WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta initially sensitizes

  1. In vivo demonstration of cardiac beta 2-adrenoreceptor sensitization by beta 1-antagonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Petch, M C; Brown, M J

    1991-10-01

    Treatment with beta 1-selective antagonists causes selective sensitization of isolated strips of human atrial myocardium to the inotropic action of epinephrine and beta 2-agonists but not of norepinephrine. To determine whether beta 1-selective antagonist treatment alters the responsiveness of cardiac beta 2-adrenoreceptors in vivo, we measured the positive chronotropic responses to salbutamol injected into the right coronary artery. Ten patients treated with atenolol (50-100 mg daily) were compared with 10 patients not treated with beta-blockers. The mean dose required to cause an increase in heart rate of 30 beats/min was 2.29 micrograms (log dose 0.36 +/- 0.12 micrograms [mean +/- SEM]) in the atenolol-treated patients. In the non-beta-blocker-treated patients, the dose required to cause an increase in heart rate of 30 beats/min was significantly greater, 8.91 micrograms (log dose 0.95 +/- 0.11 micrograms) (p less than 0.005). We conclude that treatment with beta 1-selective beta-blockers leads to increased cardiac responsiveness to beta 2-adrenoreceptor stimulation. This may be the underlying mechanism of the beta-blocker withdrawal syndrome and may make the heart more susceptible to the adverse effects of epinephrine in situations of stress (e.g., myocardial infarction).

  2. Sensitivity of NEXT-100 to neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Albo, J.; Ferrario, P.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Borges, F.I.G.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Ferreira, A.L.; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R.M.; Henriques, C.A.O.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; Mora, F.J.; Moutinho, L.M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Para, A.; Perez, J.; Perez Aparicio, J.L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F.P.; dos Santos, J.M.F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J.F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Villar, J.A.; Webb, R.; White, J.T.; Yahlali, N.; Yepes-Ramírez, H.; Hauptman, J.

    2016-01-01

    NEXT-100 is an electroluminescent high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136. The detector possesses two features of great value in neutrinoless double beta decay searches: very good energy resolution (better than 1% FWHM at the Q value of Xe-136) and track reconstruction for the discrimination of signal and background events. This combination results in excellent sensitivity, as discussed in this paper. Detailed Monte Carlo detector simulations and material-screening measurements predict a background rate for NEXT-100 of at most 0.0004 counts/(keV kg yr). Accordingly, the detector will reach a sensitivity to the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 6.E25 years after running for 3 effective years.

  3. Sensitivity of CUORE to Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUORE; Alessandria, F.; Andreotti, E.; Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone III, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Biasi, A. De; Decowski, M. P.; Deninno, M. M.; Waard, A. de; Domizio, S. Di; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Frossati, G.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Huang, H. Z.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kraft, S.; Lenz, D.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, X.; Longo, E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maier, G.; Maino, M.; Mancini, C.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Newman, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rimondi, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Terenziani, G.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Whitten Jr., C. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Xu, N.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-11-23

    In this paper, we study the sensitivity of CUORE, a bolometric double-beta decay experiment under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. Two approaches to the computation of experimental sensitivity are discussed and compared, and the formulas and parameters used in the sensitivity estimates are provided. Assuming a background rate of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV kg y), we find that, after 5 years of live time, CUORE will have a 1 {sigma} sensitivity to the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life of {caret T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2}}(1{sigma} ) = 1.6x 10{sup 26} y and thus a potential to probe the effective Majorana neutrino mass down to 41-95 meV; the sensitivity at 1.64{sigma} , which corresponds to 90% C.L., will be {caret T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2}(1.64{sigma} }) = 9.5x10{sup 25} y. This range is compared with the claim of observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge and the preferred range in the neutrino mass parameter space from oscillation results.

  4. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether strain-dependent differences in beta-cell sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 1 beta exist in vitro and in vivo and if so, whether these differences correlate to variations in IL-1 beta-induced islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression...

  5. Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  6. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D

    1996-01-01

    and nitrite production in vitro and islet iNOS protein content in vivo. Isolated islets of Langerhans in vitro from Wistar-Kyoto/Møllegården (WK/Mol) rats were sensitive to the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on accumulated and acute insulin secretion, whereas islets from Brown Norway/Charles River (BN...

  7. Pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity induced by overexpression of hormone-sensitive lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Svensson, Håkan; Enerbäck, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Lipid perturbations associated with triglyceride overstorage in beta-cells impair insulin secretion, a process termed lipotoxicity. To assess the role of hormone-sensitive lipase, which is expressed and enzymatically active in beta-cells, in the development of lipotoxicity, we generated transgenic...... mice overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase specifically in beta-cells. Transgenic mice developed glucose intolerance and severely blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when challenged with a high-fat diet. As expected, both lipase activity and forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was increased...

  8. United Kingdom evidence on the behaviour of the beta or systematic risk of initial public offerings

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the beta or systematic risk of initial public offerings using a sample of newly issued stocks in the United Kingdom market. The findings are threefold. First, the beta risk estimation is found to decline over time. It corresponds with the differential information model which predicts that the risk of low information is high with uncertainty around it and will decline as the quantity of information increases. The quantity of information, in this case, is represented by time...

  9. The Evolution of Sensitivity in Hmx-Based Explosives during the Reversion from Delta to Beta Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P. D.; Lee, K.-Y.; Moore, D. S.; Scharff, R. J.; Avilucea, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of sensitivity in HMX-based explosives formulations during the reversion from the delta to the beta polymorph, we have performed friction and impact experiments on Class 1 (coarse) and Class 2 (fine) HMX [1]. Initial baselines for Type 12 drop weight impact and BAM friction sensitivities were obtained for the β-HMX starting material. The HMX was then heated at ˜184 °C for 14 h. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the conversion to delta-phase. Raman results show that the δ material remains δ for long periods when stored in a dessicator at room temperature (RT), converts to alpha when stored at RT and 20-40% relative humidity (RH) over a period of days, and reverts to beta over a period of days when stored at RT and 95-98% relative humidity (RH). Impact and friction tests were performed on the δ-HMX, converted α-HMX, and reverted β-HMX. The tests show similar sensitivities of the δ-HMX and converted α-HMX in both impact and friction, both of which are ˜10-20% more sensitive than the β-HMX and reverted beta depending on the particle size distribution. The α-HMX appears to be fairly stable over time (by Raman analysis) at ambient conditions, but fairly low humidity (20-40%), or in a dessicator.

  10. Measuring beta-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in youth: Does the hyperglycemic clamp suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare beta-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI), calculated from two clamps (2cDI, insulin sensitivity from the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and first-phase insulin from the hyperglycemic clamp) with the DI calculated from the hyperglycemic clamp alone (hcD...

  11. The fragrance chemical beta-caryophyllene-air oxidation and skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Maria; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Matura, Mihaly; Börje, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Fragrances are common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. beta-Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene that is used as a fragrance chemical. Analogous to the monoterpenes R-limonene and linalool, it can be expected to autoxidize when air exposed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autoxidation of beta-caryophyllene and to evaluate the effect on the contact allergenic activity. beta-Caryophyllene started to oxidize immediately when air exposed and after 5 weeks almost 50% of the original compound was consumed. Caryophyllene oxide was found to be the major oxidation product. Hydroperoxides of beta-caryophyllene could not be detected in the oxidation mixture. Caryophyllene oxide was shown to be an allergen of moderate strength and beta-caryophyllene air exposed for 10 weeks showed a weak sensitizing capacity in the local lymph node assay. The study reveals that the allergenic activity of beta-caryophyllene is affected by autoxidation, but to a lesser extent when compared to R-limonene and linalool. The present findings support our results in clinical studies showing oxidized beta-caryophyllene to be a rather rare sensitizer compared to oxidized R-limonene and linalool.

  12. Menstrual cycle, beta-endorphins, and pain sensitivity in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straneva, Patricia A; Maixner, William; Light, Kathleen C; Pedersen, Cort A; Costello, Nancy L; Girdler, Susan S

    2002-07-01

    This study examined pain sensitivity and pain modularity mechanisms (e.g., beta-endorphin levels, blood pressure) in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD; n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 27) during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Physiological measures were taken during rest and ischemic pain testing. In both cycle phases, PMDD women (a) displayed lower resting cortisol and beta-endorphin levels and (b) exhibited shorter pain threshold and tolerance times and greater pain unpleasantness ratings during pain. PMDD women also reported greater pain unpleasantness and intensity and had lower beta-endorphin levels in their luteal phase and tended to display higher blood pressure levels at rest and during pain testing. Results suggest that endogenous opioids may be pathophysiologically relevant to PMDD and that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may modulate pain sensitivity in PMDD.

  13. Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.

  14. The BetaCage, an ultra-sensitive screener for surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, R.; Bowles, M. A.; Schnee, R. W.; Wang, B. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.; Nelson, R. H.; Rider, A.; Zahn, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grant, D. R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3 (Canada); Kos, M. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Material screening for identifying low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes is now a prerequisite for rare-event searches (e.g., dark-matter direct detection and neutrinoless double-beta decay) for which surface radiocon-tamination has become an increasingly important background. The BetaCage, a gaseous neon time-projection chamber, is a proposed ultra-sensitive (and nondestructive) screener for alpha-and beta-emitting surface contaminants to which existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive. Sensitivity goals are 0.1 betas keV{sup −1} m{sup −2} day{sup −1} and 0.1 alphas m{sup −2} day{sup −1}, with the former limited by Compton scattering of photons in the screening samples and (thanks to tracking) the latter expected to be signal-limited; radioassays and simulations indicate backgrounds from detector materials and radon daughters should be subdominant. We report on details of the background simulations and detector design that provide the discrimination, shielding, and radiopurity necessary to reach our sensitivity goals for a chamber with a 95 × 95 cm{sup 2} sample area positioned below a 40 cm drift region and monitored by crisscrossed anode and cathode planes consisting of 151 wires each.

  15. Sensitivity and Discovery Potential of CUORE to Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Artusa, DR; III, FTA; Azzolini, O; Balata, M; Banks, TI; Bari, G; Beeman, J; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bucci, C; Cai, XZ; Canonica, L; Cao, X; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, RJ; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; Datskov, V; Biasi, AD; Deninno, MM; Domizio, SD; Vacri, MLD; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, DQ; Farach, HA; Faverzani, M; Fernandes, G; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Franceschi, MA; Freedman, SJ; Fujikawa, BK; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Goett, J; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, TD; Haller, EE; Han, K; Heeger, KM; Huang, HZ; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, YG; Lenz, D; Li, YL; Ligi, C; Liu, X; Ma, YG; Maiano, C; Maino, M; Martinez, M; Maruyama, RH; Mei, Y; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Napolitano, T; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, EB; Nucciotti, A; O' Donnell, T; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, JL; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Sala, E; Sangiorgio, S; Scielzo, ND; Sisti, M; Smith, AR; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Tenconi, M; Tian, WD; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, BS; Wang, HW; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, BX; Zucchelli, S

    2017-07-06

    We present a study of the sensitivity and discovery potential of CUORE, a bolometric double-beta decay experiment under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. Two approaches to the computation of experimental sensitivity for various background scenarios are presented, and an extension of the sensitivity formulation to the discovery potential case is also discussed. Assuming a background rate of 10-2 cts/(keV kg y), we find that, after 5 years of live time, CUORE has a 1 sigma sensitivity to the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life of T$0v\\atop{1/2}$(1θ) = 1.6 \\times 1026 y and thus a potential to probe the effective Majorana neutrino mass down to 40-100 meV; the sensitivity at 1.64 sigma, which corresponds to 90% C.L., will be T$0v\\atop{1/2}$(1.64θ) = 9.5 \\times 1025 y. This range is compared with the claim of observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge and the preferred range of the neutrino mass parameter space from oscillation results.

  16. Long-term actions of interleukin-1beta on delay and tonic firing neurons in rat superficial dorsal horn and their relevance to central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson-Vickers, Sabrina L; Lu, Van B; Lai, Aaron Y; Todd, Kathryn G; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2008-12-17

    Cytokines such as interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) have been implicated in the development of central sensitization that is characteristic of neuropathic pain. To examine its long-term effect on nociceptive processing, defined medium organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord were exposed to 100 pM IL-1beta for 6-8 d. Interleukin effects in the dorsal horn were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Examination of the cultures with confocal Fluo-4 AM imaging showed that IL-1beta increased the change in intracellular Ca(2+) produced by exposure to 35-50 mM K+. This is consistent with a modest increase in overall dorsal horn excitability. Despite this, IL-1beta did not have a direct effect on rheobase or resting membrane potential nor did it selectively destroy any specific neuronal population. All effects were instead confined to changes in synaptic transmission. A variety of pre- and postsynaptic actions of IL-1beta were seen in five different electrophysiologically-defined neuronal phenotypes. In putative excitatory 'delay' neurons, cytokine treatment increased the amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSC's (sIPSC). These effects would be expected to increase dorsal horn excitability and to facilitate the transfer of nociceptive information. However, other actions of IL-1beta included disinhibition of putative inhibitory 'tonic' neurons and an increase in the amplitude of sIPSC's in 'delay' neurons. Since spinal microglial activation peaks between 3 and 7 days after the initiation of chronic peripheral nerve injury and these cells release IL-1beta at this time, our findings define some of the neurophysiological mechanisms whereby nerve-injury induced release of IL-1beta may contribute to the central sensitization associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  17. Collateral sensitivity between aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics depends on active proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Leila; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2017-11-01

    Selection inversion is the hypothesis for antibiotic resistant inhabitation in bacteria and collateral sensitivity is one of the proposed phenomena for achievement of this hypothesis. The presence of collateral sensitivity associated with the proton motivation pump between the aminoglycosides and beta-lactam group of antibiotics is one of the examples of collateral sensitivity in some studies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that collateral sensitivity between aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics associated with proton motivation pump may not be true in all cases. In this study, 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were surveyed. Gentamicin and imipenem-resistant strains were confirmed by disc diffusion method and MIC. Active proton motivation pumps were screened by pumps inhibitor. Semi-quantitative Real-Time PCR assay was used to confirm gene overexpression. Seventy-six and 79 out of 100 strains were resistant to gentamicin and imipenem, respectively. Seventy-five strains were resistant to both gentamicin and imipenem. The results of proton pump inhibitor test showed the involvement of active proton motivation pump in 22 of 75 imipenem- and gentamicin-resistant strains. According to Real - Time PCR assay, mexX efflux gene was overexpressed in the majority of isolates tested. The collateral sensitivity effect cannot explain the involvement of active proton motivation pumps in both imipenem and gentamicin-resistant strains simultaneously. Active and/or inactive proton pump in gentamicin-sensitive and/or resistant strains cannot be a suitable example for explanation of collateral sensitivity between aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli forms filaments as an initial response to cefotaxime treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: beta-lactams target the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall and most beta-lactam antibiotics cause filamentation in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria at low concentrations. The objective was to determine the initial morphological response of cephalosporin resistant CTX-M-1...

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of various beta-lactam antibiotics and phenotypical methods for detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenic, B; Vranes, J; Mihaljevic, Lj; Tonkic, M; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Kalenic, S

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of six different beta-lactam antibiotics using five phenotypical tests for detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) based on synergism of beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanate. Experiments were performed on a set of 80 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and 105 Escherichia coli strains with previously characterized ESBLs (SHV, TEM and CTX-M). ESBLs were detected by five different phenotypical methods: MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate, double-disk synergy test (DDST), inhibitor-potentiated disk-diffusion test (IPDDT), CLSI-Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institution (former NCCLS) combined-disk-test, and modified MAST-disk-diffusion test (MAST-DD-test). Seven antibiotics were tested as indicators of ESBL production: ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, ceftibuten, cefpodoxime and cefepime. Ceftazidime and aztreonam were the best indicators for SHV-5, SHV-12 and TEM beta-lactamases whereas cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were the most sensitive in detection of SHV-2 and CTX-M beta-lactamases in DDST, IPDDT and CLSI test. MIC determination of beta-lactam antibiotics with and without clavulanate was the most sensitive method. DDST was the least sensitive test. Double-disk synergy test, which is the most frequently used test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories, was the least sensitive independently of the indicator antibiotic. Since MIC determination is a very laborious and time consuming method, we would recommend the NCCLS combined disk test or IPDD test for detection of ESBLs in routine laboratories with 5 mm zone augmentation breakpoint.

  20. High-fat feeding and Staphylococcus intermedius infection impair beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in mongrel dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Evgeni; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev; Dzhelebov, Petko; Kanelov, Ivan; Andonova, Maria; Mircheva Georgieva, Teodora; Dimitrova, Silviya

    2010-03-01

    As obesity is a state of low-grade inflammation, we aimed to investigate the combined effect of high-fat diet and bacterial infection on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in dogs. We used 20 healthy, male, mongrel dogs randomly divided into four groups: control group-healthy, non-obese dogs; infected group-non-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius); obese group-obese dogs (after 90 day high-fat diet) and obese-infected group-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius). To evaluate insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed. Plasma insulin increased in all group after glucose infusion. The lowest values were found in obese-infected group. Blood glucose also increased on 3 min after glucose infusion and then gradually decreased. In obese-infected group glucose concentration on 30 min was still significantly higher than initial levels, while in other groups glucose concentration returned to the initial values. The lowest rate of glucose elimination was found in infected group. In dogs of obese group and obese-infected group AUC(ins 0-60 min) was lower compared to controls. AUC(glucose 0-60 min) values were lowest in infected group, while in obese-infected group values were the highest. Levels of I/G in dogs of obese-infected group were significantly lower compared to controls and infected group. In conclusion, these results reveal that infection in obese dogs leads to impaired glucose tolerance, which is result of impairment in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  2. Localization of quantitative changes in pulmonary beta-receptors in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatto, C.; Green, T.P.; Johnson, M.G.; Marchessault, R.P.; Seybold, V.; Johnson, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    Impaired beta-receptor function has been postulated as one factor contributing to airway hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Although numerous indirect studies have cast doubt on this theory, none of these previous investigations has been able to directly measure changes in beta-receptor number on intrapulmonary structures capable of affecting the physiologic changes seen in this disease state. To help clarify the intrapulmonary location of such changes, a model of allergic bronchoconstriction was prepared by sensitizing guinea pigs to ovalbumin intraperitoneally (ip) 2 wk prior to testing (Group S). A second group of animals was sensitized to ovalbumin, then 2 wk later partially desensitized (Group D) during a 4- to 6-wk period by repeated exposure to increasing doses of nebulized ovalbumin with epinephrine rescue. Control animals received ip administered and nebulized normal saline alone. Pulmonary function assessed by plethysmography revealed an increase in airway resistance to 294 +/- 42% (SE) of control in Group S (p less than 0.005) and a decrease in dynamic compliance to 76 +/- 8% of control in Group D and 39 +/- 10% of control in Group S (p less than 0.002) after exposure to nebulized ovalbumin. Using L-(/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol ((/sup 3/H) DHA), beta-receptors were autoradiographically localized and quantitated in lung sections from all 3 groups. Significant decreases (p less than 0.02) in /sup 3/H-DHA binding were noted in alveolar and conducting airway epithelium, and bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle in ovalbumin-exposed animals.

  3. Photovoltaic Performance of ZnO Nanosheets Solar Cell Sensitized with Beta-Substituted Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was fabricated using two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets (2D ZnO NSs sensitized with beta-substituted porphyrins photosensitizer, and its photovoltaic performance in solid-state DSSC with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 TNs modified poly (ethylene oxide (PEO polymer electrolyte was studied. The ZnO NSs were synthesized through hydrothermal method and were characterized through high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM, diffused reflectance spectra (DRS, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The crystallinity of the polymer electrolytes was investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The photovoltaic performance of the beta-substituted porphyrins sensitized solar cells was evaluated under standard AM1.5G simulated illumination (100 mW cm−2. The efficiency of energy conversion from solar to electrical due to 2D ZnO NSs based DSSCs is 0.13%, which is about 1.6 times higher than that of the control DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs as photoanode (0.08%, when TiO2 NTs fillers modified PEO electrolyte was incorporated in the DSSCs. The current-voltage (- and photocurrent-time (- curves proved stable with effective collection of electrons, when the 2D ZnO nanostructured photoanode was introduced in the solid-state DSSC.

  4. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Saccharifera vitroculture initiation from encapsulated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae PALCUT

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the optimal method of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera seed sterilization to "in vitro" cultures initiation, and to found a cultivar that is suitable to growth in specific conditions of vitroculture. The study was necessary because the literature does not refer to the method of initiating vitrocultures from encapsulated beet seeds and to avoid any losses that may occur in a massive micropropagation. The most optimal method for beet encapsulated seeds asepsization, prior inoculation on the vitroculture medium consists in the their dipping in sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes, and the best cultivar which was suited to micropropagation was Evelina, but Diamant too, with 90 - 95% germination rate and a very good ulterior growth.

  5. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun LP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liping Sun,1 Yong Zhong,1 Jie Gui,1 Xianwu Wang,1 Xiaorong Zhuang,2 Jian Weng1 1Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering of Xiamen, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, 2Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. Methods: A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrPC peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. Results: The specific binding between AβO and PrPC probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. Conclusion: This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-beta oligomer, graphene, gold nanoparticles, biosensor

  6. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity of specific bacterial strains to a particular group of antibiotics. Regulatives on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food ("Off. Gazette", No. 5/92, 11/92 - corr. and 32/02, state that milk and milk products can be used in commercial purposes only if not contain antibiotics in quantities that can be detected by reference methods. The applied method is modified STAR (Screening test for detection of antibiotics protocol, regulated by the CRL (Community Reference Laboratory Fougeres, France, in which the initial validation of the method had been carried out. In accordance with the demands of Regulative Commission EC No657/2002, the sensitivity of modified STAR protocol for beta lactam antibiotics group was examined , that is, there was carried out a contracted validation of the method, which initial validation had been performed at CRL. In a couple of series of experiments, 20 blank samples of raw cow milk originating from animals not treated by antibiotics, had been examined. By the beginning of the experiment samples were stored in a freezer at -20ºC. Samples of raw cow milk enriched by working solutions of seven beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to obtain concentrations at the level of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MRL (Maximmum Residue Limit for each given antibiotic (Commission Regulation EC No. 37/2010. For detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, there was used Kundrat agar test with

  7. Flight time beta spectrometer with position sensitive detectors for electronic structure investigation at points of hydrogen adsorption on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, V.S.; Petukhov, V.K.; Burminsky, V.P.; Lubov, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The basis of flight time beta spectrometer for investigation of electronic emission with energy not over 500 eV have been created. This device will be used for carrying out the first study of electronic structure at the points of hydrogen adsorption through the measuring of spectra of Auger relaxation electrons emitted by the system investigated surface-tritium. The momentum resolution of beta spectrometer accounts for (0,1 - 0,2)% at 'traditional' solid angle equals to 0,25% from 4π sr owing to the use positron sensitive start and stop detectors on a basis of microchannel plates. Taking into consideration that the area of our beta source is minimum 100 times larger as compared to 'traditional' spectrometers and a spectrum here is registered simultaneously over all energy interval containing useful information, we obtain high quality beta spectrometer. (author)

  8. Fasting serum levels of ferritin are associated with impaired pancreatic beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, L.; Ellervik, C.; Friedrich, N.

    2014-01-01

    diabetes due to its association with impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Methods: We investigated 6,392 individuals from the Danish general population. Surrogate measures of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated for approximately 6,100 individuals based...... on OGTT examinations. Results: The ORs for type 2 diabetes were 4.2 (95% CI 2.4, 7.2) for the highest vs the lowest quintile of serum ferritin, and 17 (95% CI 8.9, 33) for serum ferritin levels ≥97.5th percentile vs ... glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min (p beta cell function estimated as the insulinogenic index and corrected insulin response (p 

  9. Sensitivity studies of beta-radiation detector based on small-crystalline scintillator ZnSe(Te)

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrylyuk, V; Danshin, E

    2001-01-01

    A new large area beta-detector has been designed and studied.The design includes wedge-shaped light transducers.A composite material based on a small crystalline ZnSe(Te) was applied onto the wide surface of light transducer.This design ensures optimum light collection from the large sensitive surface onto the output window of a much smaller size.An experimental specimen has been prepared, which showed a beta-sensitivity C subbeta=5.5 cm sup 2. The spectrograms of a sup 9 sup 0 Sr sup + sup 9 sup 0 Y beta--source obtained with the specimen under study make it possible to evaluate the age of the source by the ratio of low-and high-energy regions of the spectrum. Other designs are proposed for application of large-area detectors possessing wedge-shaped light transducers as elements of assembled constructions for high efficiency detectors operating under flow conditions.

  10. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...

  11. Biotin uptake by mouse and human pancreatic beta cells/islets: a regulated, lipopolysaccharide-sensitive carrier-mediated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2014-01-01

    Biotin is essential for the normal function of pancreatic beta cells. These cells obtain biotin from their surroundings via transport across their cell membrane. Little is known about the uptake mechanism involved, how it is regulated, and how it is affected by internal and external factors. We addressed these issues using the mouse-derived pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells and freshly isolated mouse and human primary pancreatic beta cells as models. The results showed biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells occurs via a Na+-dependent, carrier-mediated process, that is sensitive to desthiobiotin, as well as to pantothenic acid and lipoate; the process is also saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km = 22.24 ± 5.5 μM). These cells express the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), whose knockdown (with doxycycline-inducible shRNA) led to a sever inhibition in biotin uptake. Similarly, uptake of biotin by mouse and human primary pancreatic islets is Na+-dependent and carrier-mediated, and both cell types express SMVT. Biotin uptake by pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells is also adaptively regulated (via transcriptional mechanism) by extracellular substrate level. Chronic treatment of pancreatic beta-TC-6 cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) leads to inhibition in biotin uptake. This inhibition is mediated via a Toll-Like receptor 4-mediated process and involves a decrease in membrane expression of SMVT. These findings show, for the first time, that pancreatic beta cells/islets take up biotin via a specific and regulated carrier-mediated process, and that the process is sensitive to the effect of LPS. PMID:24904078

  12. Design and construction of a position-sensitive rotating implantation target system with beta-gamma discrimination capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Famiano, M A; Nishimura, S; Tanihata, I

    2003-01-01

    A rotating implantation target system has been designed for use at the RIKEN projectile fragment separator. While the original design is for the study of short beta-decay lifetimes, the versatility of the device is also noted. The ability of the position-sensitive detector system to distinguish beta and gamma rays is studied, and the correlation of implantation position to beam position for purposes of particle identification is also described. Future improvements and experiments are planned and described briefly. The target detector system represents a simple, inexpensive, yet efficient way of conducting online implantation experiments where particle identification and rapid measurements are desired.

  13. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Angel Ramon; Estévez, Miriam; Vargas, Susana; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE) with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time. PMID:23429194

  14. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta 2 -adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via [I 125 ]iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay

  15. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via (I{sup 125})iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay.

  16. Hindcasting to measure ice sheet model sensitivity to initial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aschwanden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Validation is a critical component of model development, yet notoriously challenging in ice sheet modeling. Here we evaluate how an ice sheet system model responds to a given forcing. We show that hindcasting, i.e. forcing a model with known or closely estimated inputs for past events to see how well the output matches observations, is a viable method of assessing model performance. By simulating the recent past of Greenland, and comparing to observations of ice thickness, ice discharge, surface speeds, mass loss and surface elevation changes for validation, we find that the short term model response is strongly influenced by the initial state. We show that the thermal and dynamical states (i.e. the distribution of internal energy and momentum can be misrepresented despite a good agreement with some observations, stressing the importance of using multiple observations. In particular we identify rates of change of spatially dense observations as preferred validation metrics. Hindcasting enables a qualitative assessment of model performance relative to observed rates of change. It thereby reduces the number of admissible initial states more rigorously than validation efforts that do not take advantage of observed rates of change.

  17. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    OpenAIRE

    N Matsuo; M Otuka; H Hamasima; K Hokamoto; S Itoh

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated ...

  18. Impaired beta cell sensitivity to incretins in type 2 diabetes is insufficiently compensated by higher incretin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Bagger, J. I.; Ferrannini, E.

    2017-01-01

    -like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), thereby estimating incretin sensitivity of the beta cell, and its associated factors. Methods and results Eight patients with T2D and eight matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) received 25, 75, and 125 g OGTTs and corresponding...... was correlated with that of both GIP and GLP-1 in each subject (median r = 0.67 in NGT and 0.45 in T2D). We calculated an individual beta cell sensitivity to incretins (SINCR) using a weighted average of GIP and GLP-1 (pooled incretin concentration, PIC), as the slope of the relationship between PINCR and PIC......Background and aims The incretin effect is impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. We investigated the relationships between the time course of the incretin effect and that of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon...

  19. Cytokine mechanisms of central sensitization: distinct and overlapping role of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in regulating synaptic and neuronal activity in the superficial spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Ling; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2008-05-14

    Central sensitization, increased sensitivity in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons after injuries, plays an essential role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. However, synaptic mechanisms underlying central sensitization are incompletely known. Growing evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), are induced in the spinal cord under various injury conditions and contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Using patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices, we compared the effects of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Whereas TNFalpha enhanced the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), IL-6 reduced the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs). Notably, IL-1beta both enhanced the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs and reduced the frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs. Consistently, TNFalpha and IL-1beta enhanced AMPA- or NMDA-induced currents, and IL-1beta and IL-6 suppressed GABA- and glycine-induced currents. Furthermore, all the PICs increased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in superficial dorsal horn neurons and produced heat hyperalgesia after spinal injection. Surprisingly, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) produced initial decrease of sEPSCs, followed by increase of sEPSCs and CREB phosphorylation. Spinal injection of sIL-6R also induced heat hyperalgesia that was potentiated by coadministration with IL-6. Together, our data have demonstrated that PICs induce central sensitization and hyperalgesia via distinct and overlapping synaptic mechanisms in superficial dorsal horn neurons either by increasing excitatory synaptic transmission or by decreasing inhibitory synaptic transmission. PICs may further induce long-term synaptic plasticity through CREB-mediated gene transcription. Blockade of PIC signaling could be an effective way to suppress

  20. Rapid, sensitive liquid chromatographic method for determination of zearalenone and alpha- and beta-zearalenol in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, H L; Warner, R M; Fitzpatrick, D W

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for quantitative determination of zearalenone and alpha- and beta-zearalenol in wheat. The procedure incorporates an internal standard, zearalenone oxime, to facilitate quantitation and automated analysis. A sample, buffered with pH 7.8 phosphate, is extracted with water-ethanol-chloroform (2 + 50 + 75) and cleaned up. The final residue is dissolved in LC mobile phase and injected onto a reverse phase RP-18 column under the following conditions: water-methanol-acetonitrile (5 + 3 + 2) mobile phase; fluorescence (excitation wavelength 236 nm, 418 nm cut-off emission filter) and UV (254 nm, range 0.0025 AU) detectors. The limit of detectability (twice background) is 0.5 ng for zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol standards on the fluorescence detector and 4 ng for beta-zearalenol on the UV detector, which is equivalent to 20 micrograms zearalenone and 20 micrograms alpha-zearalenol/kg, and 160 micrograms beta-zearalenol/kg feed. Standard curves are linear over the range 0-35 ng zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on the fluorescence detector and 0-50 ng beta-zearalenol on the UV detector. Recoveries of all compounds are 87.5-101% in the range 0.1-3.0 mg/kg (ppm).

  1. Polymer membrane electrodes for sensitive potentiometric determination of beta-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassil, Anwar A; Farag, Abd El-Ftaah Bastawy; Moukdad, Fatma A

    2007-01-01

    The construction of PVC matrix-type beta-blockers (sotalol, carvedilol, and betaxolol) ion selective electrodes and their use for direct potentiometry of their respective species are described. The proposed sensors are based on the complex ion associates of beta-blockers with tungstophosphate (TP) and Ammonium Reineckate (Rein) ionophoris in poly vinyl chloride membrane (PVC) with Dioctylphthalate (DOP) plasticizer. The four electrodes (Beta-TP), (Sota-TP), (Carve-TP), and (Cave-Rein) show stable potential response with near Nernstian slope of 50.8, 33.7, 32.35, and 33 mv per decade, range of concentration 10-2-10-7 M beta-blockers. Selectivity coefficients data obtained for 11 different organic and inorganic ions are presented. The electrodes have fast response time (30 and 40 s) and were used over wide range of pH 4.5-8.5. Validation of the method according to the quality assurance standers shows suitability of proposed sensors for use in the quality control assessment of these drugs. The results obtained for the determination of beta-blockers with the proposed electrodes show average recoveries of 100.78% and a mean standard deviation of +/-1.2. The nominal are obtained. The data agree well with those obtained by standard methods.

  2. Method of increasing radiation sensitivity by inhibition of beta one integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine [San Francisco, CA; Bissell, Mina J [Berkeley, CA

    2009-11-17

    A method for increasing or monitoring apoptosis in tumor cells by the co-administration of ionizing radiation and an anti-integrin antibody. Increasing apoptosis reduces tumor growth in vivo and in a cell culture model. The antibody is directed against the beta-1 integrin subunit and is inhibitory of beta-1 integrin signaling. Other molecules having an inhibitory effect on beta-1 integrin, either in signaling or in binding to its cognate extracellular receptors may also be used. The present method is particularly of interest in treatment of tumor cells associated with breast cancer, wherein radiation is currently used alone. The present method further contemplates a monoclonal antibody suitable for human administration that may further comprise a radioisotope attached thereto.

  3. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in healthy cats: assessment with the use of the hyperglycemic glucose clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, L I; Robben, J H; van Haeften, T W; Kooistra, H S; Rijnberk, A

    2007-05-01

    A hyperglycemic clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats. In 21 healthy, normal glucose tolerant cats glucose disposal rate (M), insulin sensitivity (ISI (HGC)), and beta-cell response (I) at arterial plasma glucose of 9 mmol.l (-1) were measured. The HGC was tolerated well and steady state glucose infusion was achieved. Compared to values reported for humans, M values for the cats were low, which appeared to relate to both a low ISI (HGC) and a low I. HGC measures correlated with fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as with their HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) and QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) counterparts. Also, I and ISI (HGC) correlated with their counterparts derived from intravenous glucose tolerance tests. In conclusion, this is the first report of hyperglycemic glucose clamping in cats. The procedure (HGC) allows for measurements of glucose disposal, beta-cell response and insulin sensitivity. Compared to human data, both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion appeared to be low in cats. This is compatible with the carnivorous nature of this species, for which insulin resistance would be advantageous during periods of restricted food availability.

  4. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  5. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  6. Risk of all-cause hospitalization in COPD patients initiating long-acting or short-acting beta agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollu, Vamsi; Ejzykowicz, Flavia; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Karafilidis, John; Hay, Joel W

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective claims study investigated the rates of all-cause hospitalization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients initiating treatment with short-acting beta agonists (SABA) or long-acting beta agonists (LABA). Data from the 5% national sample of Medicare enrollees for 2006-2008 were used. Patients initiating COPD therapy were identified as those with no COPD therapy for ≥ 6-months prior to initiating SABA or LABA (administered via dry-powder inhalers, metered-dose inhalers, or nebulizer) treatment. All patients were continuously eligible for Medicare Parts A, B, and D for 18 months. Those enrolled in Medicare Advantage, who had asthma, or were < 65 years old were excluded. Differences in the rates of all-cause hospitalizations and time to all-cause hospitalization during the 6-month follow-up period were examined, while adjusting for demographics, clinical indicators, and health service use. Among 3017 COPD patients who met the inclusion criteria, 883 (30%) were LABA users and 2134 (70%) were SABA users. Overall, 21% of patients (16% [144/883] of LABA and 23% [492/2134] of SABA) had a hospitalization during the follow-up period. Mean time to hospitalization was 86 days for LABA vs 64 days for SABA patients (p < 0.05). The adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalization in a Cox proportional hazards model was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for patients treated with LABA vs. SABA. The analysis was adjusted for multiple background characteristics, but important measures of severity in COPD, such as measures of lung functioning, were not available and may have differed between patients treated with LABA or SABA. The results of this analysis indicate COPD patients initiating LABA treatment had a longer time to all-cause hospitalization and a 26% lower risk of hospitalization during the 6-months follow-up period compared to those initiating SABA therapy.

  7. Progesterone initiates Wnt-beta-catenin signaling but estradiol is required for nuclear activation and synchronous proliferation of rat uterine stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Virginia; Isuzugawa, Kazuto; Twarog, Meryl; Jones, Stacy; Cameron, Brent; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Fang, Jianwen

    2006-12-01

    Progesterone pretreatment of ovariectomized rat uteri increases the number of synchronously proliferating stromal cells in response to estradiol 17-beta. To identify the signals involved in stimulating synchronous proliferation, sexually mature ovariectomized rats were injected with progesterone (2 mg) for 3 consecutive days. Estradiol 17-beta (0.2 microg) was administered to initiate cell cycle entry. Uterine samples were removed at various times after hormone administration and changes in wingless (Wnt) pathway effectors and gene targets were identified by microarray. Progesterone pretreatment decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and increased expression of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF). GSK-3beta protein decreased markedly in the uterine stroma of progesterone-pretreated uteri with the concomitant appearance of beta-catenin in these stromal cells. Translocation of beta-catenin from the cytosol to the nuclei in progesterone-pretreated stromal cells was stimulated in response to estradiol. Beta-catenin binding to TCF/LEF increased (P<0.05) in progesterone-pretreated uteri in response to estradiol. Progesterone stimulated the expression of the Wnt target gene urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPA-R) in the periluminal uterine stromal cells. The expression of uPA-R increased in progesterone-pretreated stromal cells in response to estradiol administration. Together, the results indicate that progesterone initiates Wnt signaling in the uterine stroma by down-regulating GSK-3beta. However, nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and sufficient complex formation with TCF/LEF to activate stromal cell cycle entry requires estradiol. Stimulation of a uterine stromal cell line to proliferate and differentiate resulted in beta-catenin accumulation, suggesting that endocrine-dependent Wnt signaling controls proliferation and differentiation (decidualization).

  8. Radiation thickness gauge using beta particle sensitivity controlled open air corona streamer counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, L.; El-Hazek, S.; El-Araby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Beta particles have been used extensively in radio gauging applications when measurements of foil thicknesses are desired. Using beta particle open air corona streamer counter (point-grid-plane) as a thickness gauge is presented. This gauge consists of two similar counters with two similar Sr-90 beta sources. One counter-source combination is called standard unit, and the other counter-source combination is called measuring unit in which the required foil thickness can be measured by inserting it between the source and the counter. The signals from the counters are amplified with the same gain factor and the net difference between their responses is measured using specially designed electronic circuit. By this way any change that takes place in the operating medium (variation of parameters of open air i.e. temperature, humidity...etc) can similarly affect the two units, the errors in the measurements caused by them are cancelled, and the only response is due to the measured foil thickness. A theoretical model is suggested to explain and analyze the overall response of the gauge system and calculate the calibration thickness gauge constant. All theoretical findings are confirmed by experiments

  9. Tropical Cyclone Track and Structure Sensitivity to Initialization in Idealized Simulations: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of environmental steering, tropical cyclone (TC motion largely reflects ¡§beta drift¡¨ owing to differential planetary vorticity advection by the storm¡¦s outer circulation. It is known that model physics choices (especially those relating to convection can significantly alter these outer winds and thus the storm track. Here, semi-idealized simulations are used to explore the influence of the initialization on subsequent vortex evolution and motion. Specifically, TCs bred from a buoyant ¡§bubble¡¨ are compared to bogussed vortices having a wide variety of parameterized shapes and sizes matching observations.

  10. Development of ^{100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Beeman, J. W.; Bekker, T. B.; Bellini, F.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Bergmann, T.; Billard, J.; Boiko, R. S.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; de Combarieu, M.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Dafinei, I.; Jesus, M. De; Devoyon, L.; Domizio, S. Di; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Ferroni, F.; Fleischmann, A.; Foerster, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Hervé, S.; Humbert, V.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Laubenstein, M.; Sueur, H. Le; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Nagorny, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nikolaichuk, M. O.; Nones, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Pagnanini, L.; Pari, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Queguiner, E.; Redon, T.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Rusconi, C.; Sanglard, V.; Schäffner, K.; Scorza, S.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tomei, C.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velázquez, M.; Vignati, M.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zolotarova, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (˜ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure ^{100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of ^{100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α -induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ . Less than 10 μ Bq/kg activity of ^{232}Th (^{228}Th) and ^{226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg× d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of ^{100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T_{1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] × 10^{18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of ^{100}Mo.

  11. Development of {sup 100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armengaud, E.; Gros, M.; Herve, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Zolotarova, A.S. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bekker, T.B. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bellini, F.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [CNRS-Neel, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Le Sueur, H.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bergmann, T.; Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boiko, R.S.; Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, M.O.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brudanin, V.; Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capelli, S.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G. [Universita di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Chernyak, D.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); The University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Combarieu, M. de; Pari, P. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRAMIS, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T. [Universite Paris-Sud, IAS, CNRS, Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F.; Strazzer, O. [Universite Paris-Saclay, Orphee, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Eitel, K.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Foerster, N.; Kozlov, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Giuliani, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Grigorieva, V.D.; Ivannikova, N.V.; Ivanov, I.M.; Makarov, E.P.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Hehn, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Marcoussis (France); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Laubenstein, M.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M. [CEA-Saclay, CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Pagnanini, L.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Piperno, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rusconi, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Scorza, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada); Velazquez, M. [Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS, Pessac (France)

    2017-11-15

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (∝ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure {sup 100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of {sup 100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α-induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ. Less than 10 μBq/kg activity of {sup 232}Th({sup 228}Th) and {sup 226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg x d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T{sub 1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] x 10{sup 18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of {sup 100}Mo. (orig.)

  12. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment: procedures and initial measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Borges, F I G M; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    The ''Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber'' (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136 Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds. An extensive screening and material selection process is underway for NEXT since the control of the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up is a must for rare event searches. First measurements based on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry and gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterr and apos;aneo de Canfranc (Spain) are described here. Activity results for natural radioactive chains and other common radionuclides are summarized, being the values obtained for some materials like copper and stainless steel very competitive. The implications of these results for the NEXT experiment are also discussed.

  13. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  14. Low-cysteine alpha-keratins and corneous beta-proteins are initially formed in the regenerating tail epidermis of lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L; Michieli, F; Dalla Valle, L

    2017-01-01

    During tail regeneration in lizards, the stratified regenerating epidermis progressively gives rise to neogenic scales that form a new epidermal generation. Initially, a soft, un-scaled, pliable, and extensible epidermis is formed that is progressively replaced by a resistant but non-extensible scaled epidermis. This suggests that the initial corneous proteins are later replaced with harder corneous proteins. Using PCR and immunocytochemistry, the present study shows an upregulation in the synthesis of low-cysteine type I and II alpha-keratins and of corneous beta-proteins with a medium cysteine content and a low content in glycine (formerly termed beta-keratins) produced at the beginning of epidermal regeneration. Quantitative PCR indicates upregulation in the production of alpha-keratin mRNAs, particularly of type I, between normal and the thicker regenerating epidermis. PCR-data also indicate a higher upregulation for cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins and a high but less intense upregulation of low glycine corneous protein mRNAs at the beginning of scale regeneration. Immunolabeling confirms the localization of these proteins, and in particular of beta-proteins with a medium content in cysteine initially formed in the wound epidermis and later in the differentiating corneous layers of regenerating scales. It is concluded that the wound epidermis initially contains alpha-keratins and corneous beta-proteins with a lower cysteine content than more specialized beta-proteins later formed in the mature scales. These initial corneous proteins are likely related to the pliability of the wound epidermis while more specialized alpha-keratins and beta-proteins richer in glycine and cysteine are synthesized later in the mature and inflexible scales. J. Morphol. 278:119-130, 2017. ©© 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Three small cell lung cancer cell lines established from a single patient during longitudinal follow-up were examined for in vitro expression of TGF beta and TGF beta receptors, i.e. the components of an autocrine loop. GLC 14 was established prior to treatment, GLC 16 on relapse after chemotherapy...... was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...... II receptor gene, as examined by Southern blotting. Also, the type I receptor could not be detected by ligand binding assay in this cell line, despite expression of mRNA for this receptor. This agrees with previous findings that type I receptor cannot bind TGF beta 1 without co-expression of the type...

  16. Viral infection causes rapid sensitization to lipopolysaccharide: central role of IFN-alpha beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Randrup Thomsen, A

    2001-01-01

    LPS is the major active agent in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock. In this report we have studied the influence of concurrent viral infection on the outcome of LPS-induced shock. We find that infection with vesicular stomatitis virus sensitizes mice to LPS at an early time point......-depleted and gene-targeted mice. Our results revealed that while NK cell depletion and elimination of IFN-gamma partially protected against the sensitizing effects of vesicular stomatitis virus and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, the most striking effect was observed in IFN-alphabetaR-deficient mice. Thus...... hyperproduction of TNF-alpha was completely abrogated in IFN-alphabetaR-deficient mice, indicating that the principal mechanism underlying rapid virus-induced sensitization to LPS is an IFN-alphabeta-mediated priming of mice for an augmented production of TNF-alpha in response to LPS. This conclusion was further...

  17. Involvement of Rho kinase and protein kinase C in carbachol-induced calcium sensitization in beta-escin skinned rat and guinea-pig bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Brading, Alison F

    2006-06-01

    1. The signal transduction pathways involved in carbachol (CCh)-induced calcium sensitization in beta-escin permeabilized rat and guinea-pig bladder smooth muscles were investigated and the results were compared with guinea-pig taenia caecum. 2. Calcium contractions elicited cumulatively (pCa 7.5-5) in the presence of calmodulin were significantly increased in all three tissues when CCh (50 microM) was added to the medium. 3. Under constant [Ca2+]i conditions (pCa 6), calmodulin (1 microM) and then GTP (100 microM) initiated significant contractions. CCh (50 microM) added to the bath caused a further contraction in all three tissues - calcium sensitization. This sensitization was significantly inhibited by atropine (50 microM). 4. The incubation of the tissues with the IP3-receptor blocker 2-APB (30 microM) reduced the subsequent development of calcium sensitization by CCh in rat bladder but did not affect it in guinea-pig bladder and taenia ceacum. 5. The Rho kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y-27632 (5 microM) added in the presence of CCh reversed the calcium sensitization in rat bladder, whereas a transient contraction followed by a relaxation to a level not significantly different from the CCh contraction was seen in both guinea-pig bladder and taenia caecum. Y-27632 (1 microM) continuously present significantly inhibited the CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization in rat bladder but not in guinea-pig bladder or taenia caecum. 6. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) (1 microM) and calmodulin (1 microM), Y-27632 (5 microM) did not change the calcium response curve (3 x 10(-7)-10(-5) M) in rat bladder but increased the contractile responses significantly in both guinea-pig bladder and taenia caecum. 7. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X (5 microM) added in the presence of CCh inhibited the calcium sensitization induced by this muscarinic agonist in all three tissues in different ratios. 8. In conclusion, muscarinic receptor activation induces calcium

  18. Effects of a high-salt diet on adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usukura, Mikiya; Zhu, Aoshuang; Yoneda, Takashi; Karashima, Shigehiro; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu

    2009-11-01

    High-salt diets decrease insulin sensitivity in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, and glucocorticoids promote adipocyte growth and may have pathophysiological roles in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between high-salt diet and the adipocyte glucocorticoid hormones in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Six-week-old Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) hypertensive rats and salt-resistant (DR) rats were fed a high-salt diet or a normal-salt diet for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum adiponectin, plasma insulin, and corticosterone in plasma and in visceral adipose tissues, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) activities in adipose tissues and glucose uptake in isolated muscle were measured. Animals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The expression of mRNA for glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11beta-HSD1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipose tissues were measured using a real-time PCR. A high-salt diet did not influence FBG; however, decreased 2-deoxy glucose uptake and plasma insulin during OGTT in DS rats. The high-salt diet increased significantly adipose tissue corticosterone concentration and 11beta-HSD1 activities, gene expression for GR, 11beta-HSD1 and TNF-alpha in adipose tissues in DS rats compared with DR rats (phigh-salt diet did not influence plasma corticosterone and serum adiponectin concentration in DS and DR rats. These results suggest that changes in GR and 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to insulin sensitivity in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

  19. Inhibition of CREB binding protein-beta-catenin signaling down regulates CD133 expression and activates PP2A-PTEN signaling in tumor initiating liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Berlind, Joshua; Mavila, Nirmala

    2018-03-12

    The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood. Here we have investigated the role of CBP-beta-catenin signaling on the expression of CD133, a known stem cell antigen and PP2A-PTEN pathway in tumor initiating liver cancer cells. Human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 and clonally expanded CD133 expressing tumor initiating liver cells (TICs) from premalignant murine liver were used in this study. CBP-beta-catenin inhibitor ICG001 was used to target CBP-beta catenin signaling in liver cancer cells in vitro. Western blotting and real time PCR (qPCR) were used to quantify protein expression/phosphorylation and mRNA levels, respectively. CBP and CD133 gene silencing was performed by siRNA transfection. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) was performed to quantify CD133 positive cells. Protein Phosphatase (PP2A) activity was measured after PP2AC immunoprecipitation. CBP inhibitor ICG001 and CBP silencing significantly reduced CD133 expression and anchorage independent growth in HepG2 and murine TICs. CD133 silencing in TICs decreased cell proliferation and expression levels of cell cycle regulatory genes, CyclinD1 and CyclinA2. ICG001 treatment and CBP silencing reduced the levels of phospho Ser380/Tyr382/383 PTEN, phospho Ser473 -AKT, Phospho- Ser552 beta-catenin in TICs. ICG001 mediated de-phosphorylation of PTEN in TICs was PP2A dependent and partly prevented by co-treatment with PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. CBP-beta-catenin signaling

  20. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Viral infection causes rapid sensitization to lipopolysaccharide: central role of IFN-alpha beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Randrup Thomsen, A

    2001-01-01

    LPS is the major active agent in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock. In this report we have studied the influence of concurrent viral infection on the outcome of LPS-induced shock. We find that infection with vesicular stomatitis virus sensitizes mice to LPS at an early time point...... following infection. Treatment of mice with the chemical IFN inducer, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, has a similar effect. This hypersensitivity to LPS correlated with hyperproduction of TNF-alpha in vivo. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon were investigated using Ab......-depleted and gene-targeted mice. Our results revealed that while NK cell depletion and elimination of IFN-gamma partially protected against the sensitizing effects of vesicular stomatitis virus and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, the most striking effect was observed in IFN-alphabetaR-deficient mice. Thus...

  2. Associations between the intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and measures of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra-Masters, R C; Liese, A D; Haffner, S M; Wagenknecht, L E; Hanley, A J

    2011-02-01

    Although protective relationships between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus have consistently been observed, few studies have examined the relationships between coffee consumption and underlying pathophysiological defects that characterise diabetes aetiology. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion. The study population included 954 multi-ethnic non-diabetic adults from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the cross-sectional relationships between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake and insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response, measured by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, 2 h postload glucose measured by OGTT, fasting insulin, and proinsulin to C-peptide ratios. Caffeinated coffee intake was positively associated with insulin sensitivity (β = 0.054; SE = 0.026; p = 0.04) and inversely related to 2 h postload glucose (β = -0.37; SE = 0.10; p = 0.0003) in fully adjusted models. Caffeinated coffee intake was not associated with acute insulin response or proinsulin ratios. Decaffeinated coffee intake was inversely related to 2 h postload glucose (β = -0.47; SE = 0.18; p = 0.0096) and positively related to acute insulin response (β = 0.191; SE = 0.077; p = 0.0132). Decaffeinated coffee intake was inversely related to the ratios of both intact and split proinsulin to C-peptide (β = -0.150; SE = 0.061; p = 0.0148; β = -0.254; SE = 0.068; p = 0.0002, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, caffeinated coffee was positively related to insulin sensitivity and decaffeinated coffee was favourably related to measures of beta cell function. These results provide pathophysiological insight as to how coffee could impact the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 is increased following abstinence from cocaine self-administration, but not cocaine sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Gancarz-Kausch

    Full Text Available The addicted phenotype is characterized as a long-lasting, chronically relapsing disorder that persists following long periods of abstinence, suggesting that the underlying molecular changes are stable and endure for long periods even in the absence of drug. Here, we investigated Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Type I receptor (TGF-β R1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following periods of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration (SA and a sensitizing regimen of non-contingent cocaine. Rats were exposed to either (i repeated systemic injections (cocaine or saline, or (ii self-administration (cocaine or saline and underwent a period of forced abstinence (either 1 or 7 days of drug cessation. Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration resulted in an increase in TGF-β R1 protein expression in the NAc compared to saline controls. This increase was specific for volitional cocaine intake as no change in expression was observed following a sensitizing regimen of experimenter-administered cocaine. These findings implicate TGF-β signaling as a novel potential therapeutic target for treating drug addiction.

  4. 17beta-estradiol modulates baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, T M; Connell, B J

    2000-05-12

    The following experiments examine the role of estrogen as a central modulator of autonomic tone and baroreflex sensitivity in the female rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then supplemented daily for 7 days with a fixed dose of estrogen (5 microg/kg; sc) to produce a stable level of estrogen similar to that present at proestrous (17 pg/ml). The rats were then anaesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (100 mg/kg) and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate and both vagal and renal efferent nerve activities. The sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex was tested using intravenous injection of multiple doses of either phenylephrine hydrochloride or sodium nitroprusside. Estrogen-supplemented female rats exhibited a significantly enhanced BRS as compared to male rats from a previous study (0.78 vs. 0.5). Furthermore, bolus injection of estrogen (1x10(-2) mg/kg; iv) in estrogen-supplemented female rats produced a significant increase in vagal nerve activity and a significant decrease in renal nerve activity which together resulted in a further enhancement of the BRS (0.78 vs. 2.4). Injection of the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, into nucleus ambiguus and the intrathecal space of the spinal cord blocked the respective changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities indicating that intravenously administered estrogen modulates baseline autonomic tone via the activation of central estrogen receptors.

  5. Association of NEFA composition with insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Luke W; Harris, Stewart B; Retnakaran, Ravi; Giacca, Adria; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P; Hanley, Anthony J

    2018-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the longitudinal associations of individual NEFA with the pathogenesis of diabetes, specifically with differences in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function over 6 years in a cohort of individuals who are at risk for diabetes. In the Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) longitudinal cohort, 477 participants had serum NEFA measured at the baseline visit and completed an OGTT at three time points over 6 years. Outcome variables were calculated using the OGTT values. At each visit, insulin sensitivity was assessed using the HOMA2 of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) and the Matsuda index, while beta cell function was assessed using the insulinogenic index over HOMA-IR (IGI/IR) and the insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). Generalised estimating equations were used, adjusting for time, waist, sex, ethnicity, baseline age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and physical activity. NEFA were analysed as both concentrations (nmol/ml) and proportions (mol%) of the total fraction. Participants' (73% female, 70% with European ancestry) insulin sensitivity and beta cell function declined by 14-21% over 6 years of follow-up. In unadjusted models, several NEFA (e.g. 18:1 n-7, 22:4 n-6) were associated with lower insulin sensitivity, however, nearly all of these associations were attenuated in fully adjusted models. In adjusted models, total NEFA, 16:0, 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 (as concentrations) were associated with 3.7-8.0% lower IGI/IR and ISSI-2, while only 20:5 n-3 (as mol%) was associated with 7.7% higher HOMA2-%S. Total NEFA concentration was a strong predictor of lower beta cell function over 6 years. Our results suggest that the association with beta cell function is due to the absolute size of the serum NEFA fraction, rather than the specific fatty acid composition.

  6. Dideoxynucleoside triphosphate-sensitive DNA polymerase from rice is involved in base excision repair and immunologically similar to mammalian DNA pol beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Bakshi, Sankar; Mokkapati, Sanath K; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2004-07-16

    A single polypeptide with ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase activity was purified to near homogeneity from the shoot tips of rice seedlings and analysis of the preparations by SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining showed a polypeptide of 67 kDa size. The DNA polymerase activity was found to be inhibitory by ddNTP in both in vitro DNA polymerase activity assay and activity gel analysis. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of other types of DNA polymerases, had no effect on plant enzyme. The 67 kDa rice DNA polymerase was found to be recognized by the polyclonal antibody (purified IgG) made against rat DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) both in solution and also on Western blot. The recognition was found to be very specific as the activity of Klenow enzyme was unaffected by the antibody. The ability of rice nuclear extract to correct G:U mismatch of oligo-duplex was observed when oligo-duplex with 32P-labeled lower strand containing U (at 22nd position) was used as substrate. Differential appearance of bands at 21-mer, 22-mer, and 51-mer position in presence of dCTP was visible only with G:U mismatch oligo-duplex, but not with G:C oligo-duplex. While ddCTP or polyclonal antibody against rat-DNA pol beta inhibits base excision repair (BER), aphidicolin had no effect. These results for the first time clearly demonstrate the ability of rice nuclear extract to run BER and the involvement of ddNTP-sensitive pol beta type DNA polymerase. Immunological similarity of the ddNTP-sensitive DNA polymerase beta of rice and rat and its involvement in BER revealed the conservation of structure and function of ddNTP-sensitive DNA pol beta in plant and animal.

  7. Baseline EEG theta/beta ratio and punishment sensitivity as biomarkers for feedback-related negativity (FRN) and risk-taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, S.A.A.; Rossi, V.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is associated with reinforcement learning and punishment sensitivity. Furthermore, reinforcement learning proficiency can be predicted from pre-task baseline EEG theta/beta ratio. In this study it was examined whether there was a relation between baseline

  8. Predicting a contact's sensitivity to initial conditions using metrics of frictional coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flicek, Robert C.; Hills, David A.; Brake, Matthew Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting how sensitive a frictional contact’s steady-state behavior is to its initial conditions. Previous research has proven that if a contact is uncoupled, i.e. if slip displacements do not influence the contact pressure distribution, then its steady-state response is independent of initial conditions, but if the contact is coupled, the steady-state response depends on initial conditions. In this paper, two metrics for quantifying coupling in discrete frictional systems are examined. These metrics suggest that coupling is dominated by material dissimilarity due to Dundurs’ composite material parameter β when β ≥ 0.2, but geometric mismatch becomes the dominant source of coupling for smaller values of β. Based on a large set of numerical simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients, a contact’s sensitivity to initial conditions is found to be correlated with the product of the coupling metric and the friction coefficient. For cyclic shear loading, this correlation is maintained for simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients. Furthermore, for cyclic bulk loading, the correlation is only maintained when the contact edge angle is held constant.

  9. Renal outcomes of agalsidase beta treatment for Fabry disease: role of proteinuria and timing of treatment initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnock, David G.; Ortiz, Alberto; Mauer, Michael; Linthorst, Gabor E.; Oliveira, João P.; Serra, Andreas L.; Maródi, László; Mignani, Renzo; Vujkovac, Bojan; Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Lemay, Roberta; Cole, J. Alexander; Svarstad, Einar; Waldek, Stephen; Germain, Dominique P.; Wanner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of renal disease progression in adults with Fabry disease during treatment with agalsidase beta. Methods. Renal function was evaluated in 151 men and 62 women from the Fabry Registry who received agalsidase beta at an average dose of

  10. Mir-130a-Mediated Downregulation of SMAD4 Contributes to Reduced Sensitivity to TGE beta Stimulation in Promyelocytic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna Cavan; Larsen, Maria Torp

    2011-01-01

    mature, the expression of miR-130a decreases dramatically whereas the level of Smad4 protein expression increases demonstrating inverse correlation between miR-130a and Smad4 protein. The level of Stnad4 mRNA is comparable at all stages of granulopoiesis. High miR-130a levels and low or no expression...... by point mutations in the miRNA-binding site. In agreement, we observed that stable overexpression of miR-130a in a granulocytic cell line reduces the level of Smad4 protein, and render the cells less sensitive to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition. This was also confirmed with cell cycles analysis...... of Smad4 was found in primary cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and in a cell line (Kasumi-1) with the t(8:21)(q22;q22) chromosomal translocation. The level of Smad4 increased in Kasumi-1 cells when the endogenous level of miR-130a was inhibited by anti-miR-130a LNA. Our data indicate...

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Laboratories

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  12. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  13. Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling increases insulin sensitivity through a reciprocal regulation of Wnt10b and SREBP-1c in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Abiola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intramyocellular lipid accumulation is strongly related to insulin resistance in humans, and we have shown that high glucose concentration induced de novo lipogenesis and insulin resistance in murin muscle cells. Alterations in Wnt signaling impact the balance between myogenic and adipogenic programs in myoblasts, partly due to the decrease of Wnt10b protein. As recent studies point towards a role for Wnt signaling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, we hypothesized that activation of Wnt signaling could play a crucial role in muscle insulin sensitivity.Here we demonstrate that SREBP-1c and Wnt10b display inverse expression patterns during muscle ontogenesis and regeneration, as well as during satellite cells differentiation. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway was reactivated in contracting myotubes using siRNA mediated SREBP-1 knockdown, Wnt10b over-expression or inhibition of GSK-3beta, whereas Wnt signaling was inhibited in myoblasts through silencing of Wnt10b. SREBP-1 knockdown was sufficient to induce Wnt10b protein expression in contracting myotubes and to activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Conversely, silencing Wnt10b in myoblasts induced SREBP-1c protein expression, suggesting a reciprocal regulation. Stimulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway i drastically decreased SREBP-1c protein and intramyocellular lipid deposition in myotubes; ii increased basal glucose transport in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant myotubes through a differential activation of Akt and AMPK pathways; iii restored insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant myotubes.We conclude that activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in skeletal muscle cells improved insulin sensitivity by i decreasing intramyocellular lipid deposition through downregulation of SREBP-1c; ii increasing insulin effects through a differential activation of the Akt/PKB and AMPK pathways; iii inhibiting the MAPK pathway. A crosstalk between these pathways and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

  14. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis for the 'initial defect in the canister' reference model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    In Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' the repository system scenarios leading to radionuclide releases have been identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios. Three potential causes of canister failure and radionuclide release are considered: (i) the presence of an initial defect in the copper shell of one canister that penetrates the shell completely, (ii) corrosion of the copper overpack, that occurs more rapidly if buffer density is reduced, e.g. by erosion, (iii) shear movement on fractures intersecting the deposition hole. All three failure modes are analysed deterministically in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, and for the 'initial defect in the canister' reference model a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) has been carried out. The main steps of the PSA have been: quantification of the uncertainties in the model input parameters through the creation of probability density distributions (PDFs), Monte Carlo simulations of the evolution of the system up to 106 years using parameters values sampled from the previous PDFs. Monte Carlo simulations with 10,000 individual calculations (realisations) have been used in the PSA, quantification of the uncertainty in the model outputs due to uncertainty in the input parameters (uncertainty analysis), and identification of the parameters whose uncertainty have the greatest effect on the uncertainty in the model outputs (sensitivity analysis) Since the biosphere is not included in the Monte Carlo simulations of the system, the model outputs studied are not doses, but total and radionuclide-specific normalised release rates from the near-field and to the biosphere. These outputs are calculated dividing the activity release rates by the constraints on the activity fluxes to the environment set out by the Finnish regulator. Two different cases are analysed in the PSA: (i) the 'hole forever' case, in which the small hole through the copper overpack remains unchanged during the assessment

  15. Runoff sensitivity over Asia: Role of climate variables and initial soil conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Zhang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    We applied statistical and numerical modeling approach to evaluate the sensitivity of runoff (ROF) to climate variables using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data and regional climate model (RegCM4). It was observed that ROF is more sensitive to precipitation (P) compared to other analyzed hydroclimatic variables (potential evapotranspiration (PET), 2 m air temperature (T2m), solar radiation (Rn), specific humidity (SSH), and wind speed (U), especially over India, Indochina, and south-north-northeast China semihumid-humid climate transition zones based on the higher correlation coefficient (>0.7) and elasticity (>2). The abnormal positive T2m-ROF observed over Tibetan Plateau region (TP) may be due to its high topography and cold weather regime, while positive PET-ROF over India and north China-southeast Mongolia regions can be attributed to the stronger influence of local land-atmosphere interactions. Soil moisture (SM) reflects high correlation with runoff, especially over the climate transition zones (i.e., India and Indochina-southeast China). The initial wet (dry) soil moisture (SM) anomalies lead to an increase (decrease) of ROF in each season with the hot spots mainly located in middle to high latitudes (spring), TP and northeast (summer and autumn), and Indochina (autumn) regions. Such influence can persist almost 4 months in spring while only about 1 month in autumn during dry and wet conditions. The wet condition has stronger influence at beginning but dissipates quickly, while the dry condition can last longer within the same season. The impact of initial soil temperature anomalies on ROF is weaker than SM, with the only obvious ROF changes located over south China (spring and summer) and north India (autumn).

  16. Is serum zinc associated with pancreatic beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetic and normal individuals? Findings from the Hunter Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanrin P Vashum

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine if there is a difference in serum zinc concentration between normoglycaemic, pre-diabetic and type-2 diabetic groups and if this is associated with pancreatic beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in the former 2 groups. METHOD: Cross sectional study of a random sample of older community-dwelling men and women in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance were calculated for normoglycaemic and prediabetes participants using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-2 calculator. RESULT: A total of 452 participants were recruited for this study. Approximately 33% (N = 149 had diabetes, 33% (N = 151 had prediabetes and 34% (N = 152 were normoglycaemic. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA parameters were found to be significantly different between normoglycaemic and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. In adjusted linear regression, higher serum zinc concentration was associated with increased insulin sensitivity (p = 0.01 in the prediabetic group. There was also a significant association between smoking and worse insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Higher serum zinc concentration is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. Longitudinal studies are required to determine if low serum zinc concentration plays a role in progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes.

  17. The Microwave Properties of Simulated Melting Precipitation Particles: Sensitivity to Initial Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2016-01-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  18. Lack of relationship between 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase setpoint and insulin sensitivity in the basal state and after 24h of insulin infusion in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; Riemens, SC; Sluiter, WJ; Pratt, JJ; Wolthers, BG; Dullaart, RPF

    OBJECTIVES To test whether insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an altered overall setpoint of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD) mediated cortisol to cortisone interconversion towards cortisol, and to evaluate whether changes in insulin sensitivity

  19. Generation of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells from human embryonic stem cells by incorporating a synthetic lineage-control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pratik; Bojar, Daniel; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-10-10

    We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells. In the present study, we show for the first time that this network can also program the expression dynamics of Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and drive differentiation of these cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells. Therefore, synthetic lineage-control networks appear to be a robust methodology for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into somatic cell types for basic research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mir-130a-Mediated Downregulation of SMAD4 Contributes to Reduced Sensitivity to TGE beta Stimulation in Promyelocytic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna Cavan; Larsen, Maria Torp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the synthesis of proteins and, if dysregulated, can result in development of various form of cancers. We have found that miR-130a is highly expressed in immature proliferating granulocytic precursors. In more mature granulocytes the mi......R-130a expression is significant lower. In acute myeloid leukemia the granulocyte precursors have lost the ability to undergo terminal maturation, leading to accumulation of non-functional, immature granulocytes (myeloblasts). We hypothesize that a sustained high expression of miR-130a during...... granulopoiesis may sustain continuous cell proliferation. TGF-beta is a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation and lack of TGF-beta expression is associated with various form of cancer. Smad4 is an essential compound in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Using microRNA target-prediction software, we identified Smad...

  1. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  2. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  3. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may...... mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF...

  4. beta2-adaptin is constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J

    2000-01-01

    -adaptin undergoes cycles of phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in intact cells. Thus, beta2-adaptin was constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase in vivo. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated...... the hypothesis that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of coat proteins plays a regulatory role in the assembly/disassembly cycle of clathrin-coated vesicles.......Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2...

  5. Interleukin-1 beta induced transient diabetes mellitus in rats. A model of the initial events in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I

    1998-01-01

    and molecular mechanisms of IL-1 beta on temperature and food intake used as control parameters for successful injection of rhIL-1 beta in rats, 3) the effects of one or more injection of IL-1 beta on rat beta cell function, 4) the molecular mechanisms leading to IL-1 beta induced beta cell inhibition in vivo...... studies suggested that IL-1 beta is distributed according to a two-compartment model with a first-order elimination. Interleukin-1 beta reached all the investigated organs in the rats, was accumulated in kidneys and was excreted in the urine. The data suggested that IL-1 beta also accumulated...

  6. Design considerations and initial performance of a 1.2 cm/sup 2/ beta imaging intra-operative probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornai, M. P.; MacDonald, L. R.; Levin, C. S.; Siegel, S.; Hoffman, E. J.

    1996-08-01

    A novel small area beta (/spl beta//sup /spl plusmn//) detector is under development for nuclear emission imaging of surgically exposed, radiolabeled tumor beds. The imaging device front-end consists of a 0.5 mm thick by 1.25 cm diameter CaF/sub 2/(Eu) scintillator disk coupled to a rigid bundle of 2 mm diameter double clad optical fibers through a polystyrene light diffuser. The detector area (1.2 cm/sup 2/) was determined by the requirement of introducing the probe into small cavities, e.g. during neuro-surgical lesion resection, but large enough to produce images of clinical significance. Flexible back-end optical fibers (1.9 m long) were coupled to the front-end components allowing /spl sim/75 photo-electrons to be detected for mean beta energies of 250 keV, indicating that sufficient signal can be obtained with clinical beta emitters (e.g. /sup 18/F, /sup 131/I). The long flexible fibers guide the scintillation light to a Philips XP1700 series, fiber optic faceplate, Multi-Channel PMT. The parallel MC-PMT outputs are fed into a variable gain, charge divider network and an i-V pre-amplifier/line driver network, whose resulting four outputs are digitized and histogrammed with standard Anger positioning logic. The various components in the imaging chain were evaluated and optimized by both simulations and measurements. Line spread functions measured in the 10.8 mm FOV were 0.50 mm /spl plusmn/0.038 mm and 0.55 mm /spl plusmn/0.065 mm FWHM in X and Y, respectively. A 20% variation in pulse height and minimal variation in spatial resolution was observed. The differential image uniformity was measured to be /spl plusmn/15.6% with /spl sim/150 cts/pixel. Preliminary images show excellent reproduction of phantom activity distributions.

  7. Radial gradients in initial mass function sensitive absorption features in the Coma brightest cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.; Vaughan, Sam P.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we trace radial variations of initial mass function (IMF)-sensitive absorption features of three galaxies in the Coma cluster. We obtain resolved spectroscopy of the central 5 kpc for the two central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) NGC4889, NGC4874, and the BCG in the south-west group NGC4839, as well as unresolved data for NGC4873 as a low-σ* control. We present radial measurements of the IMF-sensitive features: sodium Na ISDSS, calcium triplet CaT, and iron-hydride FeH0.99, along with the magnesium Mg I0.88 and titanium oxide TiO0.89 features. We employ two separate methods for both telluric correction and sky subtraction around the faint FeH feature to verify our analysis. Within NGC4889 we find strong gradients of Na ISDSS and CaT but a flat FeH profile, which, from comparing to stellar population synthesis models, suggests an old, α-enhanced population with a Chabrier, or even bottom-light IMF. The age and abundance are in line with previous studies but the normal IMF is in contrast to recent results suggesting an increased IMF slope with increased velocity dispersion. We measure flat Na ISDSS and FeH profiles within NGC4874, and determine an old, possibly slightly α-enhanced and Chabrier IMF population. We find an α-enhanced, Chabrier IMF population in NGC4873. Within NGC4839 we measure both strong Na ISDSS and strong FeH, although with a large systematic uncertainty, suggesting a possible heavier IMF. The IMFs we infer for these galaxies are supported by published dynamical modelling. We stress that IMF constraints should be corroborated by further spectral coverage and independent methods on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis.

  8. Phantom bursting is highly sensitive to noise and unlikely to account for slow bursting in beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells show bursting electrical activity with a wide range of burst periods ranging from a few seconds, often seen in isolated cells, over tens of seconds (medium bursting), usually observed in intact islets, to several minutes. The phantom burster model [Bertram, R., Previte, J...

  9. Alkali pH directly activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and inhibits insulin secretion in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Karaman, Gunce; Wheeler, Michael B

    2006-11-17

    Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells is reported to lead to sustained alkalization, while extracellular application of weak bases is reported to inhibit electrical activity and decrease insulin secretion. We hypothesize that beta-cell K(ATP) channel activity is modulated by alkaline pH. Using the excised patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate a direct stimulatory action of alkali pH on recombinant SUR1/Kir6.2 channels due to increased open probability. Bath application of alkali pH similarly activates native islet beta-cell K(ATP) channels, leading to an inhibition of action potentials, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential. In situ pancreatic perfusion confirms that these cellular effects of alkali pH are observable at a functional level, resulting in decreases in both phase 1 and phase 2 glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data are the first to report a stimulatory effect of a range of alkali pH on K(ATP) channel activity and link this to downstream effects on islet beta-cell function.

  10. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sednev, Igor; Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2008-02-18

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9th-10th October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase

  11. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFarquhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9–10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process

  12. Characterization of the hemin-sensitive eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase from mouse nonerythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, J J; Herrero, S; de Haro, C

    1998-11-27

    The heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase (heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)) is activated by heme deficiency in reticulocytes and plays an important role in translational control in these cells. Previously, HRI was cloned from rabbit reticulocytes and rat brain, but a heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase activity has only been purified from erythroid cells. In this study, we report the purification of a heme-sensitive eIF2alpha kinase activity from both mouse liver and NIH 3T3 cell extracts. Furthermore, we have cloned and characterized this mouse liver eIF2alpha kinase (mHRI), which exhibits 83 and 94% identities to rabbit and rat HRIs, respectively. Both the purified enzyme and recombinant mHRI exhibited an autokinase and an eIF2alpha kinase activity, and both activities were inhibited in vitro by hemin. In addition, wild-type mHRI, but not the inactive mHRI-K196R mutant, was autophosphorylated in vivo when it was expressed in 293 cells. Quantitation of mHRI mRNA expression in various mouse tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed relatively high levels in liver, kidney, and testis. These results provide strong evidence that mHRI is a ubiquitous eIF2alpha kinase of mammalian cells, suggesting that it could play important roles in the translational regulation of nonerythroid tissues.

  13. Sensitization to Corrosion as Initiator of Fatigue Fracture in Compressor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír CIHAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain failures of stainless steels interpreted purely in terms of fracture mechanisms may in fact be closely associated with previous damage caused by localized corrosion. The closeness of the link between fatigue and corrosion is documented by the case history of compressor blades made of grade 14Cr17Ni2 (X14CrNi17-2 stainless steel. Fatigue fracturing observed in areas near the blade root tended to follow intergranular pathways, indicating that some additional mechanism other than fatigue might be involved. This suspicion was confirmed by electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR measurements in situ, which revealed sensitization to intergranular corrosion. It has been found that at the transition between the blade root and the blade proper the surfaces had been ground and polished too vigorously, heating the subcutaneous layers to within the danger zone of 400-600°C. Preferential integranular attack in these locations was the initiation mechanism that provoked a subsequent failure of the blades by fatigue fracture.

  14. Impaired sensitivity to beta 2 integrin-blocking in ICAM-1-mediated neutrophil migration in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, B; Brimnes, J; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the directed migration of neutrophils into colonic tissue in ulcerative colitis (UC) are poorly described. ICAM-1 has recently been shown to possess chemotactic properties, and the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of beta 2 integrins in this ICAM-1......-mediated migration. METHODS: The chemotactic effect of ICAM-1 on neutrophils isolated from 13 UC patients and 17 healthy volunteers was studied in microchemotaxis chambers. Physiological concentrations of ICAM-1 (0.05-500 pM) were separated from neutrophils by nitrocellulose filters, and cell migration...... was evaluated using the leading front technique. beta 2 integrins on neutrophils were blocked with antibodies to CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD18, and migration towards ICAM-1 was examined. RESULTS: Migration towards ICAM-1 was equal for UC and control neutrophils, showing a bell-shaped ICAM-1 dosemigratory...

  15. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV......) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may...... mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF...

  16. Nanoprobe-Initiated Enzymatic Polymerization for Highly Sensitive Electrochemical DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying; Wang, Pengjuan; Su, Yan; Wang, Lihua; Pan, Dun; Aldalbahi, Ali; Yang, Shulin; Zuo, Xiaolei

    2015-11-25

    Electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensors have been greatly developed and play an important role in early diagnosis of different diseases. To determine the extremely low abundance of DNA biomarkers in clinical samples, scientists are making unremitting efforts toward achieving highly sensitive and selective E-DNA sensors. Here, a novel E-DNA sensor was developed taking advantage of the signal amplification efficiency of nanoprobe-initiated enzymatic polymerization (NIEP). In the NIEP based E-DNA sensor, the capture probe DNA was thiolated at its 3'-terminal to be immobilized onto gold electrode, and the nanoprobe was fabricated by 5'-thiol-terminated signal probe DNA conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Both of the probes could simultaneously hybridize with the target DNA to form a "sandwich" structure followed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-catalyzed elongation of the free 3'-terminal of DNA on the nanoprobe. During the DNA elongation, biotin labels were incorporated into the NIEP-generated long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tentacles, leading to specific binding of avidin modified horseradish peroxidase (Av-HRP). Since there are hundreds of DNA probes on the nanoprobe, one hybridization event would generate hundreds of long ssDNA tentacles, resulting in tens of thousands of HRP catalyzed reduction of hydrogen peroxide and sharply increasing electrochemical signals. By employing nanoprobe and TdT, it is demonstrated that the NIEP amplified E-DNA sensor has a detection limit of 10 fM and excellent differentiation ability for even single-base mismatch.

  17. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  18. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans

    1995-01-01

    increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with a half-maximal effect at 0.5 nmol/l for both drugs in long-term experiments (30 min). The rise in [Ca2+]i results from Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+)-channels since it is inhibited by verapamil (10 mumol/l). The effect......The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open...... probability of single ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels to approximately 10% of the activity prior to addition of the drugs in short-term experiments (

  19. Wheel-running mitigates psychomotor sensitization initiation but not post-sensitization conditioned activity and conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuzaine, Annabelle; Tirelli, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    Previous literature suggests that physical exercise allowed by an unlimited access to a running wheel for several weeks can mitigate chronic neurobehavioral responsiveness to several addictive drugs in rodents. Here, the potential preventive effects of unlimited wheel-running on the initiation of psychomotor sensitization and the acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 10 mg/kg cocaine in C56BL/6J mice were assessed in two independent experiments. To this end, half of the mice were singly housed with a running wheel at 28 days of age for 10 weeks prior to psychopharmacological tests, during which housing conditions did not change, and the other half of mice were housed without running wheel. In Experiment 1, prior to initiating sensitization, psychomotor activity on the two first drug-free once-daily sessions was not affected by wheel-running. This was also found for the acute psychomotor-activating effect of cocaine on the first sensitization session. Psychomotor sensitization readily developed over the 9 following once-daily sessions in mice housed without wheel, whereas it was inhibited in mice housed with a wheel. However, that difference did not transfer to post-sensitization conditioned activity. In contrast with the sensitization results, mice housed with a wheel still expressed a clear-cut CPP which did not extinguish differently from that of the other group, a result in disaccord with previous studies reporting either an attenuating or an increasing effect of wheel-running on cocaine-induced conditioned reward. The available results together indicate that interactions between wheel-running and cocaine effects are far from being satisfactorily characterized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the development of periodontal disease in adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Petra; Saxlin, Tuomas; Knuuttila, Matti; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Jula, Antti; Tervonen, Tellervo; Ylöstalo, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether insulin resistance and beta cell function are related to periodontal pocket formation, indicative of infectious periodontal disease in non-smoking adults without manifest diabetes. We analysed data from a Health 2000 Survey consisting of dentate subjects without any indication of diabetes, aged between 30 and 64, who had never smoked and who had participated in the Follow-up Study on Finnish Adults' Oral Health about 4 years later (n = 157). The Homeostasis Model Assessment Indices were used to measure insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B). The development of periodontal disease was measured by means of the incidence of deepened periodontal pockets (4 mm deep or deeper) during the follow-up period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Both HOMA-IR and HOMA-B indices were associated with periodontal pocket formation during the 4-year follow-up. The results of this follow-up study suggest that impaired glucose metabolism measured as insulin resistance and altered beta cell function predict the breakdown of periodontal tissues. Further studies about their role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity based on co-immobilization of carbon nanotubes, hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bi; Ma Ming [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Su Xiaoli, E-mail: xsu@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-07-26

    An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was successfully developed by co-immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Under catalysis of the immobilized enzyme, penicillin was hydrolyzed, decreasing the local pH. The pH change was monitored amperometrically with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox probe. MWCNTs were used as an electron transfer enhancer as well as an efficient immobilization matrix for the sensitivity enhancement. The effects of immobilization procedure, working potential, enzyme quantity, buffer concentration, and sample matrix were investigated. The biosensor offered a minimum detection limit of 50 nM (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for penicillin V, lower than those of the conventional pH change-based biosensors by more than two orders of magnitude. The electrode-to-electrode variation of the response sensitivity was 7.0% RSD.

  2. The HS2 enhancer of the beta-globin locus control region initiates synthesis of non-coding, polyadenylated RNAs independent of a cis-linked globin promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jianhua; Baibakov, Boris; Pi, Wenhu; Emerson, Beverly M; Tuan, Dorothy

    2005-07-29

    The HS2 enhancer in the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) regulates transcription of the globin genes 10-50 kb away. Earlier studies show that a transcription mechanism initiated by the HS2 enhancer through the intervening DNA in the direction of the cis-linked promoter and gene mediates long-range enhancer function. Here, we further analyzed the enhancer-initiated RNAs and their mode of transcription from the HS2 enhancer in the endogenous genome of erythroid K562 cells, in plasmids integrated into K562 cells and in purified DNA used as template in in vitro transcription reactions. We found that the HS2 enhancer was able to initiate transcription autonomously in the absence of a cis-linked globin promoter. The enhancer-initiated, intergenic RNAs were different from the mRNA synthesized at the promoter in several aspects. The enhancer RNAs were synthesized not from a defined site but from multiple sites both within and as far as 1 kb downstream of the enhancer. The enhancer RNAs did not appear to contain a normal cap structure at the 5' ends. They were polyadenylated at multiple sites within 3 kb downstream of their initiation sites and were therefore shorter than 3 kb in lengths. The enhancer RNAs remained in discrete spots within the nucleus and were not processed into mRNA or translated into proteins. These particular features of enhancer-initiated transcription indicate that the transcriptional complex assembled by the enhancer was different from the basal transcription complex assembled at the promoter. The results suggest that in synthesizing non-coding, intergenic RNAs, the enhancer-assembled transcription complex could track through the intervening DNA to reach the basal promoter complex and activate efficient mRNA synthesis from the promoter.

  3. Development of high sensitivity gamma and beta sensors for in situ diffusion tests in the mudstone in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    The precise monitoring of radiotracers, for example used for medical imaging, for the storage of ultimate waste, or for certain industrial applications can be a very complex subject. The development of low-noise sensors with long-term stability and high geometric flexibility were engaged by the AXINT company. (Hautefeuille, et al., 2006). My PhD thesis was focused on experiments in the diffusion of radiotracers, typically to monitor the possible leakage of radioactive products from the geological repositories. We focuses on the study of the 22 Na and 36 Cl ion diffusion, which is one of the highest cation and anions diffusion rate in geological medium, as well as actinides, which represent the majority of the radioactive elements of Stored nuclear waste. This thesis is in continuity with the research carried out by ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste), under contract with the laboratory ILM (Institute Light Matter), of which AXINT is the main subcontractor. The present project describes the research work that foreseen the radiation impact on the environment for the coming years during the deep disposal of nuclear waste. Our work focus on the investigation and quantification of the radionuclide diffusion through the geological clay barriers. A new in situ experiment was considered by Andra for the study of the radionuclide migration. Compared to previous experiments, this new in situ diffusion test required longer distance (hundreds of mm), longer time-scale (over 10 years), and real time in situ monitoring of radionuclides migration. To fulfill these conditions, the work was organized as following: 1: Conception and dimensional design of the Diffusion of Radio Nuclide (DRN) experiments in solving emission of beta and gamma radiations 2: Development of corresponding beta and gamma monitoring systems by means of sensors located in peripheral boreholes. (author) [fr

  4. Central sensitization syndrome and the initial evaluation of a patient with fibromyalgia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin C; Volcheck, Mary M

    2015-04-01

    In both primary care and consultative practices, patients presenting with fibromyalgia (FM) often have other medically unexplained somatic symptoms and are ultimately diagnosed as having central sensitization (CS). Central sensitization encompasses many disorders where the central nervous system amplifies sensory input across many organ systems and results in myriad symptoms. A pragmatic approach to evaluate FM and related symptoms, including a focused review of medical records, interviewing techniques, and observations, is offered here, giving valuable tools for identifying and addressing the most relevant symptoms. At the time of the clinical evaluation, early consideration of CS may improve the efficiency of the visit, reduce excessive testing, and help in discerning between typical and atypical cases so as to avoid an inaccurate diagnosis. Discussion of pain and neurophysiology and sensitization often proves helpful.

  5. Central Sensitization Syndrome and the Initial Evaluation of a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fleming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In both primary care and consultative practices, patients presenting with fibromyalgia (FM often have other medically unexplained somatic symptoms and are ultimately diagnosed as having central sensitization (CS. Central sensitization encompasses many disorders where the central nervous system amplifies sensory input across many organ systems and results in myriad symptoms. A pragmatic approach to evaluate FM and related symptoms, including a focused review of medical records, interviewing techniques, and observations, is offered here, giving valuable tools for identifying and addressing the most relevant symptoms. At the time of the clinical evaluation, early consideration of CS may improve the efficiency of the visit, reduce excessive testing, and help in discerning between typical and atypical cases so as to avoid an inaccurate diagnosis. Discussion of pain and neurophysiology and sensitization often proves helpful.

  6. Dissection of the beta-globin replication-initiation region reveals specific requirements for replicator elements during gene amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Okada

    Full Text Available Gene amplification plays a pivotal role in malignant transformation of human cells. A plasmid with both a mammalian replication-initiation region (IR/origin/replicator and a nuclear matrix-attachment region (MAR is spontaneously amplified in transfected cells by a mechanism that involves amplification at the extrachromosomal site, followed by amplification at the chromosomal arm, ultimately generating a long homogeneously staining region (HSR. Several observations suggest that replication initiation from IR sequences might mediate amplification. To test this idea, we previously dissected c-myc and DHFR IRs to identify the minimum sequence required to support amplification. In this study, we applied an improved analysis that discriminates between two amplification steps to the ß-globin RepP IR, which contains separate elements already known to be essential for initiation on the chromosome arm. The IR sequence was required at least for the extrachromosomal amplification step. In addition to the vector-encoded MAR, amplification also required an AT-rich region and a MAR-like element, consistent with the results regarding replicator activity on the chromosome. However, amplification did not require the AG-rich tract necessary for replicator activity, but instead required a novel sequence containing another AG-rich tract. The differential sequence requirement might be a consequence of extrachromosomal replication.

  7. Context-sensitivity in Conversation. Eye gaze and the German Repair Initiator ‘bitte?’ (´pardon?´)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    1996-01-01

    . In addition, repair is sensitive to certain characteristics of social situations. The selection of a particular repair initiator, German bitte? ‘pardon?’, indexes that there is no mutual gaze between interlocutors; i.e., there is no common course of action. The selection of bitte? not only initiates repair......; it also spurs establishment of mutual gaze, and thus displays that there is attention to a common focus. (Conversation analysis, context, cross-linguistic analysis, repair, gaze, telephone conversation, co-present interaction, grammar and interaction)...

  8. Varied sensitivity to therapy of HIV-1 strains in CD4+ lymphocyte subpopulations upon ART initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeregrave, Edwin J.; Geels, Mark J.; Baan, Elly; van der Sluis, Renee M.; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naive, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte

  9. Calculated PRA: initial results show benefits for sensitized patients and a reduction in positive crossmatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecka, J M; Kucheryavaya, A Y; Reinsmoen, N L; Leffell, M S

    2011-04-01

    The calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA), which is based upon unacceptable HLA antigens listed on the waitlist form for renal transplant candidates, replaced PRA as the measure of sensitization among US renal transplant candidates on October 1, 2009. An analysis of the impact of this change 6 months after its implementation shows an 83% reduction in the number of kidney offers declined nationwide because of a positive crossmatch. The increasing acceptance and utilization of unacceptable HLA antigens to avoid offers of predictably crossmatch-positive donor kidneys has increased the efficiency of kidney allocation, resulting in a significant increase in the percentage of transplants to broadly sensitized (80+% PRA/CPRA) patients from 7.3% during the period 07/01/2001-6/30/2002 to 15.8% of transplants between 10/1/09-3/31/10. The transplant rates per 1000 active patient-years on the waitlist also increased significantly for broadly sensitized patients after October 1, 2009. These preliminary results suggest that 'virtual' positive crossmatch prediction based on contemporary tools for identifying antibodies directed against HLA antigens is effective, increases allocation efficiency and improves access to transplants for sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplantation. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh; Deng, Ming Y; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. The modified assays displayed 100% analytical specificity and showed no apparent changes in analytical sensitivities for detection of CaPVs compared with the original assays. Diagnostic sensitivities, assessed using 50 clinical reference samples from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle, improved from 82% to 92% for the modified Balinsky assay and from 58% to 82% for the modified Bowden assay. The modified qPCR assays were multiplexed for detection of beta-actin as an indicator for potential false-negative results. The multiplex modified qPCR assays exhibited the same diagnostic sensitivities as the singleplex assays suggesting their utility in the detection of CaPVs.

  11. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  12. Sensitive versus Rough Dependence under Initial Conditions in Atmospheric Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we will identify the existence of “rough dependence on initial conditions” in atmospheric phenomena, a concept which is a problem for weather analysis and forecasting. Typically, two initially similar atmospheric states will diverge slowly over time such that forecasting the weather using the Navier-Stokes equations is useless after some characteristic time scale. With rough dependence, two initial states diverge very quickly, implying forecasting may be impossible. Using previous research in atmospheric science, rough dependence is characterized by using quantities that can be calculated using atmospheric data and quantities. Rough dependence will be tested for and identified in atmospheric phenomena at different time scales using case studies. Data were provided for this project by archives outside the University of Missouri (MU and by using the MU RADAR at the South Farm experiment station.

  13. The Association of Breastfeeding Initiation with Sensitivity, Cognitive Stimulation, and Efficacy Among Young Mothers: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew J.; Henson, Linda G.; Lee, Helen; Hans, Sydney L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study examined the association between breastfeeding initiation and maternal sensitivity, efficacy, and cognitive stimulation among young, low-income, African American mothers. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred twenty-one mothers were interviewed during pregnancy, at birth, and at 4 months postpartum regarding breastfeeding and parenting. Medical records were collected after birth, and mother–infant interactions were videotaped at 4 months. Propensity score matching was used to address selection bias by matching breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers on characteristics measured prior to breastfeeding. Results: One hundred twenty-four (56%) mothers initiated breastfeeding. After matching, mothers who initiated breastfeeding reported greater parenting efficacy (effect size, d=0.44) and were observed to be more sensitive with their 4-month-old infants (effect size, d=0.42) than nonbreastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding was marginally associated with less maternal intrusiveness (effect size, d=0.28) but was not related to parenting attitudes or cognitive stimulation. Conclusions: This study presents evidence supporting the claim that breastfeeding may enhance maternal efficacy and sensitivity. Providing breastfeeding support to young mothers may have effects that extend beyond maternal and child health outcomes to parenting and mother–child interactions. PMID:25375024

  14. Hospital readmissions following initiation of nebulized arformoterol tartrate or nebulized short-acting beta-agonists among inpatients treated for COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollu, Vamsi; Ernst, Frank R; Karafilidis, John; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Robinson, Scott B; Braman, Sidney S

    2013-01-01

    Background Inpatient admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a significant economic burden, accounting for over half of direct medical costs. Reducing 30-day readmissions could save health care resources while improving patient care. Recently, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act authorized reduced Medicare payments to hospitals with excess readmissions for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Starting in October 2014, hospitals will also be penalized for excess COPD readmissions. This retrospective database study investigated whether use of arformoterol, a nebulized long-acting beta agonist, during an inpatient admission, had different 30-day all-cause readmission rates compared with treatment using nebulized short-acting beta agonists (SABAs, albuterol, or levalbuterol). Methods A US nationally representative hospital database was used to study adults aged ≥40 years, discharged between January, 2006 and March, 2010, and with a diagnosis of COPD. Patients receiving arformoterol on ≥80% of days following treatment initiation were compared with patients receiving a nebulized SABA during hospitalization. Arformoterol and nebulized SABA patients were matched (1:2) for age, sex, severity of inpatient admission, and primary/secondary COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression compared the odds of readmission while adjusting for age, sex, race, admission type, severity, primary/secondary diagnosis, other respiratory medication use, respiratory therapy use, oxygen use, hospital size, and teaching status. Results This retrospective study compared 812 arformoterol patients and 1,651 nebulized SABA patients who were discharged from their initial COPD hospital admission. An intensive care unit stay was more common among arformoterol patients (32.1% versus 18.4%, P<0.001), suggesting more severe symptoms during the initial admission. The observed readmission rate was significantly lower for arformoterol patients than

  15. Beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion may be initiated by multiple incomplete bonds, thus accounting for the functional importance of receptor clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitte, Joana; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Eymeric, Philippe; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

    2004-06-01

    The regulation of cell integrin receptors involves modulation of membrane expression, shift between different affinity states, and topographical redistribution on the cell membrane. Here we attempted to assess quantitatively the functional importance of receptor clustering. We studied beta-1 integrin-mediated attachment of THP-1 cells to fibronectin-coated surfaces under low shear flow. Cells displayed multiple binding events with a half-life of the order of 1 s. The duration of binding events after the first second after arrest was quantitatively accounted for by a model assuming the existence of a short-time intermediate binding state with 3.6 s(-1) dissociation rate and 1.3 s(-1) transition frequency toward a more stable state. Cell binding to surfaces coated with lower fibronectin densities was concluded to be mediated by single molecular interactions, whereas multiple bonds were formed Cell treatment with microfilament inhibitors or a neutral antiintegrin antibody decreased bond number without changing aforementioned kinetic parameters whereas a function enhancing antibody increased the rate of bond formation and/or the lifetime of intermediate state. Receptor aggregation was induced by treating cells with neutral antiintegrin antibody and antiimmunoglobulin antibodies. A semiquantitative confocal microscopy study suggested that this treatment increased between 40% and 100% the average number of integrin receptors located in a volume of approximately 0.045 microm(3) surrounding each integrin. This aggregation induced up to 2.7-fold increase of the average number of bonds. Flow cytometric analysis of fluorescent ligand binding showed that THP-1 cells displayed low-affinity beta-1 integrins with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. It is concluded that the initial step of cell adhesion was mediated by multiple incomplete bonds rather than a single equilibrium-state ligand receptor association. This interpretation accounts for the functional

  16. Attenuated Response to Methamphetamine Sensitization and Deficits in Motor Learning and Memory after Selective Deletion of [beta]-Catenin in Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, YaJun; Shan, Lufei; Malik, Nasir; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud; Lupica, Carl R.; Tagliaferro, Adriana; Brusco, Alicia; Backman, Cristina M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed mice with a targeted deletion of [beta]-catenin in DA neurons (DA-[beta]cat KO mice) to address the functional significance of this molecule in the shaping of synaptic responses associated with motor learning and following exposure to drugs of abuse. Relative to controls, DA-[beta]cat KO mice showed significant…

  17. CE-XRF-initial steps toward a non-invasive elemental sensitive detector for liquid separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssebotn, Inger Marie Bergø; Fittschen, Andreas; Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane

    2017-11-29

    The toxicity, bioavailability, and mobilization of elements within the biosphere is dependent on its species. CE has emerged as a strong separation technique for elemental speciation. Conventionally, CE has been coupled with UV-vis, C 4 D, PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission), and ICP-MS. UV-vis and C 4 D are not elemental sensitive detection methods, PIXE requires the etching of the detection window resulting in a very brittle capillary, and ICP-MS is an expensive large footprint instrument. Here, we aim to develop an elemental specific detector, XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), for use with CE. A custom-built micro-XRF was tested and static LODs were determined for 19 elements (Ca-U) with both unmodified (20-926 ppm) and modified capillaries (20-291 ppm). A custom-built CE was combined with the micro-XRF and separation of Ca 2+ and Co 2+ was obtained. Sr 2+ coeluted with Ca 2+ in the mixture, but because of the elemental sensitivity of XRF, the Sr and Ca signals could be separated. After successful testing of the micro-XRF, the feasibility of using a low-cost X-ray source and detector was tested. Even lower LODs were obtained for Ga and Rb, showing the feasibility of a smaller, low-cost XRF unit as an elemental specific detector. However, the buffer selection that can be conveniently used with XRF is currently limited due to capillary corrosion, likely correlated to radiolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Occurrence and sensitivity profile of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Letícia Rugini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are closely associated with antimicrobial drug resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESBL-producing strains and to assess the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance between 2007 and 2013 at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Bacterial culture was performed from January to December 2013. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these cultures was determined using the disk diffusion method. Phenotypic screening for ESBL production was performed using the disk approximation method. RESULTS : We analyzed a total of 19,112 cultures, 11.5% of which were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Of these, 30.3% of the isolates were positive for ESBL production, and the most prevalent species was Klebsiella sp. (37.5%. Over 95% of these isolates showed reduced susceptibility to all cephalosporins, aztreonam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The isolates also showed high sensitivity to the following antimicrobials: amikacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Overall, the resistance rates among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae decreased from 2007 to 2013. CONCLUSIONS : In our hospital, the increased sensitivity to certain antimicrobial agents seems to be directly related to the implementation of improvements in the methods to prevent and control nosocomial infections in addition to the natural development of other resistance mechanisms.

  19. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  20. Anticipatory sensitization to repeated stressors: the role of initial cortisol reactivity and meditation/emotion skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Wallace, B Alan; Cullen, Margaret; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jennings, Patricia A; Ekman, Paul; Kemeny, Margaret E

    2015-02-01

    Anticipation may play a role in shaping biological reactions to repeated stressors-a common feature of modern life. We aimed to demonstrate that: (a) individuals who display a larger cortisol response to an initial stressor exhibit progressive anticipatory sensitization, showing progressively higher cortisol levels before subsequent exposures, and (b) attention/emotional skills training can reduce the magnitude of this effect on progressive anticipatory sensitization. Female school teachers (N=76) were randomly assigned to attention/emotion skills and meditation training or to a control group. Participants completed 3 separate Trier Social Stress Tests (TSST): at baseline (Session 1), post-training (Session 2), and five months post (Session 3). Each TSST session included preparing and delivering a speech and performing an arithmetic task in front of critical evaluators. In each session participants' salivary cortisol levels were determined before and after the stressor. Control participants with larger cortisol reactivity to the first stressor showed increasing anticipatory (pre-stressor) cortisol levels with each successive stressor exposure (TSST session)-suggesting progressive anticipatory sensitization. Yet this association was absent in the training group. Supplementary analyses indicated that these findings occurred in the absence of group differences in cortisol reactivity. Findings suggest that the stress response can undergo progressive anticipatory sensitization, which may be modulated by attention/emotion-related processes. An important implication of the construct of progressive anticipatory sensitization is a possible self-perpetuating effect of stress reactions, providing a candidate mechanism for the translation of short-to-long-term stress reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SOX - Towards the detection of sterile neutrinos in Borexino. Beta spectrum modeling, Monte Carlo development and sensitivity studies for the sterile neutrino search in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Mikko

    2016-12-15

    Several experiments have reported anomalies in the neutrino sector which might be explained by the existence of a fourth (sterile) neutrino with a squared mass difference of about 1 eV{sup 2} to the other three active neutrinos. The SOX project is part of the experimental program of the Borexino experiment and seeks for a clarification of the observed anomalies. For that purpose an artificial antineutrino source ({sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr) and possibly neutrino source ({sup 51}Cr) will be deployed underneath the large low background detector Borexino. The detector provides both energy and vertex resolution to observe a possible oscillation signature within the detector volume. The calculation of the antineutrino spectrum is based on existing theoretical models and was performed within this thesis. The modeling includes several sub-leading corrections particularly such as finite size of the nucleus, screening of the atomic electrons and radiative effects. Related to this work, dedicated Monte Carlo generators have been developed to simulate the inverse beta decay reaction and the (anti)neutrino elastic scattering off electrons. Based on a profile likelihood analysis, the sensitivity to the sterile neutrino search of the SOX project was evaluated. The results obtained from this analysis confirm that the currently allowed parameter regions for sterile neutrinos can be tested at 95% confidence level. Finally, an alternative concept for the sterile neutrino search is presented which is based on a cyclotron and a Beryllium target near Borexino (Borexino+IsoDAR).

  2. SOX - Towards the detection of sterile neutrinos in Borexino. Beta spectrum modeling, Monte Carlo development and sensitivity studies for the sterile neutrino search in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mikko

    2016-12-01

    Several experiments have reported anomalies in the neutrino sector which might be explained by the existence of a fourth (sterile) neutrino with a squared mass difference of about 1 eV 2 to the other three active neutrinos. The SOX project is part of the experimental program of the Borexino experiment and seeks for a clarification of the observed anomalies. For that purpose an artificial antineutrino source ( 144 Ce- 144 Pr) and possibly neutrino source ( 51 Cr) will be deployed underneath the large low background detector Borexino. The detector provides both energy and vertex resolution to observe a possible oscillation signature within the detector volume. The calculation of the antineutrino spectrum is based on existing theoretical models and was performed within this thesis. The modeling includes several sub-leading corrections particularly such as finite size of the nucleus, screening of the atomic electrons and radiative effects. Related to this work, dedicated Monte Carlo generators have been developed to simulate the inverse beta decay reaction and the (anti)neutrino elastic scattering off electrons. Based on a profile likelihood analysis, the sensitivity to the sterile neutrino search of the SOX project was evaluated. The results obtained from this analysis confirm that the currently allowed parameter regions for sterile neutrinos can be tested at 95% confidence level. Finally, an alternative concept for the sterile neutrino search is presented which is based on a cyclotron and a Beryllium target near Borexino (Borexino+IsoDAR).

  3. Protein synthesis is the most sensitive process when potassium is substituted by sodium in the nutrition of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Franziska; Schubert, Sven

    2016-10-01

    Potassium ions (K(+)) and sodium ions (Na(+)) share many physical and chemical similarities. However, their interchangeability in plant nutrition is restricted. Substitution studies showed that K(+) can be replaced by Na(+) to a large extent in the nutrition of Beta vulgaris L. However, the extent of substitution without negative impacts is not unlimited. The aim of the present study was to identify the process which is most sensitive during the substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in nutrition of young sugar beet plants. We focused on transpiration, growth, and net protein synthesis. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. With transfer of seedlings into nutrient solution, plants were cultivated in different substitution treatments. For all treatments the sum of K(+) and Na(+) (applied as chloride) was fixed to 4 mM. The extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrient solution was varied from low (0.25% substitution: 3.99 mM K(+), 0.01 mM Na(+)) to almost complete substitution (99.75% substitution: 0.01 mM K(+), 3.99 mM Na(+)). The supply of 3.99 mM K(+) in 0.25% substitution treatment guaranteed the absence of K(+) deficiency. Transpiration was not affected by the substitution. Growth was inhibited at a substitution level of 99.75%. Net protein synthesis was already affected at a substitution level of 97.50% (0.10 mM K(+), 3.90 mM Na(+)). Hence, net protein synthesis was most sensitive to the substitution and limited the extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrition of young sugar beet plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of new sensitive biomarkers for the in vivo response to interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis using DNA-array evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F.; Krakauer, M.; Hesse, D.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) occur in a proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-beta. NAbs impair the effect of treatment. The biological effect of IFN-beta can be measured as the induction of the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) molecule. However, other...

  5. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  6. Varied sensitivity to therapy of HIV-1 strains in CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations upon ART initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton William A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antiretroviral therapy (ART has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Methods From five patients cellular HIV-1 infection levels were quantified before and after initiation of therapy (2-5 weeks. Through sequencing the C2V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope, we studied the effect of short-term therapy on virus variants derived from naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Results During short-term ART, HIV-1 infection levels declined in all lymphocyte subsets but not as much as RNA levels in serum. Virus diversity in the naïve and central memory lymphocyte populations remained unchanged, whilst diversity decreased in serum and the effector memory lymphocytes. ART differentially affected the virus populations co-circulating in one individual harboring a dual HIV-1 infection. Changes in V3 charge were found in all individuals after ART initiation with increases within the effector memory subset and decreases found in the naïve cell population. Conclusions During early ART virus diversity is affected mainly in the serum and effector memory cell compartments. Differential alterations in V3 charge were observed between effector memory and naïve populations. While certain cell populations can be targeted preferentially during early ART, some virus strains demonstrate varied sensitivity to therapy, as shown from studying two strains within a dual HIV-1 infected individual.

  7. Beta limits of a completely bootstrapped tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weening, R.H.; Bondeson, A.

    1992-03-01

    A beta limit is given for a completely bootstrapped tokamak. The beta limit is sensitive to the achievable Troyon factor and depends directly upon the strength of the tokamak bootstrap effect. (author) 16 refs

  8. Increased sensitivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 null cells to alkylating agents reveals a novel link between TGFbeta signaling and O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Vijayachandra, K; Penner, C; Glick, A

    2001-06-01

    Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-signaling pathway and gene silencing through hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands are two frequent alterations in human and experimental cancers. Here we report that nonneoplastic TGFbeta1-/- keratinocyte cell lines exhibit increased sensitivity to cell killing by alkylating agents, and this is due to lack of expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In TGFbeta1-/- but not TGFbeta1+/- cell lines, the CpG dinucleotides in the MGMT promoter are hypermethylated, as measured by restriction enzyme analysis and methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. In one unstable TGFbeta1+/- cell line, loss of the wild type TGFbeta1 allele correlates with the appearance of methylation in the MGMT promoter. Bisulfite sequencing shows that in the KO3 TGFbeta1-/- cell line nearly all of the 28 CpG sites in the MGMT promoter 475 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription are methylated, whereas most are unmethylated in the H1 TGFbeta1+/- line. Treatment of the TGFbeta1-/- cell lines with 5-azacytidine causes reexpression of MGMT mRNA and demethylation of CpG islands in the promoter. Analysis of the time course of methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction shows a lack of methylation in primary TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes and increasing methylation with passage number of immortalized clones. Subcloning of early passage clones reveals a remarkable heterogeneity and instability of the methylation state in the TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes. Thus, the TGFbeta1-/- genotype does not directly regulate MGMT methylation but predisposes cells to immortalization-associated MGMT hypermethylation.

  9. Expression of a preproinsulin-beta-galactosidase gene fusion in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, D A; Chou, J; MacKrell, A J; Casadaban, M J; Steiner, D F

    1983-01-01

    As an approach to the study of mammalian gene expression, the promoters and translation initiation regions of the rat preproinsulin II and the simian virus 40 early genes were fused to the structural gene of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase, a sensitive probe for gene expression. These fusions were introduced into COS-7 cells, a simian virus 40 large tumor-antigen-producing monkey kidney cell line, where they directed the synthesis of enzymatically active hybrid beta-galactosidase proteins...

  10. Early-stage [123I]beta-CIT SPECT and long-term clinical follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, D.; Booij, J.; Bosscher, L.; Winogrodzka, A.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    beta-CIT binding in both caudate nuclei was lower than in the group of patients with IPD. In addition, putamen to caudate binding ratios were higher in the group of APS patients. In spite of these differences, individual binding values showed considerable overlap between the groups. CONCLUSION:

  11. The Advantages of Hybrid 4DEnVar in the Context of the Forecast Sensitivity to Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyo-Jong; Shin, Seoleun; Ha, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Sujeong

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation (hybrid 4DEnVar) is a prospective successor to three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) in operational weather prediction centers currently developing a new weather prediction model and those that do not operate adjoint models. In experiments using real observations, hybrid 4DEnVar improved Northern Hemisphere (NH; 20°N-90°N) 500 hPa geopotential height forecasts up to 5 days in a NH summer month compared to 3DVar, with statistical significance. This result is verified against ERA-Interim through a Monte Carlo test. By a regression analysis, the sensitivity of 5 day forecast is associated with the quality of the initial condition. The increased analysis skill for midtropospheric midlatitude temperature and subtropical moisture has the most apparent effect on forecast skill in the NH including a typhoon prediction case. Through attributing the analysis improvements by hybrid 4DEnVar separately to the ensemble background error covariance (BEC), its four-dimensional (4-D) extension, and climatological BEC, it is revealed that the ensemble BEC contributes to the subtropical moisture analysis, whereas the 4-D extension does to the midtropospheric midlatitude temperature. This result implies that hourly wind-mass correlation in 6 h analysis window is required to extract the potential of hybrid 4DEnVar for the midlatitude temperature analysis to the maximum. However, the temporal ensemble correlation, in hourly time scale, between moisture and another variable is invalid so that it could not work for improving the hybrid 4DEnVar analysis.

  12. Stress-induced sensitization of the limbic system in ovariectomized rats is partly restored by cyclic 17 beta-estradiol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marjolein; Bakker, Petra L.; Koch, T; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    Chronic stress induces neurobiological alterations which have consequences for subsequent stress handling. In the current experiment, ovariectomized rats were subjected daily to a stressor for 21 days. Thereafter, the rats were treated for 21 days with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (10 mu g/250 g, once

  13. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genomic Deletion of the Beta-1, 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 Gene in Murine P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Results in Low Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Tsukamoto

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum cause flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter release at peripheral nerve terminals. Previously, we found that neurons derived from the murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line exhibited high sensitivity to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In order to prove the utility of P19 cells for the study of the intracellular mechanism of botulinum neurotoxins, ganglioside-knockout neurons were generated by deletion of the gene encoding beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 in P19 cells using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats combined with Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system. By using this system, knockout cells could be generated more easily than with previous methods. The sensitivity of the generated beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1-depleted P19 neurons to botulinum neurotoxin type C was decreased considerably, and the exogenous addition of the gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b restored the susceptibility of P19 cells to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In particular, addition of a mixture of these three ganglioside more effectively recovered the sensitivity of knockout cells compared to independent addition of GD1a, GD1b, or GT1b. Consequently, the genome-edited P19 cells generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system were useful for identifying and defining the intracellular molecules involved in the toxic action of botulinum neurotoxins.

  15. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  16. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  17. Oligomerization and phase transitions in aqueous solutions of native and truncated human beta B1-crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Pande, Ajay; Pande, Jayanti; Ogun, Olutayo; Lubsen, Nicolette H; Benedek, George B

    2005-02-01

    Human betaB1-crystallin is a major eye-lens protein that undergoes in vivo truncation at the N-terminus with aging. By studying native betaB1 and truncated betaB1DeltaN41, which mimics an age-related in vivo truncation, we have determined quantitatively the effect of truncation on the oligomerization and phase transition properties of betaB1 aqueous solutions. The oligomerization studies show that the energy of attraction between the betaB1DeltaN41 proteins is about 10% greater than that of the betaB1 proteins. We have found that betaB1DeltaN41 aqueous solutions undergo two distinct types of phase transitions. The first phase transition involves an initial formation of thin rodlike assemblies, which then evolve to form crystals. The induction time for the formation of rodlike assemblies is sensitive to oligomerization. The second phase transition can be described as liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) accompanied by gelation within the protein-rich phase. We refer to this process as heterogeneous gelation. These two phase transitions are not observed in the case of betaB1 aqueous solutions. However, upon the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), we observe heterogeneous gelation also for betaB1. Our PEG experiments allow us to estimate the difference in phase separation temperatures between betaB1 and betaB1DeltaN41. This difference is consistent with the increase in energy of attraction found in our oligomerization studies. Our work suggests that truncation is a cataractogenic modification since it favors protein condensation and the consequent formation of light scattering elements, and highlights the importance of the N-terminus of betaB1 in maintaining lens transparency.

  18. Beta band transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS applied after initial learning facilitate retrieval of a motor sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eKrause

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary motor cortex (M1 contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS. Alpha (10 Hz, beta (20 Hz or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for ten minutes. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions.Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. TDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioural modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization.

  19. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  20. Early-stage [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT and long-term clinical follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffers, Diederick [VU University Medical Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences, P.O. Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit, Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands); Bosscher, Lisette; Winogrodzka, Ania; Wolters, Erik C.; Berendse, Henk W. [VU University Medical Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences, P.O. Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to try and distinguish between patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) have mainly focussed on patients with an already established clinical diagnosis of several years' duration. Differences in the pattern of striatal involvement between IPD and APS have been found in only few studies. We hypothesized that distinguishing SPECT features might be most pronounced at an early disease stage, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis. The study included 72 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of IPD, supported by decreased striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding on baseline SPECT. In ten patients, the diagnosis was changed to APS over a mean follow-up period of 62 months. We retrospectively compared the patterns of striatal involvement on the baseline SPECT scans between the group of patients (re)diagnosed with APS and the remaining 62 patients in whom a diagnosis of IPD was maintained. In the group of patients with APS, baseline [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding in both caudate nuclei was lower than in the group of patients with IPD. In addition, putamen to caudate binding ratios were higher in the group of APS patients. In spite of these differences, individual binding values showed considerable overlap between the groups. [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT scanning in early-stage, untreated parkinsonian patients revealed a relative sparing of the caudate nucleus in patients with IPD as compared to patients later (re)diagnosed with APS. Nevertheless, the pattern of striatal involvement appears to have little predictive value for a later re-diagnosis of APS in individual cases. (orig.)

  1. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liraglutide effects on beta-cell, insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness in patients with stable coronary artery disease and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anholm, Christian; Kumarathurai, Preman; Pedersen, Lene R.

    2017-01-01

    characteristics were: HbA1c 47 mmol/mol (SD 6), BMI 31.6 kg/m2 (SD 4.8), fasting plasma-glucose 6.9 mmol/L (IQR 6.1; 7.4) and HOMA-IR 4.9 (IQR 3.0; 7.5). Liraglutide treatment improved AIRg by 3-fold, 497 mU × L−1 × min (IQR 342; 626, P ... weight loss of −2.7 kg (−6.7; −0.6) during liraglutide treatment, we found no improvement in HOMA-IR, Si or Sg. Weight loss during liraglutide therapy did not result in a carry-over effect. Conclusion: Liraglutide as add-on to metformin induces a clinically significant improvement in beta-cell function...

  3. Accelerated test for evaluation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking initiation characteristics of non-sensitized 316 austenitic stainless steel in simulated pressure water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiangyu; Bali, Shirish Chandrakant; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Accelerated technique was developed for evaluation of stress corrosion cracking. • The effect of strain rate on stress corrosion cracking was investigated. • Typical intergranular crack feature was observed on the fracture surface. • The crack depth distribution shows two peaks feature. • The work hardened layer has a strong effect on stress corrosion cracking. - Abstract: Accelerated technique has been developed for evaluation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) initiation behavior of non-sensitized materials in pressure water reactor environment by means of the implementation of hollowed cylindrical specimens under slow strain rate tensile. Typical IGSCC feature was observed on the fracture surface. The crack depth distribution showed two peaks feature which relates to the worked hardened layer on the inner surface. The specimens tested at lower strain rate showed higher fraction of IGSCC, larger number of cracks initiation, shorter elongation and smaller crack opening displacement, suggesting the transition behavior of IGSCC initiation and short crack growth.

  4. Sensitivity of the Reaction Mechanism of the Ozone Depletion Events during the Arctic Spring on the Initial Atmospheric Composition of the Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs during the Arctic spring have been investigated since the 1980s. It was found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with the release of halogens, especially bromine containing compounds. These compounds originate from various substrates such as the ice/snow-covered surfaces in Arctic. In the present study, the dependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species during ODEs on the initial composition of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated by using a concentration sensitivity analysis. This analysis was performed by implementing a reaction mechanism representing the ozone depletion and halogen release in the box model KINAL (KInetic aNALysis of reaction mechanics. The ratios between the relative change of the mixing ratios of particular species such as ozone and the variation in the initial concentration of each atmospheric component were calculated, which indicate the relative importance of each initial species in the chemical kinetic system. The results of the computations show that the impact of various chemical species is different for ozone and bromine containing compounds during the depletion of ozone. It was found that CH3CHO critically controls the time scale of the complete removal of ozone. However, the rate of the ozone loss and the maximum values of bromine species are only slightly influenced by the initial value of CH3CHO. In addition, according to the concentration sensitivity analysis, the reduction of initial Br2 was found to cause a significant retardant of the ODE while the initial mixing ratio of HBr exerts minor influence on both ozone and bromine species. In addition, it is also interesting to note that the increase of C2H2 would significantly raise the amount of HOBr and Br in the atmosphere while the ozone depletion is hardly changed.

  5. Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Mette; Madsbad, Sten; Madsen, Jan Lysgaard

    2002-01-01

    subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 (n=10) or saline (n=10) for 6 weeks. Before (week 0) and at weeks 1 and 6, they underwent beta-cell function tests (hyperglycaemic clamps), 8 h profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and free fatty acids, and appetite and side-effect ratings on 100 mm visual...... concentrations of free fatty acids decreased by 30% and 23% (p=0.0005 and 0.01, respectively). Gastric emptying was inhibited, bodyweight decreased by 1.9 kg, and appetite was reduced. Both insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function improved (p=0.003 and p=0.003, respectively). No important side-effects were......BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study. METHODS: 20 patients with type 2 diabetes were alternately assigned continuous...

  6. Cannabinoid Modulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1 and Behavioral Cross-Sensitization to Cocaine in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe A. Melas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors. However, p-eIF2α has not been examined with regard to psychoactive cannabinoids and cross-sensitization. Here, we find that a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2 mesylate [WIN] reduced p-eIF2α in vitro by upregulating GADD34 (PPP1R15A, the recruiter of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The induction of GADD34 was linked to ERK/CREB signaling and to CREB-binding protein (CBP-mediated histone hyperacetylation at the Gadd34 locus. In vitro, WIN also upregulated eIF2B1, an eIF2 activator subunit. We next found that WIN administration in vivo reduced p-eIF2α in the nucleus accumbens of adolescent, but not adult, rats. By contrast, WIN increased dorsal striatal levels of eIF2B1 and ΔFosB among both adolescents and adults. In addition, we found cross-sensitization between WIN and cocaine only among adolescents. These findings show that cannabinoids can modulate eukaryotic initiation factors, and they suggest a possible link between p-eIF2α and the gateway drug properties of psychoactive cannabinoids. : Melas et al. show that psychoactive cannabinoids modulate levels of two eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1 known to be involved in protein synthesis, memory formation, and drug sensitivity. Cannabinoid modulation of eIF2α in vivo is only observed in adolescent animals, and is associated with cross-sensitization to cocaine. Keywords: drug use, addiction, cannabis, marijuana, cocaine, epigenetics, eIF2a, CREB, GADD34, gateway drugs

  7. Neutrino masses and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano, Bicocca and sezioneINFN di Milano Bicocca (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The potentials of Double Beta Decay experiments in the field of neutrino study are here discussed. Sensitivity and results are compared with the information coming from oscillation, cosmology and beta decay measurements. (Author)

  8. ALDH2 and ADH1B interactions in retrospective reports of low-dose reactions and initial sensitivity to alcohol in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Pandika, Danielle; Shea, Shoshana H; Eng, Mimy Y; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2011-07-01

    A mechanistic model has been proposed for how alcohol-metabolizing gene variants protect individuals from the development of alcohol use disorders, with heightened sensitivity to alcohol being an early step (endophenotype) in this model. This study was designed to determine whether possession of 2 alcohol-metabolizing genes variations, the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 allele and the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 allele, was associated with self-reported sensitivity to alcohol at low doses and at initial use. Asian-American college students (N=784) of Chinese and Korean descent were genotyped at the ALDH2 and ADH1B loci and assessed for lifetime alcohol symptoms following 1 or 2 drinks and level of response to alcohol during the first 5 lifetime drinking episodes. Participants who had an ALDH2*2 allele were more likely to report experiencing all 6 low-dose symptoms and having heightened initial response to alcohol. An interaction was found between ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2, with ADH1B*2 being associated with heightened self-reported sensitivity to alcohol only in individuals who also possessed 1 ALDH2*2 allele. These findings suggest the effects of ADH1B*2 may be felt more strongly in Asians who already have some heightened sensitivity to alcohol from possessing 1 ALDH2*2 allele, but who are not too sensitized to alcohol from possessing 2 ALDH2*2 alleles. These results offer additional insight into the discrepant findings that have been reported in the literature for the role of ADH1B*2 in response to alcohol and the development of alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Donald D [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of ~ 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the first use

  10. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with or without low-to-medium dose glucocorticoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, J.N.; van der Goes, M.C.; van Raalte, D.H.; van der Zijl, N.J.; den Uyl, D.; Lems, W.F.; Lafeber, F.P.G.J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Diamant, M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare glucose tolerance and parameters of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function between chronic glucocorticoid (GC)-using and GC-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Frequently sampled 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 58 chronic GC-using and

  11. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects on beta-cell sensitivity in type 2 and nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens J; Vølund, Aage

    2003-01-01

    . However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2......, 4, 6, 8, and 12 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) over 150 min on four occasions with infusion of saline or GLP-1 at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1). GLP-1 enhanced ISR in a dose-dependent manner during the graded glucose infusion from 332 +/- 51 to 975 +/- 198 pmol/kg in the patients with type 2...... diabetes and from 711 +/- 123 to 2,415 +/- 243 pmol/kg in the control subjects. The beta-cell responsiveness to glucose, expressed as the slope of the linear relation between ISR and the glucose concentration, increased in proportion to the GLP-1 dose to 6 times relative to saline at the highest GLP-1 dose...

  12. On the sensitivity of teleseismic full-waveform inversion to earth parametrization, initial model and acquisition design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, S.; Monteiller, V.; Combe, L.; Operto, S.; Nolet, G.

    2018-02-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is not yet a mature imaging technology for lithospheric imaging from teleseismic data. Therefore, its promise and pitfalls need to be assessed more accurately according to the specifications of teleseismic experiments. Three important issues are related to (1) the choice of the lithospheric parametrization for optimization and visualization, (2) the initial model and (3) the acquisition design, in particular in terms of receiver spread and sampling. These three issues are investigated with a realistic synthetic example inspired by the CIFALPS experiment in the Western Alps. Isotropic elastic FWI is implemented with an adjoint-state formalism and aims to update three parameter classes by minimization of a classical least-squares difference-based misfit function. Three different subsurface parametrizations, combining density (ρ) with P and S wave speeds (Vp and Vs) , P and S impedances (Ip and Is), or elastic moduli (λ and μ) are first discussed based on their radiation patterns before their assessment by FWI. We conclude that the (ρ, λ, μ) parametrization provides the FWI models that best correlate with the true ones after recombining a posteriori the (ρ, λ, μ) optimization parameters into Ip and Is. Owing to the low frequency content of teleseismic data, 1-D reference global models as PREM provide sufficiently accurate initial models for FWI after smoothing that is necessary to remove the imprint of the layering. Two kinds of station deployments are assessed: coarse areal geometry versus dense linear one. We unambiguously conclude that a coarse areal geometry should be favoured as it dramatically increases the penetration in depth of the imaging as well as the horizontal resolution. This results because the areal geometry significantly increases local wavenumber coverage, through a broader sampling of the scattering and dip angles, compared to a linear deployment.

  13. Six-month exenatide improves HOMA hyperbolic product in type 2 diabetic patients mostly by enhancing beta-cell function rather than insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preumont, V; Hermans, M-P; Brichard, S; Buysschaert, M

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether or not the improvement of glycaemic control with 6-month exenatide therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure to combined oral therapy is related to amelioration of β-cell function and/or insulin sensitivity and their combined product. Thirty-three patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Their β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured using Homoeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA-B, HOMA-S and HOMA hyperbolic product (BxS)]. Additional endpoints included changes in weight, HbA(1c) and plasma adiponectin, as well as baseline clinical and biological characteristics, as potential predictors of HbA(1c) response. After 6 months, unadjusted HOMA-B increased from 33 ± 24% to 43 ± 23% (P=0.0210), whereas there was no significant change in HOMA-S (from 58 ± 35% to 61 ± 40%). The hyperbolic product increased by a relative 70% (from 15 ± 7% to 22 ± 15%; P=0.0055). Body mass index decreased from 32.2 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) to 31.0 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) (PHOMA-B and hyperbolic product over a 6-month treatment period with no overall change in insulin sensitivity, despite weight loss. Thus, improved β-cell function rather than increased insulin sensitivity accounts for the bulk of HbA(1c) reduction following 6 months of exenatide treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Munc18-1 and Munc18-2 Proteins Modulate beta-Cell Ca2+ Sensitivity and Kinetics of Insulin Exocytosis Differently

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Slavena A.; Skelin, Masa; Johansson, Jenny U.; Rupnik, Marjan S.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Bark, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Fast neurotransmission and slower hormone release share the same core fusion machinery consisting of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. In evoked neurotransmission, interactions between SNAREs and the Munc18-1 protein, a member of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) protein family, are essential for exocytosis, whereas other SM proteins are dispensable. To address if the exclusivity of Munc18-1 demonstrated in neuroexocytosis also applied to fast insulin ...

  15. Rasagiline prevents cyclosporine A-sensitive superoxide flashes induced by PK11195, the initial signal of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqiu; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    Rasagiline, a neuroprotective inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase, prevented PK111195-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis signaling (J Neural Transm 120:1539-1551, 2013, J Neural Transm 122:1399-1407, 2015). This paper presents that PK11195 induced superoxide flashes, the transit production burst, mediated by cyclosporine A-sensitive membrane permeability transition. Rasagiline prevented superoxide flashes, calcium efflux, and cell death by PK11195. Regulation of the initial pore formation at the inner mitochondrial membrane was confirmed as the decisive mechanism of neuroprotection by rasagiline.

  16. Sensitivity of wave propagation in the LHRF to initial poloidal position in finite-aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. J.; Pinsker, R. I.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.

    2017-10-01

    The important effect of varying the initial poloidal wave-launching location to the core accessibility of lower hybrid slow waves in a torus of finite aspect ratio has been understood for many years. Since the qualitative properties of the wave propagation of the other branch in this regime, known as the `whistler', `helicon' or simply the `fast wave', are similar in some ways to those of the slow wave, we expect a dependence on launch position for this wave also. We study this problem for both slow and fast waves, first with simplified analytic models and then using the ray-tracing code GENRAY for realistic plasma equilibria. We assess the prospects of inside, top, bottom or conventional outside launch of waves on each of the two branches. Although the slow wave has been the focus of research for LHRF heating and current drive in the past, the fast wave will play a major role in burning plasmas beyond ITER where Te(0) = 10-20 keV. The stronger electron Landau damping of the slow wave will restrict the power deposition to the outer third of the plasma, while the fast wave's weaker damping allows the wave to penetrate to the hot plasma core before depositing its power. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-91-ER54109.

  17. Optimal production lot size and reorder point of a two-stage supply chain while random demand is sensitive with sales teams' initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Sana, Shib

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a production-inventory model of a two-stage supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer to study production lot size/order quantity, reorder point sales teams' initiatives where demand of the end customers is dependent on random variable and sales teams' initiatives simultaneously. The manufacturer produces the order quantity of the retailer at one lot in which the procurement cost per unit quantity follows a realistic convex function of production lot size. In the chain, the cost of sales team's initiatives/promotion efforts and wholesale price of the manufacturer are negotiated at the points such that their optimum profits reached nearer to their target profits. This study suggests to the management of firms to determine the optimal order quantity/production quantity, reorder point and sales teams' initiatives/promotional effort in order to achieve their maximum profits. An analytical method is applied to determine the optimal values of the decision variables. Finally, numerical examples with its graphical presentation and sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to illustrate more insights of the model.

  18. Pancreatic beta-cell function is a stronger predictor of changes in glycemic control after an aerobic exercise intervention than insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    , and ParticipantsAn observational clinical study of N=105 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.Interventions and Main Outcome MeasuresIndividual subject changes in fitness (VO2max), glycemia (HbA1c, fasting glucose, OGTT), insulin sensitivity (Si; hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), oral...... glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and disposition index (DI) were measured following 12-16-weeks of aerobic exercise training. Regression analyses were used to identify relationships between variables.ResultsFollowing training, 86% of subjects increased VO2max and lost weight. HbA1c, fasting...

  19. Regulating Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with a Retinoic Acid Receptor-Beta Inhibitor: Differential Sensitivity of Chondral Versus Osteochondral Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvig Diederichs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Main objective was to investigate whether the synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR-β antagonist LE135 is able to drive in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs or improve differentiation by suppressing hypertrophic chondrocyte development. Methods: Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs was induced in micromass pellet culture for six weeks. Effects of LE135 alone and in combinatorial treatment with TGF-β on deposition of cartilaginous matrix including collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans, on deposition of non-hyaline cartilage collagens type I and X, and on hypertrophy markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP, indian hedghehog (IHH and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 were assessed. Results: LE135 was no inducer of chondrogenesis and failed to stimulate deposition of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, addition of LE135 to TGF-β-treated pellets inhibited cartilaginous matrix deposition and gene expression of COL2A1. In contrast, non-hyaline cartilage collagens were less sensitive to LE135 and hypertrophy markers remained unaffected. Conclusion: This demonstrates a differential sensitivity of chondral versus endochondral differentiation pathways to RARβ signaling; however, opposite to the desired direction. The relevance of trans-activating versus trans-repressing RAR signaling, including effects on activator protein (AP-1 is discussed and implications for overcoming current limits of hMSC chondrogenesis are considered.

  20. Regulating chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells with a retinoic Acid receptor-Beta inhibitor: differential sensitivity of chondral versus osteochondral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Solvig; Zachert, Kerstin; Raiss, Patric; Richter, Wiltrud

    2014-01-01

    Main objective was to investigate whether the synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-β antagonist LE135 is able to drive in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or improve differentiation by suppressing hypertrophic chondrocyte development. Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs was induced in micromass pellet culture for six weeks. Effects of LE135 alone and in combinatorial treatment with TGF-β on deposition of cartilaginous matrix including collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans, on deposition of non-hyaline cartilage collagens type I and X, and on hypertrophy markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), indian hedghehog (IHH) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 were assessed. LE135 was no inducer of chondrogenesis and failed to stimulate deposition of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, addition of LE135 to TGF-β-treated pellets inhibited cartilaginous matrix deposition and gene expression of COL2A1. In contrast, non-hyaline cartilage collagens were less sensitive to LE135 and hypertrophy markers remained unaffected. This demonstrates a differential sensitivity of chondral versus endochondral differentiation pathways to RARβ signaling; however, opposite to the desired direction. The relevance of trans-activating versus trans-repressing RAR signaling, including effects on activator protein (AP)-1 is discussed and implications for overcoming current limits of hMSC chondrogenesis are considered. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens J; Haugaard, Steen B; Nilas, Lisbeth; Madsbad, Sten

    2012-09-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women. Seventeen overweight women (BMI > 28) were recruited to the study. Glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism were evaluated by euglycemic clamp technique, indirect calorimetry and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was calculated as glucose disposal rate (GDR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and also by HOMA-IR. Insulin secretion rate (ISR) was calculated from plasma C-peptide measurements. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry scan and computed tomography. Ten women completed the intervention. The subjects lost an average 11% of their baseline weight. There was a significant loss of subcutaneous abdominal fatty tissue (p testosterone. A VLCD is an effective weight loss treatment, which results in an immediate improvement in several metabolic parameters.

  2. Fabrication of an SPR Sensor Surface with Antifouling Properties for Highly Sensitive Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Using Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we modified a surface plasmon resonance immunosensor chip with a polymer using surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. To immobilize a TNT analogue on the polymer, mono-2-(methacryloyloxyethylsuccinate (MES, which has a carboxyl group, was used in this study. However, the anti-TNT antibody may adsorb non-specifically on the polymer surface by an electrostatic interaction because MES is negatively charged. Therefore, a mixed monomer with MES and diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DEAEM, which has a tertiary amino group and is positively charged, was prepared to obtain electroneutrality for suppressing the nonspecific adsorption. The detection of TNT was performed by inhibition assay using the polymer surface. To ensure high sensitivity to TNT, the affinity between the surface and the antibody was optimized by controlling the density of the initiator for ATRP by mixing two types of self-assembled monolayer reagents. As a result, a limit of detection of 5.7 pg/mL (ppt for TNT was achieved using the optimized surface.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis have different beta-lactamase expression phenotypes but are homogeneous in the ampC-ampR genetic region.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J I; Ciofu, O; Høiby, N

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 1 of 17 cystic fibrosis patients produced secondary beta-lactamase in addition to the ampC beta-lactamase. Isolates were grouped into three beta-lactamase expression phenotypes: (i) beta-lactam sensitive, low basal levels and inducible beta-lactamase production; (ii) beta-lactam resistant, moderate basal levels and hyperinducible beta-lactamase production; (iii) beta-lactam resistant, high basal levels and constitutive beta-lactamase production. Apart from...

  4. Sensitivity of aerosol indirect forcing and autoconversion to cloud droplet parameterization: an assessment with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, R. P.; Meshkhidze, N.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The aerosol indirect forcing is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in assessments of anthropogenic climate change [IPCC, 2001]. Much of this uncertainty arises from the approach used for linking cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) to precursor aerosol. Global Climate Models (GCM) use a wide range of cloud droplet activation mechanisms ranging from empirical [Boucher and Lohmann, 1995] to detailed physically- based formulations [e.g., Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000; Fountoukis and Nenes, 2005]. The objective of this study is to assess the uncertainties in indirect forcing and autoconversion of cloud water to rain caused by the application of different cloud droplet parameterization mechanisms; this is an important step towards constraining the aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Here we estimate the uncertainty in indirect forcing and autoconversion rate using the NASA Global Model Initiative (GMI). The GMI allows easy interchange of meteorological fields, chemical mechanisms and the aerosol microphysical packages. Therefore, it is an ideal tool for assessing the effect of different parameters on aerosol indirect forcing. The aerosol module includes primary emissions, chemical production of sulfate in clear air and in-cloud aqueous phase, gravitational sedimentation, dry deposition, wet scavenging in and below clouds, and hygroscopic growth. Model inputs include SO2 (fossil fuel and natural), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust and sea salt. The meteorological data used in this work were taken from the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and two different GCMs: the NASA GEOS4 finite volume GCM (FVGCM) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies version II' (GISS II') GCM. Simulations were carried out for "present day" and "preindustrial" emissions using different meteorological fields (i.e. DAO, FVGCM, GISS II'); cloud droplet number concentration is computed from the correlations of Boucher and Lohmann [1995], Abdul-Razzak and Ghan [2000

  5. Sensitivity of soil water content simulation to different methods of soil hydraulic parameter characterization as initial input values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters, which can be derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments, are key input parameters for modeling water flow in the vadose zone. In this study, we measured soil hydraulic properties with typical laboratory measurements and field tension infiltration experiments using Wooding's analytical solution and inverse optimization along the vertical direction within two typical podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The objective was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine the water retention curve with hanging water column and pressure extractors and lab saturated hydraulic conductivity with the constant head method. Both approaches allowed to determine the Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (residual water content θr, saturated water content θs,, shape parameters α and n, and field or lab saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs and Kls). Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. Inverse optimization resulted in excellent matches between observed and fitted infiltration rates in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf, using Hydrus 2D/3D. It also resulted in close correspondence of  and Kfs with those from Logsdon and Jaynes' (1993) solution of Wooding's equation. The MVG parameters Kfs and α estimated from the inverse solution (θr set to zero), were relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which were used as initial value and the estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content θf. We found the Gardner parameter αG to be related to the optimized van

  6. The flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic model of depression, show abnormal serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the brain that is reversed by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, M K; Overstreet, D H; Hurd, Y L

    1999-12-10

    The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in several limbic-related areas of ovariectomized FSL and FRL rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (0.15 microg/g) or vehicle. The FSL animals were shown to express significantly lower levels of the 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in the perirhinal cortex, piriform cortex, and medial anterodorsal amygdala and higher levels in the CA 2-3 region of the hippocampus. The only significant difference between the rat lines in ER mRNA expression was found in the medial posterodorsal amygdala, where the FSL rats showed lower ERalpha expression levels. Overall, estradiol treatment increased 5-HT(2A) and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in several of the examined regions of both lines. Thus, in many areas, estradiol was found to regulate the 5-HT receptor mRNA expression in the opposite direction to the alterations found in the FSL rats. These findings further support the implication of 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT(2A) subtype, in the etiology of affective disorders. Moreover, the ability of estradiol to regulate the expression of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes might account for the reported influence of gonadal hormones in mood and depression.

  7. The erbB3- and IGF-1 receptor-initiated signaling pathways exhibit distinct effects on lapatinib sensitivity against trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hui; Yang, Xiao He; Edgerton, Susan M; Thor, Ann D; Wu, Xiaoying; He, Zhimin; Liu, Bolin

    2016-01-19

    Both erbB3 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been shown to play an important role in trastuzumab resistance. However, it remains unclear whether erbB3- and IGF-1R-initiated signaling pathways possess distinct effects on the sensitivity of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against both EGFR and erbB2, in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Here, we show that the trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 breast cancer sublines, as compared the parental SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively, exhibit refractoriness to lapatinib. Knockdown of erbB3 inhibited Akt in SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 cells, significantly increased lapatinib efficacy, and dramatically re-sensitized the cells to lapatinib-induced apoptosis. In contrast, specific knockdown of IGF-1R did not alter the cells' responsiveness to lapatinib. While the levels of phosphorylated Src (P-Src) were reduced upon IGF-1R downregulation, the P-Akt levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of Akt, but not Src, significantly enhanced lapatinib-mediated anti-proliferative/anti-survival effects on SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 cells. These data indicate that erbB3 signaling is critical for both trastuzumab and lapatinib resistances mainly through the PI-3K/Akt pathway, whereas IGF-1R-initiated Src activation results in trastuzumab resistance without affecting lapatinib sensitivity. Our findings may facilitate the development of precision therapeutic regimens for erbB2-positive breast cancer patients who become resistant to erbB2-targeted therapy.

  8. Frequency and Sensitivity of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Positive Organisms in a Secondary and Tertiary Level Hospital Network in Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Md Zahurul Haque Asna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL positive organisms are now a global health concern including in Bangladesh. These are associated with treatment failure, increased morbidity and mortality and increased health care costs. In this study, frequency of ESBL positive organisms in some health care centres in Dhaka city has been observed and their current status of antibiogram has also been observed. Objective: To observe the current status of antibiogram of ESBL positive organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Microbiology, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences (BIHS General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from March, 2012 to February, 2013. Only E. coli and Klebsiella spp. from pus and urine specimens were included in this study. Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms were done by standard procedures. Results: Organisms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from urine and pus collected from different sites of 472 subjects were studied. Predominant organisms were Escherichia coli (82.8% and remaining 17.2% were Klebsiella spp. ESBL positive organisms were higher in Escherichia coli (54.5% than in Klebsiella spp. (44.4% and higher in pus (77.0% than in urine (49.1% isolates. Imipenem is the most effective drug for treating ESBL positive organisms followed by colistin, tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Imipenem, colistin, tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam drugs should be kept reserved and used only when other effective drugs are not available so that emergence of resistance against these drugs is deferred. While reporting the culture and sensitivity tests, the ESBL positive organisms should be pointed out with comment like this – “The organisms are ESBL positive and resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams”.

  9. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  10. Determination of K{sub ps} and {beta}{sub 1,H} in a wide interval of initial concentrations of lutetium; Determinacion de K{sub ps} y {beta}{sub 1,H} en un amplio intervalo de concentraciones iniciales del lutecio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-G, H.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M. [ININ. Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rojas H, A. [UAM-I, A.P. 55-534, 09340, Mexico. D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    solubility product constants and the first of lutetium hydrolysis in the interval of initial concentration of 3.72 X 10{sup -5} to 2.09 X 10{sup -3} M of lutetium, in a 2M of NaCIO{sub 4} media, at 303 K and under conditions free of CO{sub 2} its were considered. The solubility diagrams (pLu{sub (ac)}-pC{sub H}) by means of a radiochemical method were obtained, and starting from its the pC{sub H} values that limit the saturation and no-saturation zones of the solutions were settled down. Those diagrams allowed, also, to calculate the solubility product constants of Lu(OH){sub 3}. The experimental data to the polynomial solubility equation were adjusted, what allowed to calculate those values of the solubility product constants of Lu(OH){sub 3} and to determine the first hydrolysis constant. The value of precipitation pC{sub H} diminishes when the initial concentration of the lutetium increases, while the values of K{sub ps} and {beta}{sub 1,H} its remain constant. (Author)

  11. Agreement and Reliability of Fasted and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test-Derived Indices of Insulin Sensitivity and Beta Cell Function in Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma Joanne; Williams, Craig Anthony; Jackman, Sarah Rebecca; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of plasma insulin and glucose outcomes is important in paediatric studies aimed at reducing future risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study are to determine the between-method agreement and the day-to-day reliability of fasting and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in healthy boys. Fasting and OGTT assesments of insulin resistance and β-cell function were performed on 28 boys (12.3±2.9 years). Measurements were repeated after 1 week (fasting, n=28) and 1 day (OGTT, n=8). Agreement between estimates of insulin resistance and β-cell function was examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using change in the mean, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). The Matsuda index was positively related with QUICKI (r=0.88, PHOMA-IR (r=-0.76, P0.05). For reliability, QUICKI had the lowest CV% for the fasting (4.7%) and the Cederholm index for the OGTT (6.4%) estimates. The largest CV% was observed in fasting insulin (30.8%) and insulinogenic index 30' (62.5%). This study highlights differences in between-method agreement and day-to-day reliability for estimates of insulin resistance in youth. The low CV supports the use of the FGIR (fasting) and Cederholm (OGTT) indices in this population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. L-Arginine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the offspring of diabetic rats through AKT and PDX-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Diego Soares; Diniz, Marilia Melo; Haidar, André Abour; Cavanal, Maria de Fátima; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Gil, Frida Zaladek; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko

    2016-11-15

    Maternal hyperglycemia can result in defects in glucose metabolism and pancreatic β-cell function in offspring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on pancreatic islets, muscle and adipose tissue of the offspring, with or without oral l-Arginine supplementation. The induction of diabetes was performed using streptozotocin (60mg/kg). Animals were studied at 3 months of age and treatment (sucrose or l-Arginine) was administered from weaning. We observed that l-Arg improved insulin sensitivity in the offspring of diabetic mothers (DA), reflected by higher insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt in muscle and adipose tissue. Insulin resistance is associated with increased oxidative stress and the NADPH oxidase enzyme plays an important role. Our results showed that the augmented interaction of p47 PHOX with gp91 PHOX subunits of the enzyme in skeletal muscle tissue in the offspring of diabetic rats (DV) was abolished after l-Arg treatment in DA rats. Maternal diabetes caused alterations in the islet functionality of the offspring leading to increased insulin secretion at both low (2.8mM) and high (16.7mM) concentrations of glucose. l-Arg reverses this effect, suggesting that it may be an important modulator in the insulin secretory process. In addition it is possible that l-Arg exerts its effects directly onto essential molecules for the maintenance and survival of pancreatic islets, decreasing protein expression of p47 PHOX while increasing Akt phosphorylation and PDX-1 expression. The mechanism by which l-Arg exerts its beneficial effects may involve nitric oxide bioavailability since treatment restored NO levels in the pancreas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  14. MicroRNA-9 enhances sensitivity to cetuximab in epithelial phenotype hepatocellular carcinoma cells through regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Liang, Yuntian; Li, Zhenrong; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most widespread malignant human tumors worldwide. Treatment options include radiotherapy, surgical intervention and chemotherapy; however, drug resistance is an ongoing treatment concern. In the present study, the effects of a microRNA (miR/miRNA), miR-9, on the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, cetuximab, were examined. miR-9 has been proposed to serve a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, bioinformatics analyses identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF-5A-2) as a target of miR-9. The expression levels of miR-9 and eIF-5A-2 were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and HCC cell lines were transfected with miR-9 mimics and inhibitors to determine the effects of the miRNA on cell proliferation and viability. The miR-9 mimic was revealed to significantly increase the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells (Hep3B and Huh7) to cetuximab, while the miR-9 inhibitor triggered the opposite effect. There were no significant differences in sensitivity to cetuximab observed in mesenchymal phenotype HCC cells (SNU387 and SNU449). Cells lines displaying high expression levels of eIF-5A-2 were more resistant to cetuximab. Transfection of cells with a miR-9 mimic resulted in downregulation of the expression of eIF-5A-2 mRNA, while an miR-9 inhibitor increased expression. When expression of eIF-5A-2 was knocked down with siRNA, the effects of miR-9 on cetuximab sensitivity were no longer observed. Taken together, these data support a role for miR-9 in enhancing the sensitivity of epithelial phenotype HCC cells to cetuximab through regulation of eIF-5A-2.

  15. Glucose oxidase-initiated cascade catalysis for sensitive impedimetric aptasensor based on metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles and hemin/G-quadruplex as mimicking peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingxing; Guo, Shijing; Gao, Jiaxi; Zhao, Jianmin; Xue, Shuyan; Xu, Wenju

    2017-12-15

    Based on cascade catalysis amplification driven by glucose oxidase (GOx), a sensitive electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for protein (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA as tested model) was proposed by using Cu-based metal-organic frameworks functionalized with Pt nanoparticles, aptamer, hemin and GOx (Pt@CuMOFs-hGq-GOx). CEA aptamer loaded onto Pt@CuMOFs was bound with hemin to form hemin@G-quadruplex (hGq) with mimicking peroxidase activity. Through sandwich-type reaction of target CEA and CEA aptamers (Apt1 and Apt2), the obtained Pt@CuMOFs-hGq-GOx as signal transduction probes (STPs) was captured to the modified electrode interface. When 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and glucose were introduced, the cascade reaction was initiated by GOx to catalyze the oxidation of glucose, in situ generating H 2 O 2 . Simultaneously, the decomposition of the generated H 2 O 2 was greatly promoted by Pt@CuMOFs and hGq as synergistic peroxide catalysts, accompanying with the significant oxidation process of DAB and the formation of nonconductive insoluble precipitates (IPs). As a result, the electron transfer in the resultant sensing interface was effectively hindered and the electrochemical impedimetric signal (EIS) was efficiently amplified. Thus, the high sensitivity of the proposed CEA aptasensor was successfully improved with 0.023pgmL -1 , which may be promising and potential in assaying certain clinical disease related to CEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dicholine succinate, the neuronal insulin sensitizer, normalizes behavior, REM sleep, hippocampal pGSK3 beta and mRNAs of NMDA receptor subunits in mouse models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon H. Cline

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Central insulin receptor-mediated signalling is attracting the growing attention of researchers because of rapidly accumulating evidence implicating it in the mechanisms of plasticity, stress response and neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Dicholine succinate (DS, a mitochondrial complex II substrate, was shown to enhance insulin-receptor mediated signaling in neurons and is regarded as a sensitizer of the neuronal insulin receptor. Compounds enhancing neuronal insulin receptor-mediated transmission exert an antidepressant-like effect in several pre-clinical paradigms of depression; similarly, such properties for DS were found with a stress-induced anhedonia model. Here, we additionally studied the effects of DS on several variables which were ameliorated by other insulin receptor sensitizers in mice. Pre-treatment with DS of chronically stressed C57BL6 mice rescued normal contextual fear conditioning, hippocampal gene expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A, the NR2A/NR2B ratio and increased REM sleep rebound after acute predation. In 18-month-old C57BL6 mice, a model of elderly depression, DS restored normal sucrose preference and activated the expression of neural plasticity factors in the hippocampus as shown by Illumina microarray. Finally, young naïve DS-treated C57BL6 mice had reduced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours and, similarly to imipramine-treated mice, preserved hippocampal levels of the phosphorylated (inactive form of GSK3 beta that was lowered by forced swimming in pharmacologically naïve animals. Thus, DS can ameliorate behavioural and molecular outcomes under a variety of stress- and depression-related conditions. This further highlights neuronal insulin signalling as a new factor of pathogenesis and a potential pharmacotherapy of affective pathologies.

  17. {beta} delayed emission of a proton by a one-neutron halo nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baye, D., E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.b [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tursunov, E.M., E-mail: tursune@inp.u [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, 100214, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2011-02-14

    Some one-neutron halo nuclei can emit a proton in a {beta} decay of the halo neutron. The branching ratio towards this rare decay mode is calculated within a two-body potential model of the initial core + neutron bound state and final core + proton scattering states. The decay probability per second is evaluated for the {sup 11}Be, {sup 19}C and {sup 31}Ne one-neutron halo nuclei. It is very sensitive to the neutron separation energy.

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with SNO+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozza V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of SNO. The detector is located 2 km underground in the Vale Canada Ltd.’s Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The active volume of the detector consists of 780 tonnes of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB in an acrylic vessel of 12 m diameter, surrounded by about 9500 PMTs. The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With an initial loading of 0.3% of natural tellurium (nearly 800 kg of 130Te, it is expected to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of about 100 meV after several years of data taking. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, other exciting physical goals can be explored, like the measurement of reactor neutrino oscillations and geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch of supernova neutrinos and studies of solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with water filled detector will start at the end of 2013, while the double beta decay phase will start in 2015.

  19. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... it results in that type of thalassemia. About Beta Thalassemia Beta thalassemia happens when the gene that controls ...

  20. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  1. Similarities and differences in antagonism of neuron alpha/beta interferon responses by Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Sindbis alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Gardner, Christina L; Burke, Crystal W; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2009-10-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is highly virulent in adult laboratory mice, while Sindbis virus (SINV) is avirulent regardless of dose or inoculation route, dependent upon functioning alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) responses. We have examined each virus' resistance to and/or antagonism of IFN-alpha/beta responses in neurons, a cell type targeted by both viruses in mice, by infecting IFN-alpha/beta-treated or untreated primary cultures with viruses or virus-derived replicons that lacked the structural proteins. Priming with IFN-alpha/beta prior to infection revealed that VEEV replication and progeny virion production were resistant to an established antiviral state while those of SINV were more sensitive. Postinfection IFN-alpha/beta treatment revealed that phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 was partially blocked by infection with either virus, dependent upon expression of nonstructural proteins (nsP), but not structural proteins (sP). However, inhibition of STAT phosphorylation by VEEV replicons was not correlated with inhibition of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) mRNA induction, yet ISG induction was inhibited when sP were present. Host translation was inhibited by VEEV nsP even when cells were pretreated with IFN-alpha/beta. SINV blocked ISG induction and translation, associated with nsP-mediated shutoff of macromolecular synthesis, but both activities were sensitive to IFN-alpha/beta pretreatment. We conclude that both VEEV and SINV limit ISG induction in infected neurons through shutoff of host transcription and translation but that inhibition by VEEV is more resistant to IFN-alpha/beta priming. Likewise, both viruses inhibit IFN receptor-initiated signaling, although the effect upon host responses is not clear. Finally, VEEV appears to be more resistant to effectors of the preestablished antiviral state.

  2. Multiwire-based 2π proportional chamber for large area beta sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Devan, Shylaja; Prasad, N.K.; Leena, J.; Anuradha, R.

    2013-01-01

    The proportional counter for surface emission counting of large-area beta sources is indigenously developed. The detector is multiwire-based proportional counter with gas flow facility and is designed for 2π mode counting of planar beta sources. The detector is rugged, stable and convenient to operate. Complete detector assembly consists of a vacuum tight aluminum enclosure, multiwire grid, sliding source tray, vacuum system, gas flow system and pulse processing units. Qualitative position dependent behavior of detector over the sensitive region is initially tested using a collimated 55 Fe X-ray source. Characterization of the detector is carried out using 90 Sr extended beta sources of various emission activities. These sources are further used to calibrate efficiency of radiological contamination monitors located at various nuclear facilities. Details of design, fabrication and characterization of the chamber are presented. (author)

  3. Confirmation of Enhanced Dwarf-sensitive Absorption Features in the Spectra of Massive Elliptical Galaxies: Further Evidence for a Non-universal Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2011-07-01

    We recently found that massive cluster elliptical galaxies have strong Na I λ8183, 8195 and FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band absorption, indicating the presence of a very large population of stars with masses clusters associated with M31. These globular clusters have similar metallicities, abundance ratios, and ages as massive elliptical galaxies but their low dynamical mass-to-light ratios rule out steep stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). From high-quality Keck spectra we find that the dwarf-sensitive absorption lines in globular clusters are significantly weaker than in elliptical galaxies and consistent with normal IMFs. The differences in the Na I and Wing-Ford indices are 0.027 ± 0.007 mag and 0.017 ± 0.006 mag, respectively. We directly compare the two classes of objects by subtracting the averaged globular cluster spectrum from the averaged elliptical galaxy spectrum. The difference spectrum is well fit by the difference between a stellar population synthesis model with a bottom-heavy IMF and one with a bottom-light IMF. We speculate that the slope of the IMF may vary with velocity dispersion, although it is not yet clear what physical mechanism would be responsible for such a relation.

  4. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  5. Frecuencia de enzimas asociadas a sensibilidad disminuida a betalactámicos en aislados de enterobacterias, Caracas, Venezuela Frequency of enzymes associated with reduced sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics in enterobacteria isolates, Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marcano

    2011-12-01

    ón adecuada de los perfiles de sensibilidad y la confirmación molecular del mecanismo presente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of enzymatic mechanisms associated with reduced sensitivity to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics in enterobacteria isolates obtained at hospital centers in Caracas, Venezuela. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on enterobacteria isolated from patients at eight hospital centers in Caracas, Venezuela, from 15 October 2009 to 15 January 2010. The species were identified using conventional biochemical tests, and their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was assessed by antibiogram (Kirby-Bauer method, using the 2010 performance standards published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Beta-lactam-resistant genes were detected using an enhanced polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: Of 1 235 isolates, 207 (16.8% exhibited resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, or both. They presented the following phenotypes: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL, 93.8%; depressed AmpC, 4.3%; and carbapenemase, 1.9%. Further characterization of the first two phenotypes yielded the following breakdown of types: SHV, 36.7%; CTX-M-1 group, 22.3%; TEM, 21.7%; CTX-M-1 group with impermeability, 5.2%; two-enzyme combinations, 4.5%; CTX-M-2 group, 4.3%; PER, 3.4%; and KPC, 1.9%. The SHV type was predominant in the public hospital strains, whereas the CTX-M-1 group was most common in the strains from the private hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Of the enzymatic mechanisms investigated, the SHV type was the most frequent, followed by the CTX-M-1 group and the TEM type. Also, a high percentage of type KPC was found. The research reported here is one of only a few multicenter studies that have been conducted in Venezuela to evaluate the frequency of this type of antimicrobial resistance mechanism, including phenotypical and molecular charac-terization. It was shown that the detection methods require proper

  6. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  7. An ensemble study of HyMeX IOP6 and IOP7a: sensitivity to physical and initial and boundary condition uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hally

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first Special Observation Period of the HyMeX campaign took place in the Mediterranean between September and November 2012 with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms which lead to heavy precipitation events (HPEs in the region during the autumn months. Two such events, referred to as Intensive Observation Period 6 (IOP6 and Intensive Observation Period 7a (IOP7a, occurred respectively on 24 and 26 September over south-eastern France. IOP6 was characterised by moderate to weak low-level flow which led to heavy and concentrated convective rainfall over the plains near the coast, while IOP7a had strong low-level flow and consisted of a convective line over the mountainous regions further north and a band of stratiform rainfall further east. Firstly, an ensemble was constructed for each IOP using analyses from the AROME, AROME-WMED, ARPEGE and ECMWF operational models as initial (IC and boundary (BC conditions for the research model Meso-NH at a resolution of 2.5 km. A high level of model skill was seen for IOP7a, with a lower level of agreement with the observations for IOP6. Using the most accurate member of this ensemble as a CTRL simulation, three further ensembles were constructed in order to study uncertainties related to cloud physics and surface turbulence parameterisations. Perturbations were introduced by perturbing the time tendencies of the warm and cold microphysical and turbulence processes. An ensemble where all three sources of uncertainty were perturbed gave the greatest degree of dispersion in the surface rainfall for both IOPs. Comparing the level of dispersion to that of the ICBC ensemble demonstrated that when model skill is low (high and low-level flow is weak to moderate (strong, the level of dispersion of the ICBC and physical perturbation ensembles is (is not comparable. The level of sensitivity to these perturbations is thus concluded to be case dependent.

  8. Statin Use at the Time of Initiation of Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Time to Progression in Patients With Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Lauren C; Wang, Xiaodong; Nakabayashi, Mari; Xie, Wanling; Valenca, Loana; Werner, Lillian; Yu, Yongjiang; Kantoff, Aaron M; Sweeney, Christopher J; Mucci, Lorelei A; Pomerantz, Mark; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    Statin use has been associated with improved prostate cancer outcomes. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a precursor of testosterone and a substrate for SLCO2B1, an organic anionic transporter. We previously demonstrated that genetic variants of SLCO2B1 correlated with time to progression (TTP) during receipt of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Statins also use SLCO2B1 to enter cells, and thus we hypothesized that they may compete with DHEAS uptake by the tumor cells. To evaluate whether statin use prolongs TTP during ADT for hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. In vitro studies were performed using prostate cancer cell lines at an academic, comprehensive cancer center. Statin use was retrospectively analyzed in 926 patients who had received ADT for biochemical or metastatic recurrence or de novo metastatic prostate cancer between January 1996 and November 2013. To determine whether statins interfere with DHEAS uptake, we performed in vitro studies using prostate cancer cell lines. Next, we queried our institutional clinical database to assess for an association between statin use and TTP during ADT using multivariable Cox regression analysis and adjusted for known prognostic factors. In vitro, we demonstrated that statins block DHEAS uptake by competitively binding to SLCO2B1. In our ADT cohort of 926 patients, 283 (31%) were taking a statin at ADT initiation. After a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 644 patients (70%) had experienced disease progression while receiving ADT. Median TTP during ADT was 20.3 months (95% CI, 18-24 months). Men taking statins had a longer median TTP during ADT compared with nonusers (27.5 [95% CI, 21.1-37.7] vs 17.4 [95% CI, 14.9-21.1] months; P mechanism to support the clinical observation of prolonged TTP in statin users.

  9. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  10. Progress report on the Los Alamos tritium beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.; Bowles, T.J.; Knapp, D.A.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Wark, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements near the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay spectrum using a gaseous molecular tritium source yield an essentially model-independent upper limit of 27 eV on the /ovr ν//sub e/ mass at the 95% confidence level. Since demonstrating from this initial measurement the successful operation of a gaseous source based system, most of our effort has been concentrated towards the upgrade and optimization of the experimental apparatus. The emphasis of this work has been to eliminate or further reduce effects that generate systematic errors. Based on realistic projections from our initial measurement, an ultimate sensitivity to neutrino mass of 10 eV is expected. 12 refs., 1 fig

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and acetylcholine (ACh) alter nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) secretion in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2009-10-01

    Colon adenocarcinoma is one of the most common fatal malignancies in Western countries. Progression of this cancer is dependent on tumor microenvironmental signaling molecules such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or acetylcholine (ACh). The present study was conducted to assess the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor (rhTGF)-beta1 or ACh on nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) secretion by three human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines: HT29, LS180, and SW948, derived from different grade tumors (Duke's stage). The cells were cultured in 2D and 3D (spheroids) conditions. Colon carcinoma cells exhibited different sensitivities to rhTGF-beta1 or ACh dependent on the tumor grade and the culture model. ACh exhibited significant inhibitory effects towards NO, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and IL-1beta secretion especially by tumor cells derived form Duke's C stage of colon carcinoma. rhTGF-beta1 also decreased NO, IL-1beta, and eNOS expression, but its effect was lower than that observed after the administration of ACh. The inhibition of NO and IL-1beta production was more striking in 3D tumor spheroids than in 2D culture monolayers. Taken together, the TGF-beta1-ACh axis may regulate colon carcinoma progression and metastasis by altering NO secretion and influence inflammatory responses by modulating IL-1beta production.

  12. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  13. Hole-Initiated-Avalanche, Linear-Mode, Single-Photon-Sensitive Avalanche Photodetector with Reduced Excess Noise and Low Dark Count Rate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation hard, single photon sensitive InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver technology will be demonstrated useful for long range space based optical...

  14. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return......We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  15. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  16. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  17. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  18. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  19. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements

  20. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  1. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  2. DNA polymerase-beta is expressed early in neurons of Alzheimer's disease brain and is loaded into DNA replication forks in neurons challenged with beta-amyloid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copani, Agata; Hoozemans, Jeroen J. M.; Caraci, Filippo; Calafiore, Marco; van Haastert, Elise S.; Veerhuis, Robert; Rozemuller, Annemieke J. M.; Aronica, Eleonora; Sortino, Maria Angela; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2006-01-01

    Cultured neurons exposed to synthetic beta-amyloid (Abeta) fragments reenter the cell cycle and initiate a pathway of DNA replication that involves the repair enzyme DNA polymerase-beta (DNA pol-beta) before undergoing apoptotic death. In this study, by performing coimmunoprecipitation experiments

  3. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: a multi-laboratory evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, V.; Baro, C.; Bennett, L.; Bublin, M.; Gaier, S.; Graser, G.; Ladics, G. S.; Mierzejewska, D.; Vassilopoulou, E.; Vissers, Y. M.; Zuidmeer, L.; Rigby, N. M.; Salt, L. J.; Defernez, M.; Mulholland, F.; Mackie, A. R.; Wickham, M. S. J.; Mills, E. N. C.

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions

  4. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  5. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  6. Targeting of beta 1 integrins impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of head and neck cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickreuter, E.; Eke, I.; Krause, M.; Borgmann, K.; van Vugt, M. A.; Cordes, N.

    2016-01-01

    beta 1 Integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interactions allow cancer cell survival and confer therapy resistance. It was shown that inhibition of beta 1 integrins sensitizes cells to radiotherapy. Here, we examined the impact of beta 1 integrin targeting on the repair of radiation-induced

  7. Beta2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2009-01-01

    Among the uremic toxins in the "middle molecule" range, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-M) is certainly one of the most frequently studied compounds. Its serum level increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease, to reach very high concentrations in patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is the major protein component of dialysis-related amyloidosis, a dramatic complication which results from high extracellular concentration and posttranslational modification of beta2-M and a number of other promoters of amyloid fibril formation and deposition in osteo-articular tissues. Effective removal of beta2-M can be achieved with highly effective hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration techniques but predialysis session serum levels cannot be normalized. The prevalence and severity of beta2-M amyloidosis appear to have decreased in the last 20 years, although its occurrence may simply be delayed.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  9. Initial identification and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of Salmonella sp.isolated from poultry products in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WF Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to isolate and to verify the sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from poultry products in the state of Ceara, Brazil. A total number of 114 samples was collected from 63 broiler carcasses derived from two processing plants and two supermarkets, and 51 excreta samples were collected in broiler farms located in the state of Ceara, which used three live production stages. Each excreta sample consisted of a fresh excreta pool from 100 birds. Samples were submitted to microbiological analyses, and the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. No Salmonella was isolated from excreta samples, while broiler carcass samples showed a high contamination rate of11.8%. Three serotypes were identified: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 50%; Salmonella enterica serovar Panama 33%, and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, 17%. As to the susceptibility tests to antimicrobial agents, 100% of the isolated Salmonella strains showed resistance to Ampicillin and Tetracycline, and sensitivity to Gentamycin, Netilmycin, Carbenicillin, Chloramphenicol.

  10. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  11. Problems at the Development of personal Beta-particle dosemeters-Beta Particle dosemeters-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmstadter, K.; Ambrosi, P.

    2002-01-01

    Workplaces at which beta radiation might significantly contribute to the doses to the extremities are increasingly found in radiation therapy, radiation source production and nuclear plants. for the measurement of the individual beta-particle dose, personal dosemeters for fingers, arms and legs are needed. Intercomparison measurements organised from 1996 by the PTB have shown that some dosemeter types based on TLD are suitable for this purpose and can be used as legal dosemeters for both photon and beta radiation. Also, some electronic personal photon dosemeters are investigated in beta radiation fields. it turned out that a few types are also sensitive to beta radiation and measure the personal dose equivalent rate to the skin with a low energy dependence. Only their wearing position is by far not optimal foe extremity dosimetry because they are worn on the chest. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The characterisation of workplaces is carried out by measuring dose profiles using area dosemeters. Investigations performed with several commercial types of these dosemeters furnish information about the selection of the suitable measuring device and its correct practical use. the development of improved dosemeters has to towards smaller detectors and higher sensitivity. Personal dosemeters have to be robust and acceptable to the user, which generally is not achieved for beta extremity dosemeters. It is an additional problem that even such dosemeters cannot always be worn in the appropriate place. (Author)

  12. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  13. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Arthur, R.J.; Avignone, F.T.

    1993-09-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100 Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210 Pb in lead shielding were obtained

  14. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  15. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  16. Braquiterapia intracoronariana. Tratamento da reestenose intra-stent com o sistema Beta-Cath: experiência inicial na América Latina Intracoronary brachytherapy. Treatment of in-stent restenosis with the Beta-Cath system: initial experience in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Simon Muñoz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a segurança e eficácia da braquiterapia intracoronariana usando o sistema Beta-CathTM na prevenção da recorrência de restenose intra-stent (RIS, por meio da análise dos resultados clínicos, angiográficos e pelo ultra-som intracoronariano (USIC. MÉTODO: Foram submetidos à angioplastia com cateter-balão, seguida de beta-radiação intracoronariana com o sistema Beta-CathTM (90Sr/Y 30 pacientes com RIS em artérias coronárias nativas e, posteriormente, avaliados. RESULTADOS: Incluíram-se lesões reestenóticas complexas (77% do tipo difuso-proliferativo com extensão elevada (18,66±4,15 mm. O sucesso da braquiterapia foi de 100%. A dose média utilizada foi de 20,7±2,3 Gy, liberada em um período médio de 3,8±2,1 min. No seguimento tardio, o diâmetro luminal mínimo (DLM intra-stent diminuiu discretamente (1,98±0,30mm para 1,84±0,39 aos 6 meses, p=0,13, com uma perda tardia de 0,14±0,18 mm. O DLM intra-segmentar foi significativamente menor do que o intra-stent (1,55±0,40mm vs.1,84±0,39mm, p=0,008, associando-se à perda tardia (0,40±0,29mm vs. 0,14±0,18mm; p=0,0001. No USIC, observou-se discreto incremento do tecido neointimal em 6,8±14,3 mm³ aos 6 meses (p=0,19 e a percentagem de obstrução volumétrica aumentou em 4,7±7,5%. A reestenose binária e a revascularização do vaso-alvo recorreram em 17% dos casos; houve 1 caso (3% de oclusão tardia, associada a infarto do miocárdio. A sobrevida livre de eventos foi de 80%. CONCLUSÃO: O manejo da reestenose intra-stent com a beta-radiação intracoronariana mostrou-se procedimento seguro e eficaz, com alta taxa de sucesso imediato, representando uma opção terapêutica para a inibição da hiperplasia neointimal.OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of intracoronary brachytherapy using the Beta-Cath systemTM for preventing recurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR, by analyzing clinical, angiographic, and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS results

  17. Chromosomal beta-lactamase is packaged into membrane vesicles and secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Beveridge, T J; Kadurugamuwa, J

    2000-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy...... and enzymatic studies. This is the first report of extracellular secretion of beta-lactamase in P. aeruginosa and it seems that the enzyme is packaged into membrane vesicles....

  18. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  19. High beta tokamak instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical predictions using the ideal MHD model indicable that large-scale ballooning modes should appear when the average beta is raised about 1 to 2% in present-day tokamak geometries or 5 to 10% in more optimized geometries. The onset of instability is predicted to be sudden and the behavior of ballooning modes to be strikingly different from the saw-tooth and Mirnov oscillations experimentally observed at low beta. Conditions close to the predicted onset were achieved in ORMAK with no noticeable change in plasma behavior. Experiments are planned for the ISX tokamak to test the beta limit. 15 references, 3 figures

  20. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  1. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Adam R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Rachel L. [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Bradley J. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy Services, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brewster, Abeena [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ueno, Naoto T. [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  2. A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

  3. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  4. Beta-blockers overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how much and what type of this medicine the person took and how quickly they receive treatment. ... Aronson JK. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. In: Aronson JK, ed. ... Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 147.

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  6. Role of fatty acid uptake and fatty acid beta-oxidation in mediating insulin resistance in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Keung, Wendy; Samokhvalov, Victor; Wang, Wei; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major fuel source used to sustain contractile function in heart and oxidative skeletal muscle. To meet the energy demands of these muscles, the uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids must be coordinately regulated in order to ensure an adequate, but not excessive, supply for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. However, imbalance between fatty acid uptake and beta-oxidation has the potential to contribute to muscle insulin resistance. The action of insulin is initiated by binding to its receptor and activation of the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor, resulting in the initiation of an intracellular signaling cascade that eventually leads to insulin-mediated alterations in a number of cellular processes, including an increase in glucose transport. Accumulation of fatty acids and lipid metabolites (such as long chain acyl CoA, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol, and/or ceramide) can lead to alterations in this insulin signaling pathway. An imbalance between fatty acid uptake and oxidation is believed to be responsible for this lipid accumulation, and is thought to be a major cause of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes, due to lipid accumulation and inhibition of one or more steps in the insulin-signaling cascade. As a result, decreasing muscle fatty acid uptake can improve insulin sensitivity. However, the potential role of increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation in the heart or skeletal muscle in order to prevent cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and decrease insulin resistance is controversial. While increased fatty acid beta-oxidation may lower cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation can decrease muscle glucose metabolism, and incomplete fatty acid oxidation has the potential to also contribute to insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms by which alterations in fatty acid uptake and oxidation contribute to insulin resistance, and how targeting fatty acid uptake and

  7. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  8. Effect of diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate on the physical and chemical properties of ethanolic solvated resins containing camphorquinone and 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione sensitizers as initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressano, Diogo; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo; Xavier, Thaty A; Braga, Roberto R; Oxman, Joe D; Watts, David C; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Lima, Adriano Fonseca

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of the diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI) on the physical and mechanical properties of solvated dental adhesive resins containing camphorquinone (CQ) and/or 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione (PPD) as initiators. Model solvated resins containing bisphenol glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA); triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA); 1,3-glycerol dimethacrylate (GDMA); 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA); dimethylaminoethyl amine benzoate (EDAB) and ethanol were prepared. The resins were divided in 24 test groups according to the incorporated initiator systems (CQ-0.5 or 1mol%; PPD-0.5 or 1mol%; CQ+PPD-0.5 or 1mol%) as well the presence of DPI (0, 0.5 or 1mol%). Degree of conversion (using Fourier-transformed near infra-red spectroscopy), flexural strength and modulus by three point bending, cohesive strength and water sorption and solubility were measured. Data were statistically analyzed by one and two way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). DPI increased the degree of conversion of all materials tested. Camphorquinone promoted higher degree of conversion than resins containing only PPD or CQ+PPD. Generally, the resins containing PPD+CQ with DPI presented higher flexural strength and modulus, cohesive strength, as well lower water sorption and solubility. The use of PPD combined with CQ can increase the physical properties of the solvated resins. DPI improved the monomer conversion of all experimental materials and can positively modulate most of the physical properties of the solvated resins. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis have different beta-lactamase expression phenotypes but are homogeneous in the ampC-ampR genetic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J I; Ciofu, O; Høiby, N

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 1 of 17 cystic fibrosis patients produced secondary beta-lactamase in addition to the ampC beta-lactamase. Isolates were grouped into three beta-lactamase expression phenotypes: (i) beta-lactam sensitive, low basal levels and inducible beta-lactamase production......; (ii) beta-lactam resistant, moderate basal levels and hyperinducible beta-lactamase production; (iii) beta-lactam resistant, high basal levels and constitutive beta-lactamase production. Apart from a base substitution in the ampR-ampC intergenic region of an isolate with moderate......-basal-level and hyperinducible beta-lactamase production, sensitive and resistant strains were identical in their ampC-ampR genetic regions. Thus, enhanced beta-lactamase expression is due to mutations in regulatory proteins other than AmpR....

  11. Methylprednisolone does not restore biological response in multiple sclerosis patients with neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D; Frederiksen, J L; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) appearing during treatment with Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) reduce or abolish bioactivity and therapeutic efficacy. Initial combination therapy with methylprednisolone (MP) may reduce the frequency of NAb positive patients. We hypothesized tha...

  12. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that serological and viral DNA markers are weakly, but significantly, associated with history of NMSC in OTRs and the general population. Functional studies on mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types have clearly demonstrated that the products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the main viral oncoproteins, which are able to deregulate events closely linked to transformation, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Studies on a small number of beta HPV types have shown that their E6 and E7 oncoproteins also have the ability to interfere with the regulation of key pathways/events associated with cellular transformation. However, the initial functional data indicate that the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular transformation are different from those of mucosal HR HPV types. Beta HPV types may act only at early stages of carcinogenesis, by potentiating the deleterious effects of other carcinogens, such as UV radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The structure of the TGF-beta latency associated peptide region determines the ability of the proprotein convertase furin to cleave TGF-betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Cheong, Pak-Leng; Nikfar, Reza; McLennan, Ian S; Koishi, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    The TGF-beta family members are generated as latent pre-pro-polypeptides. The active mature peptides are cleaved from the latent forms by cellular proteases. TGF-beta 1, for instance, is predominantly processed by a substilisin-like proprotein convertase, furin. TGF-beta 2 has a consensus cleavage site for furin and therefore has been presumed to be cleaved by furin. However, TGF-beta 2 is often secreted as the latent form, which appears to be inconsistent with its postulated sensitivity to furin. We report here that both the regular (short) form of TGF-beta2 and its spliced variant with an additional exon (long form) are insensitive to furin. NIH 3T3 and CHO cells were transfected with expression vectors containing the short or long form of TGF-beta 2 or a chimeric TGF-beta consisting of the TGF-beta1 LAP region, the TGF-beta 2 cleavage site and the TGF-beta 2 mature peptide. The constructs included a c-myc epitope tag in the N-terminal region of the mature peptide. The TGF-betas produced by the transfected cells were analyzed with Western blots and immunocytochemistry. The intracellular proteins harvested from these cells were incubated with furin. Furin only inefficiently cleaved both the long and short forms of TGF-beta 2, but efficiently processed the chimeric TGF-beta. This indicates that the insensitivity of both forms of TGF-beta 2 to furin is a consequence of the tertiary structure of their LAP regions rather than their cleavage site. This differential processing of TGF-beta1 and -beta 2 may be part of the mechanism that generates isoform-specific functions of the TGF-betas.

  14. Penile development is initiated in the tammar wallaby pouch young during the period when 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol is secreted by the testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leihy, Michael W; Shaw, Geoffrey; Wilson, Jean D; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2004-07-01

    Virilization of the urogenital tract is under the control of testicular androgens in all mammals. In tammar young, prostate differentiation begins between d 20 and d 40 under the control of the testicular androgen 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5alpha-adiol), but uncertainties exist about the control of penile development. We performed longitudinal studies up to d 150 of pouch life to define normal penile development and the effects of androgen administration and castration. In control animals the male phallus was longer than the female phallus by d 48. Closure of the urethra in males begins around d 60 and continues to at least d 150. Administration of supraphysiological doses of testosterone to females caused penile development equivalent to that of the male and also induced partial closure of the urethral groove by d 150. Castration of male pouch young at d 25 prevented penile development, whereas the penis in males castrated at d 40, 80, or 120 had partial closure of the urethral groove. Administration of 5alpha-adiol to females from d 20-40 also caused partial closure of the urethral groove and some growth of the phallus at d 150, whereas 5alpha-adiol treatment from d 40-80 or 80-120 caused some penile growth but had little effect on urethral development. These findings, together with the fact that we found no sex differences in plasma levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-adiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, or androstenedione from d 51-227, clearly indicate that the action of 5alpha-adiol between d 20 and 40 imprints later differentiation of the male penis.

  15. Search for the Neutrino Less Double Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremenko, Yuri [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-07-11

    During the past few years our understanding of neutrino properties has reached a new level, with experiments such as Super-K, SNO, KamLAND, and others obtaining exciting results. Major questions such as “Do neutrinos have mass?” and “Do neutrinos oscillate?” now have positive answers. However, an extensive program of neutrino research remains. Undoubtedly, the most important of these is the question pointed out by the National Research Council in its February 2002 report “Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos”, specifically: What are the masses of neutrinos and how have they shaped the evolution of the Universe? The MAJORANA collaboration has proposed to build the world’s most sensitive one-ton scale experiment to search for neutrino less double beta decay to answer this question. In its initial stage, the collaboration is building a prototype MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) experiment consisting of detectors made out of enriched Ge76 with a total sensitive mass of ~30 kg. This will accomplish two goals. First, it will test not yet confirmed claim for observation of neutrino-less double beta decay. Second, it will establish that the selected technology is capable of extension to a one-ton experiment with sufficient sensitivity to measure neutrino mass mββ down to 10 meV. To achieve the last goal, collaboration must demonstrate that a background level of 1 count per year per 4 keV per ton of detector is achievable. The University of Tennessee (UT) neutrino group has made a major commitment to the MJD. P.I. accepted the responsibility for one of the major tasks of the experiment, “Materials and Assay Task” which is crucial to the achievement of low background levels required for the experiment. In addition, the UT group is committed to construct, commission, and operate the MJD active veto system. Those activities were supported by NP-DOE via program funding for “Search for the Neutrino Less Double Beta Decay” at the University

  16. Chromosomal beta-lactamase is packaged into membrane vesicles and secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Beveridge, T J; Kadurugamuwa, J

    2000-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy and enzyma...... and enzymatic studies. This is the first report of extracellular secretion of beta-lactamase in P. aeruginosa and it seems that the enzyme is packaged into membrane vesicles.......Membrane vesicles were isolated from one beta-lactam-sensitive and three beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase in the membrane vesicles was shown by electron microscopy...

  17. A microassay for acid beta-galactosidase activity toward asialofetuin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, T; Naoi, M; Sobue, I; Kiuchi, K; Nagatsu, T

    1985-11-15

    To study the enzymatic properties of beta-galactosidase from the patients with a beta-galactosidase deficiency such as GM1 gangliosidosis, determination of enzymatic activity with naturally occurring substrates, asialofetuin in addition to another natural substrate, GM1 ganglioside, is essentially required. With a previously reported, simple and sensitive fluorometric assay for GM1 ganglioside beta-galactosidase using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), optimal reaction conditions were determined for the assay of acid beta-galactosidase activity toward asialofetuin in skin fibroblast homogenates. Under these conditions, reduced enzymatic activities could be detected in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with type 1 and 3 GM1 gangliosidoses and mucopolysaccharidosis IV-B (Morquio B syndrome). This method was applicable to study of the enzymatic properties of the mutant beta-galactosidase and provided an alternative to assays employing radioactive or artificial substrates.

  18. Double beta decays and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Hiro

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino-less double beta decays(0νββ) are of great interest for studying the Majorana nature of ν's and the absolute ν-mass scale. The present report is a brief review of the 0νββ studies with emphasis on future experiments with the mass sensitivity of an order of 25∼100 meV and on experimental probes for investigating 0νββ nuclear matrix elements

  19. Chemioxyexcitation (delta pO2/ROS)-dependent release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha: evidence of cytokines as oxygen-sensitive mediators in the alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, J J; Safieh-Garabedian, B; Saadé, N E; Kanaan, S A; Land, S C

    2001-02-07

    The signalling mechanisms in oxidative stress mediated by cytokines in the perinatal alveolar epithelium are not well known. In an in vitro model of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells, we investigated the profile of cytokines in response to ascending Deltap O(2)regimen (oxyexcitation). The peak of TNF-alpha (4 h) preceded IL-1beta and IL-6 (6-9 h), indicating a positive feedback autocrine loop confirmed by exogenous rmTNF-alpha. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced a dose-dependent release of cytokines, an effect specifically obliterated by selective antioxidants of the hydroxyl radical (*OH) and superoxide anion (O(2)-). Actinomycin and cycloheximide blocked the induced production of cytokines, implicating transcriptional and translational control. Whilst the dismutating enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were ineffective in reducing ROS-induced cytokines, MnP, a cell-permeating SOD mimetic, abrogated xanthine/xanthine oxidase-dependent cytokine release. Desferrioxamine mesylate, which inhibits the iron-catalysed generation of *OH via the Fenton reaction, exhibited a mild effect on the release of cytokines. Dynamic variation in alveolar p O(2)constitutes a potential signalling mechanism within the perinatal lung allowing upregulation of cytokines in an ROS-dependent manner. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Gamma sensitivity of the Eberline PCM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that normally, alarm setpoints for the Eberline PCM-1 series personnel contamination monitors are calculated based upon efficiencies measured using 100-cm 2 or larger beta or mixed beta-gamma sources. This simulates the type of contamination most frequently encountered on personnel and clothing--low-level, distributed beta-gamma emitters. In most circumstances, the PCM-1's sensitivity to the other type of contamination encountered in nuclear plant work--hot particles--would be expected to be the same as, or better than, its sensitivity to distributed contamination. However, particles that are deposited on skin or clothing can be partially shielded from the view of the PCM-1's detectors. In these situations, the PCm-1's sensitivity to gamma radiation may be more relevant than its sensitivity to betas

  1. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  2. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar(beta-3p) decay

    CERN Document Server

    Koldste, G.T.; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Giovinazzo, J.; Johansen, J.G.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Kurturkian-Nieto, T.; Nilsson, T.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Picado, E.; Riisager, K.; Saastamoinen, A.; Tengblad, O.; Thomas, J.C.; Van de Walle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as much as 30% of the strength resides in the beta-3p decay mode. A simplified description of how the main decay modes evolve as the excitation energy increases in 31Cl is provided.

  3. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  4. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  5. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  6. The Path to Large-Mass Double Beta Decay Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    The technology is ready for atmospheric scale sensitivity and we can at least discuss it for the solar scale. Even null results will be interesting. Supporting measurements are important and have an impact. Need several mesurements with a total uncertainty (experiment and theory) of {approx} 50% or less, and eventually even better. If we see {beta}{beta} the qualitative physics results are profound, but next we'll want to quantify the underlying physics.

  7. Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...... (ICD-11 beta) is almost exclusively based on the ICHD-3 beta classification structure although slightly abbreviated. We compared sensitivity and specificity to ICHD-2 criteria, and evaluated the needs for revision. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were systematically and prospectively collected from...

  8. HLA Dr beta 1 alleles in Pakistani patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqi, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 alleles in rheumatoid arthritis in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional / analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Rheumatology departments of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: HLA DR beta 1 genotyping of one hundred Pakistani patients, diagnosed as having RA as per American College of Rheumatology revised criteria 1987, was done. HLA DR beta 1 genotyping was carried out at allele group level (DR beta 1*01-DR beta 1*16) by sequence specific primers in RA patients. Comparison of HLA DR beta 1 allele frequencies between patients and control groups was made using Pearson's chi-square test to find possible association of HLA DR?1 alleles with RA in Pakistani rheumatoid patients. Results: HLA DR beta 1*04 was expressed with significantly increased frequency in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p <0.05). HLA DR?1*11 was expressed statistically significantly more in control group as compared to rheumatoid patients indicating a possible protective effect. There was no statistically significant difference observed in frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 allele *01, DR beta 1 allele *03, DR beta 1 allele *07, DR beta 1 allele *08, DR beta 1 allele *09, DR beta 1 allele *10, DR beta 1 allele *12, DR beta 1 allele *13, DR beta 1 allele *14, DR?1 allele *15 and DR beta 1 allele *16 between patients and control groups. Conclusion: The identification of susceptible HLA DR beta 1 alleles in Pakistani RA patients may help physicians to make early decisions regarding initiation of early intensive therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatic medicines and biological agents decreasing disability in RA patients. (author)

  9. beta nur pratiwi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BETA NUR PRATIWI. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 88 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 25 Regular. Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry.

  10. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  11. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce symptoms of breathing disorders such as asthma and exercise-induced asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to prevent ...

  12. Nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Mennrath, P.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of double beta decay with and without emission of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. After the definitions of the processes and implications for the neutrino properties, the present status of the experimental results is discussed. We conclude with a description of the Bordeaux-Zaragoza-Strasbourg experimental which will run in the Frejus tunnel

  13. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  14. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  15. Estrogen receptor beta and the progression of prostate cancer: role of 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Donatella; Piccolella, Margherita; Biserni, Andrea; Della Torre, Sara; Ramachandran, Balaji; Locatelli, Alessia; Rusmini, Paola; Sau, Daniela; Caruso, Donatella; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo; Poletti, Angelo

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) develops in response to an abnormal activation of androgen receptor induced by circulating androgens and, in its initial stages, is pharmacologically controlled by androgen blockade. However, androgen ablation therapy often allows androgen-independent PC development, generally characterized by increased invasiveness. We previously reported that 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol) inhibits the migration of PC cell lines via the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) activation. Here, by combining in vitro assays and in vivo imaging approaches, we analyzed the effects of 3beta-Adiol on PC proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and metastasis in cultured cells and in xenografts using luciferase-labeled PC3 (PC3-Luc) cells. We found that 3beta-Adiol not only inhibits PC3-Luc cell migratory properties, but also induces a broader anti-tumor phenotype by decreasing the proliferation rate, increasing cell adhesion, and reducing invasive capabilities in vitro. All these 3beta-Adiol activities are mediated by ERbeta and cannot be reproduced by the physiological estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, suggesting the existence of different pathways activated by the two ERbeta ligands in PC3-Luc cells. In vivo, continuous administration of 3beta-Adiol reduces growth of established tumors and counteracts metastasis formation when PC3-Luc cells are engrafted s.c. in nude mice or are orthotopically injected into the prostate. Since 3beta-Adiol has no androgenic activity, and cannot be converted to androgenic compounds, the effects here described entail a novel potential application of this agent against human PC.

  16. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peginterferon beta-1a injection is used to treat people who have relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Peginterferon beta-1a injection is in a class of medications ...

  17. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course of disease ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  18. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions...... found in the gastrointestinal tract. For the high-protease assay, both proteins were incubated with either pepsin or pancreatin and digestion monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The low-protease assay involved...... gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  19. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  20. 17beta-estradiol augments 18F-FDG uptake and glycolysis of T47D breast cancer cells via membrane-initiated rapid PI3K-Akt activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2010-11-01

    Use of (18)F-FDG uptake as a surrogate marker of therapeutic response requires the recognition of biologic factors that influence cancer cell glucose metabolism. Estrogen is a potent stimulator of breast cancer proliferation, a process that requires sufficient energy, which is likely met by increased glycolysis. We thus explored the effect of estrogen on (18)F-FDG uptake in responsive breast cancer cells and investigated the mediating molecular mechanisms. T47D breast cancer cells were stimulated with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-E(2) and measured for (18)F-FDG uptake, lactate release, and mitochondrial hexokinase activity. The effects of antiestrogens, cycloheximide, and major protein kinase inhibitors were investigated. Immunoblots were performed for membrane glucose transporter type 1, phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt. E(2) augmented T47D cell (18)F-FDG uptake in a dose- and time-dependent manner that preceded and surpassed its proliferative effect. With exposure to 10 nM E(2), protein content-corrected (18)F-FDG uptake reached 172.7% ± 6.6% and 294.4% ± 9.5% of controls by 24 and 48 h, respectively. Lactate release reached 110.9% ± 7.3% and 145.2% ± 10.5% of controls at 24 and 48 h, and mitochondrial hexokinase activity increased to 187.1% ± 31.6% at 24 h. Membrane glucose transporter type 1 expression was unaltered. The effect was absent in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells and was abrogated by ICI182780, indicating ER dependence. The E(2) effect was not blocked by tamoxifen and was mimicked by membrane-impermeable BSA-E(2), consistent with nongenomic membrane-initiated E(2) action. Inhibition by cycloheximide demonstrated the requirement of a new protein synthesis. Immunoblots displayed rapid phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt within minutes of E(2) treatment, and the specific PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 abolished the ability of E(2) to elevate (18)F-FDG uptake. Estrogen

  1. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  2. THE NEW METALL-BETA-LACTAMASE’S INHIBITOR EFFICACY IN A MODEL SYSTEM IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Afinogenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterobacteriaceae antibiotics resistance depends on a combination of several mechanisms, such as the beta-lactamases overproduction, the microbial cell reduction outer membrane permeability (usually associated with loss of protein porin, the presence of efflux systems. Particularly noteworthy are the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL whose presence causes resistance of gram-negative microorganisms to all beta-lactam antibiotics (in some cases except aztreonam. Currently there are no MBL inhibitors permitted for use in the clinic. The effective inhibitors search for carbapenem-resistant bacteria’ MBL authorized for use in the clinic and reinforcing effects of carbapenems, served as the basis for the present study. The work was carried out in three stages: 1 creating a model system using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, to evaluate the increasing of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of carbapenems against previously sensitive Gram-negative microorganisms strains in vitro; 2 evaluation of MBL promising inhibitors in the presence of the same standard enzyme reagent; 3 evaluation of the ability of the identified inhibitors increase the carbapenems effects against clinical isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms producing MBL, in terms of the their MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index. The checkerboard array was modified to evaluate the combined use of carbapenems and potential MBL inhibitor — a drug from the group of bisphosphonates — etidronic acid. Using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, we created a model system that allows to assess the prospects of new inhibitors MBL gram-negative microorganisms. A dose-dependent effect of increasing the meropenem level MIC from reagent MBL quantity in a model system against previously antibiotic sensitive reference strains of microorganisms was

  3. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunit gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zhao, Hao [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Basrur, Venkatesha [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Structural properties of BetaM and Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits are sharply different. {yields} BetaM protein is concentrated in nuclear membrane of skeletal myocytes. {yields} BetaM does not associate with a Na,K-ATPase {alpha}-subunit in skeletal muscle. {yields} Polypeptide chain of the native BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases. {yields} BetaM in neonatal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B. -- Abstract: ATP1B4 genes represent a rare instance of the orthologous gene co-option that radically changed functions of encoded BetaM proteins during vertebrate evolution. In lower vertebrates, this protein is a {beta}-subunit of Na,K-ATPase located in the cell membrane. In placental mammals, BetaM completely lost its ancestral role and through acquisition of two extended Glu-rich clusters into the N-terminal domain gained entirely new properties as a muscle-specific protein of the inner nuclear membrane possessing the ability to regulate gene expression. Strict temporal regulation of BetaM expression, which is the highest in late fetal and early postnatal myocytes, indicates that it plays an essential role in perinatal development. Here we report the first structural characterization of the native eutherian BetaM protein. It should be noted that, in contrast to structurally related Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits, the polypeptide chain of BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases that greatly complicated its isolation. Nevertheless, using a complex of protease inhibitors, a sample of authentic BetaM was isolated from pig neonatal skeletal muscle by a combination of ion-exchange and lectin-affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Results of the analysis of the BetaM tryptic digest using MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry have demonstrated that native BetaM in neonatal skeletal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B and comprised of 351 amino acid residues. Isolated BetaM protein was

  4. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  5. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  7. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  8. TGF-beta regulation of nuclear proto-oncogenes and TGF-beta gene expression in normal human osteoblast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, M; Oursler, M J; Rasmussen, K; Riggs, B L; Spelsberg, T C

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is present in high levels in bone and plays an important role in osteoblast growth and differentiation. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms of action of TGF-beta on osteoblasts, the effects of TGF-beta on the steady state mRNA levels of c-fos, c-jun, and jun-B proto-oncogenes on normal human osteoblast-like cells (hOB) and a transformed human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) were measured. Treatment of hOBs with 2 ng/ml of TGF-beta 1 resulted in a rapid increase in c-fos mRNA levels as early as 15 min post-treatment. A maximum (10-fold) increase was observed at 30 min after TGF-beta treatment followed by a decrease to control values. Similar responses were measured whether the cells were rapidly proliferating or quiescent. TGF-beta 1 induced jun-B mRNA levels more gradually with steady increase initially observed at 30 min and a maximum induction measured at 2 h post-TGF-beta treatment. In contrast, TGF-beta treatment caused a time dependent decrease in the c-jun mRNA levels, an opposite pattern to that of jun-B mRNA. Treatment of hOBs with TGF-beta 1 in the presence of actinomycin-D abolished TGF-beta 1 induction of c-fos mRNA, suggesting that TGF-beta action is mediated via transcription. In the presence of cycloheximide, TGF-beta causes super-induction of c-fos mRNA at 30 min, indicating that the c-fos expression by TGF-beta is independent of new protein synthesis. Further, transfection of 3 kb upstream region of jun-B promoter linked to a CAT reporter gene into ROS 17/2.8 cells was sufficient to be regulated by TGF-beta 1. Interestingly, TGF-beta treatment also increased the mRNA levels of TGF-beta 1 itself at 4 h post TGF-beta treatment, with a maximum increase observed at 14 h of treatment. TGF-beta 1 treatment for 30 min were sufficient to cause a delayed increase in TGF-beta protein secretion within 24 h. These data support that TGF-beta has major effects on hOB cell proto-oncogene expression and that the

  9. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... nuclear decay of neutrinoless double beta decay typically leading to sub-eV values as well. (Z, A) → (Z + 2, A) + 2e .... Here again energy resolution matters, because of the continuous spectrum of the 2νββ- decay mode, its high .... The benefit of using Te is its high natural abundance. This experiment is in ...

  10. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  11. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  12. The selective action of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs and the nature of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A J; Somerville, A R

    1977-01-01

    1 Purified membranes retaining a catecholamine responsive adenylate cyclase have prepared from rabbit heart, lung and (pseudo-pregnant) uterus. 2 These preparations have the characteristics of plasma membranes and both heart and lung respond to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in the order: (+/-)-isoprenaline greater than (-)-noradrenaline greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than (+)-isoprenaline greater than salbutamol. The sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is improved by pre-treatment of the animals with reserpine and syrosingopine. 3 Dose-ratios for several concentrations of propranolol (non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker), practolol and atenolol (cardio-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockers) have been measured on all three membrane preparations. Schild plots of log (dose ratio -1) vs. log dose were virtually coincident for heart and lung with a dissociation constant (Kb) for propranolol very close to the pharmacological value. The ratio of Kb values was 0.65 for practolol and 1.23 for atenolol compared with pharmacological cardio-selectivity ratios (measured on isolated atria and tracheal chain) of 67.6 and 110 respectively. The uterus/heart Kb ratio was 51.5 for atenolol. Inhibition of the uterus by practolol gave a Schild plot with slope significantly less than 1, indicating a different mechanism of action from the heart. 4 Kb values obtained by measuring adenylate cyclase stimulation in chopped tissue (including preparations of bronchial tree and alveolar tissue as well as whole lung) resembled the membrane values rather than those found in whole organs. 5 The results show that the pharmacological selectivity of practolol and atenolol is maintained at the receptor-adenylate cyclase level, at least as far as heart and uterus are concerned, though the smaller selectivity ratios in the biochemical system suggest that receptor differences is not the only factor and that phase distribution of the drug may also be important

  13. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  14. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  15. [3H]-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the 3 H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo

  16. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  17. Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severijns, N.; Beck, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Caen Univ., CNRS-ENSI, 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2006-05-15

    We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C{sub A},/C{sub V} = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)

  18. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  19. The 1st step initiation essential for allergen-specific IgE antibody production upon the 2nd step: Induction of non-specific IgE+small B cells containing secondly-sensitized allergen-specific ones in mice firstly-sensitized with an allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannya, Natsuki; Ogita-Nakanishi, Hiromi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Kawata, Ryo; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2018-02-01

    There was a significant amount of non-specific, but not of allergen (e.g., papain, mite feces and four kinds of pollen)-specific, IgE antibodies (Abs) in the sera of normal mice. An i.n. injection of each allergen without adjuvant into mice caused an increase in total IgE Ab titers with a similar time course in the serum. However, the stage of initiation of allergy varied from allergen to allergen. Submandibular lymph node cells from normal mice contained papain-, but not mite feces- or pollen-specific IgE + cells and an i.n. injection of papain induced papain-specific IgE Abs in the serum. In contrast, one (i.n.) or two (i.n. and s.c) injections of mite feces induced neither mite feces-specific IgE + cells in the lymph nodes nor mite feces-specific IgE Abs in the serum. I.n. sensitization with cedar pollen induced cedar pollen-specific IgE + small B cells in the lymph nodes on Day 10, when non-specific IgE Ab titers reached a peak in the serum, implying induction of related allergen-specific IgE + small cells as well. In fact, a second (s.c.) injection of ragweed (or cedar) pollen into mice sensitized i.n. once with cedar (or ragweed) pollen, but not with mite feces, induced a large amount of ragweed (or cedar) pollen-specific IgE Abs in the serum. These results indicate that when firstly-sensitized non-specific IgE + small B cells in mouse lymph nodes include some secondly-sensitized allergen-specific ones, mice produce IgE Abs specific for the secondly-injected allergen. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Attenuation of the DNA Damage Response by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Inhibitors Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shisuo; Bouquet, Sophie; Lo, Chen-Hao; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Bolourchi, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Parry, Renate [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California (United States); Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen, E-mail: mhbarcellos-hoff@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibition increases the response to radiation therapy in human and mouse non–small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: TGF-β–mediated growth response and pathway activation were examined in human NSCLC NCI-H1299, NCI-H292, and A549 cell lines and murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells. Cells were treated in vitro with LY364947, a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase, or with the pan-isoform TGF-β neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1D11 before radiation exposure. The DNA damage response was assessed by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or Trp53 protein phosphorylation, γH2AX foci formation, or comet assay in irradiated cells. Radiation sensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay. Mice bearing syngeneic subcutaneous LLC tumors were treated with 5 fractions of 6 Gy and/or neutralizing or control antibody. Results: The NCI-H1299, A549, and LLC NSCLC cell lines pretreated with LY364947 before radiation exposure exhibited compromised DNA damage response, indicated by decreased ATM and p53 phosphorylation, reduced γH2AX foci, and increased radiosensitivity. The NCI-H292 cells were unresponsive. Transforming growth factor-β signaling inhibition in irradiated LLC cells resulted in unresolved DNA damage. Subcutaneous LLC tumors in mice treated with TGF-β neutralizing antibody exhibited fewer γH2AX foci after irradiation and significantly greater tumor growth delay in combination with fractionated radiation. Conclusions: Inhibition of TGF-β before radiation attenuated DNA damage recognition and increased radiosensitivity in most NSCLC cells in vitro and promoted radiation-induced tumor control in vivo. These data support the rationale for concurrent TGF-β inhibition and RT to provide therapeutic benefit in NSCLC.

  1. The neutrino factory and beta beam experiments and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, C.; Barger, V.; Beacom, J.F.; Berg, J.S.; Black, E.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.; Brice, S.; Caspi, S.; Chou, W.; Cummings, M.; Fernow, R.; Finley, D.; Gallardo,; Geer, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.; Harris, D.; Huber, Patrick; Jansson, A.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Brookhaven /IIT, Chicago /Geneva U.

    2004-11-01

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here.

  2. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  4. Microcalorimetric and spectrographic studies on host-guest interactions of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Min [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhisdz@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Li, Linwei, E-mail: lilinwei@lcu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-10-20

    Thermal effects of inclusion processes of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol (RES) in aqueous solutions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with nanowatt sensitivity at the temperature of 298.15 K. Standard enthalpy changes, stoichiometry and equilibrium constants of the inclusion complexes were derived from the direct calorimetric data utilizing nonlinear simulation. The thermodynamic parameters were discussed in the light of weak interactions between the host and the guest molecules combining with UV spectral message. The results indicate that all of the complexes formed in the aqueous solutions are in 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding processes of {alpha}-, {beta}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with the guest are mainly driven by enthalpy, while that of {gamma}-cyclodextrin with the drug is driven by both enthalpy and entropy.

  5. Critical analysis of diagnostic criteria (ICHD-3 beta about migraine in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Ferreira Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the International Classification of Headache Disorders I (ICHD-I diagnostic criteria for migraine in children and adolescents.Methods 150 pain diaries were analyzed during an initial consultation. The duration of migraine headache attacks were divided into 2 groups: Group I, for attacks lasting > 2 hours, and Group II, for attacks lasting < 2 hours.The two groups were statistically compared using Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05.Results In this study, 51(34% subjects were male and 99 (66% were female, aged 7–15 years. Fisher’s exact test demonstrated that the ICHD-3 beta had a 58% sensitivity for Group I diagnoses and a 94% sensitivity for Group II diagnoses (p < 0.001.Conclusion The current ICHD-3 beta classification improves and advances migraine diagnosis in children and adolescents; however, more research is needed to identify additional characteristics of headache in this age group.

  6. Lower limits of detection in using carbon nanotubes as thermoluminescent dosimeters of beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Jurewicz, Izabela; Alalawi, Amani I.; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Alsubaie, Abdullah; Hinder, Steven; Bañuls-Ciscar, Jorge; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    World-wide, on-going intensive research is being seen in adaptation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for a wide variety of applications, particular interest herein being in the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of CNTs and their sensitivity towards energetic radiations. Using beta radiation delivering dose levels of a few Gy it has been observed in previous study that strain and impurity defects in CNTs give rise to significant TL yields, providing an initial measure of the extent to which electron trapping centres exist in various qualities of CNT, from super-pure to raw. This in turn points to the possibility that there may be considerable advantage in using such media for radiation dosimetry applications, including for in vivo dosimetry. CNTs also have an effective atomic number similar to that of adipose tissue, making them suitable for soft tissue dosimetry. In present investigations various single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) samples in the form of buckypaper have been irradiated to doses in the range 35-1.3 Gy, use being made of a 90Sr beta source, the response of the CNTs buckypaper with dose showing a trend towards linearity. It is shown for present production methodology for buckypaper samples that the raw SWCNT buckypaper offer the greatest sensitivity, detecting doses down to some few tens of mGy.

  7. Development of thin dosemeters of CaSO4: Dy for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin pellets of CaSO: Dy (0,20mm) were produced and tested in beta radiation fields. The Thermolumiscent (TL) characteristics studied were sensitivity, reproducibility, lower detection limit, linearity of TL response with absorved dose energy dependence. The results show the usefulness of this thin pellets in beta radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  8. Redox-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Dix, T. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates response to injury via ubiquitous cell surface receptors. The biological activity of TGF beta is restrained by its secretion as a latent complex (LTGF beta) such that activation determines the extent of TGF beta activity during physiological and pathological events. TGF beta action has been implicated in a variety of reactive oxygen-mediated tissue processes, particularly inflammation, and in pathologies such as reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. It was recently shown to be rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure, which also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present studies, the potential for redox-mediated LTGF beta activation was investigated using a cell-free system in which ROS were generated in solution by ionizing radiation or metal ion-catalyzed ascorbate reaction. Irradiation (100 Gray) of recombinant human LTGF beta in solution induced 26% activation compared with that elicited by standard thermal activation. Metal-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation elicited extremely efficient recombinant LTGF beta activation that matched or exceeded thermal activation. The efficiency of ascorbate activation depended on ascorbate concentrations and the presence of transition metal ions. We postulate that oxidation of specific amino acids in the latency-conferring peptide leads to a conformation change in the latent complex that allows release of TGF beta. Oxidative activation offers a novel route for the involvement of TGF beta in tissue processes in which ROS are implicated and endows LTGF beta with the ability to act as a sensor of oxidative stress and, by releasing TGF beta, to function as a signal for orchestrating the response of multiple cell types. LTGF beta redox sensitivity is presumably directed toward recovery of homeostasis; however, oxidation may also be a mechanism of LTGF beta activation that can be deleterious during

  9. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  10. Halka Açık Olmayan Şirketlerde Sistematik Risk Ölçütü Beta Katsayısının Tahmin Edilmesi(Forecasting Systematic Risk Measure Beta Coefficient For Private Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KIRLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic risk being insensitive to portfolio diversification affects all financial markets and all financial assets operated in these markets.Systematic risk measure beta coefficient shows the sensitivity of the securities’ returns to variations in the market return.Beta coefficient is forecasted by using regression model.For publicly traded firms, we know the historical market datas,thus there is no difficulty for estimating beta coefficients of these firms.On the other hand,private companies do not have a market price history.Consequently there are difficulties for estimating beta coefficients of private companies.In this study,to forecast beta coefficients for private firms,three models or approaches are suggested and with details analysed.These models or approaches are accounting betas,fundamental betas and comparable publicly traded firms betas.

  11. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  12. Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl...... fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect...

  13. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  14. Antibodies against beta-lactamase can improve ceftazidime treatment of lung infection with beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rat model of chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Bagge, Niels; Høiby, Niels

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) might act as beta-lactamase inhibitors in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa, we compared in a rat model of chronic lung infection...... the efficacy of treatment with ceftazidime in beta-lactamase-immunized (group I) and non-immunized (group II) rats. Chronic lung infection was established with alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa producing high amounts of beta-lactamase in 133 Lewis rats. Prior to infection, group I (66 rats) was immunized three...... times at 2-week intervals with purified beta-lactamase in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and group II (67 rats) received IFA. Ceftazidime treatment was initiated after challenge and continued for 10 days, after which the rats were sacrificed and the lung bacteriology and pathology were analysed. Rat...

  15. Antibodies against beta-lactamase can improve ceftazidime treatment of lung infection with beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rat model of chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Bagge, Niels; Høiby, Niels

    2002-01-01

    times at 2-week intervals with purified beta-lactamase in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and group II (67 rats) received IFA. Ceftazidime treatment was initiated after challenge and continued for 10 days, after which the rats were sacrificed and the lung bacteriology and pathology were analysed. Rat......To test the hypothesis that antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) might act as beta-lactamase inhibitors in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa, we compared in a rat model of chronic lung infection...... the efficacy of treatment with ceftazidime in beta-lactamase-immunized (group I) and non-immunized (group II) rats. Chronic lung infection was established with alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa producing high amounts of beta-lactamase in 133 Lewis rats. Prior to infection, group I (66 rats) was immunized three...

  16. The pharmacokinetics, distribution and degradation of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J; Wogensen, L D; Welinder, B

    1991-01-01

    Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half-lives of distribut......Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half......-lives of distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta (rIL-1 beta), and its tissue distribution and cellular localization by means of mono-labelled, biologically active 125I-rIL-1 beta. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, 125I-rIL-1 beta was eliminated from...... of administration was of importance for the biological effects of rIL-1 beta, as demonstrated by a reduced food intake, increased rectal temperature and blood glucose after s.c. injection of rIL-1 beta compared with i.p. The present demonstration of intact rIL-1 beta in the circulation and the islets of Langerhans...

  17. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire’s theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer. - Highlights: • Range-energy relationship for the beta particles in yttrium-90 is calculated. • Formalism for the semi-analytical calculation of self-absorption coefficients. • Energy-dependent self-absorption coefficient calculated for yttrium-90. • Flux rate of beta particles from a self-attenuating radioactive sphere is shown. • The efficiency of beta particle emitting radioactive microspheres is calculated

  18. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  19. Taxonomic, spatial and adaptive genetic variation of Beta section Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Pierre; Desprez, Bruno; Manel, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    The genetic variation of Beta section Beta is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters. There are significant associations between molecular markers and environmental variables. We investigated the genetic diversity of Beta section Beta, which includes the wild and cultivated relatives of the sugar beet. The taxa included in the study were: Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. vulgaris subsp. adanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. patula and B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (garden beet, leaf beet and swiss chards). We collected 1264 accessions originating from the entire distribution area of these taxa and genotyped them for 4436 DArT markers (DArTs). We showed that the genetic variation of these accessions is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters: (1) samples of Beta macrocarpa, (2) samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, (3) Mediterranean and Asian samples and (4) Atlantic and Northern European samples. These last two clusters were mainly composed of samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. We investigated in deeper detail the genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which constituted the majority (80%) of the wild samples. This subspecies exhibited a clinal genetic variation from South-East to North-West. We detected some markers significantly associated to environmental variables in B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. These associations are interpreted as results of natural selection. The variable most often involved in the associations was annual mean temperature. Therefore, these markers can be useful for the development of frost-tolerant winter beets and drought-tolerant rain-fed beets.

  20. Beta2-adrenoceptors: mechanisms of action of beta2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    2001-03-01

    The human beta2-adrenoceptor is a member of the 7 transmembrane family of receptors. It is encoded by a gene on chromosome 5 and is widely distributed in the respiratory tract. Following beta2-adrenoceptor activation, intracellular signalling is mainly produced by inducing cyclic AMP. This produces airway relaxation through phosphorylation of muscle regulatory proteins and modification of cellular Ca2+concentrations. Beta2-agonists have been characterised into those which directly activate the receptor (salbutamol/terbutaline), those which are taken up into a membrane depot (formoterol) and those which interact with a receptor-specific, auxiliary binding site (salmeterol). These differences in mechanism of action are reflected in the kinetics of airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation in asthmatic patients. Beta-adrenoceptor desensitisation is associated with beta2-agonist activation and differs depending on the cell type. It is reflected in the different profiles of clinical tolerance to chronic beta2-agonist therapy. A number of polymorphisms of the beta2-receptor have been described which appear to alter the behaviour of the receptor, including the degree of downregulation and response to beta2-agonists.

  1. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  2. Consequence of beta 16 and beta 112 replacements on the kinetics of hemoglobin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K; Yang, Y; Joshi, A A; Vasudevan, G; Morris, A; McDonald, M J

    2001-11-23

    The rates of alpha/beta monomer combination of four beta(A) variants (beta 112C --> S, beta 112C --> D, beta 112C --> T, and beta 112C --> V) in the presence and absence of beta 16G --> D (beta(J)) were measured in an attempt to assess the consequences of amino acid substitution at both a surface (beta 16) and an alpha(1)beta(1) interface (beta 112) residue on oxyhemoglobin assembly. Rates of alpha/beta monomer combination determined spectrally in 0.1 M Tris-HCl, 0.1 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, at 21.5 degrees C differed by over 40-fold (22 +/- 2.0 to 0.49 +/- 0.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and were in the order: HbA beta 112S = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112S > HbA beta 112D = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112D > HbA > Hb J > HbA beta 112T = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112T > HbJ beta 16D, beta 112V > HbA beta 112V. This extensive kinetic investigation of single/double amino acid-substituted recombinant hemoglobin molecules, in conjunction with molecular modeling studies, has allowed examination of an array of unique alpha/beta subunit interactions and assembly processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. TGF-Beta and Breast Cancer Induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dabovic, Branka

    2001-01-01

    .... We study the molecule TGF-beta, which blocks cell growth. TGF-beta is produced as latent complex consisting of the TGF-beta homodimer, the TGF-beta propeptide dimmer, and a second gene product, the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP...

  4. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  5. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  6. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particula...

  7. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  8. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  9. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  10. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  11. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  12. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol ( ...

  13. Rearrangements of the beta-globin gene cluster in apparently typical betaS haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Gualandro, S; Yokomizu, I K; Araujo, A G; Tavela, M H; Gerard, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Elion, J

    2001-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the betaS gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as atypical haplotypes. We have demonstrated that most atypical haplotypes are generated by recombinations. The present study was carried out in order to explore whether recombination also occurs in chromosomes with the common (or typical) haplotypes. We screened the HS-2 region of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in 244 sickle cell patients who had typical restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-defined haplotypes of the betaS-gene cluster. For 14 cases in which the expected and the observed LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, the analysis was extended to other unexplored polymorphic markers of the bS-globin gene cluster, i.e.: pre-Ggamma framework, pre-Ggamma 6-bp deletion, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta(AT)xTy repeats, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. In all 14 cases (15 chromosomes) in which the LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, a recombination involving a typical 3' segment of the betaS globin gene cluster was demonstrated. In most of the cases, the recombination site was located between the beta-globin gene and the betaLCR. Nine cases involving recombination were detected among 156 Brazilian HbS homozygotes and five among 88 African patients homozygotes for the Benin haplotype. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS. Thus, 3.1% of apparently typical haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene involve recombinations similar to those that generate the atypical haplotypes, a finding that reinforces the picture of the beta-globin gene cluster as highly dynamic.

  14. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  15. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  16. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value...

  17. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high......The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value...

  18. Modes of operation of the BKCa channel beta2 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicoletta; Kondratiev, Andrei; de Quintana, Sarah Buxton; Toro, Ligia; Olcese, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    The beta(2) subunit of the large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (BK(Ca)) modulates a number of channel functions, such as the apparent Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity, pharmacological and kinetic properties of the channel. In addition, the N terminus of the beta(2) subunit acts as an inactivating particle that produces a relatively fast inactivation of the ionic conductance. Applying voltage clamp fluorometry to fluorescently labeled human BK(Ca) channels (hSlo), we have investigated the mechanisms of operation of the beta(2) subunit. We found that the leftward shift on the voltage axis of channel activation curves (G(V)) produced by coexpression with beta(2) subunits is associated with a shift in the same direction of the fluorescence vs. voltage curves (F(V)), which are reporting the voltage dependence of the main voltage-sensing region of hSlo (S4-transmembrane domain). In addition, we investigated the inactivating mechanism of the beta(2) subunits by comparing its properties with the ones of the typical N-type inactivation process of Shaker channel. While fluorescence recordings from the inactivated Shaker channels revealed the immobilization of the S4 segments in the active conformation, we did not observe a similar feature in BK(Ca) channels coexpressed with the beta(2) subunit. The experimental observations are consistent with the view that the beta(2) subunit of BK(Ca) channels facilitates channel activation by changing the voltage sensor equilibrium and that the beta(2)-induced inactivation process does not follow a typical N-type mechanism.

  19. Validation study of the BetaStar plus lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzied, Mohamed; Driksna, Dana; Walsh, Coilin; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Ankrapp, David; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) was conducted for a receptor and antibody-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar Plus) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels, but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS). Results of the part I (internal) and part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in close agreement. The test was able to detect all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when presented as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing of 1031 control milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar Plus assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels.

  20. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  1. N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane sensitizes bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin by preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Yu, Haogang; Shen, Mo; Wei, Wei; Xia, Lihong; Zhao, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance greatly reduces the efficacy of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in bladder cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), which inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) activation, exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in bladder cancer, and whether eIF5A2 is involved in chemoresistance to doxorubicin-based bladder cancer treatment. BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells were transfected with eIF5A2 siRNA or negative control siRNA before incubation with doxorubicin alone or doxorubicin plus GC7 for 48 h. Doxorubicin cytotoxicity was enhanced by GC7 in BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 cells. It significantly inhibited activity of eIF5A2, suppressed doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BIU-87 cells, and promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Knockdown of eIF5A2 sensitized bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin, prevented doxorubicin-induced EMT in BIU-87 cells, and encouraged mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Combination therapy with GC7 may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in bladder cancer by inhibiting eIF5A2 activation and preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. The sensitivity of laser induced fluorescence instruments at low pressure to RO2 radicals and the use of this detection method to determine the yield of HO2 during OH-initiated isoprene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, D. E.; Whalley, L. K.; Blitz, M. A.; Seakins, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient measurements of HO2 have almost exclusively been made by chemical titration of HO2 to OH by NO and the subsequent detection of the OH radical using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) at low pressures (~ 1 Torr) (Heard and Pilling, 2003). Until recently it was assumed that higher peroxy radicals (RO2) could not act as an HO2 interference in LIF because although these species also react with NO to form an alkoxy radical (RO) at 1 Torr the subsequent reaction RO + O2 to give HO2 is too slow. Independent laboratory studies conducted at the University of Leeds, UK and at the Forschungzentrum, Julich, Germany (Fuchs et al., 2011), however, have revealed that alkene-derived RO2 radicals and longer chain alkane-derived RO2 (>C3) are able to rapidly convert to HO2 in the presence of NO in a LIF detection cell. The yield of HO2 from a range of different RO2 species has been determined in Leeds and in the most part these yields agree well with model predictions based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCM/). For ethene and isoprene derived RO2 species, the relative sensitivity was found to be close to 100% with respect to that for HO2. The sensitivity of different LIF instruments/LIF operating conditions to this interference has been found to be highly variable, however. Under the operating conditions employed during the 2008 OP3 campaign that took place in the Borneo rainforest, the University of Leeds ground-based LIF instrument was not sensitive to detection of these RO2 species. The high pumping capacity of the system coupled with poor mixing of NO into the ambient air-stream for the titration of HO2 to OH effectively minimised this potential interference. Using the ground-based LIF detection cell coupled to a flow-tube, experiments to determine the time-resolved yield of HO2 radicals during the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene have been conducted. OH was generated by photolysis of t-butyl-hydro-peroxide by 254 nm radiation from a Hg lamp in

  3. Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: Basic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A basic formalism is developed for the theory of the effect on nuclear beta decay of an intense, plane-wave electromagnetic field. Interactions of the field with both the nuclear particles and the decay electron are included. The formalism is developed from first principles, including a derivation of transition probabilities between explicitly time-dependent asymptotic states. Interaction of the field with the nucleus is analyzed in terms of separation of the nucleus into an inert core and a fragment. The field interacts with the fragment, consisting of the nucleons which are candidates for beta decay, plus any other nucleons angular-momentum coupled to them in initial or final states. A separation of variables in the dynamical equations for the nucleus into center-of-mass and relative coordinates for the core and fragment shows direct charge coupling even for a fragment consisting entirely of neutrons. The transition formalism involves specific intense-field wave functions both for the nucleus and for the beta particle. Complete results are presented for total transition probability per unit time for intense-field-coupled nuclear beta decay. A much simplified formalism is given for the special case of very high field intensity at very low frequency. The results then bear a formal resemblance to ordinary beta decay theory, but they contain specific field effects in the beta particle spectral function, and in the nuclear interaction matrix elements. This is the first of a series of papers on this subject

  4. TGF-beta and 'adaptive' Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; Konkel, Joanne E

    2010-02-01

    In naïve T cells transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for programming and developing T regulatory cells (Treg cells). This finding reveals a physiological factor which can turn on the Foxp3 gene and establishes an experimental approach to induce antigen-specific Treg cells as a potential therapy for human diseases. While this role for TGF-beta is well confirmed, several critical questions remain largely unanswered and await further investigation. In this regard, it is imperative to understand the molecular pathways by which TGF-beta signaling initiates and regulates Foxp3 expression. It is also important to elucidate which factors and/or cytokines influence the TGF-beta-mediated conversion of naïve T cells and how to create an immunologically regulatory milieu to facilitate Treg cell generation in vivo. In this short article, we will highlight the key findings and recent progress in the field, discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the TGF-beta-mediated induction of Foxp3, and attempt to outline the challenges ahead.

  5. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire's theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer.

  6. Activity of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in urinary isolates. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from February to October 2008. Methodology: A total of 190 consecutive non-duplicate isolates of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae from urine samples of in-patients were included in the study. Urinary samples from out-patients, repeat samples and non-ESBL producing isolates were excluded. Detection of ESBL was carried out by double disk diffusion technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 10. Results: Of the 190 ESBL isolates tested, 88 cases (46.31%) were sensitive and 6 cases (3.15%) were resistant to all three combinations, the rest 96 cases (50.52%) were resistant to at least one of the combinations. Susceptibility pattern of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 95.26, 92.10, and 44.31 percent respectively. Conclusion: Cefoperazone/sulbactam exhibited the best activity against ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. Hospital antibiotic policies should be reviewed periodically to reduce the usage of extended spectrum cephalosporins and replace them with beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations agent for treating urinary tract infections. (author)

  7. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, M.; Rabitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//deltaα/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and α/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  8. Interlaboratory beta source calibration using TL and OSL on natural quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goksu. H.Y.; Bailiff, I.K.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratories using luminescence methods for dose reconstruction have to make interlaboratory source calibrations-initially this will be a single isotope beta or gamma source using one particular reference material. The procedure requires not only the administration of exact doses to the material...... difficulties finding sufficient suitable quartz. Five different batches were obtained from the Merck company and tested for sensitivity, linearity and stability of the 340 degrees C peak, the 1992 batch was found to be the most appropriate. The irradiations were performed at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry...... Laboratory at GSF using a Go-60 source as well as the in situ measurements with an ionization chamber, calibrated to the primary standards of PTB Braunschweig. Irradiated and unirradiated quartz was distributed to the five laboratories and although different procedures were used for thermoluminescence...

  9. Fabrication and characterization of new LiF: Eu3+ sintered phosphors exposed to beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, A.R.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.; Barboza F, M.; Kitis, G.; Castano, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Pellet-shaped LiF:Eu 3+ phosphors were synthesized by sintering. To improve their thermoluminescence characteristics, different growth conditions were used. Thermal annealing at 750 C during 5 h under air atmosphere provided the samples with highest sensitivity. Characteristic glow curves exhibit an absolute maximum centered at 203 C, and another less intense peak between 250 and 300 C. The first peak has a position very suitable for dosimetry applications. Beta irradiated samples displayed a thermoluminescence response that increases as the radiation dose increased in the 0.16 - 42.0 Gy range. A fast fading of less than 20 % occurs in the first 10 s after irradiation, followed by a remarkable stability at room temperature. Computerized glow curve deconvolution of experimental data obtained applying the McKeever method to resolve the individual peaks revealed that the glow curves fits to nine individual peaks. Activation energies were computed by using the initial rise method. (Author)

  10. Two betas or not two betas: regulation of asymmetric division by beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kota; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    In various organisms, cells divide asymmetrically to produce distinct daughter cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, asymmetric division is controlled by the asymmetric activity of a Wnt signaling pathway (the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway). In this process, two specialized beta-catenin homologs have crucial roles in the transmission of Wnt signals to the asymmetric activity of a T-cell factor (TCF)-type transcription factor, POP-1, in the daughter cells. One beta-catenin homolog regulates the distinct nuclear level of POP-1, and the other functions as a coactivator of POP-1. Both beta-catenins localize asymmetrically in the daughter nuclei using different mechanisms. The recent discovery of reiterative nuclear asymmetries of a highly conserved beta-catenin in an annelid suggests that similar molecular mechanisms might regulate asymmetric cell divisions in other organisms.

  11. Organization of the gene encoding human lysosomal beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreau, H; Bonten, E; Zhou, X Y; D'Azzo, A

    1991-09-01

    Human beta-galactosidase precursor mRNA is alternatively spliced into an abundant 2.5-kb transcript and a minor 2.0-kb species. These templates direct the synthesis of the classic lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase enzyme and of a beta-galactosidase-related protein with no enzymatic activity. Mutations in the beta-galactosidase gene result in the lysosomal storage disorders GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B syndrome. To analyze the genetic lesions underlying these syndromes we have isolated the human beta-galactosidase gene and determined its organization. The gene spans greater than 62.5 kb and contains 16 exons. Promoter activity is located on a 236-bp Pst I fragment which works in a direction-independent manner. A second Pst I fragment of 851 bp located upstream from the first negatively regulates initiation of transcription. The promoter has characteristics of a housekeeping gene with GC-rich stretches and five potential SP1 transcription elements on two strands. We identified multiple cap sites of the mRNA, the major of which maps 53 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon. The portion of the human pre-mRNA undergoing alternative splicing is encoded by exons II-VII. Sequence analysis of equivalent mouse exons showed an identical genomic organization. However, translation of the corresponding differentially spliced murine transcript is interrupted in its reading frame. Thus, the mouse gene cannot encode a beta-galactosidase-related protein in a manner similar to the human counterpart. Differential expression of the murine beta-galactosidase transcript is observed in different mouse tissues.

  12. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  13. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  14. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Results Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Conclusion Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV

  15. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Jeanmarie Verchot; Rush, Charles M; Payton, Mark; Colberg, Terry

    2007-04-05

    Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV.

  16. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  17. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-dependent metabolism of 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir G Nashev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 in the regulation of energy metabolism and immune system by locally reactivating glucocorticoids has been extensively studied. Experiments determining initial rates of enzyme activity revealed that 11beta-HSD1 can catalyze both the reductase and the dehydrogenase reaction in cell lysates, whereas it predominantly catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol in intact cells that also express hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH, which provides cofactor NADPH. Besides its role in glucocorticoid metabolism, there is evidence that 11beta-HSD1 is involved in the metabolism of 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-steroids; however the impact of H6PDH on this alternative function of 11beta-HSD1 has not been assessed. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the 11beta-HSD1-dependent metabolism of the neurosteroids 7-keto-, 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-pregnenolone, respectively, in the absence or presence of H6PDH in intact cells. 3D-structural modeling was applied to study the binding of ligands in 11beta-HSD1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that 11beta-HSD1 functions in a reversible way and efficiently catalyzed the interconversion of these 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids in intact cells. In the presence of H6PDH, 11beta-HSD1 predominantly converted 7-keto-DHEA and 7-ketopregnenolone into their corresponding 7beta-hydroxy metabolites, indicating a role for H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in the local generation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. 3D-structural modeling offered an explanation for the preferred formation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Our results from experiments determining the steady state concentrations of glucocorticoids or 7-oxygenated neurosteroids suggested that the equilibrium between cortisone and cortisol and between 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids is regulated by 11beta-HSD1 and greatly

  18. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed...... radioimmuno-electrophoresis. The modification of native beta 2m can be executed by membrane-associated activity of mononuclear cells, and Des-Lys58-beta 2m augments the production of interleukin 2. In this study we present evidence that human neutrophils contain native beta 2m in specific granules, secretory...... vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...

  19. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  20. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana [Davis, CA; Lamsa, Michael [Davis, CA; Gorre-Clancy, Brian [Elk Grove, CA

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  1. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  2. [Study on TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3 expression in the chick basilar papilla following gentamicin toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wang, J

    1998-10-01

    The beta-type transforming growth factors (TGF beta s) are secreted proteins, which play an important role in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic inner ear. In order to probe into the effect of TGF beta s on the hair cell regeneration, expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were examined by using immunohistochemistry in the chicken basilar papilla during hair cell regeneration following gentamicin ototoxicity. Ten-day-old chickens received daily subcutaneous injection of gentamicin sulfate 50 mg/kg of ten consecutive days. The animals were allowed to survive 1,3,7,14,21 and 28 days before sacrifice and preparation for examination of the expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins. Immunostaining results demonstrated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were observed in the damaged region of basilar papilla. TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins positive cells were limited to the lumenal nuclear layer within the damaged region. TGF beta 1 protein positive cell was not found in our study. These results indicated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins might play a role in regulating proliferation of the supporting cells immigrated into the lumenal nuclear layer during hair cell regeneration.

  3. Subtype-selective modulation of human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor function by beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Daul, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    In healthy volunteers a 14-day treatment with the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist xamoterol (2 x 200 mg/day) desensitized beta 1-adrenoceptor-mediated physiological effects, but did not affect beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects; in contrast, a 9-day treatment with the selective beta

  4. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in

  5. Crystal structure and mutagenesis of a protein phosphatase-1:calcineurin hybrid elucidate the role of the beta12-beta13 loop in inhibitor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Jason T; Perreault, Kathleen R; Cherney, Maia M; Luu, Hue Anh; James, Michael N G; Holmes, Charles F B

    2004-10-08

    Protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase-2B (calcineurin) are eukaryotic serine/threonine phosphatases that share 40% sequence identity in their catalytic subunits. Despite the similarities in sequence, these phosphatases are widely divergent when it comes to inhibition by natural product toxins, such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid. The most prominent region of non-conserved sequence between these phosphatases corresponds to the beta12-beta13 loop of protein phosphatase-1, and the L7 loop of toxin-resistant calcineurin. In the present study, mutagenesis of residues 273-277 of the beta12-beta13 loop of the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP-1c) to the corresponding residues in calcineurin (312-316), resulted in a chimeric mutant that showed a decrease in sensitivity to microcystin-LR, okadaic acid, and the endogenous PP-1c inhibitor protein inhibitor-2. A crystal structure of the chimeric mutant in complex with okadaic acid was determined to 2.0-A resolution. The beta12-beta13 loop region of the mutant superimposes closely with that of wild-type PP-1c bound to okadaic acid. Systematic mutation of each residue in the beta12-beta13 loop of PP-1c showed that a single amino acid change (C273L) was the most influential in mediating sensitivity of PP-1c to toxins. Taken together, these data indicate that it is an individual amino acid residue substitution and not a change in the overall beta12-beta13 loop conformation of protein phosphatase-1 that contributes to disrupting important interactions with inhibitors such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid.

  6. Interleukin-1 beta targeted therapy for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maedler, K.; Dharmadhikari, G.; Schumann, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    . It plays a role in various diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases and type 1 diabetes, as well as in diseases associated with metabolic syndrome such as atherosclerosis, chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes. Macrophage are the primary source....... We highlight recent clinical studies and experiments in animals and isolated islets using IL-1beta as a potential target for the therapy of type 2 diabetes Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9....... Macrophage-derived IL-1beta production in insulin-sensitive organs, leads to progression of inflammation and induction of insulin resistance in obesity. We summarize the mechanisms involved in inflammation and specifically the IL-1beta signals that lead to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...

  7. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  8. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  9. Beta-Testing Agreement | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-Testing Agreements are appropriate forlimited term evaluation and applications development of new software, technology, or equipment platforms by the Frederick National Laboratory in collaboration with an external commercial partner. It ma

  10. LHC $\\beta^*$ reach in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2012-01-01

    The available aperture in the LHC imposes a lower limit on the achievable $\\beta^*$ . The aperture must be protected by the collimation system, and the collimator families have to be ordered in a strict hierarchy for optimal performance, with large enough margins so that the hierarchy is not violated by machine imperfections such as closed orbit distortions or $\\beta$-beating. The achievable $\\beta^*$ is thus a function of both the aperture and the collimator settings. An overview of the run in 2011 is presented, as well as a review of the necessary margins between collimator families and the aperture. Finally an outlook towards possible scenarios for $\\beta^*$ in 2012 and at higher energies is given.

  11. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  12. Developmental regulation of {beta}-hexosaminidase {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit gene expression in the rat reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasler, J.M.; Wakamatsu, N.; Gravel, R.A.; Benoit, G. [McGill-Montreal Chilrden`s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    {beta}-Hexosaminidase is an essential lysosomal enzyme whose absence in man results in a group of disorders, the G{sub M2} gangliosidoses. Enzyme activity for {beta}-hexosaminidase is many fold higher in the epididymis than in other tissues, is present in sperm and is postulated to be required for mammalian fertilization. To better understand how {beta}-hexosaminidase is regulated in the reproductive system, we quantitated the mRNA expression of the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits (Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta}) of the enzyme in the developing rat testis and epididymis. Hex {alpha} mRNA was differentially expressed and abundant in adult rat testis and epididymis, 13- and 2-fold brain levels, respectively. In contrast, Hex {beta} mRNA levels in the testis and epididymis were .3- and 5-fold brain levels. Within the epididymis both Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNA concentrations were highest in the corpus, 1.5-fold and 9-fold initial segment values, respectively. During testis development from 7-91 days of age, testis levels of Hex {alpha} mRNA increased 10-fold and coincided with the appearance of spermatocytes and spermatids in the epithelium. In isolated male germ cells, Hex {alpha} expression was most abundant in haploid round spermatids. Hex {alpha} mRNA was undetectable after hypophysectomy and returned to normal after testosterone administration and the return of advanced germ cells to the testis. Hex {beta} mRNA was expressed at constant low levels throughout testis development. In the caput-corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis Hex {alpha} mRNA levels increased 2-fold between 14 and 91 days; during the same developmental period epididymal Hex {beta} mRNA levels increased dramatically, by 10-20 fold. In summary, Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNAs are differentially and developmentally expressed at high levels in the rat testis and epididymis and augur for an important role for {beta}-hexosaminidase in normal male reproductive function.

  13. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7 revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known.

  14. Three-dimensional immobilization of beta-galactosidase on a silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Lorena; Luckarift, Heather R; Seo, Jae H; Brand, Oliver; Spain, Jim C

    2008-02-01

    Many alternative strategies to immobilize and stabilize enzymes have been investigated in recent years for applications in biosensors. The entrapment of enzymes within silica-based nanospheres formed through silicification reactions provides high loading capacities for enzyme immobilization, resulting in high volumetric activity and enhanced mechanical stability. Here we report a strategy for chemically associating silica nanospheres containing entrapped enzyme to a silicon support. beta-galactosidase from E. coli was used as a model enzyme due to its versatility as a biosensor for lactose. The immobilization strategy resulted in a three-dimensional network of silica attached directly at the silicon surface, providing a significant increase in surface area and a corresponding 3.5-fold increase in enzyme loading compared to enzyme attached directly at the surface. The maximum activity recovered for a silicon square sample of 0.5 x 0.5 cm was 0.045 IU using the direct attachment of the enzyme through glutaraldehyde and 0.16 IU when using silica nanospheres. The immobilized beta-galactosidase prepared by silica deposition was stable and retained more than 80% of its initial activity after 10 days at 24 degrees C. The ability to generate three-dimensional structures with enhanced loading capacity for biosensing molecules offers the potential to substantially amplify biosensor sensitivity. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  17. Absence of cannabinoid 1 receptor in beta cells protects against high-fat/high-sugar diet-induced beta cell dysfunction and inflammation in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Montoro, Rodrigo A; Doyle, Máire E; Liu, Qing-Rong; Rouse, Michael; O'Connell, Jennifer F; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Ghosh, Soumita; Carlson, Olga D; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Chia, Chee W; Ghosh, Paritosh; Egan, Josephine M

    2018-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) regulates insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. CB1R is expressed on pancreatic beta cells and is coupled to the G protein Gαi, suggesting a negative regulation of endogenous signalling in the beta cell. Deciphering the exact function of CB1R in beta cells has been confounded by the expression of this receptor on multiple tissues involved in regulating metabolism. Thus, in models of global genetic or pharmacological CB1R blockade, it is difficult to distinguish the indirect effects of improved insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues from the direct effects of inhibiting CB1R in beta cells per se. To assess the direct contribution of beta cell CB1R to metabolism, we designed a mouse model that allows us to determine the role of CB1R specifically in beta cells in the context of whole-body metabolism. We generated a beta cell specific Cnr1 (CB1R) knockout mouse (β-CB1R -/- ) to study the long-term consequences of CB1R ablation on beta cell function in adult mice. We measured beta cell function, proliferation and viability in these mice in response to a high-fat/high-sugar diet and induction of acute insulin resistance with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. β-CB1R -/- mice had increased fasting (153 ± 23% increase at 10 weeks of age) and stimulated insulin secretion and increased intra-islet cAMP levels (217 ± 33% increase at 10 weeks of age), resulting in primary hyperinsulinaemia, as well as increased beta cell viability, proliferation and islet area (1.9-fold increase at 10 weeks of age). Hyperinsulinaemia led to insulin resistance, which was aggravated by a high-fat/high-sugar diet and weight gain, although beta cells maintained their insulin secretory capacity in response to glucose. Strikingly, islets from β-CB1R -/- mice were protected from diet-induced inflammation. Mechanistically, we show that this is a consequence of curtailment of oxidative stress and reduced activation of

  18. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...... in the proteolysis of beta 2m. However, we demonstrated that native beta 2m following degranulation may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m by lymphocytes. We suggest that neutrophil beta 2m following exocytosis may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m, acting as an extracellular messenger between granulocytes...

  19. Are calculated betas good for anything?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    We calculate betas of 3,813 companies using 60 monthly returns each day of December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the maximum beta divided by the minimum beta was 3.07 (15.7). The median of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of the betas was 20%. Industry betas are also unstable. On average, the maximum beta of an industry was 2.7 times its minimum beta in December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of t...

  20. Light and electron microscopy study of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Perez-Costas

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta is highly abundant in the brain. Various biochemical analyses have indicated that GSK3beta is localized to different intracellular compartments within brain cells. However, ultrastructural visualization of this kinase in various brain regions and in different brain cell types has not been reported. The goal of the present study was to examine GSK3beta distribution and subcellular localization in the brain using immunohistochemistry combined with light and electron microscopy. Initial examination by light microscopy revealed that GSK3beta is expressed in brain neurons and their dendrites throughout all the rostrocaudal extent of the adult mouse brain, and abundant GSK3beta staining was found in the cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and some brainstem nuclei. Examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed highly specific subcellular localization of GSK3beta in neurons and astrocytes. At the subcellular level, GSK3beta was present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, and mitochondria of neurons and astrocytes. In addition GSK3beta was also present in dendrites and dendritic spines, with some postsynaptic densities clearly labeled for GSK3beta. Phosphorylation at serine-9 of GSK3beta (pSer9GSK3beta reduces kinase activity. pSer9GSK3beta labeling was present in all brain regions, but the pattern of staining was clearly different, with an abundance of labeling in microglia cells in all regions analyzed and much less neuronal staining in the subcortical regions. At the subcellular level pSer9GSK3beta labeling was located in the endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and in some of the nuclei. Overall, in normal brains constitutively active GSK3beta is predominantly present in neurons while pSer9GSK3beta is more evident in resting microglia cells. This visual assessment of GSK3beta localization within the subcellular structures of various brain cells may help in

  1. A hand-held beta imaging probe for FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin; Stack, Brendan C; Thacker, Samta; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Bartel, Twyla; Lowe, Val; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Advances in radiopharmaceuticals and clinical understanding have escalated the use of intraoperative gamma probes in surgery. However, most probes on the market are non-imaging gamma probes that suffer from the lack of ancillary information of the surveyed tissue area. We have developed a novel, hand-held digital Imaging Beta Probe™ (IBP™) to be used in surgery in conjunction with beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)FDG, (131)I and (32)P for real-time imaging of a surveyed area with higher spatial resolution and sensitivity and greater convenience than existing instruments. We describe the design and validation of a hand-held beta probe intended to be used as a visual mapping device to locate and confirm excision of (18)FDG-avid primary tumors and metastases in an animal model. We have demonstrated a device which can generate beta images from (18)FDG avid lesions in an animal model. It is feasible to image beta irradiation in animal models of cancer given (18)FDG. This technology may be applied to clinical mapping of tumors and/or their metastases in the operating room. Visual image depiction of malignancy may aid the surgeon in localization and excision of lesions of interest.

  2. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  4. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  5. NEBIVOLOL: A THIRD GENERATION BETA BLOCKER AS ANTIHYPERTENSION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wirantari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Hypertension is a silent killer because it causes complications in vital organs unwitting patients. Beta blockers are generally a choice of safe and effective drugs for initial treatment of hypertension. However, the current hypertension treatment guidelines said beta blockers were not suitable use as first-line therapy because of complications caused. On the use of atenolol found an increased incidence of cardiovascular death of 24%, 14% and cardiac complications 23% cerebrovascular complications. Nebivolol is a third-generation beta-blocker that is highly selective for ?1-adrenergic receptors and has the ability as a direct vasodilator was able to stimulate the activity of endothelial L-arginin/nitric oxide synthase, is expected nebivolol can reduce blood pressure so can achieve blood pressure that expected.

  6. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  7. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  8. A study on the sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors(SPNDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No

    1997-02-01

    Self-Powered Neutron Detectors(SPND) are currently used to estimate the power generation distribution and fuel burn-up in several nuclear power reactors in Korea. While they have several advantages such as small size, low cost, and relatively simple electronics required in conjunction with those usage, they have some intrinsic problems of the low level of output current, a slow response time, the rapid change of sensitivity which makes it difficult to use for a long term. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is accomplished to calculate the escape probability as a function of the birth position of emitted beta particle for a geometry of rhodium-based SPNDs. A simple numerical method calculates the initial generation rate of beta particles and the change of generation rate due to rhodium burn-up. Using the simulation result, the burn-up profile of rhodium number density and the neutron sensitivity are calculated as a function of burn-up time in reactors. The sensitivity of the SPND decreases non-linearly due to the high absorption cross-section and the non-uniform burn-up of rhodium in the emitter rod. In addition, for improvement of some properties of rhodium-based SPNDs which are currently used, this paper presents a new material and modified geometry. From searching nuclear data, Ag 109 is chosen as a replacing material for rhodium. Silver has a low neutron absorption cross-section and a high beta energy and a low density when it is compared with rhodium. The sensitivity and the density change of silver as a function of burn-up are calculated using this method. Also, this paper compares the initial sensitivity of a solid type with its of a tube type. The initial sensitivity is increased with the new material and the tube type. Silver is also found to be used for longer time than rhodium. The method used here can be applied to the analysis of other types of SPNDs and will be useful in the optimum design of new SPNDs for long term usage

  9. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  10. Distinct glucose lowering and beta cell protective effects of vanadium and food restriction in streptozotocin-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, M C; Rodrigues, B; McNeill, J H

    1999-11-01

    Vanadium is an oral insulin-mimetic agent that diminishes hyperglycemia, improves beta-cell insulin store and secretory function, and can reverse the diabetic state chronically after withdrawal from treatment. As food restriction has been reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin demand, we assessed the contribution of a reduced food intake to the glucose lowering and beta-cell protective effects of vanadium. Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats were untreated (D) or administered vanadyl sulfate in the drinking water (DT) at one week prior to and for 5 weeks following the administration of STZ. An additional group was pair-fed (DP) with an equal amount of food as that consumed by the DT group. Shortly after the induction of diabetes, hyperglycemic D rats demonstrated a significant rise in plasma insulin to levels that initially exceeded that of the controls. This was followed by a steady reduction over several weeks, suggesting a gradual depletion of functional beta-cells. Both vanadium treatment and pair-feeding abolished the insulin hypersecretory response following STZ administration. Glucose lowering was enhanced in DT animals when administered higher concentrations of vanadium, despite no further reduction in food intake, and all DT animals (10/10) were normoglycemic by 5 weeks. Mean pancreatic insulin content in DT rats was improved fourfold and was associated with a greater number of granulated beta-cells. Conversely, food restriction only modestly improved glycemia and the pancreatic insulin store and, unlike DT, DP rats remained highly glucose-intolerant. At 5 weeks of diabetes, fed circulating glucose and insulin levels were strongly correlated (P=0.0002) in the D and DP groups, supporting the notion that glucose lowering with food restriction is dependent on improved plasma insulin levels. A separate correlation was observed in DT animals within a lower range of plasma insulin, suggesting that vanadium, unlike food restriction, reduced

  11. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  12. A transmembrane polar interaction is involved in the functional regulation of integrin alpha L beta 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Chng, Choon-Peng; Parthasarathy, Krupakar; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Torres, Jaume; Tan, Suet-Mien

    2010-05-14

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane (TM) receptors formed by noncovalent associations of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit contains a single alpha-helical TM domain. Inside-out activation of an integrin involves the separation of its cytoplasmic tails, leading to disruption of alphabeta TM packing. The leukocyte integrin alpha L beta 2 is required for leukocyte adhesion, migration, proliferation, cytotoxic function, and antigen presentation. In this study, we show by mutagenesis experiments that the packing of alpha L beta 2 TMs is consistent with that of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 TMs. However, molecular dynamics simulations of alpha L beta 2 TMs in lipids predicted a polar interaction involving the side chains of alpha L Ser1071 and beta2 Thr686 in the outer-membrane association clasp (OMC). This is supported by carbonyl vibrational shifts observed in isotope-labeled alpha L beta 2 TM peptides that were incorporated into lipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics studies simulating the separation of alpha L beta 2 tails showed the presence of polar interaction during the initial perturbation of the inner-membrane association clasp. When the TMs underwent further separation, the polar interaction was disrupted. OMC polar interaction is important in regulating the functions of beta2 integrins because mutations that disrupt the OMC polar interaction generated constitutively activated alpha L beta 2, alpha M beta 2, and alpha X beta 2 in 293T transfectants. We also show that the expression of mutant beta2 Thr686Gly in beta2-deficient T cells rescued cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but the cells showed overt elongated morphologies in response to chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor 1 alpha treatment as compared to wild-type beta2-expressing cells. These two TM polar residues are totally conserved in other members of the beta2 integrins in humans and across different species. Our results provide an example of the stabilizing effect of polar

  13. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    2000-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  14. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  15. Radiation polymerized hot melt pressure sensitive adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, S.D.; Skoultchi, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive compositions formed by copolymerizing at least one 3-(chlorinated aryloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl ester of an alpha, beta unsaturated carboxylic acid with acrylate based copolymerizable monomers, are described. The resultant ethylenically saturated prepolymer is heated to a temperature sufficient to render it fluid and flowable. This composition is coated onto a substrate and exposed to ultraviolet radiation

  16. Ontogeny of glucocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 gene expression identifies potential critical periods of glucocorticoid susceptibility during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, H J L; Seckl, J R; Brown, R W

    2004-04-01

    Glucocorticoids play important roles in organ development and 'fetal programming'. Fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids reduces birth weight and causes later hypertension. To investigate these processes further we have determined the detailed ontogeny in the mouse of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11beta-HSD1), which amplifies glucocorticoid levels locally; the ontogeny was determined using in situ hybridisation from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5, term=E19) until after birth. At E9.5 fetal GR mRNA levels are very low, except in fetal placenta. GR gene expression rises during gestation with striking tissue-specific differences in timing and extent. Before E13.5, an increase is clear in gastrointestinal (GI) and upper respiratory tracts, discrete central nervous system (CNS) regions, precartilage and especially in the liver (E10.5-E12). Later, further increases occur in lung, GI and upper respiratory tracts, muscle, pituitary and thymus. In a few tissues such increases are temporary, e.g. ureteric ducts (E13.5-E16.5) and pancreas (E14.5-E16.5, expression later falling sharply). Fetal 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression is first clearly observed at E14.5-E15, initially in the fetal placenta then in the umbilical cord. Later, 11beta-HSD1 expression is seen as follows: (i) from E15 in lung and liver, rising strongly; (ii) thymus, from E15 (lower level); (iii) at low levels in a few brain regions, including the hippocampus (E16.5+); and (iv) in muscle group fascial planes and tendon insertions. This is the first detailed study of the ontogeny of these two genes and, in combination with previous work on the ontogeny of 11beta-HSD2 and the mineralocorticoid receptor, suggests potential critical periods of glucocorticoid sensitivity during development for several organ systems.

  17. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    -documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...

  19. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  20. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  1. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Investigation of Beta-Lactam Residues in Unpacked Milk Consumed in Sanlıurfa

    OpenAIRE

    ARDIÇ, Mustafa; DURMAZ, Hisamettin

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate qualitatively the detection of beta-lactam residues in milk samples consumed in Sanliurfa region. The samples were collected in winter and summer seasons. In the experiments, Bacillus stearothermophilus was used as the sensitive microorganism. 96 of 300 milk samples were positive for inhibitory substances. Of positive results, 64 samples contained beta-lactam antibiotics and 32 samples were related to other residues that have antimicrobial activity. This study show...

  3. Beta-defensin genomic copy number is not a modifier locus for cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Juliana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4, also known as DEFB2 or hBD-2 is a salt-sensitive antimicrobial protein that is expressed in lung epithelia. Previous work has shown that it is encoded in a cluster of beta-defensin genes at 8p23.1, which varies in copy number between 2 and 12 in different individuals. We determined the copy number of this locus in 355 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, and tested for correlation between beta-defensin cluster genomic copy number and lung disease associated with CF. No significant association was found.

  4. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon dosimetric pellets for X, beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Lima, M.F.

    1987-08-01

    CaSO 4 : Dy + TEFLON dosimetric pellets with high sensitivity and low cost for X, beta and gamma radiation monitoring were studied and developed by the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of the Radiological Protection Departament and are disposable for sale. The thickness of the pellets are suitable for X, beta and gamma radiation measurements. The dosimetric properties of these pellets were determined and presented in this work. The results show the usefulness of 0,20mm thick pellets for beta radiation monitoring and 0,80mm thick pellets for x and gamma radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  5. Gluten Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but ... products like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different ...

  6. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits intracellular calcium release in beta-cells by a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmin; Ren, Min; Bing, Xinyu; Stotts, Corey; Deorah, Sundeep; Love-Homan, Laurie; Dillon, Joseph S

    2006-08-01

    Both dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) affect glucose stimulated insulin secretion, though their cellular mechanisms of action are not well characterized. We tested the hypothesis that human physiological concentrations of DHEA alter insulin secretion by an action initiated at the plasma membrane of beta-cells. DHEA alone had no effect on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a rat beta-cell line (INS-1). However, it caused an immediate and dose-dependent inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, with a 25% inhibition at zero. One nanometer DHEA. DHEA also inhibited the Ca(2+) mobilizing effect of bombesin (29% decrease), but did not inhibit the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) evoked by glyburide (100 microM) or glucose (15 mM). The steroids (androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, and DHEAS) had no inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release. The action of DHEA depended on a signal initiated at the plasma membrane, since membrane impermeant DHEA-BSA complexes also inhibited the carbachol effect on [Ca(2+)](i) (39% decrease). The inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca(2+) release by DHEA was blocked by pertussis toxin (PTX). DHEA also inhibited the carbachol induction of phosphoinositide generation, with a maximal inhibition at 0.1 nM DHEA. Furthermore, DHEA inhibited insulin secretion induced by carbachol in INS-1 cells by 25%, and in human pancreatic islets by 53%. Taken together, this is the first report showing that human physiological concentrations of DHEA decrease agonist-induced Ca(2+) release by a rapid, non-genomic mechanism in INS-1 cells. Furthermore, these data provide evidence consistent with the existence of a specific plasma membrane DHEA receptor, mediating this signal transduction pathway by pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins.

  8. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus, was 10434 nucleotide (nt in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5’LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3’LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent downstream of the env gene, suggesting that EqERV-beta1 does not encode a superantigen like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. A second proviral genome of EqERV-beta1, with no stopcodon in env, is additionally integrated on chromosome 5 downstream of the first virus. Single EqERV-beta1 LTRs were abundantly present on all chromosomes except chromosome 24. Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus, and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV.

  9. Latex agglutination testing directly from throat swabs for rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, G F; Turner, J C; Kiselica, D; Dunn, M; Hendley, J O

    1992-01-01

    A latex agglutination method for the rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C in throat swabs from 403 university students with symptomatic pharyngitis was evaluated. Compared with culture, the rapid test was poorly sensitive (34.4%) but very specific (98.4%) in detecting group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. The sensitivity of the rapid test improved with an increasing quantity of growth on culture. PMID:1551989

  10. Influence of agricultural antibiotics and 17beta-estradiol on the microbial community of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Soul; Lee, Jaehoon; Radosevich, Mark; White, David C; Geyer, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural pharmaceuticals are a major environmental concern because of their hazardous effects on human and wildlife. This study analyzed phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFAs) and quinones to investigate the effects of a steroid (17beta-estradiol) and agricultural antibiotics (chlortetracycline and tylosin) on soil microbes in the laboratory. Two different types of soil were used: Sequatchie loam (0.8% organic matter) and LaDelle silt loam (9.2% organic matter). The soils were spiked with 17beta-estradiol and antibiotics, alone or in combination. In Sequatchie loam, 17beta-estradiol significantly increased the microbial biomass, especially the biomarkers for beta proteobacteria (16:1omega7c, 18:1omega7c, Cy17:0, and UQ-8). The coexistence of antibiotics decreased the stimulatory effect of 17beta-estradiol on the microbial community. In LaDelle silt loam, there were no significant differences in total microbial biomass and their microbial community structure among the treatments. Overall, 17beta-estradiol changed the microbial community of soil and the presence of antibiotics nullified the effect of 17beta-estradiol. However, the effects of 17beta-estradiol and antibiotics on soil microbes were sensitive to the soil properties, as seen in the LaDelle silt loam.

  11. NOX, NOX who is there?, The contribution of NADPH Oxidase to beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTaylor-Fishwick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of diabetes prevalence over the next decades warrant the aggressive discovery of new approaches to stop or reverse loss of functional beta cell mass. Beta cells are recognized to have a relatively high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS and become dysfunctional under oxidative stress conditions. New discoveries have identified NADPH oxidases in beta cells as contributors to elevated cellular ROS. Reviewed are recent reports that evidence a role for NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1 in beta cell dysfunction. NOX-1 is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in diabetes. First, regulation of cytokine-stimulated NOX-1 expression has been linked to inflammatory lipid mediators derived from 12-lipoxyganase activity. For the first time in beta cells these data integrate distinct pathways associated with beta cell dysfunction. Second, regulation of NOX-1 in beta cells involves feed-forward control linked to elevated ROS and Src-kinase activation. This potentially results in unbridled ROS generation and identifies candidate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Third, consideration is provided of new, first-in-class, selective inhibitors of NOX-1. These compounds could have an important role in assessing a disruption of NOX-1/ROS signaling as a new approach to preserve and protect beta cell mass in diabetes.

  12. NOX, NOX Who is There? The Contribution of NADPH Oxidase One to Beta Cell Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Fishwick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of diabetes prevalence over the next decades warrant the aggressive discovery of new approaches to stop or reverse loss of functional beta cell mass. Beta cells are recognized to have a relatively high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and become dysfunctional under oxidative stress conditions. New discoveries have identified NADPH oxidases in beta cells as contributors to elevated cellular ROS. Reviewed are recent reports that evidence a role for NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) in beta cell dysfunction. NOX-1 is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in diabetes. First, regulation of cytokine-stimulated NOX-1 expression has been linked to inflammatory lipid mediators derived from 12-lipoxygenase activity. For the first time in beta cells these data integrate distinct pathways associated with beta cell dysfunction. Second, regulation of NOX-1 in beta cells involves feed-forward control linked to elevated ROS and Src-kinase activation. This potentially results in unbridled ROS generation and identifies candidate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Third, consideration is provided of new, first-in-class, selective inhibitors of NOX-1. These compounds could have an important role in assessing a disruption of NOX-1/ROS signaling as a new approach to preserve and protect beta cell mass in diabetes. PMID:23565109

  13. Recommendations on reintroduction of agalsidase Beta for patients with fabry disease in europe, following a period of shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linthorst, Gabor E; Burlina, Alessandro P; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    The interruption of the manufacturing process of agalsidase beta has led to a worldwide shortage of this drug. In the EU, nearly all patients initially reduced their agalsidase beta dose, and many of these switched to agalsidase alfa (Replagal Shire HGT). The clinical consequences of this period ...

  14. Carotid intima media thickness is related positively to plasma pre beta-high density lipoproteins in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lipid-poor or lipid-free high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, designated pre beta-HDL, stimulate removal of cell-derived cholesterol to the extracellular compartment, which is an initial step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Pre beta-HDL levels may be elevated in

  15. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with

  16. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  17. Contra omega\\ beta-continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam H. Aljarrah

    2014-09-01

    sets in topological spaces to present and study a new class of functions called contra omega\\beta-continuous functions. This notion is a weak form of contra-continuity. We also discuss the relationships between this new class and other classes of functions and some examples of applications are shown.

  18. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  19. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  20. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  1. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 22,2017 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  2. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  5. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  6. Autoregulation of periodontal ligament cell phenotype and functions by transforming growth factor-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, T A; Piesco, N P; Buckley, M J; Langkamp, H H; Bowen, L L; Agarwal, S

    1998-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, mechanical forces acting on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells induce the synthesis of mediators which alter the growth, differentiation, and secretory functions of cells of the PDL. Since the cells of the PDL represent a heterogeneous population, we examined mechanically stress-induced cytokine profiles in three separate clones of human osteoblast-like PDL cells. Of the four pro-inflammatory cytokines investigated, only IL-6 and TGF-beta1 were up-regulated in response to mechanical stress. However, the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-8 was not observed. To understand the consequences of the increase in TGF-beta1 expression following mechanical stress, we examined the effect of TGF-beta1 on PDL cell phenotype and functions. TGF-beta1 was mitogenic to PDL cells at concentrations between 0.4 and 10 ng/mL. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 down-regulated the osteoblast-like phenotype of PDL cells, i.e., alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium phosphate nodule formation, expression of osteocalcin, and TGF-beta1, in a dose-dependent manner. Although initially TGF-beta1 induced expression of type I collagen mRNA, prolonged exposure to TGF-beta1 down-regulated the ability of PDL cells to express type I collagen mRNA. Our results further show that, within 4 hrs, exogenously applied TGF-beta1 down-regulated IL-6 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was sustained over a six-day period. In summary, the data suggest that mechanically stress-induced TGF-beta1 expression may be a physiological mechanism to induce mitogenesis in PDL cells while down-regulating its osteoblast-like features and simultaneously reducing the IL-6-induced bone resorption.

  7. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  8. Effect of long-term transfusion therapy on the glycometabolic status and pancreatic beta cell function in patients with beta Thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakshi G Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major complication of iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major. Design: This is a descriptive study conducted in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital to analyze beta cell function and insulin resistance, and their relation to iron overload status in beta thalassemia major. Fasting glucose, two-hour post load glucose, fasting insulin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, and ferritin were used as outcome measures. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA model was used to calculate the beta cell function and insulin resistance index. Results: Of the 30 cases, 20% had impaired fasting glucose, 3.3% had impaired glucose tolerance, and none had diabetes. Fasting glucose was not significant between the cases and controls (P = 0.113. Fasting insulin (P = 0.001, ferritin (P = 0.001, and ALT (P = 0.001 levels were significantly high in the cases. Insulin resistance index was significantly higher in the cases (P = 0.001 as also the beta cell function (P = 0.001. With increase in age and the number of units transfused there is a decline in beta cell function, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance after attaining the maximum level. This suggests that initial insulin resistance is followed by insulin depletion due to loss of beta cell function, leading to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and insulin resistance precede the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes and adequate chelation therapy is essential for delaying the onset or for prevention of diabetes.

  9. An ISPA-camera for $\\beta$-radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; D'Ambrosio, C

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new type of beta-camera based on an Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube combined with planar plastic scintillators or with SiY2O5(Ce)-scintillating powder. The ISPA-tube consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon anode divided into 1024 rectangular (75 microm x 500 microm) detector pixels, each bump-bonded to its equally-sized electronic pixel. Depending on the beta-detector thickness we achieved spatial resolutions (FWHM) between 105 microm (63Ni source and 30 microm thick plastic scintillator) and 240 microm (90Sr-90Y source and 120 microm thick plastic scintillator) by covering the detectors with brass templates. With their four 60 microm wide slits oriented parallel to the long pixel edges we simulated small sized beta-strips. The impact of detector thickness is explained by multiple scattering, angular aperture of the template slits and scintillating light distribution at the ISPA-photocathode. Beta detection sensitivities were measured with calibrated...

  10. Nanotopography follows force in TGF-{beta}1 stimulated epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelking, Gerold; Oberleithner, Hans; Riethmuller, Christoph [Institute of Physiology II, University of Muenster (Germany); Reiss, Bjoern [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Muenster (Germany); Wegener, Joachim [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg (Germany); Pavenstaedt, Hermann, E-mail: chrth@serend-ip.de [Department of Medicine D, Division of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University Hospital Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-02

    Inflammation and cellular fibrosis often imply an involvement of the cytokine TGF-{beta}1. TGF-{beta}1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), a term describing the loss of epithelium-specific function. Indicative for this process are an elongated cell shape parallel to stress fibre formation. Many signalling pathways of TGF-{beta}1 have been discovered, but mechanical aspects have not yet been investigated. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyse surface topography and mechanical properties of EMT in proximal kidney tubule epithelium (NRK52E). Elongated cells, an increase of stress fibre formation and a loss of microvillus compatible structures were observed as characteristic signs of EMT. Furthermore, AFM could identify an increase in stiffness by 71% after six days of stimulation with TGF-{beta}1. As a novel topographical phenomenon, nodular protrusions emerged at the cell-cell junctions. They occurred preferentially at sites where stress fibres cross the border. Since these nodular protrusions were sensitive to inhibitors of force generation, they can indicate intracellular tension. The results demonstrate a manifest impact of elevated tension on the cellular topography.

  11. The Mechanism of $\\beta$-Delayed Two-Proton Emission

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus $^{31}$Ar seems to be the most prolific ${\\beta}$-2p precursor known to date and is at the same time the one with the largest production yields at ISOLDE, where the most sensitive experiments can be done. Our purpose with this experiment is to study the ${\\beta}$-2p branches in detail, search for ${\\beta}$-3p events, place them in the decay scheme and obtain information on the decay mechanism for ${\\beta}$-2p via the energy distribution and the angular correlation between the two protons. As a by product we shall also resolve existing inconsistencies in the level scheme.\\\\ \\\\ The nucleus $^{31}$Ar, produced in a cold plasma ion source unit by the impact of a 1 GeV proton beam of 0.5 Hz frequency, had an average yield over one week of 1.5 $^{31}$Ar atoms/s. The beam passed through the central hole of an annular Si detector ($\\Omega$ = 4.3~\\%) and stopped in a thin carbon foil tilted 45$^o$ with respect to the beam direction. A 70~\\% coaxial HPGe-detector ($\\Omega$~=~7.4~\\%) was located opposite to ...

  12. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  13. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Drug- and disease-induced changes of human cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Borst, H. G.; Maier, W.; Michel, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor density and subtype distribution has been determined in different kinds of heart failure. A decrease in cardiac beta-adrenoceptor function appears to be a general phenomenon in all kinds of heart failure. However, cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors seem to be

  16. Interferon-beta increases systemic BAFF levels in multiple sclerosis without increasing autoantibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS-associated au......Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS......-associated autoantibodies. Objective: To investigate whether BAFF levels are associated with disease severity/activity in untreated MS patients, and to assess the effect of IFN-beta therapy on circulating BAFF and anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) autoantibody levels. Results: Twenty-three patients with relapsing......-remitting MS (RRMS) were followed longitudinally from initiation of IFN-beta therapy. Their blood levels of BAFF correlated positively at baseline with the expanded disability status scale (p

  17. Effects of heat treatment and pectin addition on beta-lactoglobulin allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Stéphane; Mouécoucou, Justine; Frémont, Sophie; Sanchez, Christian; Gontard, Nathalie

    2006-07-26

    The specific effects of heat treatment and/or addition of low/high-methylated pectin (LMP/HMP) on the allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and its hydrolysis products were investigated through a two-step in vitro digestion approach. beta-Lg was first hydrolyzed by pepsin and then by a trypsin/chymotrypsin (T/C) mixture done in a dialysis bag with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000. The protein digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis performed on each digestion product, and their in vitro allergenicity was analyzed by immunoblotting. Such procedure was applied on beta-Lg samples mixed with the two kinds of pectin before or after heating (80 degrees C, 25 min) to determine the respective impact of heat treatment and pectin addition. Heat denaturation improved significantly the susceptibility of beta-Lg against the pepsin and the T/C. This effect, which was coupled to a reduction in immunoreactivity of the digested beta-Lg, appeared to be distinctively modulated by LMP and HMP. Through nonspecific interaction with the beta-Lg, pectin could reduce the accessibility of cleavage sites and/or epitope sequences. This mechanism of action is discussed in relation to the intra- and intermolecular interactions between beta-Lg and pectin initiated under the experimental conditions.

  18. Production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splechtna, Barbara; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Steinböck, Marlene; Kulbe, Klaus D; Lorenz, Werner; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2006-07-12

    The beta-galactosidases (beta-Gals) of Lactobacillus reuteri L103 and L461 proved to be suitable biocatalysts for the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. Maximum GOS yields were 38% when using an initial lactose concentration of 205 g/L and at approximately 80% lactose conversion. The product mixtures were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Disaccharides other than lactose and trisaccharides made up the vast majority of GOS formed. The main products were identified as beta-d-Galp-(1-->6)-d-Glc (allolactose), beta-d-Galp-(1-->6)-d-Gal, beta-d-Galp-(1-->3)-d-Gal, beta-d-Galp-(1-->6)-Lac, and beta-d-Galp-(1-->3)-Lac. There were no major products with beta1-->4 linkages formed. Both intermolecular and intramolecular transgalactosylation were observed. d-Galactose proved to be a very efficient galactosyl acceptor; thus, a relatively large amount of galactobioses was formed. Monosaccharides could be conveniently separated from the mixture by chromatography using a strong cation-exchange resin.

  19. Role of TGF-betas in normal human endometrium and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwandho, Charles O A; Konrad, Lutz; Halis, Gülden; Oehmke, Frank; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Prevalence is estimated at 6-10% in the general female population and many patients experience pain and/or infertility. Diagnosis is achieved by laparoscopic intervention followed by histological confirmation of viable endometriotic tissue. Mild cases are managed medically with contraceptive steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Surgery provides relief to women in pain but symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. Starting with menstruation, we have categorized endometriosis into six stages, namely (1) shedding of cells, (2) cell survival, (3) escape from immune surveillance, (4) adhesion to peritoneum, (5) angiogenesis and (6) bleeding. In most of these biological processes, which resemble metastasis, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-betas) and their high-affinity receptors are involved directly or indirectly. TGF-betas are abundantly and differentially expressed in the endometrium under hormonal control. Although they are preferentially synthesized in the stroma, glands and macrophages also secrete TGF-betas into the uterine fluid, where interaction with preimplantation embryos is suspected. Because mRNA and protein expression of all three TGF-betas is increased around menstruation, we suggest that TGF-betas might be involved in initiation of menstruation. Furthermore, because of high postmenstrual TGF-beta3 levels, we suppose that it might participate in scarless postmenstrual regeneration of endometrium. Our suggestions pave the way to novel routes of investigation into the roles of TGF-betas during menstruation and endometriosis.

  20. The ketogenic diet: seizure control correlates better with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate than with urine ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D L; Pyzik, P L; Freeman, J M

    2000-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between beta-hydroxybutyrate levels and seizure control in children on the ketogenic diet. Seventy-four children on the ketogenic diet presenting for routine follow-up visits had blood levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate correlated with their seizure control. Forty-two children admitted for initiation of the ketogenic diet had urine ketones measured by dipstick and correlated with simultaneous blood levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels statistically correlated with seizure control (P = .003). Children with blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels greater than 4 mmol/L were significantly more likely to have a decrease in seizure frequency than those with levels less than 4 mmol/L. Urine ketones of 4+ (160 mmol/L) were found on dipstick when blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels exceeded 2 mmol/L. Seizure control correlates with blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels and is more likely when blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels are greater than 4 mmo/L. The traditional measurement of urine ketones by dipsticks in children on the ketogenic diet provides a less than optimal assessment of the degree of blood ketosis. Three to four plus (80-160 mmol/L) urine ketones are necessary, but not necessarily sufficient, to achieve optimal seizure control in children on the ketogenic diet. At present, however, urine ketones are the only readily available inexpensive approach to ketone assessment.

  1. Measurement of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state in the NEMO3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vala, L

    2003-09-01

    The NEMO3 detector was designed for the study of double beta decay and in particular to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay process (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The intended sensitivity in terms of a half-life limit for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is of the order of 10{sup 25} y which corresponds to an effective neutrino mass m{sub {nu}} on the level of (0.3 - 0.1) eV. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process is today the most promising test of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The detector was constructed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) in France by an international collaboration including France, Russia, the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK, Finland, and Japan. The experiment has been taking data since May 2002. The quantity of {sup 100}Mo in the detector (7 kg) allows an efficient measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state (eeN{gamma} channel). Monte-Carlo simulations of the effect and of all the relative sources of background have been produced in order to define a set of appropriate selection criteria. Both Monte-Carlo simulations and special runs with sources of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 214}Bi showed that the only significant background in the eeN{gamma} channel comes from radon that penetrated inside the wire chamber of NEMO3. The experimental data acquired from May 2002 to May 2003 have been analysed in order to determine the signal from the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state and the corresponding background level. The physical result, which was obtained at the level of four standard deviations, is given in the form of an interval of half-life values at 95% confidence level: [5.84*10{sup 20}, 2.26*10{sup 21}] y for method A and [5.83*10{sup 20}, 1.71*10{sup 21}] y for method B. (author)

  2. Sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, P; Huovinen, S; Jacoby, G A

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase, an enzyme that readily hydrolyzes both carbenicillin and oxacillin, has been determined. The deduced sequence of 266 amino acids contained 93 residues identical to those of OXA-2 beta-lactamase and the Ser-Thr-Phe-Lys tetrad also found in the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

  3. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  4. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  5. Fabrication and characterization of new LiF: Eu{sup 3+} sintered phosphors exposed to beta particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, A.R.; Cruz V, C. [Depto. de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales de la Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Castano, V.M. [IFUNAM, A.P. 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Pellet-shaped LiF:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by sintering. To improve their thermoluminescence characteristics, different growth conditions were used. Thermal annealing at 750 C during 5 h under air atmosphere provided the samples with highest sensitivity. Characteristic glow curves exhibit an absolute maximum centered at 203 C, and another less intense peak between 250 and 300 C. The first peak has a position very suitable for dosimetry applications. Beta irradiated samples displayed a thermoluminescence response that increases as the radiation dose increased in the 0.16 - 42.0 Gy range. A fast fading of less than 20 % occurs in the first 10 s after irradiation, followed by a remarkable stability at room temperature. Computerized glow curve deconvolution of experimental data obtained applying the McKeever method to resolve the individual peaks revealed that the glow curves fits to nine individual peaks. Activation energies were computed by using the initial rise method. (Author)

  6. Interleukin-1beta induced changes in the protein expression of rat islets: a computerized database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, Peter Mose

    1997-01-01

    ) the determination of the effects of agents modulating cytokine action, and (iii) the identification of primary islet protein antigen(s) initiating the immune destruction of the beta-cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create databases (DB) of all reproducibly detectable protein spots on 10% and 15......% of %IOD was 45.7% in the NEPHGE gels. Addition of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) to the cultures resulted in statistically significant modulation or de novo synthesis of 105 proteins in the 10% gels. In conclusion, we present the first 10% and 15% acrylamide 2-D gel protein databases of neonatal rat islets...

  7. Analysis of low energy beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    A survey was made of the instruments used for the determination of low energy beta radioactivity. Techniques commonly used are gas flow proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, solid scintillation counting, and internal ionization chamber counting, solid state detector counting, and radiochemical separation followed by counting using one of the preceeding techniques. The first four techniques were examined and compared with each other. The sensitivities of the techniques were compared on the basis of the detection limits quoted for instruments described in the technical and reviewed literature. The detection limits were then related to the occupational and public individual maximum levels for air and water. Attention is focused primarily on the continuous monitoring of air for 3 H and 85 Kr, a medium energy β-emitter. It is clear that several continuous air monitoring instruments are readily available for measuring low energy β concentrations, even in presence of certain other activity, at occupational levels. However, these instruments do not typically have sensitivities comparable to the public individual levels. Moreover, their capabilities for giving results in real time and for differentiating among the radionuclides actually present is limited

  8. Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N in TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukiko [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Izumikawa, Takuji; Tanigaki, Minoru [and others

    1997-03-01

    Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N (I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup -}, T{sub 1/2} 11ms) in TiO{sub 2} has been studied. A {beta}-NMR spectrum on the polarized {sup 12}N implanted in TiO{sub 2} shows that {sup 12}N are located at two different sites and maintain about 100% of initial polarization. These are the first phenomena observed in ionic crystals. (author)

  9. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-01-01

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points (β*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of β* value and β-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for β-waist location control

  10. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

  11. DNA damage: beta zero versus beta plus thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Chandan S; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Dharmesh C; Kishor, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    β thalassemia results in an increase in the α to non-α chain ratio. Iron released from unpaired α chains in RBCs and that ensuing from regular transfusions is the major cause of cellular damage. The use of iron chelators to counter the iron overload is accompanied by side-effects. The extent of iron toxicity could vary from one patient to another and could help in determining the optimal chelator dose for each patient. To observe the pro-oxidant/antioxidant disturbance and the extent of DNA damage in β thalassemia patients with different β globin gene anomalies. The formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS ) was observed by incubation of cell suspensions with 2',7', dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCFH DA) and DNA damage was demonstrated by single cell gel electrophoresis. Heinz bodies were observed by staining blood smears. The study group comprised 50 regularly transfused beta thalassemia patients and 40 non thalassemic controls. While Heinz bodies and nucleated RBCs were seen in all the patients, oxidation of DCFH and DNA damage were seen to be associated with the β globin gene defect. DNA damage was found to be greater in β(0) homozygotes as compared to the β(+) homozygotes, and was maximum in patients presenting with the 619 base pair deletion. In the present study, iron toxicity, as indicated by DNA damage, has been seen to vary in the patients. Thus, monitoring of the dose of iron chelators, according to the type of mutation in the beta globin gene, may help improve the compliance of beta thalassemics to chelation therapy and prevent side-effects in patients with beta plus mutations.

  12. A Beta-Beta Achievability Bound with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei; Collins, Austin; Durisi, Giuseppe; Polyanskiy, Yury; Poor, H. Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A channel coding achievability bound expressed in terms of the ratio between two Neyman-Pearson $\\beta$ functions is proposed. This bound is the dual of a converse bound established earlier by Polyanskiy and Verd\\'{u} (2014). The new bound turns out to simplify considerably the analysis in situations where the channel output distribution is not a product distribution, for example due to a cost constraint or a structural constraint (such as orthogonality or constant composition) on the channel...

  13. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  14. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta......-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

  15. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  16. Transcription profiling of human MCF10A cells subjected to ionizing radiation and treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic...

  17. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark.

  18. Ultrafast Shock Compression Hugoniot Data of beta-CL-20 and TATB Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph; Armstrong, Michael; Grivickas, Paulius; Tappan, Alexander; Kohl, Ian; Rodriguez, Mark; Knepper, Robert; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Stavrou, Elissaios; Bastea, Sorin

    2017-06-01

    The shock induced initiation threshold of two energetic materials, CL-20 and TATB are remarkably different; CL-20 is a relatively shock sensitive energetic material and TATB is considered an insensitive high explosive (IHE). Here we report ultrafast laser-based shockwave hydrodynamic data on the 100 ps timescale with 10 ps time resolution to further develop density dependent unreacted shock Hugoniot equations of state (UEOS) and to elucidate ultrafast timescale shock initiation processes for these two vastly different HEs. Thin film samples were made by vacuum thermal evaporation of the explosive on a deposited aluminum ablator layer. The deposited explosives were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, and x-ray diffraction. Our preliminary UEOS results (up range of 1.3 - 1.8 km/s) from shock compressed beta-CL-20 agree reasonably well with extrapolated pseudo-velocities computed from epsilon-CL-20 isothermal diamond-anvil cell EOS measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporati.

  19. Jumps and Betas: A New Framework for Disentangling and Estimating Systematic Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todorov, Viktor; Bollerslev, Tim

    market portfolio, we find the estimated diffusive and jump betas with respect to the market to be quite dif- ferent for many of the stocks. Our findings have direct and important implications for empirical asset pricing finance and practical portfolio and risk management decisions.......We provide a new theoretical framework for disentangling and estimating sensitivity towards systematic diffusive and jump risks in the context of factor pricing models. Our estimates of the sensitivities towards systematic risks, or betas, are based on the notion of increasingly finer sampled...

  20. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  1. Effect of beta limits on reactor performance in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Spong, D.A.; Nelson, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Because of uncertainties in extrapolating results of simplified models to a reactor plasma, the parameters that influence the beta limits cannot be determined accurately at the present time. Also, the reasonable changes within the models and/or assumptions are seen to affect the core beta limits by almost an order of magnitde. Hence, at the present, these limits cannot be used as a rigid (and reliable) requirement for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor engineering considerations. However, sensitivity studies can be carried out to determine the boundaries of the operating regime and to demonstrate the effects of various modes, assumptions, and models on reactor performance (Q value). First, the modes believed to limit the core β and ring plasma performance are discussed, and the simplifications and/or assumptions involved in deriving these limits are highlighted. Then, the implications of these limits for a reactor are given

  2. Beta limits in EBT and their implications for a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Spong, D.A.; Nelson, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical models indicate limits on core beta ranging from a few percent to 10-20% depending on the models and/or assumptions. Some of the parameters that enter into these beta limits are: the ratio of the ring radial scale length to the average radius of curvature, epsilon=Δ/Rsub(c); the ratio of the cold to the hot plasma density, fsub(R)=nsub(cold)/nsub(hot); the ratios of the hot electron drift frequency to the ion cyclotron frequency, ωsub(dh)/ωsub(ci), and to the drift Alfven frequency ωsub(dh)/kVsub(A); the ratio of the ring electron temperature to the core ion temperature, Tsub(R)/Tsub(i); the ring beta βsub(R); etc. Because of uncertainties in extrapolating results of simplifield models to a reactor plasma, the above parameters that influence the beta limits cannot be determined accurately at the present time. Also, reasonable changes within the models and/or assumptions are seen to affect the core beta limits by almost an order of magnitude. Hence, at the present, these limits cannot be used as a rigid (and reliable) requirement for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor engineering considerations. However, sensitivity studies can be carried out to determine the boundaries of the operating regime and to demonstrate the effects of various modes, assumptions, and models on reactor performance (Q value). First the modes believed to limit the core β and ring plasma performance are discussed, and the simplifications and/or assumptions involved in deriving these limits are highlighted. Then, the implications of these limits for a reactor are given. (author)

  3. Structurally homologous beta- and meso-alkynyl amidinium porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joel; Young, Elizabeth R; Nocera, Daniel G

    2007-10-15

    Alkynylamidinium groups have been introduced at the beta and meso positions of a nickel(II) porphyrin (PNi(II)) framework. The modification permits the distance between the amidinium-amidine acid-base group and porphyrin to be increased while effectively maintaining pi conjugation between the porphyrin macrocycle and the acid-base functionality. Use of an ethynyl spacer as a linker (i) extends the amidinium functionality away from the sterically bulky mesityl groups of the porphyrin, allowing it to be nearly planar with respect to the porphyrin ring, and (ii) draws the pi-orbital character of the porphyrin out toward the amidinium functionality, thereby engendering sensitivity of the electronic properties of the porphyrin macrocycle to the protonation state of the amidinium. The barrier for rotation of the amidinium group, as calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), is approximately 8.5 kT (5 kcal/mol) for both porphyrins. Analysis of UV-visible absorption profiles for the beta- and meso-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) upon deprotonation enables accurate determination of the amidinium acidity constants for the ground state (pK(a)(beta) = 7.03 +/- 0.1, pK(a)(meso) = 7.74 +/- 0.1 in CH(3)CN) and excited state (pK(a)*(beta) = 6.89 +/- 0.1, pK(a)*(meso) = 8.37 +/- 0.1 in CH(3)CN) porphyrins. Whereas pK(a)* pK(a) for the meso-alkynylamidinium porphyrin, indicating that beta-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) is a photoacid and meso-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) is a photobase. These divergent behaviors are supported by analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals of the homologous pair with TDDFT.

  4. Effects of stress and. beta. -funal trexamine pretreatment on morphine analgesia and opioid binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.U.; Andrews, J.S.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.; Holtzman, S.G.

    1987-12-28

    This study was essentially an in vivo protection experiment designed to test further the hypothesis that stress induces release of endogenous opiods which then act at opioid receptors. Rats that were either subjected to restraint stress for 1 yr or unstressed were injected ICV with either saline or 2.5 ..mu..g of ..beta..-funaltrexamine (..beta..-FNA), an irreversible opioid antagonist that alkylates the mu-opioid receptor. Twenty-four hours later, subjects were tested unstressed for morphine analgesia or were sacrificed and opioid binding in brain was determined. (/sup 3/H)D-Ala/sup 2/NMePhe/sup 4/-Gly/sup 5/(ol)enkephalin (DAGO) served as a specific ligand for mu-opioid receptors, and (/sup 3/H)-bremazocine as a general ligand for all opioid receptors. Rats injected with saline while stressed were significantly less sensitive to the analgesic action of morphine 24 hr later than were their unstressed counterparts. ..beta..-FNA pretreatment attenuated morphine analgesia in an insurmountable manner. Animals pretreated with ..beta..-FNA while stressed were significantly more sensitive to the analgesic effect of morphine than were animals that received ..beta..-FNA while unstressed. ..beta..-FNA caused small and similar decreases in (/sup 3/H)-DAGO binding in brain of both stressed and unstressed animals. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Data in support of a harmine-derived beta-carboline in vitro effects in cancer cells through protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A harmine-derived beta-carboline, CM16, inhibits cancer cells growth through its effects on protein synthesis, as described in “A harmine-derived beta-carboline displays anti-cancer effects in vitro by targeting protein synthesis” (Carvalho et al., 2017[1]. This data article provides accompanying data on CM16 cytostatic evaluation in cancer cells as well as data related to its effects on transcription and translation. After confirming the cytostatic effect of CM16, we investigated its ability to arrest the cell cycle in the glioma Hs683 and SKMEL-28 melanoma cell lines but no modification was evidenced. According to the global protein synthesis inhibition induced by CM16 [1], transcription phase, a step prior to mRNA translation, evaluated by labelled nucleotide incorporation assay was not shown to be affected under CM16 treatment in the two cell lines. By contrast, mRNA translation and particularly the initiation step were shown to be targeted by CM16 in [1]. To further decipher those effects, we established herein a list of main actors in the protein synthesis process according to literature survey for comparative analysis of cell lines displaying different sensitivity levels to CM16. Finally, one of these proteins, PERK, a kinase regulating eIF2-α phosphorylation and thereby activity, was evaluated under treatment with CM16 in a cell-free system.

  6. Data in support of a harmine-derived beta-carbolinein vitroeffects in cancer cells through protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Annelise; Chu, Jennifer; Meinguet, Céline; Kiss, Robert; Vandenbussche, Guy; Masereel, Bernard; Wouters, Johan; Kornienko, Alexander; Pelletier, Jerry; Mathieu, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    A harmine-derived beta-carboline, CM16, inhibits cancer cells growth through its effects on protein synthesis, as described in "A harmine-derived beta-carboline displays anti-cancer effects in vitro by targeting protein synthesis" (Carvalho et al., 2017)[1]. This data article provides accompanying data on CM16 cytostatic evaluation in cancer cells as well as data related to its effects on transcription and translation. After confirming the cytostatic effect of CM16, we investigated its ability to arrest the cell cycle in the glioma Hs683 and SKMEL-28 melanoma cell lines but no modification was evidenced. According to the global protein synthesis inhibition induced by CM16 [1], transcription phase, a step prior to mRNA translation, evaluated by labelled nucleotide incorporation assay was not shown to be affected under CM16 treatment in the two cell lines. By contrast, mRNA translation and particularly the initiation step were shown to be targeted by CM16 in [1]. To further decipher those effects, we established herein a list of main actors in the protein synthesis process according to literature survey for comparative analysis of cell lines displaying different sensitivity levels to CM16. Finally, one of these proteins, PERK, a kinase regulating eIF2-α phosphorylation and thereby activity, was evaluated under treatment with CM16 in a cell-free system.

  7. Selective modulation of ER-beta by estradiol and xenoestrogens in human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, V; Saturno, G; Miodini, P; Körner, W; Daidone, M G

    2003-03-01

    In the last decades, substances with estrogenic activity have been dispersed into the environment. Xenoestrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors, ligand-regulated transcription factors, for which two subtypes have been described, ER-alpha and ER-beta, which are often coexpressed at variable amounts in different tissues. We investigated variations in the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta mRNAs following treatment with four xenoestrogens (bisphenol A, 4-tert octylphenol, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxybiphenyl) and with 17beta-estradiol in estrogen-sensitive (T47D) and estrogen-insensitive (BT20) breast cancer cell lines. Although to a variable extent, both estradiol and the tested xenoestrogens increased the expression of ER-beta mRNA, whereas a slight effect on ER-alpha was observed only in T47D cells. Upregulation of ER-beta expression by estradiol and xenoestrogens was observed only in the presence of detectable ER-alpha protein levels. These findings indicate a regulatory role for ER-beta in ER-alpha-mediated transcription and a role for ER-beta in mediating xenoestrogen toxicity.

  8. Direct radioimmunoassay of 17. beta. -estradiol in ether extracts of bovine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, M.B.

    Anabolic estrogens such as 17..beta..-estradiol or 17..beta..-estradiol benzoate are used to promote growth and increase feed efficiency in food-producing cattle. This paper describes a technique to produce a more specific antibody to 17..beta..-estradiol by intradermal immunization using microquantities of 6-(carboxymethyl)-17..beta..-estradiol oxime bovine serum albumin and the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure to measure directly the amounts of 17..beta..-estradiol in ether extracts of bovine serum without using cleanup procedures. Results demonstrated that a specific and sensitive antibody was produced, and a titer of 1:10,000 was used in the RIA procedure. Antibody cross-reactivity with ..beta..-estradiol metabolites and other anabolic estrogens was negligible. The untreated bovine sera showed 0-24 pg of apparent 17..beta..-estradiol/mL, while 0-31 pg/mL total estrogens had been reported in the literature. This assay can measure 5-100 pg in 20-250..mu..L/sample. This method can be used before or immediately after slaughter to monitor the residual amounts of estradiol used in the treatment of cattle.

  9. Acquired resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is independent of V beta usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B D; Nardella, J P; McConnell, T J; Mannie, M D

    1997-07-10

    In Lewis rats, activated encephalitogenic T-helper cells elicit a single bout of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recovery from EAE is marked by reduced susceptibility to disease reinduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dominant expression of V beta gene segments by encephalitogenic T cells was required for development of recovery-associated resistance. Several polyclonal and monoclonal T cell lines were derived from Lewis rats sensitized with R72-86, a synthetic peptide representing the 72- to 86-amino-acid sequence of rat myelin basic protein (RMBP). The results revealed broad heterogeneity among encephalitogenic T cells specific for R72-86 in regard to V beta expression and CDR3 sequence. Encephalitogenic clones exclusively bearing either V beta 4 or V beta 10 TCR or polyclonal T cells bearing heterogeneous TCR transferred EAE to recipient rats and elicited resistance to EAE as revealed by subsequent challenge with guinea pig (GP)MBP in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Nonpathogenic V beta 3+ and V beta 8.6+ clones specific for the 68-86 and 55-66 regions of MBP, respectively, did not elicit effective protection from EAE. These data indicate that induction of postrecovery resistance to EAE does not depend upon a particular V beta usage.

  10. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  11. Selective Beta and Gamma-ray Discrimination by CdWO{sub 4} and PlasticScintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Radiation monitoring technique has been used for monitoring of decommissioning site of nuclear facility, radioactive waste disposal site, or in case of radioactivity accident. For rapid measurement of gamma-ray and beta-ray, many portable radiation detectors were developed but they are sensitive to specific radiation type. For example, portable detectors using NaI(Tl) or high purity germanium (HPGe) are suitable to detect gamma-ray. Otherwise, Geiger-müller (GM) tube or ionization chamber are suitable to detect all-types of radiation but it is hard to determine which particle is detected in the detector. In this reason, phoswich detectors for discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray were developed by using pulse shape discrimination. In this study, another approach to discriminate the beta-ray and gamma-ray is carried out. Two scintillators are used, cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) and plastic scintillator. They have huge difference in their effective atomic number and mass density, thus they have huge difference in their gamma-ray sensitivity while the sensitivity of beta-ray is similar. The characterization of beta-ray and gamma-ray discrimination by using this characteristics is include. A technique of discrimination between beta-ray and gamma-ray was suggested. The method was verified by Monte Carlo simulation and experiment. This work showed feasibility on in field measurement of radiation with discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray.

  12. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. The effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on the beta cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function. Treatments that prevent further beta-cell decline are therefore essential for the management of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that is known...... to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 appears to have multiple positive effects on beta cells. However, GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which limits the clinical relevance of GLP-1 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two main classes of GLP-1-based...... with type 2 diabetes, as assessed by homoeostasis model assessment-B analysis and proinsulin : insulin ratio. Additionally, liraglutide and exenatide are able to enhance first- and second-phase insulin secretion and are able to restore beta-cell sensitivity to glucose. Preclinical studies have shown...

  14. The interaction between beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and purified class-I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Hansen, A S; Olsen, A C

    1994-01-01

    been generated recently and this paper reports on a similar assay for the interaction between beta 2m and class I. As a model system human beta 2m binding to mouse class I was used. The assay is strictly biochemical using purified reagents which interact in solution and complex formation is determined...... by size separation. It is specific and highly sensitive. The observed affinity of the interaction, KD, is close to 0.4 nM. The rate of association at 37 degrees C is very fast (the ka is around 5 x 10(4)/M/s) whereas the dissociation is slow (the kd is around 8 x 10(-6)/s); the ratio of dissociation...

  15. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  16. Adult murine hematopoiesis can proceed without beta1 and beta7 integrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungartz, Gerd; Stiller, Sebastian; Bauer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    -C) progenitors in the bone marrow and, after phenylhydrazine-induced anemia, a decreased number of splenic erythroid colony-forming units in culture (CFUe's). Array gene expression analysis of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) and CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD19(+) and CD4(+) splenocytes...... with a deletion of the beta1 and the beta7 integrin genes restricted to the hematopoietic system we show here that alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins are not essential for differentiation of lymphocytes or myelocytes. However, beta1beta7 mutant mice displayed a transient increase of colony-forming unit (CFU...

  17. Characterization of a beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase from Cellulomonas fimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Vocadlo, David J; Mah, Melanie; Rupitz, Karen; Stoll, Dominik; Warren, R A J; Withers, Stephen G

    2006-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is shown to produce at least two intracellular beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases, a family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex20), and a novel family 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase (Nag3), through screening of a genomic expression library, cloning of genes and analysis of their sequences. Nag3 exhibits broad substrate specificity for substituents at the C2 position of the glycone: kcat/Km values at 25 degrees C were 0.066 s(-1) x mM(-1) and 0.076 s(-1) x mM(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 4'-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside, respectively. The first glycosidase with this broad specificity to be described, Nag3, suggests an interesting evolutionary link between beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases and beta-glucosidases of family 3. Reaction by a double-displacement mechanism was confirmed for Nag3 through the identification of a glycosyl-enzyme species trapped with the slow substrate 2',4'-dinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Hex20 requires the acetamido group at C2 of the substrate, being unable to cleave beta-glucosides, since its mechanism involves an oxazolinium ion intermediate. However, it is broad in its specificity for the D-glucosyl/D-galactosyl configuration of the glycone: Km and kcat values were 53 microM and 482.3 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 66 microM and 129.1 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide.

  18. Designing Predictive Models for Beta-Lactam Allergy Using the Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Wang, Youna; Schrijvers, Rik; Bousquet, Philippe Jean; Mura, Thibault; Molinari, Nicolas; Demoly, Pascal

    Beta-lactam antibiotics represent the main cause of allergic reactions to drugs, inducing both immediate and nonimmediate allergies. The diagnosis is well established, usually based on skin tests and drug provocation tests, but cumbersome. To design predictive models for the diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy, based on the clinical history of patients with suspicions of allergic reactions to beta-lactams. The study included a retrospective phase, in which records of patients explored for a suspicion of beta-lactam allergy (in the Allergy Unit of the University Hospital of Montpellier between September 1996 and September 2012) were used to construct predictive models based on a logistic regression and decision tree method; a prospective phase, in which we performed an external validation of the chosen models in patients with suspicion of beta-lactam allergy recruited from 3 allergy centers (Montpellier, Nîmes, Narbonne) between March and November 2013. Data related to clinical history and allergy evaluation results were retrieved and analyzed. The retrospective and prospective phases included 1991 and 200 patients, respectively, with a different prevalence of confirmed beta-lactam allergy (23.6% vs 31%, P = .02). For the logistic regression method, performances of the models were similar in both samples: sensitivity was 51% (vs 60%), specificity 75% (vs 80%), positive predictive value 40% (vs 57%), and negative predictive value 83% (vs 82%). The decision tree method reached a sensitivity of 29.5% (vs 43.5%), specificity of 96.4% (vs 94.9%), positive predictive value of 71.6% (vs 79.4%), and negative predictive value of 81.6% (vs 81.3%). Two different independent methods using clinical history predictors were unable to accurately predict beta-lactam allergy and replace a conventional allergy evaluation for suspected beta-lactam allergy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR applied in chemistry and biochemistry

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnesium ions, Mg$^{2+}$, are essential in biological systems, taking part in practically all phosphate chemistry, in photosynthesis as an integral component of chlorophyll, and they are regulated via transport through selective membrane proteins. Nonetheless, the function of magnesium ions in biochemistry is difficult to characterize, as it is practically invisible to current experimental techniques. With this proposal we aim to advance the use of $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR to liquid samples, building on the experience from the successful Letter of Intent INTC-I-088 “$\\beta$-NMR as a novel technique for biological applications”. Initially a series of experiments will be conducted aiming to characterize the coordination chemistry of Mg$^{2+}$ in ionic liquids (ILs), demonstrating that it is possible within the lifetime of the radioisotope to achieve binding of Mg$^{2+}$ to a molecule dissolved in the IL. ILs are chosen as they display a very low vapor pressure, and are thus straightforwardly compatible with t...

  20. Effects of ultrasound on Transforming Growth Factor-beta genes in bone cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic ultrasound (US is a widely used form of biophysical stimulation that is increasingly applied to promote fracture healing. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, which is encoded by three related but different genes, is known to play a major part in bone growth and repair. However, the effects of US on the expression of the TGF-beta genes and the physical acoustic mechanisms involved in initiating changes in gene expression in vitro, are not yet known. The present study demonstrates that US had a differential effect on these TGF-beta isoforms in a human osteoblast cell line, with the highest dose eliciting the most pronounced up-regulation of both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 at 1 hour after treatment and thereafter declining. In contrast, US had no effect on TGF-beta2 expression. Fluid streaming rather than thermal effects or cavitation was found to be the most likely explanation for the gene responses observed in vitro.

  1. Method of fission product beta spectra measurements for predicting reactor anti-neutrino emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M.; Burns, Kimberly A.; Campbell, Luke W.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Schram, Malachi; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wootan, David W.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear fission process that occurs in the core of nuclear reactors results in unstable, neutron-rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. These reactor neutrinos have served neutrino physics research from the initial discovery of the neutrino to today's precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles. The prediction of the absolute flux and energy spectrum of the emitted reactor neutrinos hinges upon a series of seminal papers based on measurements performed in the 1970s and 1980s. The steadily improving reactor neutrino measurement techniques and recent reconsiderations of the agreement between the predicted and observed reactor neutrino flux motivates revisiting the underlying beta spectra measurements. A method is proposed to use an accelerator proton beam delivered to an engineered target to yield a neutron field tailored to reproduce the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor. Foils of the primary reactor fissionable isotopes placed in this tailored neutron flux will ultimately emit beta particles from the resultant fission products. Measurement of these beta particles in a time projection chamber with a perpendicular magnetic field provides a distinctive set of systematic considerations for comparison to the original seminal beta spectra measurements. Ancillary measurements such as gamma-ray emission and post-irradiation radiochemical analysis will further constrain the absolute normalization of beta emissions per fission. The requirements for unfolding the beta spectra measured with this method into a predicted reactor neutrino spectrum are explored.

  2. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10 3 , 6.624×10 3 and 2.244×10 3 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the influence of the medium energy and initial fluence FWHM of electron determining a Bremsstrahlung photon spectrum of a linear accelerator; Analisis de sensibilidad de la influencia de la energia media FWHM de la influencia inicial de electrones en la determinacion de un espectro de fotones Bremsstrahlung de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    A correct dose calculation in patient under radiotherapy treatments requires and accurate description of the radiation source. The main goal of the present work is to study the effects of initial electron beam characteristics on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose distribution for a 6 MeV linac photon beam. To that, we propose a methodology to determine the initial electron fluence before hitting the accelerator target for an Elektra Precis a medical linear accelerator. The method used for the electron radiation source description is based on a Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis (SUSA) and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 transport code. This electron spectrum has been validated by means of comparison of its resulting depth dose curve in a water cube with experimental data being the mean difference below the 1%. (Author)

  4. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  5. [Beta thalassemia major in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Feliu Aurora; Bonduel, Mariana; Sciuccati, Gabriela; del Pozo, Ana; Roldán, Ariel; Ciaccio, Marta; Orazi, Virginia; Fano, Virginia; Ozuna, Blanca; Lejarraga, Horacio; Muriel, Sackmann Federico

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of beta thalassemia major patients seen at Hospital Juan P. Garrahan was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and outcome of the population. From August 1987 to July 2000, 45 patients were admitted (27 males-18 females). The most common beta globin gene defects were C-39 (30.7%); IVS-I nt 110 (20%); IVS-I nt 6 (13.3%); IVS-I nt 1(4%). alpha globin genes were normal in 42 patients, 1 patient had triplicate and cuadriplicate alpha globin genes and 2 patients were not analyzed. Six patients of 5 families were heterozygous for -158G gamma mutation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 patients, with an identical sibling. Transfusion-related infections and alloantibodies were detected in 6.7% patients. Growth assessment showed no significant difference in the stature of girls compared to the reference population, but 5 boys had short stature. There is a tendency to short trunk. Growth velocity was normal at prepubertal age. No X-ray lesions related to desferrioxamine were observed. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were found in 35.7% and abnormalities in GH/IGF-I axis in 12.5% of the patients. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 2 patients. No patient developed diabetes mellitus, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency. One patient had cardiac complications. Forty-two patients are alive and 3 died (cardiac failure 1, central nervous system bleeding 1, sepsis 1). We conclude that beta thalassemia major, originated mainly from Italian immigrants, has a cumbersome treatment and is severely hindered by the lack of adequate economic resources in our patients.

  6. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  7. beta decay of (78)Sr

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cerdán, Ana Belén; Rubio, Berta; Gelletly, W.; Algora, Alejandro; Agramunt, Jorge; Burkard, K.; Huller W.; Nácher, Enrique; Sarriguren, Pedro; Caballero Ontanaya, Luis; Molina Palacios, Francisco Gabriel; Fraile, Luis M.; Reillo, E.; García Borge, María José; Dessagne, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma rays and conversion electrons emitted in the beta decay of (78)Sr to levels in (78)Rb have been studied using Ge detectors and a mini-orange spectrometer. A reliable level scheme based on the results of these experiments has been established. The properties of the levels in (78)Rb have been compared with calculations based on deformed Hartree-Fock with Skyrme interactions and pairing correlations in the BCS approximation. This has allowed an interpretation of the nature of the obser...

  8. [Heterocygous beta thalassaemia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Aparicio, F

    1978-01-01

    Two girls with an heterocigotic beta-thalassemy are presented in this study. Case 1 has an hypochromic and microtic anaemia with an enormous splenomegaly, increased osmotic resistence of red blood cells in salted solution and increase of A2 hemoglobin. This situation is associated with an increase of the glucolitic intraerythrocitic enzimes. Case 2 showed increase of A2 hemoglobine, but this anomaly was associated with decrease of intraerythrocitic enzimatic rate. First clinical signs of erythrocitic disturbances was an acute hemolytic crisis developed by the supply of the sulphometoxipiridacine. The erythroquinetic study showed a decrease of the average life of the red blood cells in both patients.

  9. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man....

  10. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody resp...... against the infection. On the other hand, immune complexes between the beta-lactamase and corresponding antibodies could play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary injury in CF by mediating hyperimmune reactions....

  11. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  12. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  13. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for the central region of keratin associated-beta-proteins (beta-keratins) shows the epitope is constantly expressed in reptilian epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2013-08-01

    The presence of beta-proteins containing a core-box region in specific regions of reptilian epidermis has been studied by immunological methods. Alpha-keratins are detected by the antibody AK2 that recognizes a sequence toward the C-terminal of acidic alpha-keratins of 48-52kDa. Beta-proteins are recognized by an antibody directed to the core-box region specific for these proteins of 18-37kDa. The AK2 antibody labels with variable intensity alpha-keratin bundles in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes in the epidermis of representative species of reptiles but immunolabeling decreases or disappears in pre-corneous and corneous cells. As opposite, the core-box antibody only labels with variable intensity the dense beta-corneous material formed in pre-corneous and corneous layers of crocodilian and turtle epidermis. In lepidosaurian epidermis the core-box antibody labels the beta-layer while the mesos and alpha-layers are poorly or not labeled. The immunological evidence indicates that beta-proteins are synthesized in the upper spinosus and pre-corneous layers of the epidermis and replace or mask the initial alpha-keratin framework present in keratinocytes as they differentiate into cells of the beta-layer. In the specialized pad lamellae of gecko and anoline lizards charged beta-proteins accumulate in the adhesive setae and may affect the mechanism of adhesion that allows these lizards to walk vertical surfaces. The addition of beta-proteins to the alpha-keratins in upper cell layers of the epidermis recalls the process of cornification of mammalian epidermis where specific keratin-associated proteins (involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin) associate with the keratin framework in terminally differentiating keratinocytes of the stratum corneum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delta-beta coupling is associated with paternal caregiving behaviors during preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Reema; Brooker, Rebecca J

    2017-02-01

    Neural systems that index self-regulation have been associated with mental health outcomes, including risk for anxiety problems, from early in life. Yet, little is known about the environmental factors that may impact the development of neural systems of regulation. Behavioral work suggests that sensitive parenting, or parents' ability to correctly interpret and respond to children's signals, supports the development of regulation. Conversely, harsh parenting, or uninvolved or punitive parent behaviors, is thought to compromise developing regulatory systems. We recorded preschoolers' baseline electroencephalography (EEG) and tested whether individual differences in delta-beta coupling were linked to sensitive or harsh parenting behaviors in mothers and fathers. Using Fisher's r-to-z transform, we found that preschoolers whose fathers were low (vs. high) in harsh parenting showed greater coupling at parietal electrode sites (z=2.66, p=0.00); preschoolers whose fathers were high (vs. low) in harsh parenting showed greater coupling at frontal electrode sites (z=-2.14, p=0.02). Heightened coupling at frontal electrodes was also visible for children who showed high (vs. low) levels of social fear (z=-2.11, p=0.02), suggesting that enhanced frontal coupling may be associated with increased risk for anxiety problems. No differences in coupling were seen based on levels of sensitive parenting behaviors in mothers or fathers. Results provide initial evidence that harsh parenting behaviors in fathers are associated with differences in a general index of neural regulation in preschoolers, which may have implications for the development of social fear in early life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Are ex vivo neutralising antibodies against IFN-beta always detrimental to therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P S; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    Neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against interferon (IFN)-beta reduce the treatment effect in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, data from pivotal trials of IFN-beta in MS suggest that NAb-positive patients may have a reduced relapse rate during the first six to 12 months of therapy. We collected...... significantly fewer relapses compared to patients who maintained the NAb-negative status, whereas the opposite was observed after month 6. This is in accordance with observations in randomised studies of the three different IFN-beta preparations, showing that patients who become NAb-positive have lower relapse...... rates during the first six or 12 months of therapy. We hypothesise that low affinity NAbs, present early after the start of IFN-beta therapy, though neutralising in vitro in sensitive assays increase the half-life of IFN-beta in vivo and, thereby, enhance the therapeutic effect. With affinity maturation...

  16. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  17. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...... that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2...

  18. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  19. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  1. Beta Cell Mass Restoration in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice Treated with EGF and Gastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Song

    Full Text Available One week of treatment with EGF and gastrin (EGF/G was shown to restore normoglycemia and to induce islet regeneration in mice treated with the diabetogenic agent alloxan. The mechanisms underlying this regeneration are not fully understood. We performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to evaluate the contribution of beta cell neogenesis in this model. One day after alloxan administration, mice received EGF/G treatment for one week. The treatment could not prevent the initial alloxan-induced beta cell mass destruction, however it did reverse glycemia to control levels within one day, suggesting improved peripheral glucose uptake. In vitro experiments with C2C12 cell line showed that EGF could stimulate glucose uptake with an efficacy comparable to that of insulin. Subsequently, EGF/G treatment stimulated a 3-fold increase in beta cell mass, which was partially driven by neogenesis and beta cell proliferation as assessed by beta cell lineage tracing and BrdU-labeling experiments, respectively. Acinar cell lineage tracing failed to show an important contribution of acinar cells to the newly formed beta cells. No appearance of transitional cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon, a hallmark for alpha-to-beta cell conversion, was found, suggesting that alpha cells did not significantly contribute to the regeneration. An important fraction of the beta cells significantly lost insulin positivity after alloxan administration, which was restored to normal after one week of EGF/G treatment. Alloxan-only mice showed more pronounced beta cell neogenesis and proliferation, even though beta cell mass remained significantly depleted, suggesting ongoing beta cell death in that group. After one week, macrophage infiltration was significantly reduced in EGF/G-treated group compared to the alloxan-only group. Our results suggest that EGF/G-induced beta cell regeneration in alloxan-diabetic mice is driven by beta cell neogenesis, proliferation and recovery of

  2. Formation, characterization, and thermal degradation behavior of a novel tricomponent aggregate of beta-cyclodextrin, ferrocene, and polypropylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le Xin; Du, Fang Yun; Guo, Xue Qing; Pan, Shu Zhen

    2010-02-04

    A tricomponent aggregate PPG-Fc-beta-CD formed by polypropylene glycol (PPG), ferrocene (Fc), and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was obtained and characterized by a series of physical methods, such as (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. First, the tricomponent aggregate exhibited a component ratio of 1:28:32 (PPG/Fc/beta-CD) in the solid state, and showed a completely different order in thermal stability when compared with beta-CD: under a nitrogen atmosphere, beta-CD > PPG-Fc-beta-CD, and in a vacuum, PPG-Fc-beta-CD > beta-CD. Second, the appearance of two peculiar points p and q at the end of TG curve of the aggregate gave a strong impression that the degradation rate further increased after the sharp decomposition of the aggregate reached point p and the amount present in the residual fraction at point q about 780.0 K was lower than 1%, both of which were rather different from those reported previously. This finding implied that the molecular assembly resulting from the binding interaction among Fc, PPG, and beta-CD induced more efficiently the degradation of each of them. Third, an interesting phenomenon was found that the order of thermal release of the three assembled components in PPG-Fc-beta-CD was Fc > beta-CD > PPG. Results of this study provide some insight into an initial attempt to construct a supramolecule among a polymer, a coordination compound, and an organic compound.

  3. Characterisation and confirmation of rare beta-thalassaemia mutations in the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Chin, Pui See; Wong, Yean Ching; Tan, Kim Lian; Chan, Lee Lee; George, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations. DNA from 173 beta-thalassaemia carriers and five beta-thalassaemia major patients from the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were first analysed by ARMS and gap-PCR. Ninety-five per cent (174/183) of the 183 beta-globin genes studied were characterised using these two techiques. The remaining nine uncharacterised beta-globin genes (4.9%) were analysed using genomic sequencing of a 904 bp amplified PCR product consisting of the promoter region, exon 1, intervening sequence (IVS) 1, exon 2 and the 5' IVS2 regions of the beta-globin gene. The rare beta-globin mutations detected in the Chinese patients were CD27/28 (+C) and CD43 (GAG-TAG), and -88 (C-T) in an Indian patient. Beta-globin mutations at CD16 (-C), IVS1-1 (G-A), IVS2-1 (G-A), -86 (C-G) and Haemoglobin South Florida (CD1, GTG-ATG) were confirmed in the Malay patients. The seven rare beta-globin mutations and a rare haemoglobin variant confirmed in this study have been described in other populations but have not been previously described in Malaysian beta-thalassemia patients.

  4. Sensitivity, Recalculated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    Prior to this study, the sensitivity in nEXO was calculated using an approximate method that does not provide 90% coverage. I find it useful to understand the confidence level of a limit by focusing on the confidence level as a property of the method used to find the limit.A particular method (algorithm,formula) is applied to an experiment to produce a limit. That experiment was conducted in a particular universe with certain values of the physical parameters. We’d like a method than produces a correct limit for 90% of the experiments that could run. We also want that to be true for every universe—that is, regardless of the physical parameter value, the method should still produce a correct limit 90% of the time.

  5. Search for $\\beta$-delayed protons from $^{11}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    $\\beta$-delayed proton emission from $^{11}$Be will be a very rare process. It is believed to decay directly into continuum states. This would imply that it will be a sensitive probe of the halo structure of the one-neutron halo nucleus $^{11}$Be. We propose to improve existing (unpublished) limits on this decay mode by two orders of magnitude. Our earlier experience at ISOLDE indicates that the required intensity and purity of the source can be obtained. The branching ratio will be measured by counting the number of $^{10}$Be atoms produced via accelerator mass spectrometry.

  6. Present status of radiochemical double beta decay study (238U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Maillard, C.; Chevallier, A.; Chevallier, J.; Escoubes, B.; Schulz, N.; Sens, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive experiment has been designed that will be able to measure an assumed half-life of 1.9x10 22 yr. This double beta corresponds to the activity of 27000 238 Pu nuclei formed during a year, in a 200 m deep mine, from 300 kg of 238 U, giving 210 alpha decays per year. Plutonium 238 et 239 will be determined by alpha spectroscopy after extraction chromatography. Experimental studies were undertaken to select the best conditions for running the extraction chromatography cycles

  7. beta-Lactamases and beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, G A; Sutton, L

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains determining 17 different plasmid-determined beta-lactamases were tested for resistance to new broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Several beta-lactamases demonstrated enhanced resistance to cefamandole but only low-level resistance to other agents. High production of cloned E. coli chromosomal beta-lactamase, however, provided resistance to cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam but not to BMY-28142 or imipenem.

  8. The need for international standardization in clinical beta dosimetry for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, U.; Boehm, J.; Kaulich, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Beta radiation has found increasing interest in radiotherapy. Besides the curative treatment of small and medium-sized intraocular tumors by means of ophthalmic beta radiation plaques, intravascular brachytherapy has proven to successfully overcome the severe problem of restenosis after interventional treatment of arterial stenosis in coronaries and peripheral vessels in many clinical trials with a large number of patients. Prior to initiating procedures applying beta radiation in radiotherapy, however, there is a common need to specify methods for the determination and specification of the absorbed dose to water or tissue and their spatial distributions. The IAEA-TECDOC-1274 Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy (2002) is a help for photon brachytherapy calibration. But, for beta seed and line sources, IAEA recommends well type ionization chambers as working standards which are far from measuring absorbed dose to water of the radiation clinically used. Although the application of such working standards seems to be more precise, large errors can occur when the medical physicist has to convert the calibration data to absorbed dose to water of the beta radiation emitted. The user must believe that the source is equally activated and that the manufacturer did not change the design and construction of the source encapsulation. With the DGMP Report 16 (2001) Guidelines for medical physical aspects of intravascular brachytherapy a very detailed code of practice is given, especially for the calibration and clinical dosimetry of intravascular beta radiation sources. As there is a global need for standardization in clinical dosimetry for intravascular brachytherapy utilizing beta radiation, the DIN-NAR, the German committee on standardization in radiology, task group dosimetry, has initiated an international adhoc working group for a new ISO work item proposal on the standardization of procedures in clinical dosimetry to guarantee reliable

  9. A self-controlled case series to assess the effectiveness of beta blockers for heart failure in reducing hospitalisations in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratt Nicole L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the suitability of using the self-controlled case series design to assess improvements in health outcomes using the effectiveness of beta blockers for heart failure in reducing hospitalisations as the example. Methods The Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs administrative claims database was used to undertake a self-controlled case-series in elderly patients aged 65 years or over to compare the risk of a heart failure hospitalisation during periods of being exposed and unexposed to a beta blocker. Two studies, the first using a one year period and the second using a four year period were undertaken to determine if the estimates varied due to changes in severity of heart failure over time. Results In the one year period, 3,450 patients and in the four year period, 12, 682 patients had at least one hospitalisation for heart failure. The one year period showed a non-significant decrease in hospitalisations for heart failure 4-8 months after starting beta-blockers, (RR, 0.76; 95% CI (0.57-1.02 and a significant decrease in the 8-12 months post-initiation of a beta blocker for heart failure (RR, 0.62; 95% CI (0.39, 0.99. For the four year study there was an increased risk of hospitalisation less than eight months post-initiation and significant but smaller decrease in the 8-12 month window (RR, 0.90; 95% CI (0.82, 0.98. Conclusions The results of the one year observation period are similar to those observed in randomised clinical trials indicating that the self-controlled case-series method can be successfully applied to assess health outcomes. However, the result appears sensitive to the study periods used and further research to understand the appropriate applications of this method in pharmacoepidemiology is still required. The results also illustrate the benefits of extending beta blocker utilisation to the older age group of heart failure patients in which their use is common but the evidence is

  10. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  11. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopjani, Mentor [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Lam, Rebecca S. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Koutsouki, Evgenia [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jakupi, Muharrem [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Foeller, Michael [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  12. Modification of human beta-globin locus PAC clones by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Patrinos (George); M. de Krom (Mariken); S. Bottardi; R.J. Janssens; E. Katsantoni (Eleni); A.W. Wai; D.J. Sherratt; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A.M.A. Imam (Ali)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe report here modifications of human beta-globin PAC clones by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli DH10B, utilising a plasmid temperature sensitive for replication, the recA gene and a wild-type copy of the rpsL gene which allows for an efficient selection for

  13. Beta-adrenoceptor changes in hypertension: cause or consequence of the elevation in blood pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanczik, R.; Khamssi, M.; Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac, pulmonary and renal beta-adrenoceptor density and subtype distribution were measured by radioligand binding in three rat models of acquired hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats on a high-sodium diet, renal hypertensive rats and DOCA-salt rats. The results were compared with

  14. Regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial beta-oxidation as targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, M.; Kuipers, F.; van der Leij, F. R.

    P>Insulin sensitizers like metformin generally act through pathways triggered by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) controls mitochondrial beta-oxidation and is inhibited by malonyl-CoA, the product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). The adenosine

  15. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  16. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...

  17. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  18. Beta globin messenger RNA content of bone marrow erythroblasts in heterozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, E J; Pritchard, J; Hillman, D; Glass, J; Forget, B G

    1984-01-01

    RNA from bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia was analyzed for relative content of alpha and beta globin messenger RNA by molecular hybrization. Erythroblasts from nonthalassemic patients exhibited approximately the same alpha and beta globin mRNA content (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.8-1.0) as circulating reticulocytes (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.74-1.2). The mRNA ratios corresponded well to levels of globin synthesis observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Erythroblasts from four patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia also exhibited approximately the same beta/alpha mRNA ratios in bone marrow erythroblasts (0.34-0.59) as in reticulocytes (0.34-0.4): beta globin mRNA was clearly deficient in bone marrow erythroblasts. Globin biosynthesis by erythroblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes was balanced despite the mRNA deficiency (beta/alpha = 0.9-1.0), suggesting that post-translational phenoma (eg, proteolysis of free globin chains), rather than instability of beta mRNA, accounts for the balanced globin chain synthesis frequently observed in bone marrow erythroblasts of patients with beta-thalassemia trait.

  19. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  20. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta