics of L-alanine after gamma radiation dose in the range of ∼mGy to 60 kGy. The free radicals induced by gamma radiation were fairly stable, and EPR intensity, radical concentration, was proportional to the absorbed dose up to 60 kGy. From the results of our EPR measurements, it can be concluded that an alanine/EPR method is a useful technique for gamma radiation dosimetry from very low to high dose range

  10. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis; Dosimetria biologica de las radiaciones ionizantes mediante el analisis de aberraciones cromosomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y ={alpha} + {beta}{sub 1}D + {beta}{sub 2}D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. A new highly sensitive low-Z LiF-based OSL phosphor for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new low-Z lithium fluoride-based optical stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor is developed. The phosphor shows good OSL properties, and its sensitivity is comparable with that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.) phosphor. For the luminescence averaged over initial 3 s, blue stimulated luminescence (BSL) and green stimulated luminescence (GSL) sensitivities were found to be 0.27 and 4 times, respectively, than that of Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.). The BSL decay is fast, and the whole signal decays within 3 s; the GSL decay is relatively slow, and the signal decays in 25 s. The fast decay, good sensitivity, good linearity and its near tissue equivalence (Zeff ∼8.14) will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry particularly in personnel as well as in medical dosimetry. (authors)

  12. Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Proceedings of an International Symposium. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is employed in a wide variety of applications and processes in technologically advanced countries. Dosimetry is the science of measuring ionizing radiation and understanding it is essential for the safe and effective use of nuclear technology. Medical radiation dosimetry deals with those applications in which patients are irradiated. These proceedings embody a selection of refereed papers that were presented at the International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry held in Vienna from 9 to 12 November 2010. More than 370 delegates representing 66 Member States, 45 observers and 12 international and professional organizations attended the meeting, at which 75 oral presentations were delivered, 4 round table discussions were held and 187 posters were presented. Owing to its dual role in disseminating radiation measurement standards and verifying the accuracy of dosimetry applied at the hospital level, the IAEA is well positioned to convene international meetings focused on dosimetry. The previous meeting was held in Vienna in November 2002. Since then, three major developments have helped progress medical radiation dosimetry. Firstly, Member States have rapidly adopted new treatment technologies, e.g. intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and they have continued to acquire sophisticated diagnostic capabilities, e.g. computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography scanning. Unfortunately, the adoption of these technologies has not always been trouble-free. News stories in various countries have highlighted radiation accidents during IMRT due to dosimetric errors. In addition, overuse of CT scanning and failure to adopt clinical protocols appropriate to patient size, particularly in paediatric cases, have caused concern. Measurement of radiation dose properly necessitates adoption of new technologies and, consequently, much research has been devoted to improving dosimetry, particularly

  13. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument

  14. Survey instrument response to beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available survey instruments do not have the beta measurement characteristics needed for accurate dose rate assessments. Such instruments have severe angular and energy dependence. In addition, beta measurements often require corrections for the source geometry response of the detector to permit accurate assessments. Studies were performed to characterize present instruments and to determine optimum characteristics for a field instrument. Results of the studies were used to specify and procure an instrument with improved characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of the studies and the design of the instrument. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Study of radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in quartz and its possible use in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new EPR dosimetry system has been developed based on the radiation-formed stable paramagnetic centers in quartz. The first part of the thesis includes the preparation of quartz rods (diameter = 3 mm, length = 10 mm) where quartz powder was mixed with molten mixture of paraffin wax and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The binding-mixture EVA / paraffin do not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation to high doses. The quartz rods were prepared by different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 %). The rods (30 %) show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. The second part is concerned with studying the dosimetric characteristics of gamma irradiation sensitive rods where the radiation-formed stable free radicals (E-center, peroxy radical and non-bridging oxygen hole center) which analyzed by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. Unirradiated rods have no EPR signals. The useful dose range of these rods was found to range from 0.1 to 80 kGy depending on concentration of quartz powder, indicating their suitability for low and high dose gamma radiation applications. Also it was found that quartz rod exhibits a linear dose response in the dose regions 0.1-2.34 and 2.34-26 kGy at optimum EPR parameters. The dosimeter response was assessed using the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first-derivatives EPR spectrum. Its EPR signal was found unchanged in shape with different doses and different concentrations. A signal line spectrum attributed to the E-center was observed after irradiation, and this radical is insensitive to temperature, light independence as well as it have a very low decay (4.768 % per year). The overall uncertainty for quartz rod dosimeters at 2σ (σ is standard deviation) was found to be 3.8436 %. The dosimetric parameters, e. g. dose response, effect of temperature during irradiation on response as well as pre- and post-irradiation stability at different storage conditions

  16. Cost effective distributed computing for Monte Carlo radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An inexpensive computing facility has been established for performing repetitive Monte Carlo simulations with the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes of linear accelerator beams, for calculating effective dose from diagnostic imaging procedures and of ion chambers and phantoms used for the Australian high energy absorbed dose standards. The facility currently consists of 3 dual-processor 450 MHz processor PCs linked by a high speed LAN. The 3 PCs can be accessed either locally from a single keyboard/monitor/mouse combination using a SwitchView controller or remotely via a computer network from PCs with suitable communications software (e.g. Telnet, Kermit etc). All 3 PCs are identically configured to have the Red Hat Linux 6.0 operating system. A Fortran compiler and the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes are available on the 3 PCs. The preparation of sequences of jobs utilising the Monte Carlo codes is simplified using load-distributing software (enFuzion 6.0 marketed by TurboLinux Inc, formerly Cluster from Active Tools) which efficiently distributes the computing load amongst all 6 processors. We describe 3 applications of the system - (a) energy spectra from radiotherapy sources, (b) mean mass-energy absorption coefficients and stopping powers for absolute absorbed dose standards and (c) dosimetry for diagnostic procedures; (a) and (b) are based on the transport codes BEAM and FLURZnrc while (c) is a Fortran/EGS code developed at ARPANSA. Efficiency gains ranged from 3 for (c) to close to the theoretical maximum of 6 for (a) and (b), with the gain depending on the amount of 'bookkeeping' to begin each task and the time taken to complete a single task. We have found the use of a load-balancing batch processing system with many PCs to be an economical way of achieving greater productivity for Monte Carlo calculations or of any computer intensive task requiring many runs with different parameters. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and

  17. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  18. The application of radiation-induced free radicals signals in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some materials and biological samples, free radicals can be induced after ionizing radiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy can detect free radical signal and its intensity can reflect the dose of the ionizing radiation. It is a typical way to estimate the radiation dosimetry by using the ESR spectroscopy of teeth. In recent years, many researchers studied on ESR of easy-getting materials such as finger (toe) nail, hair, cell phone screen, in order to investigate the relationship between signal intensity and radiation dose. The aim of this paper is to survey the current literature about methodologies and the materials on background signal, linearity of dose-response relationship, minimum detection limit and post-irradiation signal stability, so that more data will be provided for nuclear accident dose estimation. (authors)

  19. Age-dependent small-animal internal radiation dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Rats at various ages were observed to present with different radiosensitivity and bioavailability for radiotracers commonly used in preclinical research. We evaluated the effect of age-induced changes in body weight on radiation dose calculations. A series of rat models at different age periods were constructed based on the realistic four-dimensional digital rat whole-body (ROBY) computational model. Particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fractions (AFs) a...

  20. Cytogenetic effects of low ionising radiation doses and biological dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gricienė, Birutė

    2010-01-01

    The intensive use of ionising radiation (IR) sources and development of IR technology is related to increased exposure and adverse health risk to workers and public. The unstable chromosome aberration analysis in the group of nuclear energy workers (N=84) has shown that doses below annual dose limit (50 mSv) can induce chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Significantly higher frequencies of the total chromosome aberrations were determened in the study group when compa...

  1. Radiation dosimetry using junction field-effect transistor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of junction field effect transistors (JFET) has been studied by connecting them in a bridge circuit. With a suitable back-up circuit, it was possible to measure doses as well as dose-rates. It was possible to alter the sensitivity of the JFET bridge by varying the biasing components of the JFET. Easy temperature compensation was also possible. However, response of the JFET to radiation showed energy dependency similar to that of semiconductor diodes. (author)

  2. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 μM. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry. - highlights: • Our biosensor is able to measure produced superoxide radical during water radiolysis. • It has suitable linearity range, good detection limit and long term stability. • It also has proper sensitivity and high performance for low LET ionizing radiation. • The electrochemical method is as good as traditional methods for radiation dosimetry

  3. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Luxemburgo Hospital, Mario Penna Institute, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  4. Obtention of a thermoluminescent material for dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters are small crystals which suffer changes in their structure by the radiation effect, being displaced the electrons toward higher energy levels. On heating the previously irradiated crystals, the electrons come back to their base state emitting light photons. The light quantity emitted is proportional to the received radiation dose. The light quantity emitted is proportional to the received radiation dose. The lithium fluoride is one of the thermoluminescent materials considered as tissue equivalents by having a low effective atomic number (Zef). At present, the more used commercial product used of this type is the TLD-100*. In this work the obtained results in the preparation of the lithium fluoride thermoluminescent material are presented. This is activated with magnesium (Mg) and titanium (Ti), which we have labelled as: LiF: Mg, Ti. The results from the tests performed for verifying his thermoluminescent properties are presented too, as powder form as in pellets form. These tests were performed in simultaneous form with TLD-100 samples, which is considered as reference. The LiF: Mg, Ti thermoluminescent material manufactured in the ININ presents similar dosimetric characteristics to those ones of the TLD-100. Therefore being able to replace the imported dosemeters. * (TLD-100 is a commercial trademark registered by Harshaw/Filtrol (US) for LiF: Mg, Ti Tl dosemeters) (Author)

  5. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Instituto Mario Penna, Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Hospital Luxemburgo

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  6. What happens when spins meet for ionizing radiation dosimetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Juliana F.; Neves-Junior, Wellington F. P.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to measure radiation dose deposited in different milieu through its effects. Radiation can break chemical bonds and if they produce stable free radicals, ESR can measure their concentration through their spins and a dose can be inferred. Ionizing radiation can also promote polymerization and in this case proton relaxation times can be measured and an image weighed by T2 can be produced giving spatial information about dose. A review of the basics of these applications is presented concluding with an end-to-end test using a composite Gel-Alanine phantom to validate 3-dimensionally dose distribution delivered in a simulation of Volume Modulated Arch Therapy on the simultaneous treatment of multiple brain metastases. The results obtained with the gel and alanine dosimeters are consistent with the expected by the treatment planning system, showing the potential of this multidosimetric approach and validating dosimetrically the multiple brain metastases treatment using VMAT.

  7. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams (37Cs and 60Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation (90Sr+9'0Y e 204Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  8. Pitfalls and modelling inconsistencies in computational radiation dosimetry: Lessons learnt from the QUADOS intercomparison. Part II: Photons, electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'QUADOS', a concerted action of the European Commission, has promoted an intercomparison aimed at evaluating the use of computational codes for dosimetry in radiation protection and medical physics. This intercomparison was open to all users of radiation transport codes. Eight problems were selected for their relevance to the radiation dosimetry community, five of which involved photon and proton transport. This paper focuses on a discussion of lessons learned from the participation in solving the photon and charged particle problems. The lessons learned from the participation in solving the neutron problems are presented in a companion paper (in this issue). (authors)

  9. Internal radiation dosimetry of orally administered radiotracers for the assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide imaging using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm is commonly undertaken for the clinical investigation of gastric emptying, intestinal motility and whole gut transit. However the documented evidence concerning internal radiation dosimetry for such studies is not readily available. This communication documents the internal radiation dosimetry for whole gastrointestinal transit studies using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm labeled formulations. The findings were compared to the diagnostic reference levels recommended by the United Kingdom Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee, for gastrointestinal transit studies. - Highlights: • Internal radiation dose estimates for radionuclide GI transit were calculated. • The ICRP 30 GI tract model, MIRDOSE 3.1 and OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software applications were used. • The calculated equivalent dose and effective dose for organs were reported. • The radiation doses among 153Sm, 111In and 99mTc formulations were compared. • The calculated doses were in good agreement with the ARSAC published values

  10. Monte Carlo simulation for internal radiation dosimetry based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese models is important in nuclear medicine. Most of the existing models are based on the physical and anatomical data of Caucasian, whose anatomical structure and physiological parameters are quite different from the Chinese, may lead significant effect on internal radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the model based on the Chinese ethnic characteristics, and applied to radiation dosimetry calculation. In this study, a voxel model was established based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The transport procedure of photon and electron was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were calculated and S-factors and mean absorbed doses for organs with 99mTc located in liver were also obtained. In comparison with those of VIP-Man and MIRD models, discrepancies were found to be correlated with the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The internal dosimetry data based on other models that were used to apply to Chinese adult population are replaced with Chinese specific data. The obtained results provide a reference for nuclear medicine, such as dose verification after surgery and potential radiation evaluation for radionuclides in preclinical research, etc. (authors)

  11. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  12. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  13. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  14. EURADOS trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU was accomplished. This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (Hp(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discussed in detail the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test. (author)

  15. Dosimetry under pencil eye shields for cobalt-60 radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenery, S.G.; Leung, P.M.K.

    1981-05-01

    The use of pencil eye shields to reduce the dose to the anterior chamber of the eye during radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 beams has been evaluated. It was found that the optimum shield placement is about 1 cm from the surface. This keeps the size of the penumbra and the effect of electron contamination at a minimum. The dose under such shields is mainly produced by the transmission through the shield and the scattered radiation both from within the phantom and from the collimator. While the scattered component is a function of the beam size and otherwise cannot be altered, the transmission can easily be reduced to a negligible level.

  16. Quality assurance programme in the external dosimetry laboratory of the center for radiation protection of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the central dosimetry service of the country, which assures the individual monitoring on a monthly basis of about 5500 workers in 1000 establishments and maintains the National Dose Registry System. A project for upgrading the personal dosimetry service was started in 2000. In March 2001 film dosimeters began to gradually replaced by TLDs, the latter becoming the only official dosimeter a year later. In order to maintain quality and ensure compliance with regulations and international recommendations, a quality assurance culture has been introduced into the laboratory and quality requirements have been developed and implemented in the daily work through the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) programme. The design of the QA programme is based on the criteria contained in the ISO, on the recommendations of the IEC, and IAEA, as well as on regulations of the National Accreditation Council. The present study deals with the structure of the Laboratory's QA programme and includes documentation, organizational and managerial aspects as well as the procedures that are implemented. The experience gained during the years of the use of the QA programme is also described. (author)

  17. Response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeter to beta radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Munish; Gupta, Anil; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative estimate of the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters (DRDs) to various beta sources was performed. It has been established that the ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters do not respond to beta particles having energy (Emax)1 MeV, the DRDs exhibit measureable response and the values are ~8%, ~14% and ~27% per mSv for natural uranium, (90)Sr/(90)Y and (106)Ru/(106)Rh beta sources respectively. As the energy of the beta particles increases, the response also increases. The response of DRDs to beta particles having energy>1 MeV arises due to the fact that the thickness of the chamber walls is less than the maximum range of beta particles. This may also be one of the reasons for disparity between doses measured with passive/legal dosimeters (TLDs) and DRDs in those situations in which radiation workers are exposed to mixed field of gamma photons and beta particles especially at uranium processing plants, nuclear (power and research) reactors, waste management facilities and fuel reprocessing plants etc. The paper provides the reason (technical) for disparity between the doses recorded by TLDs and DRDs in mixed field of photons and beta particles.

  18. Radiation dosimetry properties of smart-phone CMOS sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past years, several smart-phone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smart-phone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h-1. Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. (authors)

  19. Use of Cresol Red Indicator for Gamma Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the development of a new gamma-radiation dosimeter, which is a 2.08 10-5M solution of cresol red indicator (α -cresol sulphonephthalein, mol. weight =382.4) either in alkaline on in acidic medium .A specially designed wooden rack was used to hold the tubes at the central spatial position of the irradiation chamber, in order to get a good reproducibility and accuracy of the measured absorbed radiation doses. The γmax value was 575 nm in alkaline, 425 nm in neutral and 523 nm in acidic solution. The indicator solution was found to be stable within 4 weeks and perhaps within longer periods of time. The stability was also maintained against temperature changes within ± 5 degree. The calculated G-value was found to be 5.45 7 X 10-2 100ev)-1 in the basic solution and 0.1634(100ev)-1-1 in the acidic solution.

  20. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  1. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  2. Physics and dosimetry aspects of synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is a growing need in the use of accelerators for various applications in the field of medicine, industry, defense, environmental sciences, food processing and in basic and applied research. Electron accelerators are widely used nowadays in the field of diagnosis, therapy, radiography, basic research, production of synchrotron radiation etc. For applications in medicine, industry and food processing, the energy of the accelerated electrons is usually less than about 10 MeV whereas it may extend to several TeV for research applications. Most of the high energy accelerators use radio-frequency for the acceleration and hence the particle beam is bunched or pulsed. The increase in the use of such machines with higher accelerated energy and pulsed in nature raises several safety issues

  3. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  4. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: isechop@emory.edu [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  5. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  6. Real-time dosimetry system in catheterisation laboratory: utility as a learning tool in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Workers at the catheter laboratory are among the most exposed to ionising radiation in hospitals. However, it is difficult to be certain of the radiation doses received by the staff, as personal dosemeters are often misused, and thus, the dose history is not reliable. Moreover, the information provided by personal dosemeters corresponds to the monthly accumulated dose, so corrective actions tends to be delayed. The purpose of this work is, on the one hand, to use a real-time dosimetry system to establish the occupational doses per procedure of workers at the catheter laboratories and, on the other hand, to evaluate its utility as a learning tool for radiation protection purposes with the simultaneous video recording of the interventions. (authors)

  7. Multi-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor for ocular proton therapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, K.W.; Yoo, W.J.; Moon, J.; Han, K.T. [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, B.G. [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.; Park, S-Y. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B., E-mail: bslee@kku.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-11

    In this study, we fabricated a multi-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor, which consists of organic scintillators, plastic optical fibers and a water phantom with a polymethyl methacrylate structure for the ocular proton therapy dosimetry. For the purpose of sensor characterization, we measured the spread out Bragg-peak of 120 MeV proton beam using a one-dimensional sensor array, which has 30 fiber-optic radiation sensors with a 1.5 mm interval. A uniform region of spread out Bragg-peak using the one-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor was obtained from 20 to 25 mm depth of a phantom. In addition, the Bragg-peak of 109 MeV proton beam was measured at the depth of 11.5 mm of a phantom using a two-dimensional sensor array, which has 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 sensor array with a 0.5 mm interval.

  8. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry; Optimisation de la radioprotection en medecine nucleaire: de la dosimetrie de reference a la dosimetrie personnalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-09-09

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  9. A portable electronic system for radiation dosimetry using electrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, P.E.; Mascarenhas, S. (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos (Brazil)); Cameron, J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA))

    1990-02-15

    An electret dosimeter with a cylindrical active volume has been introduced by Mascarenhas and collaborators for possible use in personnel and area monitoring. The full energy response curve as well as the degree of reproducibility and accuracy of the dosimeter are reported in a previous report. For dimensions similar to those of the common pen dosimeter, the electret has a total surface charge of the order of 10{sup -9} C and it has a readout sensitivity of the order of 10{sup -5} Gy with a useful range of 5x10{sup -2} Gy. In this paper we describe a portable electronic system to measure X and {gamma}-rays using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber. It uses commerically available operational amplifiers, and charge measurements can also be made by connecting a suitable capacitor in the feedback loop. With this system it is possible to measure equivalent surface charges up to (19.99{plus minus}0.01) on the dosimeter. The readout doses are shown on a 3 1/2 digit liquid crystal display (LCD). We have used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar metal oxide semiconductor (BiMOS) operational amplifier devices in the stystem's design. This choice provides small power consumption and is ideal for battery powered instruments. Furthermore the instrument is ideally suited for in situ measurements of X and {gamma} radiation using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber. (orig.).

  10. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) after ionizing radiation; Regulation der Glykogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) nach ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, K.A.

    2006-12-15

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) phosphorylates the Mdm2 protein in the central domain. This phosphorylation is absolutely required for p53 degradation. Ionizing radiation inactivates GSK-3{beta} by phosphorylation at serine 9 and in consequence prevents Mdm2 mediated p53 degradation. During the work for my PhD I identified Akt/PKB as the kinase that phosphorylates GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at threonine 308 and serine 473. The PI3 Kinase inhibitor LY294002 completely abolished Akt/PKB serine 473 phosphorylation and prevented the induction of GSK-3{beta} serine 9 phosphorylation after ionizing radiation. Interestingly, the most significant activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation occurred in the nucleus while cytoplasmic Akt/PKB was only weakly activated after radiation. By using siRNA, I showed that Akt1/PKBa, but not Akt2/PKB{beta}, is required for phosphorylation of GSK- 3{beta} at serine 9 after ionizing radiation. Phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB after ionizing radiation depends on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of the PI3 Kinase family, that is activated by free DNA ends. Both, in cells from SCID mice and after knockdown of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at serine 473 and of GSK-3{beta} at serine 9 was completely abolished. Consistent with the principle that phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9 contributes to p53 stabilization after radiation, the accumulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation was largely prevented by downregulation of DNA-PK. From these results I conclude, that ionizing radiation induces a signaling cascade that leads to Akt1/PKBa activation mediated by DNA-PK dependent phosphorylation of serine 473. After activation Akt1/PKBa phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3{beta} in the nucleus. The resulting hypophosphorylated form of Mdm2 protein is no longer

  11. A study of radiation dosimetry for child in dentistry, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients in pedodontics usually do not appeal appropriately the symptom of their own disease because of their immaturness. For this reason X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. It is considered that radiation injury for children is generally more severe than that for adults under the same exposure dose. Therefore it is necessary to detect the effective minimum exposure dose as accurately as possible for protection. The exposure dose was surveyed by use of TLD combined with the 6-films technique for children (child intraoral technique) currently used in the dental clinic. Firstry the reliability of TLD, the effect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested. Secondly the distribution of exposure dose in the intraoral technique for children was examined by water phantom. The following results were obtained. 1. It was necessary to select the stabilized TLD as the measuring values were comparatively scattered. 2. Measuring of the effect of scattered rays showed that it was the least in use of Pb, value of which was 101 for air dose 100. This indicated that Pb was the best for scatter protection. 3. For the indicator dependence it was unnecessary to adjust the glancing angle in case it was below 60 degrees. 4. TLD showed a stable result even in the increased time of exposure, and at the same time there was no error with the electric timer. 5. The result of the basic experiment of water phantom required further investigation as to the overlapped exposure in treatment of child patients with much smaller dental arches where the irradiation field was bigger than in that of adult patients with larger dental arches. (author)

  12. A portable electronic system for radiation dosimetry using electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, P. E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Cameron, J.

    1990-02-01

    An electret dosimeter with a cylindrical active volume has been introduced by Mascarenhas and collaborators [Proc. 10th Anniversary Conf. 1969-1979, Associacâo Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, p. 488; Topics Appl. Phys. 33 (1987) 321] for possible use in personnel and area monitoring. The full energy response curve as well as the degree of reproducibility and accuracy of the dosimeter are reported in a previous report [O. Guerrini, Master Science Thesis, São Carlos, USP-IFQSC (1982)]. For dimensions similar to those of the common pen dosimeter, the electret has a total surface charge of the order of 10 -9 C and it has a readout sensitivity of the order of 10 -5 Gy with a useful range of 5 × 10 -2 Gy. In this paper we describe a portable electronic system to measure X and γ-rays using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber. It uses commercially available operational amplifiers, and charge measurements can also be made by connecting a suitable capacitor in the feedback loop. With this system it is possible to measure equivalent surface charges up to (19.99±0.01) on the dosimeter. The readout doses are shown on a 3 {1}/{2} digit liquid crystal display (LCD). We have used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar metal oxide semiconductor (BiMOS) operatonal amplifier devices in the system's design. This choice provides small power consumption and is ideal for battery powered instruments. Furthermore the instrument is ideally suited for in situ measurements of X and γ radiation using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber.

  13. Performance studies of an optical fiber OSL/RL dosimetry system in pulsed high-intensity radiation beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Dusseau, Laurent; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Glaser, Maurice; Ravotti, Federico

    2010-01-01

    The SrS:Ce,Sm phosphor is suitable for operation in harsh radiation environments where real-time dosimetry measurements are needed to survey the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) damage in electronic components. For these applications, the OSL and RL emissions from this phosphor can be exploited by mounting the SrS crystal at the edge of a single, radiation-hard, optical fiber. In this work we present an exhaustive characterization of this real-time OSL/RL probe including stability, repeatability of the measured signals, dosimetry performance and measurements of the temporal behavior of the RI signal in pulsed particle beams. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  15. Dosimetry requirements in support of an in-reactor radiation chemistry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactors are now used as radiation sources in a wide range of studies. In some, the changes observed result from the interaction of the irradiated material with only one type of radiation present in the reactor; in others, a number of different radiations may produce the observed effect. In any investigation of the effects of radiation on matter, it is necessary to know the spectrum of the radiation used. This information should be available in the form of the variation of photon or particle flux density with photon or particle energy. The amount of change observed in an irradiated material will always be the product of the radiation flux density and an interaction function, integrated over the radiation spectrum. The nature of this interaction function will vary with the type of study being performed. The radiation spectra in reactors are complex in form and cover wide ranges of photon and particle energies. Given sufficient information about the fission reaction, and about the geometry and materials of construction of a reactor, it is possible, in principle, to calculate the spectra of the reactor radiations. It is then possible, in principle, to calculate the rates of production of change in irradiated materials. In this paper the conventions used in radiation chemistry are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of calorimeters which can be used for dosimetry, with some remarks about their limitations. The reasons for choosing an isothermal-type calorimeter for the work at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) are given, followed by a description of the construction, characteristics, and calibration of the calorimeters in use. It is shown that under the proper conditions these calorimeters measure the ideal absorbed dose-rate, or kerma rate. By the use of three calorimeters, as described, containing respectively graphite, anthracene, and an empty can, measurements were made of the dose rates in graphite and in anthracene, and

  16. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once every month. A regular read-out is indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of your personal dose. You must read your dosimeter even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Film badges are no longer valid at CERN and holders of film badges are no longer allowed to enter the controlled radiation areas or work with a source. Dosimetry Service Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  17. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  18. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al 2 O 3 :C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al 2 O 3 :C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF 3 :Eu 2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al 2 O 3 :C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become

  19. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A S; Lee, J I; Kim, J L

    2008-07-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al(2)O(3):C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al(2)O(3):C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF(3):Eu(2+) appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al(2)O(3):C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice

  20. Radiation Dosimetry Study in Dental Enamel of Human Tooth Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2009-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel is used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique of obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR technique. In this study EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band was performed on 4 mg, 1×1×3 mm enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. To study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field, samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. X-band EPR measurements were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the "native" radiation-independent signal only for doses >0.5 Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and "native" signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20, enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples, as compared to 100 mg for X-band. The estimated lower limit of Q-band dose measurement is 0.5 Gy. Q-band EPR enamel dosimetry results in greater sensitivity and smaller sample size through enhanced spectral resolution. Thus, this can be a valuable technique for population triage in the event of detonation of a radiation dispersal device ("dirty" bomb) or other radiation event with massive casualties. Further, the small 4 mg samples can be obtained by a minimally-invasive biopsy technique.

  1. Thermoluminescence characteristics of different dimensions of Ge-doped optical fibers in radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, M.; Mizanur R, A. K. M.; Abdul R, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Begum, M. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, E-12/A, Agargaon, Sher-e-Blanga Nagar Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh); Mat-Sharif, K. A. [Lingkaran Teknokrat Timur, Telekom Research and Development, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Amin, Y. M. [University of Malaya, Faculty of Science, Depatment of Physics, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bradley, D. A., E-mail: go2munmun@yahoo.com [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Important thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new Tl material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1 Gy to 10 Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are Tl linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5 cm length are annealed at temperature of 400 grades C for 1 hour period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1 hour at 400 grades C and subsequently 2 hours at 100 grades C to yield the highest sensitivity. Tl responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100 μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20 μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) is found in the range (13.25 to 13.69) that is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. Tl properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. (author)

  2. Dosimetry of a 3-5 MeV linear electron accelerator for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the multiple uses of a 3-5 MeV linear electron accelerator of the Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics (Beijing Radiation Center) at Beijing Normal University, the dosimetry of the linac for radiation processing has been studied. The graphite and water calorimeters have been used for routine dosimeter calibrations and reference measurements of absorbed dose for 4 MeV electron beam. Under the same irradiation condition, the polymer-alanine/ESR film and RCD dosimeters were calibrated in order to be used for routine process control. The polymer-alanine/ESR film dosimeter was also used as a transfer dosimeter for both 60Co gamma rays and 4 MeV electron beam because of its good dosimetric properties. (author)

  3. Characterization of Tandem systems of commercial ionization chambers for radiation dosimetry (radiotherapy level)

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, E P

    1998-01-01

    The use of X rays for radiotherapy purposes is of great importance for Medicine, and it is necessary to control periodically the performance of the ionization chambers and the radiation beams in order to obtain the best results. The verification of the beam characteristics is made by using standard dosimetry procedures which include the determination of the half-value layers and the exposure rates or the absorbed dose rates in air. Several Tandem systems were set up and tested, using commercial ionization chambers in the energy interval from 14 up to 130 KeV at the Instrumentation Calibration Laboratory of IPEN and at other three institutions, in substitution to the routine conventional procedure of determination of half-value layers using absorbers. The obtained results show the usefulness of these Tandem system for the routine dosimetric procedures of radiotherapy X radiation beams.

  4. Uses of polymer-alanine film/ESR dosimeters in dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine ESR dosimetry is a reliable method, used in a various fields of ionizing radiation. The polymer-alanine film/ESR dosimeters of 0.3 -0.4 mm thickness were prepared and their dosimetric properties were studied for 60Co γ photons and 3 - 5 MeV electrons in the dose range from 20 Gy to 100 kGy. The results show that under normal conditions the alanine calibration curves are linear in the dose range from 100 Gy to 10kGy. The dose profiles at the electron radiation field were measured with the film alanine dosimeters. The polymer-alanine film dosimeters were used for ion implantation of 400 keV ion implantor. Their dose response and energy dependence were investigated initially. (Author)

  5. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  6. Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest radiograms represent the basic radiological examinations of thorax. The basis for radiation protection especially in pediatrics is the exact determination of doses. The risk estimation of genome damages can be received in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline version of Comet Assay. The aim of this work was assessment and quantification of the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children during airways X-ray examinations of chest and to compare data to the dose of exposure. Doses were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry and radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimetry system. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, ages between 5 and 14 years were assessed. Dose measurements were conducted for poster-anterior (PA) projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. We used a 150 kV Shimadzu CH-200 M X-ray unit. Peripheral blood samples were taken from children after and prior to X-ray exposure and were examined with the alkaline Comet Assay. Comet Assay is one of the standard techniques for assessing genome damage with variety applications in genotoxicity testing as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of group after irradiation was 14.04 ± 1.74 as opposed to mean value of group before irradiation that was 13.15 ± 1.33. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). In addition, correlation was found between doses in primary beam (measured on the back) and the ratio of tail length (DNA damage) before and after irradiation. Doses measured with TL and RPL dosimeters showed satisfactory agreement and both dosimetry methods are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics. (author)

  7. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  8. Depth dose determination for a mixed radiation field using a thin plastic scintillator dosimetry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydarous Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic scintillators, due to their favorable characteristics compared with other dosimetry techniques, were used as detectors to estimate dose distributions in high gradient dose fields. In this study, a thin plastic scintillator (type BC-408 was coupled to a photomultiplier tube and multichannel analyzer as a technique for real-time dose measurements. The well-defined beta, gamma, and beta-gamma emitters (137Cs, 133Ba, 22Na, 109Cd, 55Fe, and 241Am have enabled parallel depth dose measurements with Monte-Carlo calculations to be critically compared. The measurements of doses were made for depths range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. The MCNP dose results were comparable with the plastic scintillator detector and can be used to approximately estimate the dose rate values from mixed electron-photon fields. The minimum dose rate that can be measured by the plastic scintillator system was ~2 µGy/h and was for 109Cd source of activity 222 Bq.

  9. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in healthy human subjects: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, Tomi A.; Ahonen, Aapo K. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 Helsinki (Finland); Bergstroem, Kim A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 Helsinki (Finland); MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Heikman, Pertti [Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Hiltunen, Jukka [MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-01-01

    [{sup 123}I]ADAM [2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM)] has recently been shown to be a very promising imaging ligand for the detection of serotonin transporters (SERT) in human brain, because of its high specificity for SERT. [{sup 123}I]ADAM has previously been used only for animal studies. In this work, we investigated the radiation dosimetry and biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]ADAM based on whole-body scans in healthy human volunteers. Following the administration of 196{+-}20 MBq (range 157-220 MBq) [{sup 123}I]ADAM, serial whole-body images were performed up to 24 h. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose were calculated using the MIRDOSE 3.0 program with a dynamic bladder model. Twelve source organs were considered in estimating absorbed radiation doses for organs of the body. The highest absorbed organ doses were found to the lower large intestine wall (8.3.10{sup -2} mGy/MBq), kidneys (5.2.10{sup -2} mGy/MBq), urinary bladder wall (4.9.10{sup -2} mGy/MBq) and thyroid (4.3.10{sup -2} mGy/MBq). The effective dose was estimated to be 2.2.10{sup -2} mSv/MBq. The results suggest that [{sup 123}I]ADAM is of potential value as a tracer for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin receptors in humans, with acceptable dosimetry and high brain uptake. (orig.)

  10. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed

  11. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotskova, O; Jenkins, C; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed.

  12. Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-silicon heterojunction for gamma radiation dosimetry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a technique has been developed to fabricate high quality polyaniline-silicon heterojunction diodes for use as gas and/or ionizing radiation sensors. Polyaniline thin films (40 nm thick) produced by spin-coating on silicon substrates, were the active part of the junction structure. The devices presented excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics with high rectification ratio, 60,000 at ±1.0 V, and typical reverse current at - 1.0 V of 3 nA at 295 K. A G/I x G plot has been used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, yielding typical series resistance of 4 kΩ ± 5% and ideality factor in a range of 1,9 ± 0.5%. The heterojunction diode presents high sensitivity to gamma radiation in the dose range of 3 x 10-2 to 7 kGy with a linear response in the forward and reverse bias. The excellent electrical characteristics together with the linear response with the dose, strongly suggest the application of this device for spectrometry or dosimetry of high doses of gamma radiation. These devices presented high sensitivity to gas moistures such as ammonia, nitric acid and trichloroethylene. In both cases the sensitivity was observed through shifts of the current-voltage curves, which can be easily monitored to provide a calibration curve of the sensor either as a radiation dosimeter or as a gas sensor for use in applications for gas monitoring or radiation dosimetry. Several aspects of the reliability physics of silicon-polyaniline heterojunction, such as degradation effects induced by local heating, charge trapping and temperature changes, have been discussed. These results further confirm the quality of the devices electrical characteristics and their suitability for radiation and gas sensors applications. Another interesting results presented in this work was the use of polyemeraldine nanofilms (thickness in the range 30-50 nm) deposited by 'spin coating' on glass substrates as an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation based on the

  13. Improving patient care and accuracy of given doses in radiation therapy using in vivo dosimetry verification*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Shawky Shawata; Tarek El Nimr; Khaled M. Elshahat

    2015-01-01

    Objective This work aims to verify and improve the dose given for cancer patients in radiation therapy by using diodes to enhance patient in vivo dosimetry on a routine basis. Some characteristics of two available semi-conductor diode dosimetry systems were evaluated.Methods The diodes had been calibrated to read the dose at Dmax below the surface. Correction factors of clinical relevance were quantified to convert the diode readings into patient dose. The diode was irradiated at various gantry angles (increments of 45°), various Field Sizes and various Source to Surface Distances (SSDs).Results The maximal response variation in the angular response with respect to an arbitrary angle of 0° was 1.9%, and the minimum variation was 0.5%. The response of the diode with respect to various field sizes showed the minimum and the maximum variations in the measured dose from the diode; the calculated doses were -1.6% (for 5 cm x 5 cm field size) and 6.6% (for 40 cm x 40 cm field size). The diode exhibited a significant perturbation in the response, which decreased with increasing SSD. No discrepancies larger than 5% were detected between the expected dose and the measured dose.Conclusion The results indicate that the diodes exhibit excellent linearity, dose reproducibility and minimal anisotropy; that they can be used with confidence for patient dose verification. Furthermore, diodes render real time verification of the dose delivered to patients.

  14. Characterization of chemical compounds for dosimetry of the radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different chemical compounds have been studied to optimize dosimetric systems in irradiation processes. In this study 2,3,5 Triphenyl -2H- Tetrazolium Chloride, Brilliant Cresyl Blue, Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate were investigated for their merits or faults, for 60 Co gamma field, in order to verify if can be considered as dosimeters. Fricke solution was used as reference dosimeter to determine absorption dose rates at the gamma facilities.Only Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate are recommended for dosimetry purposes since the main characteristics were achieved. The other two compounds could be used in dosimetry with changes in their formulation. Bromocresol Green and potassium Nitrate are reproducible and radiation sensitive for absorbed doses from 300 Gy to 150 kGy Bromocresol Green was used in liquid form and Potassium Nitrate was prepared in solid pellets form. Spectrophotometry in the visible region was used as the main detection technique, which allows relating optical absorption, before and after irradiation, with the absorbed dose. The maximum absorption wavelength for each compound was observed at 450-460nm for bromocresol Green and 546nm for Potassium Nitrate. Dose calibration curves are linear for both compounds in all dose intervals. When irradiated with accelerated electrons, with energies between o,9 MeV and 1,5MeV, optical absorption intensification, of about 2,6 times, was observed when comparing results for Potassium Nitrate, with those for gamma rays. All the evaluations are presented in this work. (author)

  15. Review of radiation dosimetry research at the University of Wisconsin during 1961-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides a comprehensive review of the overall activities in this program since 1961. Research areas have included the development and use of lithium fluoride for thermoluminescent dosimetry, solid state neutron dosimetry, and ionization chamber research

  16. Radiolytical oxidation of gaseous iodine by beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari; Kekki, Tommi; Kotiluoto, Petri; Lyyraenen, Jussi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, Jorma [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Eastern Finland Univ., Kuopio (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    Iodine is one of the most radiotoxic fission product released from fuel during a severe nuclear power plant accident. Within the containment building, iodine compounds can react e.g. on the painted surfaces and form gaseous organic iodides. In this study, it was found out that gaseous methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) is oxidised when exposed to beta radiation in an oxygen containing atmosphere. As a result, nucleation of aerosol particles takes place and the formation of iodine oxide particles is suggested. These particles are highly hygroscopic. They take up water from the air humidity and iodine oxides dissolve within the droplets. In order to mitigate the possible source term, it is of interest to understand the effect of beta radiation on the speciation of iodine.

  17. Thermoluminescence and radioluminescence properties of tissue equivalent Cu-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M. [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco / UNICEN, Gral. Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guarneros, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Altamira Km 14.5, 896000 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Pacio, M. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Ciencias, Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Av. 14 Sur, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Palomino, R., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, 72570 Puebla Pue. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) and radioluminescence (Rl) properties of lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) doped with different concentration of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under gamma and beta irradiation has been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and a solution of CuCl{sub 2} as dopant. The glow curve, of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu 0.5 wt %), shows a main stable peak centered at 225 degrees C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 degrees C. The low temperature peak disappears completely after 24 hours of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 degrees C for 10 seconds. The main peak of the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu remains constant. The Tl response of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of Rl signals of the borate have been studied and the Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu (0.5 wt %) shown the higher Rl emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu has prospects to be used in gamma and beta radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Radiation exposure and dosimetry in transplant patients due to Nuclear Medicine studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghraby, T. A. F. [Leiden Univ., Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine; Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Camps, J. A. J.; Geleyns, J.; Pauwels, E. K. J. [Leiden Univ., Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Organ transplantation is now an accepted method of therapy for treating patients with end stage failure of kidneys, liver, heart or lung. Nuclear Medicine may provide functional data and semi-quantitative parameters. However, one serious factor that hampers the use of nuclear medicine procedures in transplant patients is the general clinical concern about radiation exposure to the patient. This lead the researcher to discuss the effective doses and radiation dosimetry associated with radionuclide procedures used in the management and follow-up of transplant patients. A simple way to place the risk associated with Nuclear Medicine studies in an appropriate context is to compare the dose with that received from more familiar source of exposure such as from a diagnostic X-ray procedure. The radiation dose for the different radiopharmaceuticals used to study transplant organ function ranges between 0.1 and 5.3 mSv which is comparable to X-ray procedures with the exception of {sup 201}Tl and {sup 111}In-antimyosin. Thus Nuclear Medicine studies do not bear a higher radiation risk than the often used X-ray studies in transplant patients.

  19. Radiation dosimetry of 2 (/sup 18/F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.C.; Alavi, A.; Christman, D.; Montanez, I.; Wolf, A.P.; Reivich, M.

    1982-07-01

    Bladder and brain time-activity measurements in humans were performed after the intravenous administration of 2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Radiation doses were calculated using the MIRD schema. The bladder wall received an average of 440 mrad/mCi (s.e. 76) in ten subjects who voided at 2 hr after administration of tracer. If these subjects had voided at 1 hr, the bladder-wall dose would have been reduced to 220 mrad/mCi. The brain received an average of 81 mrad/mCi in eight subjects. The doses to other organs, calculated from published dog biodistribution data, are between 50 and 85 mrad/mCi except for spleen and heart, which both received 160 mrad/mCi. These time-activity measurements for the critical organ in the human avoid the assumptions made in using animal biodistribution data for human dosimetry calculations.

  20. Fabrication and optimization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for proton beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, K.W.; Yoo, W.J.; Seo, J.K.; Heo, J.Y.; Moon, J.; Park, J.-Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, E.J.; Shin, D.; Park, S.-Y. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.-S. [Basic Atomic Energy Research Institute and Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B., E-mail: bslee@kku.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor for proton therapy dosimetry and measured the output and the peak-to-plateau ratio of scintillation light with various kinds of organic scintillators in order to select an organic scintillator appropriate for measuring the dose of a proton beam. For the optimization of an organic scintillator, the linearity between the light output and the stopping power of a proton beam was evaluated for two different diameters of the scintillator, and the angular dependency and standard deviation of the light pulses were investigated for four different scintillator lengths. We also evaluated the linearity between the light output and the dose rate and monitor units of a proton generator, respectively. The relative depth-dose curve of the proton beam was obtained and corrected using Birk's theory.

  1. A scintillating GEM for 2D-dosimetry in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, J; Bom, V; Eijk, C W; Haas, J D; Schippers, J M

    2002-01-01

    The first results of a study on the properties of a gaseous scintillation detector based on a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) are reported. The detector is designed for use in position-sensitive dosimetry applications in radiation therapy. A double GEM system, operating in a 90-10% Ar-CO sub 2 gas mixture at a gas amplification factor of approx 3000, emits a sufficient amount of detectable light to perform measurements of approx 1 Gy doses in two dimensions. The light yield does not suffer from quenching processes when particles with high stopping power are detected. This operation mode of GEMs offers the dosimetric advantages of a gas-filled detector and the 2D read-out can be performed with a CCD camera. Compared to the existing dosimeters, this system is relatively simple and no complex multi-electrode read-out is necessary.

  2. Cosmic-radiation dosimetry using electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) at commercial aircraft altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was examined for effectiveness in cosmic radiation dosimetry at aircraft altitude through the measurements in a Japan-US round trip. The EPD value (Hepd) of individual dose equivalent, penetrating, Hp(10), was considered to be almost equal the deep absorbed dose attributed to electrons at the aircraft altitude. By assuming the fractions and the effective quality factors for other components (muons, protons, and neutrons) based on model-calculation data, an empirical equation to estimate a conservative deep dose-equivalent at 5 cm-tissue depth, H(50), was given as H(50)=3.1 x Hepd. Estimated H(50) values in the international flights were 4.9 μSv h-1 from Tokyo to New York and 3.6 μSv h-1 from Los Angeles to Tokyo. These values agreed well with the predicted values presented by NCRP. (author)

  3. Synthesis and luminescence properties of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, C. B.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The KSrPO4:Eu phosphor was synthesized via solid state method. The structural and morphological characterizations were done through XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). Additionally, the photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and optically Stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of powder KSrPO4:Eu were studied. The PL spectra show blue emission under near UV excitation. It was advocated that KSrPO4:Eu phosphor not only show OSL sensitivity (0.47 times) but also gives faster decay in OSL signals than that of Al2O3:C (BARC) phosphor. The TL glow curve consist of two shoulder peaks and the kinetics parameters such as activation energy and frequency factors were determined by using peak shape method and also photoionization cross-sections of prepared phosphor was calculated. The radiation dosimetry properties such as minimum detectable dose (MDD), dose response and reusability were reported.

  4. Measurement assurance in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uses of radiation in medicine and industry are today wide in scope and diversity and there is a need for reliable dosimetry in most applications. In particular, high accuracy in dosimetry is required in the therapeutic use of radiation. Consequently, calibration procedures for radiotherapy generally meet also the accuracy requirements for applications in other fields, such as diagnostic radiology, radiation protection and industrial radiation processing. The emphasis at this symposium was therefore mainly or radiotherapy dosimetry, but the meeting also included one session devoted to dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. Refs, fig and tabs

  5. Responses of different dosemeters in beta dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh ophthalmic applicators;Respostas de diferentes dosimetros termoluminescentes na dosimetria beta de aplicadores oftalmicos de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, D.F.P.; Daros, K.A.C.; Segreto, R.A.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the TL response of three kinds of dosimeters from different manufacturing characteristics under irradiation of 106 Ru / 106 Rh sealed sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy. They are: Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon (D- Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy -0,4), LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-100) and Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900). Some of reports accepted by scientific community (NCS report 14 e ICRU report 72) as reference in the quality control of beta applicators dosimetry recommend that the absorbed dose standard uncertainties can be kept below 20%. The TLD Ca SO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon presented proper sensibility and high precision comparing with the others. Considering the similar dimensions of ophthalmic tumors and aside critical structures it is relevant to reduce undesirable effects due to the irradiation of these structures. Therefore, the quality control in the beta dosimetry using this kind of source is a constant challenge. (author)

  6. EPR and TL-based beta dosimetry measurements in various tooth components contaminated by {sup 90}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: ivan.veronese@unimi.it; Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Cantone, M.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Coste, V. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Giussani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Shishkina, E.A. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, 454076 Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    Thermoluminescence-based beta dosimetry, previously proposed for the estimate of the internal contamination in teeth, and EPR has been used in this paper to investigate the homogeneity of {sup 90}Sr contamination and of dose within nine teeth of one person born in the year of the onset of waterborne radioactive releases of the Mayak plutonium facility. A large deviation of dose and activity distributions in both enamel and radical dentine of the various teeth was observed. Average dose was 27{+-}7Gy in enamel and 0.90{+-}0.31Gy in radical dentine. Average {sup 90}Sr concentration was 52{+-}8Bq/g in enamel and 5{+-}2Bq/g in radical dentine. The observed deviation around the mean value of dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration can be explained due to the specific mineral evolution of each tooth at the time of Sr intake. In the same donor, a negative correlation was also observed between radical dentine and enamel for the {sup 90}Sr specific activity as well for the dose. Similar analyses performed on one massive molar belonging to a second donor revealed absence of correlation between dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration in the same tissue, indicating a dose contribution from {sup 90}Sr present in neighbouring tissue compartments. Systematic differences in cumulated dose and activity levels between the lingual and the buccal parts of crown dentine and of enamel were also observed.

  7. Laser heating of thermoluminescent films: Dose mapping applied to beta dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Setzkorn, R.; Prévost, H.; Gasiot, J.;

    1996-01-01

    angular responses of CaSO4:Dy-based TL foils for irradiation in air with beta rays (Pm-147, (TI)-T-204 and Sr-90/Y-90). Laser scanning results are compared with results from measurements using very thin graphite-mixed MgB4O7Dy TL detectors. Results show that detectors based on CaSO4:Dy films will be...

  8. Thermoluminescence properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si pellets in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintered LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescence (TL) pellets have been developed for application in radiation dosimetry. LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si pellets were made from TL powders using a sintering process, that is, pressing and heat treatment. These pellets have a diameter of 4.5 mm, and a thickness of 0.8 mm are blue in colour and have a mass of 28 mg each. After 400 pellets have been produced they were irradiated with 137Cs gamma radiation and samples having a sensitivity within a ±5% standard deviation were selected for experimental use. In the present study, the physical and dosimetric properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets were investigated for their emission spectrum, dose response, energy response and fading characteristics. Photon irradiation for the experiments was carried out using X ray beams and a 137Cs gamma source at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The average energies and the dose were in the range of 20-662 keV and 10-6-102 Gy respectively. The glow curves were measured with a manual type thermoluminescence dosimetry reader (system 310, Teledyne) at a constant nitrogen flux and a linear heating rate. For a constant heating rate of 5 deg. C.s-1, the main dosimetric peak of the glow curve appeared at 234 deg. C, its activation energy was 2.34 eV and the frequency factor was 1.00x1023. The TL emission spectrum appeared at the blue region centred at 410 nm. A linearity of photon dose response was maintained up to 100 Gy. The photon energy responses relative to the 137Cs response were within ±20% in the overall photon energy region. No fading of the TL sensitivity of the pellets stored at room temperature was found over the course of a year. Therefore LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets can be used for personal dosimetry, but more research is needed to improve the characteristics for repeated use. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo investigation of single cell beta dosimetry for intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syme, A M [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Kirkby, C [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Riauka, T A [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B G [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); McQuarrie, S A [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3118 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada)

    2004-05-21

    Single event spectra for five beta-emitting radionuclides (Lu-177, Cu-67, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90) were calculated for single cells from two source geometries. The first was a surface-bound isotropically emitting point source and the second was a bath of free radioactivity in which the cell was submerged. Together these represent a targeted intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy. Monoenergetic single event spectra were calculated over an energy range of 11 keV to 2500 keV using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. Radionuclide single event spectra were constructed by weighting monoenergetic single event spectra according to radionuclide spectra appropriate for each source geometry. In the case of surface-bound radioactivity, these were radionuclide beta decay spectra. For the free radioactivity, a continuous slowing down approximation spectrum was used that was calculated based on the radionuclide decay spectra. The frequency mean specific energy per event increased as the energy of the beta emitter decreased. This is because, at these energies, the stopping power of the electrons decreases with increasing energy. The free radioactivity produced a higher frequency mean specific energy per event than the corresponding surface-bound value. This was primarily due to the longer mean path length through the target for this geometry. This information differentiates the radionuclides in terms of the physical process of energy deposition and could be of use in the radionuclide selection procedure for this type of therapy.

  10. External dosimetry for ionising radiation. From the national standard to the users in radiotherapy and radiation protection; La dosimetrie externe des rayonnements ionisants de la reference nationale aux utilisateurs en radiotherapie et en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M

    2009-07-01

    This report presents a review of the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations for the protection of the human being. Looking at this topic, at first we are confronted with its diversity: the protection of the workers and the public against radiations, the medical exposures for radiotherapy, diagnosis and surgery, and the accidental situations. These aspects are often artificially separated so that the global comprehension becomes more difficult. We underline the points of convergence and the bonds which exist between the concepts of dosimetry adopted to deal with its different aspects. It also appeared useful to avoid proposing a dictionary of definitions copied in the reports of the international commissions, and adopting the formalism of the ICRU reports. This is why the definitions, when they are essential, are put in appendix. This text presents the reasons which led to the adoption of the system of quantity used today for the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations. After an introduction dealing with the general principle, the first chapter deals with the 'physical' quantities and the methods used for the determination of the national references. The second chapter, through the protection against radiation of the workers and the public, describes the bonds between the measurable 'operational' quantities and the non measurable 'protections' quantities which allow establishing the radiation protection limits and check that they are respected. The third chapter deals with the difficulties encountered for the measurements in area and personal dosimetry. The fourth chapter deals with the specificities of the medical exposures with the 'practical' quantities, the principle of optimisation and how radiotherapy is implemented. The fifth chapter briefly describes the case of the concerted exposures and of the accident. In conclusion, we analyse the needs and some potential new avenues of work for the metrology of the

  11. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  12. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  13. Determination of the dose rapidity of a {sup 90} Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Determinacion de la rapidez de dosis de una fuente de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a {sup 90} Sr-{sup 90} Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  14. Comparative measurements on different thermoluminescence materials for the dosimetry in mixed radiation fields; Vergleichende Messungen an unterschiedlichen Thermolumineszenzmaterialien fuer die Dosimetrie in gemischten Strahlenfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillath, J.; Uray, I.

    2006-05-15

    LiF-based thermoluminescence materials (TL materials) have proved efficient and become established for dosimetry for many years now. In combination with suitable filtrations or moderators, they permit high-precision measurements of the radiation doses of all types of radiation relevant in radiation protection. The development of highly sensitive LiF materials with a doping of Mg, P and Cu has made it possible to measure doses down to one {mu}Sv. The measurements presented here specifically serve to phenomenologically analyse the glow curve structure of normally and highly sensitive LiF-TL materials in mixed gamma-neutron radiation fields. The sensitivity of the different TL materials to different types of radiation and the influence of the radiation types and of the evaluation parameters on the structure of the glow curves is examined. It is made apparent how information about the composition and doses of the individual components of a radiation field can be obtained by decomposing the glow curve into its individual peaks. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  16. Radiation Dosimetry of Dental Enamel Using X-Band and Q-Band EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2010-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel can be used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique for obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band measurements done on 4 mg (1x1x3 mm) enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. In order to study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the ``native'' radiation-independent signal only for doses > 0.5Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and ``native'' signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20 enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples. )

  17. Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure data of workers due to external sources of radiation in various medical practices such as nuclear medicine (NM), radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology (DR) in Pakistan were collected and analysed. Whole-body doses of workers were measured by film badge dosimetry technique during 2003-2007. Annual average effective dose in NM, radio-therapy and DR varied in the range of 1.39-1.80, 1.05-1.45 and 1.22-1.71 mSv, respectively, during 2003-2007. These values are quite low and well below the annual limit of 20 mSv averaged over a period of 5 consecutive years. Nobody received the radiation dose >50 mSv in any single year over a period of 5 consecutive years; therefore, no overexposure case has been detected. Decreasing trend of annual average dose values in aforementioned categories of work during 2003-2007 indicates the improvement of radiation protection status in medical field in Pakistan. (authors)

  18. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% ± 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F

    2000-06-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/{mu}m. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm{sup 2} of material is used.

  20. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Williams, J R; Dicello, J F

    2000-06-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used. PMID:11543368

  1. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λcomponents either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  2. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  3. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  4. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  5. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  6. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  7. Changes in Occupational Radiation Exposures after Incorporation of a Real-time Dosimetry System in the Interventional Radiology Suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Sashi; Weir, Lori; Dowling, Dawn; Medich, David C

    2016-08-01

    A statistical pilot study was retrospectively performed to analyze potential changes in occupational radiation exposures to Interventional Radiology (IR) staff at Lawrence General Hospital after implementation of the i2 Active Radiation Dosimetry System (Unfors RaySafe Inc, 6045 Cochran Road Cleveland, OH 44139-3302). In this study, the monthly OSL dosimetry records obtained during the eight-month period prior to i2 implementation were normalized to the number of procedures performed during each month and statistically compared to the normalized dosimetry records obtained for the 8-mo period after i2 implementation. The resulting statistics included calculation of the mean and standard deviation of the dose equivalences per procedure and included appropriate hypothesis tests to assess for statistically valid differences between the pre and post i2 study periods. Hypothesis testing was performed on three groups of staff present during an IR procedure: The first group included all members of the IR staff, the second group consisted of the IR radiologists, and the third group consisted of the IR technician staff. After implementing the i2 active dosimetry system, participating members of the Lawrence General IR staff had a reduction in the average dose equivalence per procedure of 43.1% ± 16.7% (p = 0.04). Similarly, Lawrence General IR radiologists had a 65.8% ± 33.6% (p=0.01) reduction while the technologists had a 45.0% ± 14.4% (p=0.03) reduction.

  8. Two-parametric model of electron beam in computational dosimetry for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazurik, V. M.; Lazurik, V. T.; Popov, G.; Zimek, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Computer simulation of irradiation process of various materials with electron beam (EB) can be applied to correct and control the performances of radiation processing installations. Electron beam energy measurements methods are described in the international standards. The obtained results of measurements can be extended by implementation computational dosimetry. Authors have developed the computational method for determination of EB energy on the base of two-parametric fitting of semi-empirical model for the depth dose distribution initiated by mono-energetic electron beam. The analysis of number experiments show that described method can effectively consider random displacements arising from the use of aluminum wedge with a continuous strip of dosimetric film and minimize the magnitude uncertainty value of the electron energy evaluation, calculated from the experimental data. Two-parametric fitting method is proposed for determination of the electron beam model parameters. These model parameters are as follow: E0 - energy mono-energetic and mono-directional electron source, X0 - the thickness of the aluminum layer, located in front of irradiated object. That allows obtain baseline data related to the characteristic of the electron beam, which can be later on applied for computer modeling of the irradiation process. Model parameters which are defined in the international standards (like Ep- the most probably energy and Rp - practical range) can be linked with characteristics of two-parametric model (E0, X0), which allows to simulate the electron irradiation process. The obtained data from semi-empirical model were checked together with the set of experimental results. The proposed two-parametric model for electron beam energy evaluation and estimation of accuracy for computational dosimetry methods on the base of developed model are discussed.

  9. EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud, E-mail: alahverdi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedaie, Hasan A. [Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammadreza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose

  10. Dosimetry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following leaflets are contained in this folder concerning the National Physical Laboratory's measurement services available in relation to dosimetry standards: Primary standards of X-ray exposure and X-ray irradiation facilities, X-ray dosimetry at therapy levels, Protection-level X-ray calibrations, Therapy-level gamma-ray facility, Fricke dosemeter reference service, Low-dose-rate gamma-ray facility, Penetrameter and kV meter calibration, Measurement services for radiation processing, Dichromate dosemeter reference service, Electron linear accelerator. (U.K.)

  11. Physical properties limiting the application of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In the applications in thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry, as well as archaeological and geological dating, a number of features of the material used are of importance. An ideal dosimetric material should have high sensitivity to the relevant radiation, reproducible monotonically increasing dose dependence function, preferably linear, and no dependence of the sensitivity on the radiation history, heating (in TL) and light exposure (in OSL). In addition one hopes that no dose-rate effects take place and that no fading of the emitted signal occur prior to the read-out. The complex processes that take place during the excitation stage and the heating (in TL) or illumination (in OSL) are, however, such that in practically all of the dosimetric materials at least some of these ill-effects do take place. The possible occurrence of these effects is explained here using the rather basic concepts of existing trapping states and recombination centers which are being filled during the irradiation of the samples and emptied during the heating or illumination. The models used are related mainly to uniform excitation of the dosimetric samples, which is basically the case in X-ray, UV, B and irradiations. An important element of the models discussed is the existence of competitor trapping states and recombination centers. (Author)

  12. Radiation dosimetry and monitoring for a test of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a test at the Nevada Test Site to evaluate both the feasibility of deep data extrapolated to proposed Test and Evaluation Facility and Monitored Retrievable Storage schemes indicate that personnel exposures would be much lower than the yearly guides set by the National Commission on Radiological Protection. The dose commitment in person-rem resulting from spent-fuel storage is extrapolated to be about 0.2% of that currently accepted in the normal operation of nuclear power plants. This report describes the radiological monitoring and dosimetry program that was instituted to limit personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and to determine the extent of any gaseous or particulate release. During the three-year storage phase, no measurable radioactive effluent was released to the atmosphere, soil, or water. Radiation exposures to personnel handling the shielded fuel assemblies (> 50,000 rad/h at contact) were less than 0.4 person-rem for the duration of the project or less than 0.016 person-rem per spent-fuel handling operation

  13. Intercomparison of luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry within Proton-ICCHIBAN experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Ploc, Ondrej; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Kodaira, Satoshi; Benton, Eric; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi

    2012-07-01

    Luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry are frequently used to estimate personal and environmental doses in the International Space Station and other space vehicles. Detector responses for cosmic rays and their secondaries were investigated for a long time and it is well-known that luminescence detectors have dependencies of response on LET (Linear Energy Transfer). Some of luminescence detectors show over-response to gamma rays (used for routine calibration) and others have similar responses to gamma rays. But, because of lack of sufficient and reliable calibration data in the low LET region (about 1 keV/μm), it is the responses of these detectors at LET is poorly known. Protons make up the dominant portion of the fluence from space radiation, so the LET region corresponding to energetic protons must be characterized very well. For that purpose, calibration and intercomparison experiments were performed using relatively low energy (30 to 80 MeV) proton beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. In this paper, the results of these intercomparison experiments, including high energy protons and light ions, are reported and illustrate the response of luminescence detectors in the low LET region. This research will help improve our understanding of space dosimeters and reliable dose measurement for astronauts and cosmonauts in low earth orbit.

  14. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  15. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994--1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage.

  16. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Final progress report, 1994 -1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the following major tasks: improved dosimetric models of the head and brain; development of improved skeletal dosimetry models; development of dosimetric techniques for nonuniform activity distributions; pediatric dosimetry phantoms and radionuclide S values; microdosimetry of beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy; and mechanisms of molecular radiation damage

  17. The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency megavoltage photon thermoluminescence dosimetry postal audit service 2007–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency (ARPANSA) has continuously provided a level 1 mailed thermoluminescence dosimetry audit service for megavoltage photons since 2007. The purpose of the audit is to provide an independent verification of the reference dose output of a radiotherapy linear accelerator in a clinical environment. Photon beam quality measurements can also be made as part of the audit in addition to the output measurements. The results of all audits performed between 2007 and 2010 are presented. The average of all reference beam output measurements calculated as a clinically stated dose divided by an ARPANSA measured dose is 0.9993. The results of all beam quality measurements calculated as a clinically stated quality divided by an ARPANSA measured quality is 1.0087. Since 2011 the provision of all auditing services has been transferred from the Ionizing Radiation Standards section to the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) which is currently housed within ARPANSA.

  18. Gallium nitride based thin films for photon and particle radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus

    2012-07-23

    Ionization chambers have been used since the beginning of the 20th century for measuring ionizing radiation and still represent the ''gold standard'' in dosimetry. However, since the sensitivity of the devices is proportional to the detection volume, ionization chambers are not common in numerous medical applications, such as imaging. In these fields, spatially resolved dose information is, beside film-systems, usually measured with scintillators and photo-multipliers, which is a relatively complex and expensive technique. For thus much effort has been focused on the development of novel detection systems in the last decades and especially in the last few years. Examples include germanium or silicon photoconductive detectors, MOSFETs, and PIN-diodes. Although for these systems, miniaturization for spatially resolved detection is possible, they suffer from a range of disadvantages. Characteristics such as poor measurement stability, material degradation, and/or a limited measurement range prevent routine application of these techniques in medical diagnostic devices. This work presents the development and evaluation of gallium nitride (GaN) thin films and heterostructures to validate their application in x-ray detection in the medical regime. Furthermore, the impact of particle radiation on device response was investigated. Although previous publications revealed relatively low energy absorption of GaN, it is possible to achieve very high signal amplification factors inside the material due to an appropriate sensor configuration, which, in turn, compensates the low energy absorption. Thus, gallium nitride can be used as a photo-conductor with ohmic contacts. The conductive volume of the sensor changes in the presence of external radiation, which results in an amplified measurement signal after applying a bias voltage to the device. Experiments revealed a sensitivity of the device between air kerma rates of 1 {mu}Gy/s and 20 mGy/s. In this range

  19. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babic, Steven; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program at London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6 A 4L6 (Canada); McNiven, Andrea [Princess Margret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: steven.babic@lhsc.on.ca

    2009-04-21

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic (registered) EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista(TM)), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry

  20. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Steven; McNiven, Andrea; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-04-01

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic® EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista™), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry method

  1. Characterization of jade and silicates of the jade family for application in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dosimetric properties of jade and of Brazilian silicates of the jade family were studied for application in radiation dosimetry of high doses. Jade is a common denomination of two different silicates: jadeite, Na Al(Si2O6), and nephrite, Ca2(Mg, Fe)5(Si4O11)2 (OH)2, that belong to the subclasses of the pyroxenes and amphiboles respectively. The jade samples studied in this work were from: Austria, New Zealand, United States and Brazil. The Brazilian silicates of the jade family studied in this work were the amphiboles: tremolite,Ca2Mg5(Si4O11)2(OH)2 e actinolite, Ca2Fe5(Si4O11)2(OH)2; and the pyroxenes: rhodonite, MnSiO3 and diopside, Ca Mg(Si2O6). The mineralogical and chemical composition of these materials were obtained using the neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. The main dosimetric properties (emission curves, calibration curves, reproducibility, lower detection limits, angular and energy dependence, etc) were studied using the thermoluminescent (T L), thermally stimulated exo-emission (TSEE) and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The jade-Teflon and the silicate-Teflon samples present two T L peaks around 115 deg C (peak 1) and 210 deg C (peak 2). The calibration curves of the studied materials present a linear behaviour between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. The TSEE emission peak occurs at 240 deg C for all samples, and the calibration curves present a sub linear behaviour between 100 Gy and 20 kGy. In the case of the EPR technique, only jade USA has a potential application for radiation dosimetry. A static computational simulation of the most probable intrinsic and extrinsic defects in rhodonite was also realized. Among the basic defects, the Schottky defects of rhodonite are the most probable to occur and, among the extrinsic defects, the divalent and trivalent dopants present the best possibility of inclusion in rhodonite. (author)

  2. Monte Carlo dosimetry for beta source selection and design for endovascular irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Low dose irradiation is emerging as an exciting and promising new treatment modality for the prevention of vessel restenosis, which occurs in about 40% of the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty cases. The most challenging aspect of this new vessel irradiation modality is the determination of an effective target dose, and selection of an optimal source and delivery system. There is still much work to be done in the areas of radiobiological mechanisms, optimal source selection and design, optimal delivery system design, and precise dosimetric evaluation. This particular study was undertaken to use Monte Carlo techniques to examine and compare dose characteristics of two different beta sources (P-32 and Sr-90/Y-90), and to examine the dosimetric effects of source design considerations and vessel heterogeneities, i.e. calcification buildup. Materials and Methods: All our dose calculations were made using the MCNP4A code (Monte Carlo N-Particle, version 4A). This code was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and is capable of simulating coupled neutron-photon-electron problems using a three dimensional geometry modeling package. To validate our code, we compared point dose distributions for P32 and Sr90/Y90 with published data. We also compared our Monte Carlo calculations with physical measurements made with LiF TLDs about a custom made P-32 source sealed in the end of a flexible NiTi wire. We precisely modeled the source, the detectors, and the phantom material for our calculations. Once validated, we used both conventional and lattice tally geometries to examine two dimensional dosimetric effects resulting from design considerations such as: source selection (P32 verses Sr90/Y90); source length (3mm verses 10mm); source encapsulation materials (NiTi verses Stainless Steel); and catheter material composition (Nylon12, Nylon12 with BaSO4, and PVC) and thicknesses (0.15, 1, and 2 mm), and centering balloon design. We are also

  3. Potential application of pure silica optical flat fibers for radiation therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure silica optical flat fibers (FF) have been proposed as the basis for a novel radiation sensor by the measurement of the thermoluminescence (TL) produced. In this paper the TL performance of the FFs were studied. Using a linear accelerator (LINAC) delivering doses in the range 0.2–10.0 Gy, the TL dosimetric glow curves of the FFs were studied with respect to 6 MeV electron and 6 MV photon beams. When exposed to 6 MeV electron irradiation, the pure silica FFs displayed a supralinear response starting from 2 Gy up to 10.0 Gy. While for 6 MV photon irradiation, the FFs shows linear characteristic (f(D)=1) nearly up to 2 Gy. The TL intensity (Im) of the main peak of FFs is 1.5 times higher for 6 MeV electron beams than for 6 MV photon beams. The maximum peak temperature (Tm) it is not affected by the type of irradiation used at the same dose while the maximum TL intensity (Im) was found to be dependent on the type of radiation used. Overall results indicate that the pure silica FFs can be used as radiation sensors in the high-dose therapy dosimetry. - Highlights: • TL intensity (Im) is 1.5 times higher for 6 MeV electron than 6 MV photons beams. • The Tm is not affected by the type of irradiation used at the constant dose. • The FFs displayed a supralinear response from 2 Gy up to 10.0 Gy. • The sensitivity of FFs to electrons is consistently higher than photons

  4. An alternative method for using bipolar junction transistors as a radiation dosimetry detector in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon photodetectors and MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) are frequently used devices for measuring ionizing radiation in health physics instrumentation. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is not a typical device used as a detector for measuring some physical quantities in radiotherapy beams due to its loss of sensitivity to ionizing radiation, as a consequence of radiation damage in the silicon semiconductor substrate. Actually, the know-how of the BJT characteristic curves and its response to ionizing radiation leads us to suggest an alternative method to estimate the radiation dose value in breast cancer treatments. The BJT parameter to be evaluated before and after the irradiation procedure is the BJT amplification factor, also called DC gain β. In this work, the study was done using a BJT known as Darlington type, within an Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom. Darlington transistors have very high gain and this feature allowed that the BJT gain changes to be correlated with the dose of the radiation beam. The results indicate that this new method could be an alternative option to estimate the dose value in the phantom for measurements in breast cancer radiotherapy. - Highlights: • The method suggested for dosimetry in radiotherapy is innovative. • Bipolar junction transistors can provide low uncertainties in dosimetry. • The results provide perspectives for further studies to compare with numerical methods

  5. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  6. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1).

  7. FNTD radiation dosimetry system enhanced with dual-color wide-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At high neutron and photon doses Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs) require operation in analog mode and the measurement results depend on individual crystal color center concentration (coloration). We describe a new method for radiation dosimetry using FNTDs, which includes non-destructive, automatic sensitivity calibration for each individual FNTD. In the method presented, confocal laser scanning fluorescent imaging of FNTDs is combined with dual-color wide field imaging of the FNTD. The calibration is achieved by measuring the color center concentration in the detector through fluorescence imaging and reducing the effect of diffuse reflection on the lapped surface of the FNTD by imaging with infra-red (IR) light. The dual-color imaging of FNTDs is shown to provide a good estimation of the detector sensitivity at high doses of photons and neutrons, where conventional track counting is impeded by track overlap. - Highlights: • New method and optical imaging head was developed for FNTD used at high doses. • Dual-color wide-field imaging used for color center concentration measurement. • Green fluorescence corrected by diffuse reflection used for sensitivity correction. • FNTD dose measurements performed in analog processing mode

  8. Signal processing for radiation dosimetry using EPR in dental enamel: comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are reporting an alternative method of extracting useful dose information from complex EPR spectra of dental enamel. Digital differentiation of the initial first derivative spectrum followed by filtering is used to clearly distinguish the radiation-induced signal from the native background signal. The peak-to-peak height of the resulting second derivative of the signal is then measured as an indication of absorbed dose. This method does not require preliminary elimination of the native background signal, and is not effected by any uncertainty in the determination of the background signal or by errors resulting from the subtraction of two signals of comparable magnitude. Ten enamel samples were irradiated with known doses in the range of 250-105 mGy. There was agreement for all the samples, within the typical experimental error of ±10% for EPR dosimetry in dental enamel, between the doses determined by two common techniques using native signal subtraction and the doses determined by the new second derivative method proposed here

  9. A comparative study of some aspects of radiation protection and dosimetry procedures. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the procedures used in the Member States of the European Communities for dealing with certain practical and administrative aspects of radiation protection of occupationally exposed persons, and especially of the methods and procedures used in personnel dosimetry. It was found that the different states have adopted quite different methods for dealing with some of these problems, the method chosen seeming to depend on the size of the country and the extent and timing of its involvement with nuclear power developments; but although the different countries have adopted different methods of control, as far as we can judge they have all been reasonably effective in achieving adequate control of occupational exposures. Nevertheless, there are still issues that each country could probably learn and perhaps improve its own procedure by making a more careful study of the way in which other countries deal with these problems. Therefore the study was extended to cover the USA and Japan in order to facilitate such comparisons and improvements. (orig.)

  10. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  11. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of novel PET probes targeting the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage, a metabolic pathway involved in the production and maintenance of a balanced pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis. dCK phosphorylates and therefore activates nucleoside analogs such as cytarabine, gemcitabine, decitabine, cladribine, and clofarabine that are used routinely in cancer therapy. Imaging probes that target dCK might allow stratifying patients into likely responders and nonresponders with dCK-dependent prodrugs. Here we present the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of three fluorinated dCK substrates, 18F-FAC, L-18F-FAC, and L-18F-FMAC, developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of dCK activity in vivo. PET studies were performed in nine healthy human volunteers, three for each probe. After a transmission scan, the radiopharmaceutical was injected intravenously and three sequential emission scans acquired from the base of the skull to mid-thigh. Regions of interest encompassing visible organs were drawn on the first PET scan and copied to the subsequent scans. Activity in target organs was determined and absorbed dose estimated with OLINDA/EXM. The standardized uptake value was calculated for various organs at different times. Renal excretion was common to all three probes. Bone marrow had higher uptake for L-18F-FAC and L-18F-FMAC than 18F-FAC. Prominent liver uptake was seen in L-18F-FMAC and L-18F-FAC, whereas splenic activity was highest for 18F-FAC. Muscle uptake was also highest for 18F-FAC. The critical organ was the bladder wall for all three probes. The effective dose was 0.00524, 0.00755, and 0.00910 mSv/MBq for 18F-FAC, L-18F-FAC, and L-18F-FMAC, respectively. The biodistribution of 18F-FAC, L-18F-FAC, and L-18F-FMAC in humans reveals similarities and differences. Differences may be explained by different probe affinities for nucleoside transporters, dCK, and catabolic enzymes such as cytidine deaminase (CDA

  12. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of novel PET probes targeting the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg, Johannes [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Ahmanson Biological Imaging Division, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria); Radu, Caius G.; Tran, Andrew Q.; Phelps, Michael E.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Benz, Matthias; Fueger, Barbara; Czernin, Johannes; Schiepers, Christiaan [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Ahmanson Biological Imaging Division, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Witte, Owen N. [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage, a metabolic pathway involved in the production and maintenance of a balanced pool of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis. dCK phosphorylates and therefore activates nucleoside analogs such as cytarabine, gemcitabine, decitabine, cladribine, and clofarabine that are used routinely in cancer therapy. Imaging probes that target dCK might allow stratifying patients into likely responders and nonresponders with dCK-dependent prodrugs. Here we present the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of three fluorinated dCK substrates, {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC, developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of dCK activity in vivo. PET studies were performed in nine healthy human volunteers, three for each probe. After a transmission scan, the radiopharmaceutical was injected intravenously and three sequential emission scans acquired from the base of the skull to mid-thigh. Regions of interest encompassing visible organs were drawn on the first PET scan and copied to the subsequent scans. Activity in target organs was determined and absorbed dose estimated with OLINDA/EXM. The standardized uptake value was calculated for various organs at different times. Renal excretion was common to all three probes. Bone marrow had higher uptake for L-{sup 18}F-FAC and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC than {sup 18}F-FAC. Prominent liver uptake was seen in L-{sup 18}F-FMAC and L-{sup 18}F-FAC, whereas splenic activity was highest for {sup 18}F-FAC. Muscle uptake was also highest for {sup 18}F-FAC. The critical organ was the bladder wall for all three probes. The effective dose was 0.00524, 0.00755, and 0.00910 mSv/MBq for {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC, respectively. The biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FAC, L-{sup 18}F-FAC, and L-{sup 18}F-FMAC in humans reveals similarities and differences. Differences may be explained by different probe

  13. TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  14. TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  15. The use of apoptosis in human lymphocytes peripheral as alternative methods in biological dosimetry of radiation effects from cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays affect cells in dose-response manner, resulting in cell death, as in cancer radiotherapy. The ionizing radiation acts by transferring energy, mainly by free radicals from water radiolysis that result in nucleic acid damage and other effects in lipids and proteins, The level of exposure is indirectly estimated by physical dosimetry, but the biological dosimetry can measure the direct radiation effect, mainly in post-dividing cells by classical cytogenetic approach. Recently, it was reported that irradiated cells develop an induced programmed death or apoptosis. With a biological dosimetric technique, we measured apoptotic cell fraction in 60Co in vitro irradiated blood cells from voluntary healthy donors. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed a low sensitivity, because cell DNA presented the characteristic pattern only when the cells were exposed to 100 c Gy or more. Using a terminal DNA labeling technique we observed that the apoptotic cell fraction proportionally increases with irradiation. Similar sensitivity was observed when compared to classical cytogenetics (3 c Gy minimum detection level). These techniques are easier to perform, do not need cell culture and all cells, including interphase ones, can be analyzed, providing a good tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  16. Mechanism of radiation graft of methyl-. cap alpha. -fluoroacrylate and. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. beta. -trifluorostyrene on perfluorinated copolymer. [Cobalt 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, A.N.; Tevlina, A.S.; Zagorets, P.A. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-04-01

    The kinetics of radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl-..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate and ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..beta..-trifluorostyrene to perfluorinated copolymer of hexafluoropropylene with tetrafluoroethylene has been studied. The orders of the grafting reaction towards the monomer and dose rate as well as the values of rate constants of radiation-induced grafting at various temperatures were determined, the effective activation energy of grafting (20.6 kJ/mol) was calculated. The kinetic scheme of elementary acts of radiation-induced graft copolymerization is discussed.

  17. Digital holographic interferometry: A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavan, Alicia, E-mail: alicia.cavan@cdhb.health.nz [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand and Christchurch Hospital, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Meyer, Juergen, E-mail: juergen@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium. Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform. This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0.0381 K across a distance of 6.8 mm near the source was measured, corresponding to a dose of 159.3 Gy. The standard deviation in a typical measurement set was ±3.45 Gy (corresponding to an uncertainty in the temperature value of ±8.3 × 10{sup −4} K). The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach. The prototype achieves high spatial resolution of approximately 3 × 10{sup −5} m. The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions.

  18. The Quality Control of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for ONCOR Siemens Linear Accelerators Using Film Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy has made a significant progress in radiation therapy centers in recent years. In this method, each radiation beam is divided into many subfields that create a field with a modulated intensity. Considering the complexity of this method, the quality control for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy is a topic of interest for researchers. This article is about the various steps of planning and quality control of Siemens linear accelerators for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, using film dosimetry. This article in addition to review of the techniques, discusses the details of experiments and possible sources of errors which are not mentioned in the protocols and other references. This project was carried out in Isfahan Milad hospital which has two Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators. Both accelerators are equipped with Multi-Leaf Collimators which enables us to perform Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy delivery in the step-and-shoot method. The quality control consists of various experiments related to the sections of radiation therapy. In these experiments, the accuracy of some components such as treatment planning system, imaging device (CT), Multi-Leaf Collimators, control system of accelerator, and stability of the output are evaluated. The dose verification is performed using film dosimetry method. The films were KODAK-EDR2, which were calibrated before the experiments. One of the important steps is the comparison of the calculated dose with planning system and the measured dose in experiments. The results of the experiments in various steps have been acceptable according to the standard protocols. The calibration of Multi-Leaf Collimators and evaluation of the leakage through the leaves of Multi-Leaf Collimator was performed by using the film dosimetry and visual check. In comparison with calculated and measured dose, more that 80% of the points have to be in agreement within 3% of the value. In our experiments

  19. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the...

  20. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996 - 1999. Mid-term reports for the period 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the first dosimetry project are the measurement of neutron and charged particle flux and energy spectra at altitudes in civil aviation, the determination of response characteristics for detectors, the investigation of calibration procedures, and the evaluation of exposures of aircrews. The overall objective of the second dosimetry project is to improve estimates of dose following the intake of radionuclides by adults and children. The work includes the development of biokinetic and dosimetric models, including models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides, and for the developing embryo and foetus. Further subjects are target cell dosimetry for short-range particles and the development of computational tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis models. The third dosimetry project encompasses the study of different methods for retrospective dose assessments for individuals or groups of individuals accidentally exposed to increased levels of radiation. The methods investigated include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel and chromosome painting (FISH) for lymphocytes in peripheral blood for individual retrospective dose assessments, luminescence techniques on materials in inhabited environment (ceramics, bricks) and model calculations using environmental data as input. (orig.)

  1. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996 - 1999. Mid-term reports for the period 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Roth, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Michael, B.D. [Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab.; O`Sullivan, D. [Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The main objectives of the first dosimetry project are the measurement of neutron and charged particle flux and energy spectra at altitudes in civil aviation, the determination of response characteristics for detectors, the investigation of calibration procedures, and the evaluation of exposures of aircrews. The overall objective of the second dosimetry project is to improve estimates of dose following the intake of radionuclides by adults and children. The work includes the development of biokinetic and dosimetric models, including models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides, and for the developing embryo and foetus. Further subjects are target cell dosimetry for short-range particles and the development of computational tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis models. The third dosimetry project encompasses the study of different methods for retrospective dose assessments for individuals or groups of individuals accidentally exposed to increased levels of radiation. The methods investigated include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel and chromosome painting (FISH) for lymphocytes in peripheral blood for individual retrospective dose assessments, luminescence techniques on materials in inhabited environment (ceramics, bricks) and model calculations using environmental data as input. (orig.)

  2. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle

  3. TGF-beta, radiation-induced pulmonary Injury and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Groen, HJM

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether changes in TGF-beta plasma levels during radiation therapy may be useful in predicting radiation-induced pulmonary injury and tumour response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Plasma TGF-beta was investigated in 27 patients with stag

  4. The effects of beam quality on EPR spectra and alanine dosimetry in mixed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitization of L-Alanine dosimetry to neutrons showed that variations in the beam quality, resulting from adding boric acid to L-Alanine samples, affected the intensity and the shape of the lines in the EPR spectra of alanine following irradiation with thermal neutrons. Disintegration of 10B in the (n, α) process, enhances the EPR signal due to increase in the local dose deposition. The relative effectiveness of alanine dosimetry to neutrons was found to be about 0.5. (author)

  5. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the NAIRAS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Alston, Erica J.; Straume, Tore; Gersey, Brad; Lusby, Terry C.; Tobiska, W. Kent; Wilkins, Rick

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. One of the main goals of the RaD-X mission is to improve aviation radiation model characterization of cosmic ray primaries by taking dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum before the production of secondary particles occurs. The second goal of the RaD-X mission is to facilitate the pathway toward real-time, data assimilative predictions of atmospheric cosmic radiation exposure by identifying and characterizing low-cost radiation measurement solutions.

  6. Direct comparison of radiation dosimetry of six PET tracers using human whole-body imaging and murine biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the whole-body biodistributions and radiation dosimetry of five 11C-labeled and one 18F-labeled radiotracers in human subjects, and compared the results to those obtained from murine biodistribution studies. The radiotracers investigated were 11C-SA4503, 11C-MPDX, 11C-TMSX, 11C-CHIBA-1001, 11C-4DST, and 18F-FBPA. Dynamic whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in three human subjects after a single bolus injection of each radiotracer. Emission scans were collected in two-dimensional mode in five bed positions. Regions of interest were placed over organs identified in reconstructed PET images. The OLINDA program was used to estimate radiation doses from the number of disintegrations of these source organs. These results were compared with the predicted human radiation doses on the basis of biodistribution data obtained from mice by dissection. The ratios of estimated effective doses from the human-derived data to those from the mouse-derived data ranged from 0.86 to 1.88. The critical organs that received the highest absorbed doses in the human- and mouse-derived studies differed for two of the six radiotracers. The differences between the human- and mouse-derived dosimetry involved not only the species differences, including faster systemic circulation of mice and differences in the metabolism, but also measurement methodologies. Although the mouse-derived effective doses were roughly comparable to the human-derived doses in most cases, considerable differences were found for critical organ dose estimates and pharmacokinetics in certain cases. Whole-body imaging for investigation of radiation dosimetry is desirable for the initial clinical evaluation of new PET probes prior to their application in subsequent clinical investigations. (author)

  7. The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, Alfredo; Silari, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. In these codes, photon transport is simulated by using the detailed scheme, i.e., interaction by interaction. Detailed simulation is easy to implement, and the reliability of the results is only limited by the accuracy of the adopted cross sections. Simulations of electron and positron transport are more difficult, because these particles undergo a large number of interactions in the course of their slowing down. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interacti...

  8. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of the dopamine transporter radioligand [{sup 11}C]PE2I in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Maria-Joao [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: maria-joao.ribeiro@cea.fr; Ricard, Marcel [Service de Physique, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Lievre, Marie-Angele [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Bourgeois, Sandrine [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Emond, Patrick [INSERM U316, Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale et pharmaceutique, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, 37200 Tours (France); Gervais, Philippe [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Dolle, Frederic [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Syrota, Andre [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2007-05-15

    Introduction: This study reports on the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a cocaine analog, the (E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-tolyl)nortropane (PE2I), labeled with carbon 11 ([{sup 11}C]PE2I). [{sup 11}C]PE2I is used in positron emission tomography (PET) for examination of the dopamine neuronal transporter (DAT). DAT radioligands are often used to evaluate the progression of Parkinson's disease or the efficiency of neuroprotective therapeutics, and, typically, these studies required several successive PET scans. Methods: In three healthy male volunteers, whole-body scans were performed up to 2 h following intravenous injection of 321{+-}6 MBq of [{sup 11}C]PE2I. For each subject, regions of interest were defined over all visible organs to generate time-activity curves and calculate the percentage of injected activity. Time-activity data were fitted to a monoexponential model, as an uptake phase followed by a mono-exponential washout, or bi-exponential model to obtain residence times. With the use of the MIRD method, several source organs were considered in estimating residence time and mean effective radiation absorbed doses. Results: Blood pressure and ECG findings remained unchanged after radioligand injection. The primary route of clearance was renal. Ten minutes after injection, high activities were observed in the kidneys, urinary-bladder, stomach, liver, salivary glands and brain. The urine bladder wall, stomach and liver received the highest absorbed doses. The average effective dose of [{sup 11}C]PE2I was estimated to be 6.4{+-}0.6 {mu}Sv/MBq. Conclusion: The amount of [{sup 11}C]PE2I required for adequate DAT PET imaging results in an acceptable effective dose equivalent permitting two or three repeated cerebral PET studies, with the injection of 222 MBq for each study.

  9. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.moignier@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France); Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  10. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Adam K., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Pogue, Brian W., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real

  11. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real

  12. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia; Dosimetria personal TLD 110 en medicos ortopedistas expuestos a radiacion ionizante en Bogota - Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra C, B. Y.; Jimenez, Y. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Plazas, M. C. [Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogota, Instituto de Oncologia Carlos Ardila Lulle, Calle 119, No. 7-90, 220246 Bogota (Colombia); Eslava S, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas, Grupo Equidad en Salud, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Groot R, H., E-mail: brigith.sierra@gmail.com [Universidad de los Andes, Laboratorio de Genetica Humana, Carrera 1 No. 18A -12, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  13. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E

    2013-03-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for

  14. Dosimetry in high-energy photon fields for the calibration of measuring instruments for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the dosimetry in various reference photon fields with energies between 4.4 MeV and about 8 MeV. Two dosimetric quantities were chosen. The air kerma was determined from measurements without a phantom and the absorbed dose to water from measurements with a phantom. This mean that the range of realization of the quantity air kerma has been extended from the energy of Co-60 photons to about 8 MeV. The results can serve as basis for the calibration of radiation protection dosemeters in nuclear power plants (0-16(n,p)N-16 reaction) with high energy photons. (orig./HP)

  15. Study of radiation effects on some glasses and their applications in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comprises a study of the X-ray diffraction, thermal, electrical, ESR and optical properties of lead lithium tetra borate glass. The objective of this thesis is to prepare glass dosimeter and study the effect of several gamma-irradiation doses on Lead lithium tetra borate glasses doped with Cu O. The two glasses were prepared from chemical reagents; Li2B4O7 from ready package, lead and copper oxide were added in fixed Proportions. The glass melting was made in porcelain crucibles, using electrically heated furnace at temperature of 1000 -1100 degree C. The melts rapidly quenched in air by pressing between two stainless-steel plates mould kept at room temperature. The resultant glasses were colorless for LPTB and transparent greenish sheet of LPTB Cu glass about 0.8 mm thick and where polished to meet the requirements for optical and electrical measurements. The obtained results can be summarized as follows:- Density It is observed that, for unirradiated samples, the addition of copper to LPTB leads to the increase of the number of ions in the sample which decreases the inter-ionic distance. As a result, the molar volume of LPTB Cu decreased and consequently its density increased in the range of 10 ± 1 %. Irradiation with gamma rays is assumed to create displacements, electronic defects and /or breaks in the network bonds. Irradiation can cause the compaction of B2O3 by breaking of the bonds between trigonal elements, allowing the formation of different configuration. Irradiating the LPTB glass with growing gamma doses up to 25 kGy decreased its molar volume with in 4.07 % and consequently increased the density with the same percentage. For the glass LPTB Cu, the effect of gamma rays appeared as a decrease in the molar volume and increase in density with the same percentage (12.9%). The addition traces of copper (0.01 weight %) to LPTB enhanced the effect of gamma radiation on it. Crystallization Behavior: - X-ray diffraction The results show that the

  16. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Seini [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo Factory, Radiation Equipment Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  17. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  18. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.;

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered. This...... paper summarises the results of the whole-body photon dosemeter test. Twenty-six dosimetry services from all EU Member States and Switzerland participated. Twelve different radiation fields were used to simulate various workplace irradiation fields. Dose values from 0.4 mSv to 80 mSv were chosen. From...

  19. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  20. DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF NATURAL SOURCES DOSIMETRY LABORATORY AT THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV: 1970–1986

    OpenAIRE

    E. P. Lisachenko; I. P. Stamat; N.A. Koroleva

    2016-01-01

    At the initial development stage of the Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene natural sources dosimetry laboratory the experts focused at establishment of equipment and methodology. The following period of the lab activity was rather related to theoretical and experimental research which finally led to creation of a new in radiation hygiene field of work on standard protection of population irradiation caused by natural sources of ionizing radiation. The article describes the main...

  1. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  2. Radiation-Induced Color Centers in LiF for Dosimetry at High Absorbed Dose Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Ellis, S. C.;

    1980-01-01

    Color centers formed by irradiation of optically clear crystals of pure LiF may be analyzed spectrophotometrically for dosimetry in the absorbed dose range from 102 to 107 Gy. Routine monitoring of intense electron beams is an important application. Both 6LiF and 7LiF forms are commercially...

  3. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Brian J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom); Wall, Anders; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Silvia [Uppsala University, Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry in humans of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine, a synthetic L-leucine analogue being investigated as a potential diagnostic biomarker for neoplasia. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 6 healthy volunteers were acquired at up to 16 time points up to about 5 h after a bolus administration of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine (153.8 {+-} 2.2 MBq). Venous blood samples were taken up to about 4 h post-injection from which {sup 18}F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma were measured. Urine was collected as voided up to 4 h post-injection, from which the excreted {sup 18}F activity was measured. Absolute values of the {sup 18}F activity contained in up to 11 source regions (brain, salivary glands, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, red bone marrow, kidneys, uterus and urinary bladder contents) were determined directly from quantitative analysis of the images. For each source region, the {sup 18}F activity decay-corrected and normalised to that injected, as a function of time, was fit by an analytical function which was subsequently integrated to yield the cumulated activity normalised to the injected activity. These normalised cumulated activities were then used as input to the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) package to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry of each subject following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. An effective dose was then estimated for each subject. [{sup 18}F]Fluciclovine was clinically well tolerated in this study. Very little {sup 18}F was excreted with only a mean value of 3.3 % present in the urine at about 4 h post-injection; no activity within the intestinal contents was noted. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (13.8 %), red bone marrow (11.1 %) and lung (7.1 %). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity were received by the pancreas (102.2 {mu

  4. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  5. Reference dosimetry for quality assurance in the radiation processing of food: The example of the ''CIGAL'' experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from the Plant Radiation Section (Section Ionisation des Vegetaux (DPVE/SIV)), the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (Laboratoire de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisation (DAMRI/LMRI)) has carried out measurements to ensure the dosimetric calibration in the commissioning of the CIGAL experimental facility. This calibration is based on the use of alanine dosimetry and auxiliary measurement methods. The experimental work was carried out by LMRI personnel and the results of the measurements are specified in terms of the operational quantities of interest to the field of application (minimum and maximum absorbed doses, overall average dose). The measured values of the heterogeneity dose index are between 1.3 and 1.7. To complement the measurements giving the reference values, dose maps were obtained using a computer program developed specifically for this type of application. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  6. alpha/beta radiation detector using wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel two-layer radiation detector for alpha/beta simultaneous counting for dust radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants. For alpha/beta discrimination, wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination techniques were newly developed. To establish the wavelength discrimination, we adopted a two-layer scintillator consisting of the plastic scintillator (NE-111A) and Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) whose emission spectra are quite different. To reject the mixed beta signal in the alpha detection layer, we used the delayed fluorescence characteristics of Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) in the signal processing. We manufactured the detector and tested its feasibility and the detection performance for dust radiation monitoring. Finally, we concluded that the performance of this new alpha/beta detector using the new discrimination methods is suitable for dust radiation monitoring.

  7. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  8. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF beta-1-recept

  9. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report 'Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Incorporated Radionuclides' presented here is one part of the 5 individual reports. The work to be carried out within this project is structured into four Work Packages: Workpackage 1 concentrates on ingested radionuclides, considering doses to the GI tract and radionuclide absorption. A major objective is the development of a new dosimetric model of the GI tract, taking account of most recent data on gut transit and dose to sensitive cells. Workpackage 2 seeks to improve and extend biokinetic and dosimetric models for systemic radionuclides. Existing models for adults and children will be extended to other elements and new models will be developed for the embryo and fetus. Workpackage 3 is to improve assessment of localised distribution of dose within tissues at the cellular level for specific examples of Auger emitters and alpha emitting isotopes, in relation to observed effects. The work will include experimental studies of dose/effect relationship and the development of localisation methods. Workpackage 4 concerns the development of computer codes for the new dosimetric models, quality assurance of the models and the calculation of dose coefficients. Formal sensitivity analysis will be used to identify critical areas of model development and to investigate the effects of variability and incertainty in biokinetic parameters. (orig.)

  10. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  11. Order of the 30 December 2004 relative to the individual sheet of medical follow-up and to the individual information concerning the dosimetry of workers exposed to ionizing radiations; Arrete du 30 decembre 2004 relatif a la carte individuelle de suivi medical et aux informations individuelles de dosimetrie des travailleurs exposes aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-15

    This order concerns the content and the modalities of grant of the individual sheet of medical follow-up, the collect and the centralization of dosimetry individual information by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Safety (IRSN), and the access to individual results of external and internal dosimetry. (A.L.B.)

  12. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R;

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...

  13. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  14. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  15. First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality control, patient dosimetry and radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality Control, Patient Dosimetry and Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, scientifically supported and accredited as a CPD event for medical physicists by EFOMP, National 'Frederic Joliot-Curie' Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (NRIRR), Budapest, Hungary, April 25-28, 2007. Topics of the meeting included all areas of medical radiation physics except radiation therapy. A unique possibility was realized by inviting four European manufacturers of quality control instrumentation, not only for exhibiting but they also had 45 minutes individual presentations about each manufacturer's product scale and conception. Further sessions dealt with dosimetry, optimization, quality control and testing, radiation protection and standardization, computed tomography and nuclear medicine, in 29 oral presentations and 1 poster of the participants. (S.I.)

  16. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (60Co) and chronic (137Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (32P), lethality (LD50, LD100), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD50 and LD100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  17. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...

  18. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral analysis of irradiated polypropylene films: correlation and possible application for high dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study was performed to develop the dosimetric characteristics of commercial polypropylene film (PP), to be used as a film dosimeter for high-dose gamma radiation dosimetry. The useful dose range of this polymeric film extends up to 630 kGy. Correlations were established between the absorbed dose of gamma radiation and the radiation-induced changes in PP measured by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. The results showed a significant dependence of the response on the selected readout tool of measurements - FTIR (at 1716 and 3400 cm-1) or UV (at 275 nm), as well as on the quantity used for calculation. The radiation-chemical yields of the ketonic carbonyl group and the hydroxyl group produced in irradiated PP film were evaluated. G(>C=O) was found to be 1.37 μmol/J and G(>C-OH) was found to be 0.638 μmol/J. The assessment of random uncertainty associated with the measurement of dose response and the effect of relative humidity during irradiation on dosimeter performance as well as post-irradiation stability at different storage conditions will be discussed. (author)

  19. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  20. EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel by x radiation; Dosimetria EPR en esmalte dental irradiado con rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubner, Diana; Perez, Maria del Rosario; Gisone, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] E-mail: ddubner@cae.arn.gov.ar; Fainstein, C.; Winkler, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche]|[Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina). Inst. Balseiro; Saravi, Margarita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Davila, Francisco [Ateneo Argentino de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    Tooth enamel, extracted from molars, was irradiated with 66 keV X-rays, with doses up to 1 Gy. The preparation of the powder samples is described, as well as the protocol for the acquisition and processing of the spectra. The radiation induced paramagnetism is measured, at room temperature, by ESR spectroscopy. The ESR spectra is well described considering two paramagnetic species, with magnetic moments (in units of Bohr magnetrons) g=2,0041, and g1=2,0018, g2=1,9972. The ESR data (peak-to-peak amplitude per mg, hpp/mg, vs dose D), for doses 0 Gydosimetry. (author)

  1. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrut, David, E-mail: david.sarrut@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard (France); Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Boussion, Nicolas [INSERM, UMR 1101, LaTIM, CHU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France); Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France); Jan, Sébastien [CEA/DSV/I2BM/SHFJ, Orsay 91401 (France); Loudos, George [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann [UMR 6533 CNRS/IN2P3, Université Blaise Pascal, 63171 Aubière (France); Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210, Athens (Greece); Pietrzyk, Uwe [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany and Fachbereich für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Robert, Charlotte [IMNC, UMR 8165 CNRS, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay 91406 (France); and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  2. 39th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Dosimetry of Internal Emitters: Contribution of Radiation Protection Bodies and Radiological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2016-02-01

    Since the early days of the Manhattan Engineer District, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has served to advance the dosimetry models used to set protection standards for radionuclides taken into the body. Throughout the years, this effort benefited significantly from ORNL staff's active participation in national and international scientific bodies. The first such interaction was in 1946 with the National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP), chaired by L.S. Taylor, which led to the 1949 to 1953 series of tripartite conferences of experts from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These conferences addressed the need for standardization of dosimetry models and led to the establishment of an anatomic and physiologic model called "Standard Man," a precursor of the reference worker defined in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Standard Man was used in setting the maximum permissible concentrations in air and water published in NBS Handbook 52 and subsequent reports by NCRP and ICRP. K.Z. Morgan, then director of the Health Physics Division at ORNL, participated in the tripartite conferences and subsequently established ORNL as a modeling and computational resource for development of radiation protection standards. ORNL's role expanded with participation in the work of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Results of interactions with the MIRD Committee are evident in the radiation protection guidance for internal emitters in ICRP Publication 30. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values tabulated in Publication 30 were computed by an ORNL-based task group of ICRP Committee 2. A few years after the appearance of Publication 30, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident made clear the need to develop standard dosimetry models for pre-adult ages as members of the public. In the late 1980s, ICRP began an effort to extend its reference

  3. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Fiber optic probes based on silver-only coated hollow glass waveguides for ionizing beam radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Liu, Haoyang; Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Taleei, Reza; Harrington, James A.; Kassaee, Alireza; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2016-03-01

    Čerenkov contamination is a significant issue in radiation detection by fiber-coupled scintillators. To enhance the scintillation signal transmission while minimizing Čerenkov contamination, we designed a fiber probe using a silver-only coated hollow waveguide (HWG). The HWG tip with inserted scintillator, embedded in tissue mimicking phantoms, was irradiated with clinical electron and photon beams. Optical spectra of irradiated tips were taken using a fiber spectrometer, and the signal was deconvolved with a linear fitting algorithm. The resultant decomposed spectra of the scintillator with and without Čerenkov correction were in good agreement with measurements performed by an electron diode and ion chamber for electron and photon beam dosimetry, respectively, indicating the minimal effect of Čerenkov contamination. Compared with a silver/dielectric coated HWG fiber dosimeter design we observed higher signal transmission in our design based on the use of silver-only HWG.

  5. A portable organic plastic scintillator dosimetry system for low energy X-rays: A feasibility study using an intraoperative X-ray unit as the radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of near water equivalent organic plastic scintillators (OPS for radiation dosimetry with high-energy sources under laboratory conditions is recognized. In this work, an OPS-based dosimeter using a photodiode combined with improved solid state detection and signal processing techniques has been developed; it offers the potential for the construction of a stable and fully portable dosimeter which will extend the useful range of measurement beyond the usual MeV area and provide reliable readings down to sub-′100 keV′ X-ray energy levels. In these experiments, the instrument described has been used for the dosimetry of INTRABEAM intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT equipment at distances as low as 1.8 mm from the effective source, i.e., 0.2 mm from the X-ray probe surface. Comparison is shown with dosimetry measurements made using the calibrated reference ion chamber supplied by the IORT equipment manufacturer.

  6. The radiation damage of crystalline silicon PN diode in tritium beta-voltaic battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yisong; Yang, Yuqing; Liu, Yebing; Li, Hao; Wang, Guanquan; Hu, Rui; Xiong, Xiaoling; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-08-01

    A tritium beta-voltaic battery using a crystalline silicon convertor composed of (100)Si/SiO2/Si3N4 film degrades remarkably with radiation from a high intensity titanium tritide film. Simulation and experiments were carried out to investigate the main factor causing the degradation. The radiation damages mainly comes from the x-ray emitted from the titanium tritide film and beta particle can relieve the damages. The x-ray radiation induced positive charges in the SiO2 film destroying the output property of the PN diode with the induction of an electric field.

  7. Polymer applications in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation; Wykorzystanie polimerow w dozymetrii promieniowan jonizujacych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    The measuring methodology of, and polymer application in, the high-dose dosimetry have been reviewed. The use of PMMA, cellulose triacetate, PE and PS in absolute and relative methods has been described. The latter methods use the polymer as the actual dosimetric material (transparent polymer) or as a passive or active matrix that is endowed with excellent mechanical properties for carrying the domestic material (e,g., polymer-dye and polymer alanine composites). Both types of polymer dosimeters have been widely used in practice. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of 60Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin-1). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3±3.27- and 2.6±0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased (≤15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9(±0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13(±2.66)- and 4.23(±0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty

  9. Automated DICOM metadata and volumetric anatomical information extraction for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, D.; Ploussi, A.; Kordolaimi, S.; Karavasilis, E.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Syrgiamiotis, V.; Efstathopoulos, E.

    2015-09-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry calculations based on simulation techniques have as a prerequisite the modeling of the modality system and the creation of voxelized phantoms. This procedure requires the knowledge of scanning parameters and patients’ information included in a DICOM file as well as image segmentation. However, the extraction of this information is complicated and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a simple graphical user interface (GUI) to (i) automatically extract metadata from every slice image of a DICOM file in a single query and (ii) interactively specify the regions of interest (ROI) without explicit access to the radiology information system. The user-friendly application developed in Matlab environment. The user can select a series of DICOM files and manage their text and graphical data. The metadata are automatically formatted and presented to the user as a Microsoft Excel file. The volumetric maps are formed by interactively specifying the ROIs and by assigning a specific value in every ROI. The result is stored in DICOM format, for data and trend analysis. The developed GUI is easy, fast and and constitutes a very useful tool for individualized dosimetry. One of the future goals is to incorporate a remote access to a PACS server functionality.

  10. Optimising the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy; an investigation of the roles of chimerisation, fractionation and radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violet, John Albert

    2007-12-01

    model in nude mice using 131I-A5B7, a murine antibody against CEA. In this setting fractionation neither reduces normal tissue toxicity nor increases the effectiveness of therapy. This thesis demonstrates, using both pre-clinical and clinical data, how the therapeutic ratio of RIT might be improved through antibody design, leading to reduced immunogenicity, dose fractionation and radiation dosimetry, and proposes how these approaches might be used to optimise the effectiveness of RIT in the clinic.

  11. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  12. Radiation dosimetry for NCT facilities at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Greenberg, D.D.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-12-31

    Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) is a 3 mega-watt (MW) heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for medical and biological studies and became operational in 1959. Over time, the BMRR was modified to provide thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies. NCT studies have been performed at both the epithermal neutron irradiation facility (ENIF) on the east side of the BMRR reactor core and the thermal neutron irradiation facility (TNIF) on the west side of the core. Neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry performed from 1994 to the present in both facilities are described and the results are presented and discussed.

  13. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]mirtazapine, an antidepressant affecting adrenoceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marthi, Katalin; Hansen, S.B.; Jakobsen, Steen; Bender, Dirk; Smith, S.B.; Smith, D.F. E-mail: dfsmith@inet.uni2.dk

    2003-09-01

    Central adrenoceptors cannot currently be studied by PET neuroimaging due to a lack of appropriate radioligands. The fast-acting antidepressant drug mirtazapine, radiolabelled for PET, may be of value for assessing central adrenoceptors, provided that the radiation dosimetry of the radioligand is acceptable. To obtain that information, serial whole-body images were made for up to 70 min following intravenous injection of 326 and 185 MBq [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]mirtazapine (specific activities E.O.S. of 119 and 39 GBq/{mu}mol, respectively) in a healthy volunteer. Ten source organs plus remaining body were considered in estimating absorbed radiation doses calculated using MIRD 3.1. The highest absorbed organ doses were found to the lungs (3.4x10{sup -2} mGy/MBq), adrenals (1.2x10{sup -2} mGy/MBq), spleen (1.2x10{sup -2} mGy/MBq), and gallbladder wall (1.1x10{sup -2} mGy/MBq). The effective dose was estimated to be 6.8x10{sup -3} mSv/MBq, which is similar to that produced by several radioligands used routinely for neuroimaging.

  14. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  15. Gamma radiation processing dosimetry with commercial silicon diodes; Dosimetria de processos de irradiacao gama com diodos comerciais de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto

    2009-07-01

    This work envisages the development of dosimeters based on Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry from 1 Gy up to 100 Gy. This dose range is frequently utilized in radiation processing of crystal modifications, polymers crosslinking and biological studies carried out in the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dosimeter was constructed by a commercial SFH00206 (Siemens) Si diode, operating in a photovoltaic mode, whose electrical characteristics are suitable for this application. The current generated in the device by the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation from the Irradiators types I and II was registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. In all measurements, the current signals of the diode registered as a function of the exposure time were very stable. Furthermore, the device photocurrent was linearly dependent on the dose rate within a range of 6.1x10{sup -2} Gy/min up to 1.9x10{sup 2} Gy/min. The calibration curves of the dosimeters, e.g., the average charge registered as a function of the absorbed dose were obtained by the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results showed a linear response of the dosimeter with a correlation coefficient better than 0.998 for total absorbed dose up to 120 Gy. Finally, due to the small experimental errors 5 % it was also possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalto- 60 radioactive sources in irradiation facilities used in this work. (author)

  16. Regional training course on radiation dosimetry. 9 October - 4 November 1989, P.R. of China, Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This regional training course on radiation dosimetry was organized by the Agency in co-operation with the Government of the People's Republic of China and was held at the Shanghai Institute of Metrological Technology (SIMT), one of the four SSDLs in China. The purpose of this regional Training course was to provide theoretical and practical training on calibration and standardization of ionizing radiation. Special emphasis was placed on high energy x-rays, gamma rays and high energy electrons. Discussions and evaluations on progress made in different SSDLs in the region were also foreseen. This course was designed for junior staff from SSDLs and other institutions providing radiation dosimetry services. The course was open for up to 25 candidates from developing Member States in the Asia and Pacific region. The Agency announced this course by invitation letters to 16 government authorities of Member States in the region. Altogether 22 participants from 13 Member States and Hong Kong and two observers from the host country attended the course during its entire period. Transportation provided by SIMT, the working condition at SIMT, the food and accommodation at the Shanghai Education Centre of International Exchange were adequate. The hospitality and social programme offered by the host institute and its staff were noted by the participants with satisfaction. A television team from SIMT recorded the whole training course and the social events and prepared a video cassette with 120 minutes recording. It was made available for RMB 100. A total of 56 theoretical lectures were given during the four weeks by Messrs. H. Svensson, N.J. Hargrave, Y. Kawada, R. Girzikowsky and J.G. Haider. Another 10 hours of lectures were covered by the 10 local lecturers and about 10 hours were spent for the presentation of the reports from the 22 participants and the two observers. The practical part was covered by a total of 48 hours of laboratory exercises and demonstrations

  17. A study on the real-time radiation dosimetry measurement system based on optically stimulated luminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Ping; CHEN Zhao-Yang; BA Wei-Zhen; FAN Yan-Wei; DU Yan-Zhao; PAN Shi-Lie; GUO Qi

    2008-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) radiation dosimeter technically surveys a wide dynamic measurement range and a high sensitivity.Optical fiber dosimeters provide capability for remote monitoring of the radiation in the locations which are difficult-to-acoess and hazardous.In addition.optical fiber dosimeters are immune to electrical and radio-frequency interference.In this paper,a novel remote optical fiber radiation dosimeter is described.The optical fiber dosimeter takes advantage of the charge trapping materials CaS:Ce, Sm that exhibit OSL.The measuring range of the dosimeter is from 0.1 to 100 Gy.The equipment is relatively simple and small in size,and has low power consumption.This device is suitable for measuring the space radiation dose and also can be used in high radiation dose condition and other dangerous radiation occasions.

  18. Establishment of ANSI N13.11 X-ray radiation fields for personal dosimetry performance test by computation and experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J L; Kim, B. H.(Seoul National University, 151-742, Seoul, South Korea); Chang, S Y; J. K. Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes establishment by computational and experimental methods of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N13.11 X-ray radiation fields by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These fields were used in the standard irradiations of various personal dosimeters for the personal dosimetry performance test program performed by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea in the autumn of 1995. Theoretical X-ray spectra produced from two KAERI X-ray generator...

  19. Impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy plan delivery using the pretreatment portal dosimetry quality assurance and setting up the workflow at hospital levels

    OpenAIRE

    Karunakaran Kaviarasu; N Arunai Nambi Raj; Krishna Murthy, K.; A Ananda Giri Babu; Bhaskar Laxman Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of dose rate on accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan delivery by comparing the gamma agreement between the calculated and measured portal doses by pretreatment quality assurance (QA) using electronic portal imaging device dosimetry and creating a workflow for the pretreatment IMRT QA at hospital levels. As the improvement in gamma agreement leads to increase in the quality of IMRT treatment delivery, gamma evaluation was...

  20. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Muneyuki [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Ishikawa, Masatomo [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi, E-mail: ishiwata@pet.tmig.or.j [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: 4-[{sup 11}C]Methylphenyl 2,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001) is a newly developed positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We investigated whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 in humans and compared the results with those obtained in mice. Methods: Dynamic whole-body PET was carried out for three human subjects after administering a bolus injection of [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001. Emission scans were collected in two-dimensional mode over five bed positions. Regions of interest were placed over 12 organs. Radiation dosimetry was estimated from the residence times of these source organs using the OLINDA program. Biodistribution data from mice were also used for the prediction of radiation dosimetry in humans, and results with and those without accommodation of different proportions of organ-to-total-body mass were compared with the results from the human PET study. Results: In humans, the highest accumulation was observed in the liver, whereas in mice, the highest accumulation was observed in the urinary bladder. The estimated effective dose from the human PET study was 6.9 {mu}Sv/MBq, and that from mice was much underestimated. Conclusion: Effective dose estimates for [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 were compatible with those associated with other common nuclear medicine tests. Absorption doses among several organs were considerably different between the human and mouse studies. Human dosimetry studies for the investigation of radiation safety are desirable as one of the first clinical trials of new PET probes before their application in subsequent clinical investigations.

  1. Development of defects in the structure of PIN dosimetry diodes exposed to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Chren, D.; Dammer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of radiation induced defects continue to be relevant as they find an ever greater application due to the increasing radiation doses to which semiconductor detectors are exposed. Efforts of figuring out the changes due to high radiation doses provide the fundamental motivation for this type of experiments. The PIN diode is described, and a developmental disorder caused thereto by 60Co source gamma quanta ranging from 100 kGy to 1 MGy. The calibration curve shows the effect of disturbances on the volt-ampere characteristics as a function of the dose of gamma radiation. The results are compared with earlier published data.

  2. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board−approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  3. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wiese, Kristin M. [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Hua, Chia-ho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Daw, Najat [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); McGregor, Lisa [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); McCrarey, Lola [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  4. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  5. Compounds of 6Li and natural Li for EPR dosimetry in photon/neutron mixed radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E; Gustafsson, H; Danilczuk, M; Sastry, M D; Lund, A

    2004-05-01

    Formates and dithionates of 6Li, enriched and 7Li in natural composition of Li offer a possibility to measure the absorbed dose from photons and thermal neutrons in a mixed radiation field for instance at a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility. Tests with formates and dithionates of enriched 6Li and lithium compounds with natural composition have been performed at the BNCT facility at Studsvik, Sweden. Irradiations have been performed at 3 cm depth in a Perspex phantom in a fluence rate of thermal neutrons 1.8 x 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1). The compounds were also irradiated in a pure X-ray field from a 4MV linear accelerator at 5 cm depth in a phantom with accurately determined absorbed doses. The signal intensity and shape was investigated within 3 h after the irradiation. A single line spectrum attributed to the CO2- radical was observed after irradiation of lithium formate. An increase in line width occurring after neutron irradiation in comparison with photon irradiation of the 6Li sample was attributed to dipolar broadening between CO2- radicals trapped in the tracks of the alpha particles. A spectrum due to the SO3- radical anion was observed after irradiation of lithium dithionate. The signal amplitude increased using the 6Li in place of the Li with natural composition of isotopes, in studies with low energy X-ray irradiation. Due to the decreased line width, caused by the difference in g(N) and I between the isotopes, the sensitivity with 6Li dithionate may be enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to alanine dosimetry. After comprehensive examination of the different combinations of compounds with different amounts of 6Li and 7Li regarding dosimetry, radiation chemistry and EPR properties these dosimeter material might be used for dose determinations at BNCT treatments and for biomedical experiments. Interesting properties of the radical formation might be visible due to the large difference in ionization density of neutrons compared to photons.

  6. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  7. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, AL; Peat, HJ; Buma, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between Octob

  8. Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haelg, Roger A., E-mail: rhaelg@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Besserer, Juergen [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine [Division for Radiation Safety and Security, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Clasie, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kry, Stephen F. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Schneider, Uwe [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 204, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-12-01

    In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of H{sub p}(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

  9. Radiation dosimetry estimation of N-(2-[18F]fluoropropionyl)- L-glutamate based on the mice distribution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-(2-[18F]fluoropropionyl)-L-glutamate([18F]FPGLU) was a recently developed potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with positron emission tomography–computer tomography (PET–CT). The absorbed and effective radiation doses resulting from the intravenous administration of [18F]FPGLU were estimated using biodistribution data from normal mice. The methodology recommended by Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) was used to estimate the doses. The highest uptake of [18F]FPGLU was found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and lung. The kidneys were the organ received the highest absorbed dose, 58.4 μGy/MBq, the brain received the lowest dose, 5.5 μGy/MBq, and other organs received doses in the range of 8.3–11.9 μGy/MBq. The effective dose was 17.0 μSv/MBq. The data show that a 370 MBq (10 mCi) injection of [18F]FPGLU would lead to an estimated effective dose of 6.3 mSv, which is within the accepted range of routine nuclear medicine investigations. - Highlights: • The absorbed and effective radiation dosimetry of [18F]FPGLU was estimated using the biodistribution data from normal mice. • A 370 MBq (10 mCi) injection of [18F] FPGLU would lead to an estimated effective dose of 6.3 mSv, which is within the accepted range of routine nuclear medicine investigations. • [18F]FPGLU is a safe amino acid PET tracer for imaging and can be used in further clinical study

  10. Effect of ocular implants of different materials on the dosimetry of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the attenuation and scattering effects of ocular implants, made from different materials, on the dose distributions of a 6 MV photon beam, and 6, 9, and 12 MeV electron beams used in orbital radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Central axis depth-dose measurements were performed in a polystyrene phantom with embedded spherical ocular implants using film dosimetry of a 6 MV photon beam and electron beams of 6, 9, and 12 MeV energy. The isodose distributions were also calculated by a computerized treatment planning system using computerized tomography (CT) scans of a polystyrene phantom that had silicone, acrylic, and hydroxyapatite ocular implants placed into it. Results: Electron beam dose distributions display distortions both on the measured and calculated data. This effect is most accentuated for the hydroxyapatite implants, for which the transmissions through ocular implants are on the order of 93% for the 6 MV photon beam, and range from 60% for 6 MeV electrons to 90% for 12 MeV electrons. Conclusion: We studied the effect of ocular implants of various materials, embedded in a polystyrene phantom, on the dose distributions of a 6 MV photon beam, and 6, 9, and 12 MeV electron beams. Our investigations show that while 6 MV photons experience only a few percent attenuation, lower energy electron beam with 60% transmission is not a suitable choice of treating tumors behind the ocular implants

  11. Radiation protection in medicine (542) comparison of different dosimetry systems for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkovic, D. [Srebrnjak, Specialized Hospital for Respiratory System Diseases in Children and Youth, Zagreb (Croatia); Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Krpan, K. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    The dose measurement on patients in X-ray diagnostic is not simple, because low doses with low and various energies have to be measured. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare high sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and radio-photoluminescent (R.P.L.) glass dosimeters for dose measurements in routine X-ray diagnostic of chest of children. The energy dependence of the dosimeters was investigated in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The energy range was 33- 65 keV mean energy, the dosimeters were placed free in air and on the water phantom. The results were compared to calculated values of Hp(10). The next step was the irradiation in a routine X-ray diagnostic unit. Irradiations were performed by the Shimadzu X-ray unit. The selected irradiation conditions were the same as that most commonly used for baby examinations. Doses were measured with dosimeters placed free-in-air and also with the dosimeters placed on the water phantom and baby phantom. The results show that the R.P.L. glass dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Cu,P based T.L.D. are suitable for low dose measurements in X-ray diagnostic. The uncertainty of dose determination is mainly caused by the energy dependence of dosimeters. (authors)

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance radiation dosimetry: possible inorganic alternatives to the EPR/alanine dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity of the EPR spectrum of γ-irradiated L-α-alanine has been accepted by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a secondary standard for high-dose (10-100 000 Gy) dosimetry. The alanine dosimeter is not without its disadvantages, however, and in this article alternative EPR dosimeters are explored. These include SO3- in irradiated K2CH2(SO3)2 and CO2- in irradiated sodium formate (NaHCO2), both of which have some advantages over CH3CHCO2- in L-α-alanine. Using as a readout parameter the peak-to-peak excursion of the strongest line, these systems have a four-fold sensitivity advantage over alanine. The radicals SO3- and CO2- are, moreover, found in a wide variety of matrices, and it may be possible to find one in which they are even stronger. The need to discover a dosimeter material sensitive enough to function in the 'clinical' dose range (below 10 Gy) is emphasized. (author)

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance radiation dosimetry: possible inorganic alternatives to the EPR/alanine dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keizer, P.N.; Morton, J.R.; Preston, K.F. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences)

    1991-10-07

    The intensity of the EPR spectrum of {gamma}-irradiated L-{alpha}-alanine has been accepted by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a secondary standard for high-dose (10-100 000 Gy) dosimetry. The alanine dosimeter is not without its disadvantages, however, and in this article alternative EPR dosimeters are explored. These include SO{sub 3}{sup -} in irradiated K{sub 2}CH{sub 2}(SO{sub 3}){sub 2} and CO{sub 2}{sup -} in irradiated sodium formate (NaHCO{sub 2}), both of which have some advantages over CH{sub 3}CHCO{sub 2}{sup -} in L-{alpha}-alanine. Using as a readout parameter the peak-to-peak excursion of the strongest line, these systems have a four-fold sensitivity advantage over alanine. The radicals SO{sub 3}{sup -} and CO{sub 2}{sup -} are, moreover, found in a wide variety of matrices, and it may be possible to find one in which they are even stronger. The need to discover a dosimeter material sensitive enough to function in the 'clinical' dose range (below 10 Gy) is emphasized. (author).

  14. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite; Dosimetria quimica de la radiacion aplicacion del sistema nitrato-nitrito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormo Ferrero, M. J.

    1977-07-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs.

  15. Application of the Böhm chamber for reference beta dose measurements and the calibration of personal dosimeters

    OpenAIRE

    Skubacz Krystian

    2016-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) currently used in personal and area dosimetry are often utilized to measure doses of ionizing radiation in fields with a more complex structure and therefore they should be calibrated in relation to different radiation types. The results of such calibration presented for UD-813 TLDs allowed for evaluation of their capability in relation to different radiation types like the beta and photon radiation of different energies and neutron radiation generated by t...

  16. Properties of different thin-layer LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for beta dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.;

    1996-01-01

    of Nuclear Physics, a thin layer of LiF:Mg,Cup phosphor of effective thickness 8.5 mg.cm(-2) was sintered to a base of undoped LiF. Beta energy and angular response, detection threshold, stability, etc. were investigated for the two detector types. Results show that both detectors possess good energy......Dosimetric properties of two different types of thin TL detectors, designed to measure personal doses at a depth of 7 mg.cm(-2) in tissue, have been compared. At Riso National Laboratory detectors were prepared by fixing LiF:Mg,Cu,P GR-200 thin detectors to 0.7 mm thick Al pieces. At the Institute...

  17. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  18. MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of...

  19. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Maciej M Kmiec; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.

    2012-01-01

    With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical interve...

  20. Basic Studies on Radiation-Induced Luminescence from Natural Quartz and Its Application to Retrospective Dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hiroki; 藤田, 博喜

    2006-01-01

    It is very important to have a method of estimating radiation-dose received by people or irradiated in environmental space, without having or setting conventional dosemeters. However, dose evaluation method is not always established in the case of emergency situation. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from naturally occurring quartz could be used to estimate such accidental radiation doses or not. When ionizing...

  1. Extremity dosimetry problems during the handling of radionuclides syringes in nuclear medicine: A Monte Carlo radiation transport simplified approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, F., E-mail: francesca.mariotti@bologna.enea.i [ENEA-BAS-ION IRP Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136, Bologna (Italy); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA-BAS-ION IRP Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    The ORAMED (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff) Working Tasks (WP4) is addressed at evaluating extremity doses (and dose distributions across the hands) of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, to study the influence of protective devices such as syringe and vial shields, to improve such devices when possible and to propose 'levels of reference doses' for each standard nuclear medicine procedure. In particular task 4 is concerned with the study of the extremity dosimetry for the hand of operators devoted to the preparation and administration stages of the usage, for example, of {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 18}F and {sup 90}Y (Zevalin) radionuclides. The aim of this report consists in the study of photon-electron equilibrium conditions at 0.07 mm in the skin to justify a simplified 'kerma approximation' approach in the planned complex Monte Carlo voxel hand modeling. Furthermore a detailed investigation on primary electron and secondary bremsstrahlung photon transport from {sup 90}Y to speed up the calculations was performed. The results obtained in the simplified investigated conditions could be of help for the production calculations, introducing, if necessary, suited correction factors applicable to the complex condition results.

  2. Dosimetry of cosmic radiation in the troposphere based on the measurements at the summit of Mt. Fuji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Yajima, K.; Yoshida, S. [National Insitute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Protection

    2011-07-01

    Dose rate of cosmic-ray origin neutrons (abbreviated to ''cosmic neutrons'') at aviation altitude was estimated based on the measurements at Mt. Fuji. Cosmic neutrons were measured in a facility of the Mt. Fuji Weather Station located at the summit of Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan (3776m in altitude), in the summer of 2008 and 2009. The average of 1 cm ambient dose equivalent H*(10) for two measurements was verified by numerical model simulation and then used to empirically estimate the solar force field potential (FFP). The H*(10) rates at aviation altitude estimated from the measurements at Mt. Fuji were compared to those obtained in in-flight measurements onboard a civilian aircraft flying near Mt. Fuji at the time between the two measurements at the mountain. According to the results obtained, we expect that the empirical estimation based on the measurements at Mt. Fuji will work effectively for dosimetry of cosmic radiation in troposphere. (orig.)

  3. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  4. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Rulon [Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Liacouras, Peter [Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20899 (United States); Thomas, Andrew [ATC Healthcare, Washington, District of Columbia 20006 (United States); Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B. [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  5. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  6. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  7. Beta Radiation exposure of medical personnel during vascular brachytherapy with Re-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracoronary radiation is currently considered a promising breakthrough approach for preventing restenosis after angioplasty and stenting in patients with severe coronary artery disease. For the therapy of in-stent-restenosis vascular irradiation using balloon catheters filled with liquid radioisotopes provide excellent homogeneity due to the artery stenosis morphology. The radionuclide normally used is a Re-188 solutions (Eβ,max=2,12 MeV). To achieve a sufficient dose in the stenosed artery wall (30 Gy in 0.5 mm wall depth) in a tolerable time-scale very high specific activities (>5-10 GBq/ml) of the isotope are necessary. During the preparation of the radioactive solution and the application at the patient very short distances between the source of the radiation and the skin of the doctors for cardiology / nuclear medicine are possible, especially when manipulations at the balloon catheter during the radiation are necessary. In addition, a severe risk of contamination exists. A further problem is that in hospitals often no or insufficient dosimeters for beta radiation are available. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel was determined at the preparation of the Re-188 solution, the therapy itself and the waste management. The partial body exposure, i. e. the dose of the skin at the hands due to beta radiation, was determined with very sensitive thin-layer thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). During a preparation, intracoronary radiation and waste management of the Re-188-perrhenate solution using normal radiation shielding first measurements resulted din more than 500 mSv per working day at the fingertips. This extreme high radiation exposure of the personnel were mainly due to direct radiation by touching the evacuated balloon catheter (only residual radionuclides left). to reduced radiation we performed several additional radiation protection measures. The consequent use of plastic shielding of the source, the use of a semiautomatic preparation

  8. Portable alpha, beta, gamma, x and neutron radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Here below there is short information about new instrument developed in SPE ATOMTEX, which will be produced at the close of the year. The instrument consists of the main unit, including built-in detector Nal (Tl) of diameter 25x40 mm and photomultiplier tube, analog devices (amplifier, multichannel pulse-height analyzer of 256 channels, high-voltage power supply, LED stabilization scheme of measuring path) and digital devices (microprocessor for data processing, control and storage, liquid crystal display, interface). The main unit operates also as processing and indication device of connected external detection units: α, β-radiation contamination scintillator detection unit; x, γ-radiation detection unit with silicon detector to measure equivalent dose and equivalent dose rate and n-radiation detection unit with proportional 3He-counters. Because of scintillator detector Nal (Tl), the main unit, operating in counting mode, searches and detects effectively x- and gamma-radiation sources with the energy from 30 keV to 3 MeV. The point source of 137Cs of 50 kBq is detected at the distance of 10 cm for 2s. Ambient equivalent dose and equivalent dose rate are measured with this detector using the method of instrumental spectrum transformation into dose. In this case the energy range is from 40 keV to 3 meV. Energy relationship of readings do not exceed ± 15% with respect to the energy of 0,662 MeV. The range of ambient equivalent dose rate measurement is from 0,05 μSv/h to 0,05 mSv/h, with response time of 20 s at background change from 0,05 μSv/h to 0,1 μSv/h. The main unit operates also as selective express-radiometer, which could evaluate sample activity by single gamma-line. Measurement geometry is Marinelly's vessel of 0,5 l. The lower limit of measuring activity is 300 Bq/l without lead shield and 20 Bq/l with it with measurement time of 10 min. The unit weighs not more than 0,9 kg. External detection units connect to interface socket by turns

  9. Design of organic scintillators for non-standard radiation field dosimetry: experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H, Machado R; Maximiliano, Trujillo T; Javier E, García G; Diana C, Narvaez G; Paula A, Marín M; Róbinson A, Torres V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental setup designed for sensing the luminescent light coming from an organic plastic scintillator stimulated with ionizing radiation. This device is intended to be a part of a complete dosimeter system for characterization of small radiation fields which is the project of the doctoral thesis of the medical physicist at the Radiation Oncology facility of Hospital San Vicente Fundación in conjunction with the Universidad de Antioquia of Medellín Colombia. Some preliminary results predict a good performance of the unit, but further studies must be conducted in order to have a completed evaluation of the system. This is the first step in the development of an accuracy tool for measurement of non-standard fields in the Radiotherapy or Radiosurgery processes. PMID:24110369

  10. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, V J

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (/sup 60/Co) and chronic (/sup 137/Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (/sup 32/P), lethality (LD/sub 50/, LD/sub 100/), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD/sub 50/ and LD/sub 100/ for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation.

  11. TGF-beta and apoptosis - rat model of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the involvement of bcl-2, apoptosis, TGF-β, number of neutrophils and other markers in the rat model of induced radiation pneumonitis. To describe sub-sequential changes in irradiated lung tissue. We proved TGF β 1 to be important marker of post-irradiation reaction. Besides, we suggest that TGF-β 3 expression might be closely related to the activity of neutrophils and activity of the process in irradiated lung tissue. We proved our recent findings of suppression of the anti-apoptotic activity after lung irradiation. (authors)

  12. An optically stimulated luminescence study of porcelain related to radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the essential features regarding the photo-stimulated luminescence of porcelain: both the main ceramic and glazing materials are studied. In each case, radiation dose dependent signals are observed, superimposed on dose independent luminescence transitions that are both...... Stokes and anti-Stokes shifted in energy. Glazing is shown in some cases to be considerably more sensitive as a radiation dosemeter than the main porcelain ceramic. By comparison with the properties of artifical phosphors, the principal luminescent matrix is identified as being Al2O3......, and the recombination centres in one glazing type are shown to be F-centres, Cr3+ and Dy3+....

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of ionizing radiations using ZrO{sub 2} prepared at low temperatures; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones ionizantes usando ZrO{sub 2} preparado a bajas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T.; Diaz G, J.A.I. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) it is a versatile tool for an evaluation of dose of ionizing radiation. A great variety of ceramic materials and their different physical forms allow a determination of the ionizing radiation in a wide dose interval. In this work the results of studying those thermoluminescent characteristics (TL) of the zirconium oxide obtained by means of the sol-gel technique to low temperatures are presented. To these temperatures the material was obtained in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a). The structural characteristics of ZrO{sub 2}-a they were obtained by means of X-ray diffraction. The TL characteristics studied were: TL curve, reproducibility of the TL signal and the fading of the information. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, they presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 260 C. The fading of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a it was of 20% during the first two hours starting from this time there was one lost of information of 5% to the finish of the 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. (Author)

  14. The personal dosimetry in Mexico; La dosimetria personal en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A. [Proxtronics/ Asesoria Integral en Dosimetria Termoluminiscente S.A. de C.V., Canal de Miramontes 2030-14, Col. Educacion, 04400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: aidtsa@avantel.net

    2006-07-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  15. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  16. Space-radiation dosimetry using CR-39 and TLD integrating dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Tawara, H; Nagamatsu, A

    2002-01-01

    Since the dose levels in space are significantly higher than those on the ground, accurate dosimetric measurements have strongly been required for the radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts engaged in long-term space flights. Passive dosimeters such as TLDs and nuclear track detectors have frequently been employed from the beginning of the history of the manned space flights. CR-39 plastic is currently the most common passive detector for measuring LET distributions of heavy-charged particles in space radiation fields. Although CR-39 and TLDs are integrating types, they are still promising as space radiation dosimeters. The combination of data from both detectors allows us to estimate total radiation doses over an extremely wide LET range of the order from 10 sup - sup 1 to 10 sup 4 keV/mu m. We compare the dosimetric results from CR-39/TLD aboard STS-84 and STS-91 to those from RRRD-III to discuss the accuracy of the dose measurements. We emphasize that the measurement of short-range high-LET part...

  17. X-ray imaging and the skin: Radiation biology, patient dosimetry and observed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of radiation-induced deterministic skin effects have been observed after X-ray guided interventions ranging from mild effects, such as transient erythema or temporary epilation, to severe effects, such as desquamation and necrosis. Radiation biologists have identified, in addition to absorbed dose to the skin, other factors that strongly influence the type and severity of a skin reaction, including exposure-related factors (dose rate, fractionation, the size of the exposed area and its site), biological factors (age, oxygen status, capillary density, hormonal status and genetic factors) and ethnic differences. A peak entrance skin dose of 2 Gy is an arbitrary, but pragmatic, threshold for radiation-induced skin effects after X-ray guided interventions. Transient skin injury originating in the epidermis is not expected in the average patient population at peak entrance skin doses up to 6 Gy. Serious skin effects are not likely to occur in clinical practice when optimised X-ray equipment is used in combination with good techniques for fluoroscopy and imaging. However, this might not be true for patients with biological factors that are associated with an increased sensitivity for radiation-induced skin reactions. (authors)

  18. Conjunctival Autograft Alone or Combined With Adjuvant Beta-Radiation? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Carrara Fonseca, Ellen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melani Rocha, Eduardo [Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of postoperative low single-dose of beta-irradiation ({beta}-RT) in pterygium comparing conjunctival autograft (CAG) surgery with CAG plus adjuvant {beta}-RT in a randomized clinical trial. Methods: This trial was designed as a prospective, randomized, single-center study. Surgery was performed in all cases according to the CAG technique. One hundred and eight pterygia were postoperatively randomized to CAG + {beta}-RT or CAG alone. In the case of {beta}-RT, a (90) Sr eye applicator was used to deliver 10 Gy to the sclera surface at a dose rate of between 200 and 250 cGy/min. After treatment, both an ophthalmologist and a radiation oncologist performed the follow-up examinations. The accumulated data were analyzed using a group sequential test. Results: Between February 2008 and September 2008, 116 eyes with primary pterygium were operated on according to the trial protocol. Adjuvant treatment was performed within 24 h postoperatively. Eight patients were lost to follow-up, resulting in 108 patients who could be analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-33), in the 54 eyes randomized to receive CAG + {beta}-RT, 5 relapses occurred compared with 12 recurrences in the 54 eyes in CAG, for a crude control rate of 90.8 % vs. 78%; p = 0.032, respectively. The treatment complications as hyperemia, total dehiscence of the autograft and dellen were significantly more frequent in the CAG (p < 0.05). The arm of {beta}-RT resulted in better cosmetic results and improves of symptoms than CAG. Conclusions: A low single-dose of {beta}-RT of 10 Gy after CAG surgery was a simple, effective, and safe treatment that reduced the risk of primary pterygium recurrence, improved symptoms after surgery, resulting in a better cosmetic effect than only CAG.

  19. Dosimetry by ESR spectroscopy of alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry based on electron spin resonance analysis of radiation-induced free radicals in amino acids (e.g. L-alanine) is relevant to biological dosimetry applications. Typical features are a wide dose range covering more than 5 decades (1-105Gy), energy independent response for photons above 100 keV, long-term stability of the ESR signal, and fast straightforward readout technique. Typical dosimeter samples, consisting of small pellets of microcrystalline amino acids in paraffin, are rugged, non-toxic, and insensitive to surface contaminations. Moreover, they are prepared homogeneously and inexpensively in large batches and can be evaluated repeatedly and supply archival dosimetry data. They have proven to be highly useful in various applications of radiation processing and sterilization dosimetry, food irradiation, quality control, radiation dosimetry, radiation therapy measurements, and as a reference system for dosimetry mailing intercomparisons. (author)

  20. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  1. Radiation-Sensitive Indicator Based on m-Cresol Purple Dyed Poly (vinyl Butyral) for Possible Use in Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work a PVB films containing different concentrations of m-cresol purple (ph indicator) and chloral hydrate were prepared. The chlorine containing (chIoral hydrate) polymer was dehydrochlorinated when the material irradiated thereby reducing ph and causing the acid-sensitive dye to change color. Such materials are not, however, reported to be sensitive. and quantitative at relatively low radiation doses. The useful dose ranges of this film ranges between 2 and 6 kGy. Radiation chemical yield was calculated. The effects of temperature and relative humidity during irradiation as well as pre and post irradiation stability on the response of films were described

  2. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells

  3. Development of an Organic Scintillator Sensor for Radiation Dosimetry using Transparent Epoxy Resin and Optical Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Hee; Seo, Bun Kyung; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Remote detecting system for a radiation contamination using a plastic scintillator and an optical fiber was developed. Using a commercially available silica optical fiber and a plastic scintillator, we tested then for a real possibility as a remote monitoring detector. Also, a plastic scintillator was developed by itself, and evaluated as a radiation sensor. The plastic scintillator was made of epoxy resin, a hardener and an organic scintillation material. The mixture rate of the epoxy resin, hardener and organic scintillator was fixed by using their emission spectrum, transmittance, intensity etc. In this study, in order to decrease the light loss of an incomplete connection between an optical fiber and a scintillator, the optical fiber was inserted into the scintillator during the fabrication process. The senor used a plastic optical fiber and was estimated for its detection efficiency by an optic fiber's geometric factor.

  4. Nanoparticle-aided Radiation Therapy: Micro-dosimetry and Evaluation of the Mediators Producing Biological Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Nava Raj

    Radiation therapy has been established as a standard technique for cancer treatment. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the application of many new approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Achievement of selective enhancement in radiation dose deposition within a targeted tumor, while sparing surrounding normal structures, remains a challenge and one of the major objectives of cancer-related research. This objective can be realized by the insertion of high atomic number (Z) materials in the tumor site. Due to their high atomic number (Z=79) and favorable biological compatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been found very promising in this respect. Another candidate material, platinum (Z=78), offering very similar radiation interaction properties to gold and exhibiting additional cytotoxic effects, has been exploited in chemotherapeutic agents for a long time. We explore the radiation effects near the interface of gold and platinum with tissue under a wide range of energies with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Our studies show that AuNPs and PtNPs (platinum nanoparticles) can offer a useful dose enhancement effect even in high energy radiotherapy beams, which can be important when critical structures are located close to the tumor. Our MC calculated dose enhancement increase of about 50% due to the removal of the flattening filter from the path of the photon beam of Varian TrueBeam accelerator suggests that flattening-filter-free beams are better suited for nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy. Also, the increase in dose enhancement with the tumor depth suggests that nanopartcle-aided radiation therapy can yield a better outcome while treating deep-seated tumors. Experimental microdosimetry is a non-trivial task, demanding detectors with small sensitive volumes to achieve a high spatial resolution. We have developed a microdosimetry technique utilizing an inexpensive in-house-built photodetector for the measurement of dose in a narrow high dose

  5. Development of DL-alanine systems for gamma radiation and electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different dosimetric systems using DL-Alanine samples were employed to determine the absorbed dose from 60Co gamma-rays source and electrons emitted from an accelerator. The first dosimetric system is based on the relationship between free radicals produced and the absorbed dose using the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Details on the sample preparation, the spectrometer parameter setting, the analysis of the ESR signal to dose, the influence of dose rate and the radiation type dependence are described. The second dosimetric system is based on the determination by absorbance spectrophotometry of the complex produced, which are formed when the irradiated alanine is dissolved in a solution containing ferrous ammonium sulphate xylenol in 0,05 N H2 SO4 . Different concentrations for each reagents has been analyzed in the preparation of this solution as well as the influence caused by radiation type and dose rate in the absorbance. (author)

  6. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  7. In vivo EPR dosimetry to quantify exposures to clinically significant doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of terrorism, accident or war, populations potentially can be exposed to doses of ionising radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks. There is a critical need to determine the magnitude of the exposure to individuals so that those with significant risk can have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects can be reassured and removed from the need for further consideration in the medical/emergency system. It is extremely unlikely that adequate dosemeters will be worn by the potential victims, and it also will be unlikely that prompt and accurate dose reconstruction at the level of individuals will be possible. Therefore, there is a critical need for a method to measure the dose from radiation-induced effects that occur within the individual. In vivo EPR measurements of radiation-induced changes in the enamel of teeth is a method, perhaps the only such method, which can differentiate among doses sufficiently to classify individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosemeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose of ± 0.5 Gy in the range from 1 to >10 Gy. The lower limit and the precision are expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator and the algorithm for acquiring and calculating the dose. In its current state of development, the method is already sufficient for decision-making action for individuals with regard to acute effects from exposure to ionising radiation for most applications related to terrorism, accidents or nuclear warfare. (authors)

  8. A study on the radiation and environment safety -Development of technology for biological dosimetry-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun Kee Jung; Park, Hyo Kook; Kim, Sang Bok; Park Sun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Adult rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Gy. The animals were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours following exposure. The amount of serum acute phase proteins(haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, transferrin) were measured by competitive ELISA. In the 0.1 Gy irradiated rats, serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were 400% higher and serum transferrin was 50% lower as compared to controls, 96 hours after irradiation. Ceruloplasmin increased by 400%, 24 hours after irradiation, but 96 hours after irradiation, the concentration of this protein in rat returned to normal level. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the case of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. In the group of the 3.0 Gy irradiated rats, transferrin increased by 200%, 96 hours after irradiation. These biochemical responses to radiation did not show dose-dependent relation, but the sensitivity of the indicators was high enough to detect absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy. The above results can be applied to the measurements of acute phase reactants in human serum for the assessment of exposure doses in radiation workers and patients under radiation therapy. 39 figs, 72 refs. (Author).

  9. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature. (paper)

  10. Radiation therapy: dosimetry study of the effect of the composition of Pb alloys by PENELOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose McDonnell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is a widely used treatment for cancer. Currently applying the technique of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, in which an important aspect is the modulation of the radiation beam to generate a non-uniform dose distribution in the tumor. One way to achieve the above non-uniform dose distribution is using solid compensators. In the market there are a number of materials used to manufacture compensators. Pb alloys on the market are: Cerromatrix, Rose, Wood, Newton, Darcet, whose compositions vary with respect to the composition of the lipowitz metal. This paper quantifies the dosimetric effects of the composition of commercial alloys, routinely used in radiotherapy. This quantification is important because of its impact on the total uncertainty of treatment accepted in the dosimetric calculations. To investigate the dosimetric effect of the composition of commercial alloys in the market we used the PENELOPE code, code that allows the simulation of radiation transport in different media by Monte Carlo method.The results show that there is a difference dosimetric respect lipowitz material, ranging from 7 % to 9 % for the materials investigated. These values indicate the importance of knowing exactly the dosimetric characteristics of the material used as compensator for their implications in the dose calculation.

  11. Radiation dosimetry in experimental animals exposed to tritiated water under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to the germ cells of male mice, which sired the offspring scored in a specific-locus mutation test of injected tritiated water, was calculated. The weighted mean dose for germ cells which received all of the radiation at postspermatogonial stages was 430 rads, while that for germ cells irradiated almost entirely as spermatogonia was 615 rads. Most of the animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of HTO of 0.50 mCi/g body weight, but a few of them received 00.75 mCi/g. These weighted mean doses reflect the contribution of both groups. The percentage of the total dose delivered from 3H incorporated into macromolecules is small - less than 0.5%. The percentage of the total radioactivity in dry material from the testis on day 1 postinjection is 0.6%, on day 7 it is 3.2%, and on day 605 it is 95%. Tritium is incorporated into testicular DNA from tritiated water, and peak levels of radioactivity in this macromolecule are reached from 3 to 9 days following injection. The stable incorporation of tritium into trichloracetic acid insoluble materials is about 75% in protein and 25% in nucleic acids at all time periods following injection. Doses from single injections of tritiated water are inherently more variable than for protracted low-level exposures. This is because small differences in water balance near the time of injection can make a very large difference in total radiation dose

  12. Characterisation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped silica glass fibre for applications in medical radiation therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the characterisation of new fabricated material Ge doped silica glass thermoluminescence TL dosimeter (Photonic Research Centre, University of Malaya) for medical radiation dosimetry at therapy energy. Previously, the dosimeter has been studied to provide ideal dosimetry system, suitable to ensure an accurate delivery of radiation doses to tumour tissue while minimising the amount of radiation administrated to healthy tissue. Both energies of photon and electron were used in this experiment for a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy. The various sizes of core diameter Ge doped silica glass (120, 241, 362, 483 and 604 μm) were exposed by using linear accelerator at Pantai Medical Centre. For both energies, the optical fibres were found to produce a flat response to a fixed photon and electron doses to within 4% (S.D) of the mean of the TL distribution. In terms of dose response, the fibres provide linear response over the range investigated, from a fraction of 1-5 Gy. The finding shows 120 μm fibres have 1.82 greater dose response than 604 pm fibres irradiated at 6 MV photon with a fixed dose of 3 Gy. While for electron energy 12 MeV, the response shows 120 μm fibres have 1.58 greater dose response compared to 604 μm fibres. The good responses are suitable to make these tailor-made doped silica fibres a promising TL material for use as a dosimetric system in medical radiation therapy

  13. Analysis of the power system from an electron beam accelerator and the correlation with the theoretical dosimetry for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir Luiz; Somessari, Elizabeth S. Ribeiro; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo, E-mail: somessar@ipen.br, E-mail: esomessa@ipen.br, E-mail: cgsilvei@ipen.br, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation Technology Center at IPEN/CNEN-SP to simulate the energy efficiency of this industrial accelerator. Finally, it is also targeted to compare theoretical dosimetry using parameters of energy and beam current with data from the accelerator power system. This knowledge and technology will be very useful and essential for the control system upgrade of EBA, mainly Dynamitron DC1500/25/04, in view that radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. (author)

  14. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  15. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AB Atomenergi, Sweden, has an emergency organization which starts to function as soon as an alarm indicates that an extraordinary situation with considerable radiation hazards has occurred. This organization is operating from a headquarters where equipment is stored and different types of internal and external communications are available. As to determination of exposures, it is desirable both to obtain rough preliminary values for external and internal exposure rates as soon as possible and to get fairly accurate values for the exposure of each individual involved in the accident within reasonable time. Dose reconnaissance patrols make rapid surveys of the site to get a general estimate of the risks. These patrols start out immediately after the alarm equipped with portable instruments and go by car along fixed routes on the site. Practical tests have shown that results from these patrols reach the headquarters within 10 to 15 minutes after the alarm and make it possible to get a good picture of radiation levels inside and outside different buildings. The portable equipment includes air sampling equipment with very short sampling time working on the principle of the air ejector. Individual external doses are evaluated on the basis of film exposures, criticality dosimeter activation and analyses of hair and blood activity. Internal contamination is determined by whole-body counting and radiometric analyses of excreta. In order to determine the radiation fields created by an accident a number of fixed control points are equipped with different types of dosimeters which also are evaluated as soon as possible after the hypothetical accident. (author)

  16. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  17. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  20. Activities of Project 'Cooperation and development with Latin America and Iberian in Biological Dosimetry of Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the GRIAPRA Group (Latin American and Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies) was established with the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain. In 1998 began the biennial Collaborative Working Project 'Cooperation and Development with Latin America in Biological Dosimetry', partially supported by the Extremadura Government, Spain, initially involving five countries: Argentina, Cuba, Peru, Portugal and Spain. The general aim of the project is to create an Latin American and Iberian Biological Dosimetry Laboratories Coordinated Group in order to: give mutual cooperation and to other countries if required, in the case of radiological accident; contribute to enhance the technical capabilities of the participant laboratories; promote the installment of laboratories on this field in countries that does not have it yet through the training of human resources and providing the necessary equipment and, finally, perform jointly research activities in biological dosimetry. The activities designed in order to accomplish the project specific aims for the 1998-2000 period have been achieved. Description and results are presented. (author)