WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta gamma contamination

  1. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft3 per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage

  2. Estimate of beta and gamma contamination in vegetable and animal biologic samples using GM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the use of a large area Geiger-Mueller Detector (GMD) with aluminium window of 50 mm thickness (3,4 mg/cm2) in a measuring chain in order to estimate the beta and gamma contamination of biologic samples. The technical data for GMD are: - window area for gamma radiation: 300 cm2; - grid transmission: 80%; - operating voltage: 1100 - 1300 V; - minimum detectable beta energy: 125 keV; - dead time: 250 ms; - background (shielded with 100 mm Pb + 1 mm Cu): 6 pulses/s; - service life: 5 x 108 counts. Using this GMD together with a set of large area beta standard sources and a set of point gamma sources we could estimate beta and gamma contamination in the energy range 125 keV - 2.5 MeV for biologic samples. (authors)

  3. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  4. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  5. Management of defense beta-gamma contaminated solid low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In DOE defense operations, approx. 70,000 m3 of beta-gamma low-level radioactive waste are disposed of annually by shallow land burial operations at six primary sites. Waste generated at other DOE sites are transported on public roads to the primary sites for disposal. In the practice of low-level waste (LLW) disposal in the US, the site hydrology and geology are the primary barriers to radioactive migration. To date, little emphasis has been placed on waste form improvements or engineered site modifications to reduce migration potential. Compaction is the most common treatment step employed. The performance of ground disposal of radioactive waste in this country, in spite of many practices that we would consider unacceptable in today's light, has resulted in very little migration of radioactivity outside site boundaries. Most problems with previously used burial grounds have been from subsidence at the arid sites and subsidence and groundwater contact at the humid sites. The radionuclides that have shown the most significant migration are tritium, 90Sr, and 99Tc. The unit cost for disposal operations at a given DOE site is dependent on many variables, but the annual volume to be disposed is probably the major factor. The average cost for current DOE burial operation is approximately $170/m3. 23 figures

  6. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the β γ-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other β γ-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier

  7. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  8. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  9. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration

  10. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  11. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  12. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  13. Novel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Measurements Using Phoswich Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PNNL has developed an Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) for the CTBT to measure four radio-xenon isotopes using a beta-gamma coincidence counting detector. A novel method to measure beta-gamma coincidences using a phoswich detector with state-of-the-art pulse shape discrimination techniques has been investigated

  14. Microstructures of duplex (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J R; Miller, D R; Netherway, D J

    1985-05-01

    The microstructures of (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys are especially influenced by both homogenization temperature and subsequent heat treatment. When the alloy is cooled from homogenization temperatures above approximately 200 degrees C, lenticular regions of the ordered orthorhombic gamma phase precipitate from within the disordered h.c.p. beta phase on three structurally equivalent planes, (1210), (1120), and (2110), to form a Widmanstatten structure. When the duplex alloys were homogenized at temperatures below approximately 200 degrees C, where the beta/(beta + gamma) phase boundary is vertical, these structures were not observed. PMID:3858310

  15. A system for simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, A. T.; Hamby, D. M.

    2007-08-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for real-time and simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) designed and built in our laboratory. The DPP board digitally captures the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfers valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A resolving algorithm also was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events, and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimal crosstalk. The spectrometer has proven to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  16. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  17. Competition of $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays in $^{56}$Zn and the exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioglu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable results have been published recently on the $\\beta$ decay of $^{56}$Zn. In particular, the rare and exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton emission has been detected for the first time in the $fp$ shell. Here we focus the discussion on this exotic decay mode and on the observed competition between $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ rays from the Isobaric Analogue State.

  18. Cyclic oxidation behavior of beta+gamma overlay coatings on gamma and gamma+gamma-prime alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Pilsner, B. H.; Carol, L. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of the cyclic oxidation behavior of low-pressure plasma sprayed beta+gamma coasting on gamma-phase Ni-Cr-Al alloys have shown the correlation of weight change, oxide type, and Cr and Al concentration-distance profiles as a function of oxidation time. Of special interest was the transition to breakway oxidation due to the loss of the Al flux to the oxide and the failure of the coated alloy to form an Al2O3-rich oxide scale. The experimental results on beta+gamma/gamma coating systems were used as the basis of a numerical model (ternary, semi-infinite, finite-difference analysis) which accurately predicted changes in Cr and Al concentration-distance profiles. The model was used to study parameters critical to enhancing the life of coatings which fail by a combination of Al loss in forming the oxide scale and Al loss via interdiffusion with the substrate alloy. Comparisons of beta+gamma/gamma coating behavior are made to the oxidation of coated gamma+gamma-prime substrates, both ternary Ni-Cr-Al alloys and Mar-M 247-type alloys.

  19. delta beta-Thalassaemia in Sicily: report of a case of double heterozygosity for A gamma delta beta-thalassaemia and A gamma G gamma delta beta-thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Musumeci,S; Romeo, M A; Pizzarelli, G.; Schilirò, G; Russo, G.

    1983-01-01

    A case of double heterozygosity for A gamma delta beta-thalassaemia and A gamma G gamma delta beta-thalassaemia was found during a screening programme in Sicily. The proband, a 4-year-old girl, showed a clinical picture of thalassaemia intermedia. Hb F (85.12% by the Singer method) was G gamma A gamma type. The parents and the brother were delta beta-thalassaemia carriers. Structural analysis of Hb F showed both G gamma and A gamma chains in the father, but only A gamma chains in the mother.

  20. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  1. Evaluation of beta-decay III. The complex gamma function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two real, analytical, approximations for the square of the modulus of the complex gamma function as it appears in F(Z, W), the Fermi function for beta-decay, are evaluated; an accuracy bettering 10-4% can easily be achieved for all electron energies throughout the periodic table. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. Gamma and beta intra-operative imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small area (∝1.5 cm2) scintillation cameras for imaging gammas and betas using inter-changeable detector front ends were built and characterized. Components common to both emission imaging cameras include: (1) fiber optic bundles 2-3 m long, comprised of multi-clad fibers which connect the scintillation detector to (2) an MC-PMT; (3) parallel MC-PMT outputs feed a resistive positioning network and i-V converter/line driver network which produce balanced +X, -X, +Y, and -Y outputs; and (4) four ADCs and a Macintosh PC for system control and image display. The beta and gamma devices used distinct scintillation detectors which were characterized by both simulation and measurement. The beta camera utilized a 0.5 mm by 1.25 cm φ CaF2(Eu) scintillation crystal coupled, through a diffusing light guide, to 19 2-mm φ optical fibers. These front-end fibers are in turn coupled by a more flexible fiber bundle to the MC-PMT. CaF2(Eu) has high light output, high beta sensitivity, and low gamma sensitivity. Image signals are histogrammed and displayed after Anger logic computations are performed on digitized signals. The beta camera has 2 and 2 x 2 mm2 CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) crystals of various lengths, and 3 mm thick continuous crystals. Configurations using 4 x 4 element matrices with one-to-one coupling between crystals and fiber channels, and light diffusers between each crystal matrix and fibers were evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  4. Exoemissive properties of graphite. [Gamma, beta, X, aud UV, radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapraz, D.; Iacconi, P.; Keller, P. (Nice Univ., 06 (France). Lab. de Physique Experimentale); Barthe, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection)

    1983-01-01

    The exoemission of the commonly used graphite is far from negligible when the doses are higher than in the case of dosimetric applications. Some exoemissive experimental results for graphite, between room temperature and 710/sup 0/C, are given after various irradiations: UV (Hg - 253.7 nm), ..beta.. (/sup 90/Sr), X (W-target, 45 kV) or ..gamma.. (/sup 137/Cs). Mainly, six TSEE peaks located near 90, 160, 220, 300, 475 and 570/sup 0/C are observed. The origin of graphite exoemission is probably due to adsorption effects.

  5. Neutron-gamma competition for $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, Matthew; Moller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present a coupled Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation and Hauser-Feshbach (QRPA+HF) model for calculating delayed particle emission. This approach uses microscopic nuclear structure information which starts with Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the daughter nucleus, and then follows the statistical decay until the initial available excitation energy is exhausted. Explicitly included at each particle emission stage is $\\gamma$-ray competition. We explore this model in the context of neutron emission of neutron-rich nuclei and find that neutron-gamma competition can lead to both increases and decreases in neutron emission probabilities, depending on the system considered. A second consequence of this formalism is a prediction of more neutrons on average being emitted after $\\beta$-decay for nuclei near the neutron dripline compared to models that do not consider the statistical decay.

  6. Simultaneos determination of absorbed doses due to beta and gamma radiations with CaSO4: Dy produced at Ipen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the Goiania radiological accident, it was necessary to develop urgently a dosimeter in order to evaluate, simultaneously, beta and gamma absorbed doses, due to 137Cs radiations. Therefore, the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of IPEN developed a simple, practical, light and low cost badge using small thickness (0,20mm) thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy pellets produced by the same laboratory. This pellets are adequate for beta radiation detection. These dosimeters were worn by some IPEN technicians who worked in Goiania city, and were used to evaluate the external and internal contaminations presented by the accident victims interned at the Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias. (author)

  7. The assessment of site contamination using mobile gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3,700 measurements were made on a site of area in excess of 10 Ha using 'LARCH', the Large Area Radioactive Characterisation system. LARCH is a mobile system that combines the use of high resolution gamma spectroscopy with automated mapping techniques to generate a radiation contamination map of the surveyed area. The advantages of using high resolution gamma spectrometry, the means of correcting for contributions from radioactive plant, and the interpretation of results are presented. The techniques used permit a rapid and cost-effective location, identification and quantification of radioactive contamination or demonstration of compliance with clearance criteria. Possible applications of LARCH to other situations in site restoration are discussed. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation sterilises bacteria-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiation for the sterilisation of sewage and hospital waste etc., is briefly described. A sterilisation plant delivered by Sulzer is illustrated diagrammatically and its functioning explained, while a photograph illustrates a similar plant delivered by Geodel Systems, of Canada. The latter firm has adapted this type of plant for the radiolytical destruction of phenols, cyanides, alkyl benzenesulphonates and similar wastes. (JIW)

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the whitening activity of {beta}-glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui Hong [Chungnam Naitonal University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    This study evaluated the change in whitening activity of {beta}-glucan by gamma-irradiation. Tyrosinase inhibition was significantly increased in the samples with 30, 50, 10 kGy irradiated {beta}-glucan. Melanin synthesis of irradiated {beta}-glucan was measured from B16BL6 melanoma cell line treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. Melanin synthesis was increased in the {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone added group. However, it was decreased in the groups of 30, 50 and 100 kGy gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. These results indicate that gamma irradiated {beta}-glucan may elevate the whitening activity. Therefore, gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan could be used for nutraceutical foods in cosmetic industry.

  10. Personnel monitoring and dosimetry (beta and gamma) - external

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel monitoring is the periodic measurement (monthly or quarterly service) of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The monitoring/service period for a given institution is mainly decided by the potential of receiving doses/exposures by occupational radiation workers. Ionizing radiations viz. neutrons, photons (X-rays and gamma) and beta particles are commonly encountered by radiation workers and contribute towards radiation doses. The main aim of personnel monitoring is to ensure that the dose limits as stipulated by the regulatory authorities are followed. It may also help in the segregation of various personnel as per dose received in case of emergency/radiation accidents. In addition, external monitoring provides information on the external radiation exposure of individuals working with radioactive materials and/or radiation producing devices and assist in work planning, allow control of doses at the workplace

  11. Observation of Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, S B; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Perez-Loureiro, D; Bowe, A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$-ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from $\\beta$-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using $\\beta$-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than $A=10$. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using $\\gamma$-ray peaks from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of $^{26}$P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{26}$P($\\beta p\\gamma$)$^{25}$Al decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in $\\beta$-delayed proton-$\\gamma$ decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613 keV $\\gamma$-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776 keV $\\gamma$ ray de-exciting the 2720 keV $^{25}$Al level was observed...

  12. Development of a three-layer phoswich alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    For radiation monitoring at the sites of such nuclear power plant accidents as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors are needed not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. In some applications, imaging detectors are required to detect the distribution of plutonium particles that emit alpha particles and radiocesium in foods that emits beta particles and gamma photons. To solve these requirements, we developed an imaging detector that can measure the distribution of alpha and beta particles as well as gamma photons. The imaging detector consists of three-layer scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: ~5 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. Using pulse shape discrimination, the images of these layers can be separated. The position information is calculated by the Anger principle from 8×8 anode signals from the PSPMT. The images for the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons are individually formed by the pulse shape discriminations for each layer. We detected alpha particle images in the first layer and beta particle images in the second layer. Gamma photon images were detected in the second and third layers. The spatial resolution for the alpha and beta particles was ~1.25 mm FWHM and less than 2 mm FWHM for the gamma photons. We conclude that our developed alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector is promising for imaging applications not only for the environmental monitoring of radionuclides but also for medical and molecular imaging.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administrated antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiær, Hanne

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. RESULTS: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a response, as well as an......-LG was contaminated with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein.......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. METHODS: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon...

  14. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. Results: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a lresponse, as well as an......-LG was contaminated with LPS. Conclusions: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein.......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. Methods: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon...

  15. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the foodstuffs by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986, resulted in the increase of radioactive contamination at a global level. To avoid undesirable exposure to public, Pakistan like other countries imposed radioactive contamination levels on food items. Various imported/to be exported and locally purchased food items for human consumption have been analysed for gamma emitting radionuclides. Amongst the food items, special attention was focussed on the imported dry milk. In addition to naturally occurring K-40 radionuclide, small amounts of Cs-137 and Cs-134 fission products have been detected in some of the samples. The concentrations of these two fission radionuclides are presented and compared with the relevant limits. (author)

  16. Angular dependence of thermoluminescent dosemeters for gamma and beta radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma and beta radiation sources are widely used in Nuclear Medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Workers of these services receive dose of whole body and end due to the activities of the therapeutic dose preparation and testing, administration radiopharmaceuticals and obtention of image. Hands receive higher doses than other parts of the body. Currently the individual monitoring for the gamma radiation is already well established; However, the determination of the dose due to beta radiation still faces some difficulties. In this work it was studied the angular dependence of thermoluminescent dosemeters detectors in beams of gamma and beta radiation. Detectors of CaSO4:Dy + Teflon produced at IPEN - the Brazilian Institute for Nuclear and Energy Researches - were used. The angular dependence was studied varying the angle between 0 and 180 deg. The results obtained proved to be suitable for use in individual monitoring of workers exposed to beta and gamma radiation

  17. Study of PIN diode based pocket dosimeter for gamma and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pocket dosimeter, based on PN junction Si Semiconductor detector earlier was developed for the measurement of dose equivalent in the field of gamma and beta radiation. This dosemeter was insensitive to beta radiation which is primary requirement as a legal personal dosemeter from IEE standards. This dosemeter works on a high power 3V Li battery along with a micro power DC-DC converter to get 3.3V needed to power the circuit. It has a 6 digit LCD digital display along with battery low indication. It measures the dose range of 1- 99999 μSv. The photon energy dependence of the dosimeter from 60 keV to 1.2 MeV is ± 30% for gamma radiation and ± 40% for beta. Further work is in progress to bring beta response within acceptable limit and to display beta and gamma response separately as Hp (0.07) and Hp (10). (author)

  18. Monocytic cells synthesize, adhere to, and migrate on laminin-8 (alpha 4 beta 1 gamma 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, C; Geberhiwot, T; Ingerpuu, S; Assefa, D; Wondimu, Z; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Virtanen, I; Patarroyo, M

    2000-11-15

    Laminins, a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signaling properties, are major components of vascular and other basement membranes. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin isoforms by leukocytes are poorly understood. In monoblastic THP-1 cells, transcripts for laminin gamma(1)-, beta(1)-, and alpha(4)-chains were detected by RT-PCR. Following immunoaffinity purification on a laminin beta(1) Ab-Sepharose column, laminin beta(1)- (220 kDa), gamma(1)- (200 kDa), and alpha(4)- (180/200 kDa) chains were detected by Western blotting in THP-1 cells and in two other monoblastic cell lines, U-937 and Mono Mac 6. After cell permeabilization, a mAb to laminin gamma(1)-chain reacted with practically all blood monocytes by immunofluorescence flow cytometry, and laminin-8 (alpha(4)beta(1)gamma(1)) could be isolated also from these cells. Monoblastic JOSK-I cells adhered constitutively to immobilized recombinant laminin-8, less than to laminin-10/11 (alpha(5)beta(1)gamma(1)/alpha(5)beta(2)gamma(1)) but to a higher level than to laminin-1 (alpha(1)beta(1)gamma(1)). Compared with the other laminin isoforms, adhesion to laminin-8 was preferentially mediated by alpha(6)beta(1) and beta(2) integrins. Laminin-8 and, to a lower extent, laminin-1 promoted spontaneous and chemokine-induced migration of blood monocytes, whereas laminin-10/11 was inhibitory. Altogether, the results indicate that leukocytes, as other cell types, are able to synthesize complete laminin molecules. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin-8 by leukocytes suggest a major role of this laminin isoform in leukocyte physiology. PMID:11067943

  19. Beta-gamma system, pure spinors and Hilbert series of arc spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhamidipati, Chandrasekhar; Ray, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for calculating the partition function of constrained beta-gamma systems in terms of the generating functions of the individual fields of the theory, the latter obtained as the Hilbert series of the arc space of the algebraic variety defined by the constraint. Examples of a beta-gamma system on a complex surface with an $A_1$ singularity and pure spinors are worked out and compared with existing results.

  20. The assay of encapsulated beta-gamma emitting waste: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a discussion of the techniques and instrumentation available for the determination of Beta-Gamma emitting radionuclides in encapsulated radioactive waste. Where applicable, consideration has been given to the practical difficulties associated with the assay of certain waste forms. The levels of detection have been estimated but further work is required in this and other areas. A suggestion is made for incorporating the beta-gamma assay in the same facility as an alpha assay. (author)

  1. $\\beta$3p- spectroscopy and P-$\\gamma$ width determination in the decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to perform a detailed study of the $\\beta$-decay of the dripline nucleus $^{31}$Ar. This will allow a detailed study of the $\\beta$-delayed 3p-decay as well as provide important information on the resonances of $^{30}$S and $^{29}$P, in particular the ratio between the P- and $\\gamma$- partial widths relevant for astrophysics.

  2. Effect of beta and gamma neurofeedback on memory and intelligence in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staufenbiel, S.M.; Brouwer, A.M.; Keizer, A.W.; Wouwe, N.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Recent research showed a correlation between cognitive decline and a decrease of EEG gamma activity. In the present double-blind randomized control study, we investigated whether gamma and beta neurofeedback protocols, that have been shown to modulate performance on cognitive control and memory in y

  3. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No. 52-25542-01, issued by the...

  4. Standardization of (18)F using the 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Kawada, Y; Sato, Y; Yunoki, A; Hino, Y

    2008-01-01

    Alpha 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counting technique using a 4pibeta-4pigamma detector configuration was adopted for the standardization of (18)F. In this technique, the beta-detector is composed of two thin plastic scintillators sandwiching the source, coupled with a slender photomultiplier tube. The beta-detector part with the source was inserted into a large well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma-ray detection, making a 4pibeta-4pigamma coincidence counting system. In this work, positron particles were detected with high efficiency in the beta-channel and annihilation quanta were also detected with high efficiency in the 4pigamma channel. The very small inefficiency of the 4pi(beta+gamma) integral counter for the beta-plus branch has been confirmed by EGS5 Monte Carlo simulation. The result using this technique agreed within the uncertainties with the result obtained by the conventional 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting with the efficiency extrapolation technique using the same detector configuration and a conventional 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counter. PMID:18378155

  5. Effects of. gamma. -irradiation on. beta. -pinene content and germination in grapefruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio; Nagashima, Kimiyo.

    1988-12-01

    Effects of ..gamma..-irradiation on ..beta..-pinene content and germination in grapefruit were investigated in order to develop a method to identify ..gamma..-irradiated grapefruit. ..beta..-Pinene is a component of essential oil in grapefruit and was reported to be susceptible to ..gamma..-irradiation. However, it was not degraded by irradiation (30 to 200 krad) in this experiment. When grapefruit irradiated at 50 krad were stored at 10degC for 2 months, no change of ..beta..-pinene content was found. ..beta..-Pinene itself was also stable to ..gamma..-irradiation at 1 Mrad. Thus, identification of irradiated grapefruit from the amount of ..beta..-pinene was impossible. On the other hand, the effect of ..gamma..-irradiation on radicle elongation was small but that on plumule expansion was so large as to prevent shooting in grapefruit irradiated even at 30 krad. Therefore it should be possible to identify ..gamma..-irradiated grapefruit by a germination method.

  6. Beta-delayed gamma decay of 26P: Possible evidence of a proton halo

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Bowe, A; Brown, B A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C J; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Schwartz, S B; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurements of $\\beta$ decay provide important nuclear structure information that can be used to probe isospin asymmetries and inform nuclear astrophysics studies. Purpose: To measure the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of $^{26}$P and compare the results with previous experimental results and shell-model calculations. Method: A $^{26}$P fast beam produced using nuclear fragmentation was implanted into a planar germanium detector. Its $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-ray emission was measured with an array of 16 high-purity germanium detectors. Positrons emitted in the decay were detected in coincidence to reduce the background. Results: The absolute intensities of $^{26}$P $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-rays were determined. A total of six new $\\beta$-decay branches and 15 new $\\gamma$-ray lines have been observed for the first time in $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay. A complete $\\beta$-decay scheme was built for the allowed transitions to bound excited states of $^{26}$Si. $ft$ values and Gamow-Teller strengths were a...

  7. Rapid determination of soil contamination by helicopter gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific aerial nuclide measurements of surface soil contamination were performed after the Chernobyl accident in the southern part of Germany. A helicopter equipped with a gamma ray spectroscopic system including a HPGe detector (50% relative efficiency) and 3 NaI(Tl)-detectors (volume 12 l) was used. A detailed description is given of the complete measuring system which can also be used for detection of gamma sources, e.g. radioactive fragments of nuclear powered satellites. At an altitude of 100 m, a soil contamination of several kBq/m2 for 134Cs and 137Cs can be measured for 60 s at a helicopter speed of 100 km/h. For detection of point gamma sources, the NaI(Tl)-detector was used. Assuming a line spacing of 300 m and a speed of 100 km/h, an area of about 30 km2 can be surveyed per hour. Thus 60Co-sources of some GBq activity can be detected. The system was practically applied for the first time for measuring the man-made radionuclides. The chosen distance between the routes was 10 km, and measuring time - 60 s for each spectrum corresponding to a flight path distance of about 2.2 km over which the average soil contamination was determined. The measured 137Cs values of up to 25 kBq/m2 are in good agreement with the results obtained by other methods (in-situ-spectrometry, measurements of soil samples). The aerial measuring system was also tested in the former USSR, in a region north of Chernobyl, with nuclide deposition values of up to 2 MBq/m2. 7 figs., 2 refs. (orig.)

  8. A simultaneous beta and coincidence-gamma imaging system for plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Homayoon; Wen, Jie; Mathews, Aswin J.; Komarov, Sergey; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ke; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 13N, and 18F, can be used to label molecules. The tracers, such as 11CO2, are delivered to plants to study their biological processes, particularly metabolism and photosynthesis, which may contribute to the development of plants that have a higher yield of crops and biomass. Measurements and resulting images from PET scanners are not quantitative in young plant structures or in plant leaves due to poor positron annihilation in thin objects. To address this problem we have designed, assembled, modeled, and tested a nuclear imaging system (simultaneous beta–gamma imager). The imager can simultaneously detect positrons ({β+} ) and coincidence-gamma rays (γ). The imaging system employs two planar detectors; one is a regular gamma detector which has a LYSO crystal array, and the other is a phoswich detector which has an additional BC-404 plastic scintillator for beta detection. A forward model for positrons is proposed along with a joint image reconstruction formulation to utilize the beta and coincidence-gamma measurements for estimating radioactivity distribution in plant leaves. The joint reconstruction algorithm first reconstructs beta and gamma images independently to estimate the thickness component of the beta forward model and afterward jointly estimates the radioactivity distribution in the object. We have validated the physics model and reconstruction framework through a phantom imaging study and imaging a tomato leaf that has absorbed 11CO2. The results demonstrate that the simultaneously acquired beta and coincidence-gamma data, combined with our proposed joint reconstruction algorithm, improved the quantitative accuracy of estimating radioactivity distribution in thin objects such as leaves. We used the structural similarity (SSIM) index for comparing the leaf images from the simultaneous beta–gamma imager with the ground truth image. The jointly reconstructed images yield SSIM indices of 0.69 and 0.63, whereas

  9. Promoter opening (melting) and transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I requires neither nucleotide beta,gamma hydrolysis nor protein phosphorylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lofquist, A K; Li, H; Imboden, M A; Paule, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    With some bacterial RNA polymerases and in eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, DNA melting during initiation requires the coupling of energy derived from beta,gamma hydrolysis of ATP. A detailed analysis of this possible requirement for eukaryotic RNA polymerase I reveals no such requirement. However, in some cases, beta,gamma non-hydrolyzable derivatives (beta,gamma imido or methylene) of nucleotide substrates have been found to significantly inhibit transcription initiation because of their ineff...

  10. Experience with melting beta and gamma contaminated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, J.; Laplante, D.; Puechlong, Y.; Barbusse, R.

    1994-12-31

    Following a description of the melting facility operated for purposes of decommissioning the G2 and G3 gas-cooled reactors at Marcoule, the physical and radiological characteristics of 4070 tonnes of metal processed to date in the furnace are discussed. Considerable data have been recorded regarding operating and measurement procedures; the results show that secondary wastes account for less than 5 wt% of the processed scrap metal, and that all the {sup 137}Cs is transferred to the dust and slag. During the last two months of 1993, the ingot mold line was replaced by rails on which dollies carrying integral work-form molds can be moved into position beneath the casting ladle. (authors). 21 figs.

  11. Experience with melting beta and gamma contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a description of the melting facility operated for purposes of decommissioning the G2 and G3 gas-cooled reactors at Marcoule, the physical and radiological characteristics of 4070 tonnes of metal processed to date in the furnace are discussed. Considerable data have been recorded regarding operating and measurement procedures; the results show that secondary wastes account for less than 5 wt% of the processed scrap metal, and that all the 137Cs is transferred to the dust and slag. During the last two months of 1993, the ingot mold line was replaced by rails on which dollies carrying integral work-form molds can be moved into position beneath the casting ladle. (authors). 21 figs

  12. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams (37Cs and 60Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation (90Sr+9'0Y e 204Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  13. Search for 2\\beta\\ decays of 96Ru and 104Ru by ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry at LNGS: final results

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Incicchitti, A; Kovtun, G P; Kovtun, N G; Laubenstein, M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Solopikhin, D A; Suhonen, J; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    An experiment to search for double beta decay processes in 96Ru and 104Ru, which are accompanied by gamma rays, has been realized in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the I.N.F.N. (Italy). Ruthenium samples with masses of about (0.5-0.7) kg were measured with the help of ultra-low background high purity Ge gamma ray spectrometry. After 2162 h of data taking the samples were deeply purified to reduce the internal contamination of 40K. The last part of the data has been accumulated over 5479 h. New improved half life limits on 2\\beta+/\\epsilon \\beta+/2\\epsilon\\ processes in 96Ru have been established on the level of 10^{20} yr, in particular for decays to the ground state of 96Mo: T1/2(2\

  14. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human. gamma. -actin gene: Differential evolution, location, and expression of the cytoskeletal BETA- and. gamma. -actin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, H.P.; Eddy, R.; Shows, T.; Kedes, L.; Gunning, P.

    1988-04-01

    The accumulation of the cytoskeletal ..beta..-and ..gamma..-actin mRNAs was determined in a variety of mouse tissues and organs. The ..beta..-iosform is always expressed in excess of the ..gamma..-isoform. However, the molar ratio of ..beta..- to ..gamma..-actin mRNA varies from 1.7 in kidney and testis to 12 in sarcomeric muscle to 114 in liver. The authors conclude that, whereas the cytoskeletal ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actins are truly coexpressed, their mRNA levels are subject to differential regulation between different cell types. The human ..gamma..-actin gene has been cloned and sequenced, and its chromosome location has been determined. The gene is located on human chromosome 17, unlike ..beta..-actin which is on chromosome 7. Thus, if these genes are also unlinked in the mouse, the coexpression of the ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes in rodent tissues cannot be determined by gene linkage. Comparison of the human ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes reveals that noncoding sequences in the 5'-flanking region and in intron III have been conserved since the duplication that gave rise to these two genes. In contrast, there are sequences in intron III and the 3'-untranslated region which are not present in the ..beta..-actin gene but are conserved between the human ..gamma..-actin and the Xenopus borealis type 1 actin genes. Such conserved noncoding sequences may contribute to the coexpression of ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin or to the unique regulation and function of the ..gamma..-actin gene. Finally, the authors demonstrate that the human ..gamma..-actin gene is expressed after introduction into mouse L cells and C2 myoblasts and that, upon fusion of C2 cells to form myotubes, the human ..gamma..-actin gene is appropriately regulated.

  15. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Additional knowledge on the impact of various kinds of ionizing radiation in plants on individual, biochemical and molecular level is needed to unravel and compare the toxic mode of action. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied both in lab and field studies to derive the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. However, environmental relevant studies on chronic low-dose gamma exposures are scarce. The radio-ecologically relevant radionuclide 90Sr is a pure beta emitting isotope and originates from nuclear activities and accidents. Although this radionuclide is not essential for plant metabolism, it bears a chemical analogy with the essential plant macro-nutrient Ca2+ thereby taking advantage of Ca2+ transport systems to contaminate plant organs and tissues. Ones plants are exposed to radiation stress, ionization events can cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce damage to biological material like DNA, lipids and structural proteins. The following work aimed at evaluating individual, biochemical and molecular endpoints to understand and to compare the mode of action of gamma- and beta radiation stress in plants. Having an equal relative biological effectiveness to non-human biota, it is still not clear in how plants differ or overlap in sensing and interpreting highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with short-range particle radiation. The floating plant Lemna minor was chosen as model system. Following the OECD guidelines Lemna plants were being exposed separately to an external gamma radiation source or to a 90Sr-contaminated growth medium to obtain single-dose response curves for each type of radiation. In order to acquire accurate dose rate quantifications for beta radiation exposures, 90Sr uptake and accumulation of root and frond have been implemented

  16. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Additional knowledge on the impact of various kinds of ionizing radiation in plants on individual, biochemical and molecular level is needed to unravel and compare the toxic mode of action. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied both in lab and field studies to derive the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. However, environmental relevant studies on chronic low-dose gamma exposures are scarce. The radio-ecologically relevant radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is a pure beta emitting isotope and originates from nuclear activities and accidents. Although this radionuclide is not essential for plant metabolism, it bears a chemical analogy with the essential plant macro-nutrient Ca{sup 2+} thereby taking advantage of Ca{sup 2+} transport systems to contaminate plant organs and tissues. Ones plants are exposed to radiation stress, ionization events can cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce damage to biological material like DNA, lipids and structural proteins. The following work aimed at evaluating individual, biochemical and molecular endpoints to understand and to compare the mode of action of gamma- and beta radiation stress in plants. Having an equal relative biological effectiveness to non-human biota, it is still not clear in how plants differ or overlap in sensing and interpreting highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with short-range particle radiation. The floating plant Lemna minor was chosen as model system. Following the OECD guidelines Lemna plants were being exposed separately to an external gamma radiation source or to a {sup 90}Sr-contaminated growth medium to obtain single-dose response curves for each type of radiation. In order to acquire accurate dose rate quantifications for beta radiation exposures, {sup 90}Sr uptake and accumulation of root and

  17. Rapid determination of soil contamination by helicopter gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes aerial nuclide specific measurements of surface contamination that were performed after the Chernobyl reactor accident in the southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany in August 1989. For these measurements, a helicopter equipped with a gamma ray spectrometer system including an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 50% was used. Soil contamination due to 134Cs and 137Cs was measured during a number of flights covering a total distance of about 300 km. The average flying altitude measured by a laser altimeter was about 70 m above ground level and the speed was about 130 km/h. The measuring time was chosen to be 60 s for each spectrum, corresponding to a flight path distance of about 2.2 km over which the average soil contamination was determined. The measured 137Cs values of up to 25 kBq/m2 are in good agreement with the results of measurements obtained by other methods. The values measured for 134Cs were lower by a factor of 5. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  18. Complexes of V(3) with alpha-, beta- and gamma-picolines in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systems of V(3) with alpha, beta and gamma-picolines in ethyl alcohol solutions were investigated by spectroscopic, conductometric and magnetic methods. VCl3 reacts with picolines in low concentrations of V(3) to produce 1:1 electrolytic, monomeric red-violet complexes of the type [VL4Cl2]+ (L=beta and gamma-pic.) and the brown complex of the type [V(alpha- pic)2Cl]-. Stability constants of the monomeric complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. At higher concentrations of V(3) the dimeric, 1:1 electrolytic, deep-violet complexes of the type [L3Cl2V-Cl-VCl2L3]+ (L=beta and gamma-pic.) are formed most probably. The V(3) complex with alpha-picoline is rather a monomer. (author)

  19. Application of whole-body personal TL dosemeters in mixed field beta-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of whole-body personal TL dosemeters based on a high-sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) in mixed field beta-gamma radiation has been characterised. The measurements were carried out with 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 137Cs point sources to calculate the energy response and linearity of the TLD response in a dose range of 0.1-30 mSv. From the result, calibration curves were obtained, enabling the readout of individual dose equivalent Hp(10) from gamma radiation and Hp(0.07) from beta radiation in mixed field beta-gamma. Limitation of the methodology and its application are presented and discussed. (authors)

  20. Biosynthesis of Tcr-alpha, beta and Tcr-gamma, delta/CD3 complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauguil-Caspar, S; Arnaud, J; Kuhlmann, J; Geisler, C; Rubin, B

    Jurkat J76 clone, LYON L12.37 clone and L12.37 cells transfected with J76-alpha cDNA or J76 Tcr-alpha mutated cDNA (J79) were analysed for membrane expression of Tcr/CD3 complex using WT31 mAb (Tcr-alpha, beta) or Tcr-delta 1 mAb (Tcr-gamma, delta): LYON cells express V beta 9 bearing Tcr......-beta chains. J76 Tcr-alpha cDNA transfected LYON cells have intracellular Tcr-gamma, delta chains and J79 Tcr-alpha cDNA transfected LYON cells have intracellular Tcr-alpha (M), beta chains....

  1. Portable alpha, beta, gamma, x and neutron radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Here below there is short information about new instrument developed in SPE ATOMTEX, which will be produced at the close of the year. The instrument consists of the main unit, including built-in detector Nal (Tl) of diameter 25x40 mm and photomultiplier tube, analog devices (amplifier, multichannel pulse-height analyzer of 256 channels, high-voltage power supply, LED stabilization scheme of measuring path) and digital devices (microprocessor for data processing, control and storage, liquid crystal display, interface). The main unit operates also as processing and indication device of connected external detection units: α, β-radiation contamination scintillator detection unit; x, γ-radiation detection unit with silicon detector to measure equivalent dose and equivalent dose rate and n-radiation detection unit with proportional 3He-counters. Because of scintillator detector Nal (Tl), the main unit, operating in counting mode, searches and detects effectively x- and gamma-radiation sources with the energy from 30 keV to 3 MeV. The point source of 137Cs of 50 kBq is detected at the distance of 10 cm for 2s. Ambient equivalent dose and equivalent dose rate are measured with this detector using the method of instrumental spectrum transformation into dose. In this case the energy range is from 40 keV to 3 meV. Energy relationship of readings do not exceed ± 15% with respect to the energy of 0,662 MeV. The range of ambient equivalent dose rate measurement is from 0,05 μSv/h to 0,05 mSv/h, with response time of 20 s at background change from 0,05 μSv/h to 0,1 μSv/h. The main unit operates also as selective express-radiometer, which could evaluate sample activity by single gamma-line. Measurement geometry is Marinelly's vessel of 0,5 l. The lower limit of measuring activity is 300 Bq/l without lead shield and 20 Bq/l with it with measurement time of 10 min. The unit weighs not more than 0,9 kg. External detection units connect to interface socket by turns

  2. Determination of $\\gamma$ and $-2\\beta_s$ from charmless two-body decays of beauty mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using the latest LHCb measurements of time-dependent $C\\!P$ violation in the $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ decay, a U-spin relation between the decay amplitudes of $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ and $B^0\\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay processes allows constraints to be placed on the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle and on the $B^0_s$ mixing phase $-2\\beta_s$. Results from an extended approach, which uses additional inputs on $B^0\\to \\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $B^+\\to \\pi^+\\pi^0$ decays from other experiments and exploits isospin symmetry, are also presented. The dependence of the results on the maximum allowed amount of U-spin breaking is studied. At 68% probability, the value $\\gamma = \\left( 63.5^{\\,+\\, 7.2}_{\\,-\\,6.7} \\right)^\\circ~\\mathrm{modulo}~180^\\circ$ is determined. In an alternative analysis, the value $-2\\beta_s = -0.12 ^{\\,+\\,0.14}_{\\,-\\,0.16}\\,\\,\\mathrm{rad}$ is found. In both measurements, the uncertainties due to U-spin breaking effects up to 50% are included.

  3. Pre-stimulus beta and gamma oscillatory power predicts perceived audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Li, Haijiang; Liu, Peiduo; Yuan, Hong; Huang, Xiting

    2016-09-01

    Pre-stimulus oscillation activity in the brain continuously fluctuates, but it is correlated with subsequent behavioral and perceptual performance. Here, using fast Fourier transformation of pre-stimulus electroencephalograms, we explored how oscillatory power modulates the subsequent discrimination of perceived simultaneity from non-simultaneity in the audiovisual domain. We found that the over-scalp high beta (20-28Hz), parieto-occipital low beta (14-20Hz), and high gamma oscillations (55-80Hz) were significantly stronger before audition-then-vision sequence when they were judged as simultaneous rather than non-simultaneous. In contrast, a broad range of oscillations, mainly the beta and gamma bands over a great part of the scalp were significantly weaker before vision-then-audition sequences when they were judged as simultaneous versus non-simultaneous. Moreover, for auditory-leading sequence, pre-stimulus beta and gamma oscillatory power successfully predicted subjects' reports of simultaneity on a trial-by-trial basis, with stronger activity resulting in more simultaneous judgments. These results indicate that ongoing fluctuations of beta and gamma oscillations can modulate subsequent perceived audiovisual simultaneity, but with an opposing pattern for auditory- and visual-leading sequences. PMID:27393081

  4. Solved problems in analysis as applied to gamma, beta, Legendre and Bessel functions

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Orin J

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 200 problems, each with a detailed, worked-out solution, deal with the properties and applications of the gamma and beta functions, Legendre polynomials, and Bessel functions. The first two chapters examine gamma and beta functions, including applications to certain geometrical and physical problems such as heat-flow in a straight wire. The following two chapters treat Legendre polynomials, addressing applications to specific series expansions, steady-state heat-flow temperature distribution, gravitational potential of a circular lamina, and application of Gauss's mechanical quadrature

  5. Analysis method for beta-gamma coincidence spectra from radio-xenon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-xenon isotopes monitoring is one important method for the verification of CTBT, what includes the measurement methods of HPGe γ spectrometer and β-γ coincidence. The article describes the analytic flowchart and method of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra from β-γ systems, and analyses in detail the principles and methods of the regions of interest of coincidence spectra and subtracting the interference, finally gives the formula of radioactivity of Xenon isotopes and minimum detectable concentrations. Studying on the principles of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra, which can supply the foundation for designing the software of β-γ coincidence systems. (authors)

  6. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (60Co) and chronic (137Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (32P), lethality (LD50, LD100), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD50 and LD100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  7. Detection of contaminants along boreholes with prompt gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geophysical borehole logging techniques are used for estimating subsurface physical, chemical, geologic, and hydrologic parameters. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have advantages and disadvantages that tend to be complementary to those of physical sampling, and these in situ measurements can help address the drawbacks of physical sampling, including high costs, lengthy delays in obtaining results of analyses from laboratories, undersampling, sample-handling problems, and ambiguity in long-term monitoring. As part of an effort to reduce environmental restoration costs, we are evaluating in situ neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy (multispectral) measurements in boreholes to map environmental contaminants. It has been known for some time that this technology is capable of identifying many elements, but earlier borehole equipment was not very sensitive

  8. Detection of contaminants along boreholes with prompt gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geophysical borehole logging techniques are used for estimating subsurface physical, chemical, geological, and hydrological parameters. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have advantages and disadvantages that tend to be complementary to those of physical sampling and these in situ measurements can help address the drawbacks of physical sampling, including high costs, lengthy delays in obtaining results of analyses from laboratories/under sampling, sample handling problems, and ambiguity in long-term monitoring. As part of an effort to reduce environmental restoration costs, we are evaluating in-situ neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy (multispectral) measurements in boreholes to map environmental contaminants. It has been known for some time that this technology is capable of identifying many elements, but earlier borehole equipment was not very sensitive

  9. Formation of hydrogen fluoride by gamma and beta sterilisation in medical devices containing perfluoroheptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infusion of hexadecafluoroheptane, a liquid perfluorocarbon released from repaired Althane dialysers was found to be the most probable reason for the deaths of 53 dialysis patients reported in the year 2001. This study focuses on toxic decomposition products generated due to gamma and beta sterilisation of hexadecafluoroheptane. The responsible dialysers were sterilised with a maximum dose of 45 kGy gamma irradiation. We investigated the influence of both 20-500 kGy gamma and beta irradiation on perfluoroheptane. Analysis of the irradiated samples verified the decomposition of perfluoroheptane in dependence on the dose of irradiation. Beta irradiation resulted in a higher degree of decomposition than the same dose of gamma irradiation. As decomposition products, hydrogen fluoride, CO2, and one saturated fluorinated hydrocarbon which could not be analysed exactly were identified. Even at 20 kGy gamma irradiation hydrogen fluoride was detectable. Our results provide evidence that hydrogen fluoride is generated as a highly toxic decomposition product when perfluoroheptane is sterilised with gamma irradiation as it was applied on the affected dialysers. There is no evidence of other toxic degradation products especially perfluoroisobutylene. Therefore, hydrogen fluoride or the dissociated fluoride ions might act as a toxic agent when medical devices containing liquid perfluorocarbons are sterilised by irradiation

  10. Use of multi-element TL dosimeters for beta and mixed beta/gamma personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied experience as well as theoretical considerations make it clear that traditional two-element TL dosimeters are not adequate for use in personnel dosimetry involving beta radiation fields. The principal shortcoming of such dosimeters is that the TL element measuring the beta dose normally under responds, and the readings of such elements must be multiplied by a correction factor, called the beta factor, to obtain the dose. The beta factor, however, is not a constant but varies with variations in the beta spectrum incident on the dosimeter. Experimental tests carried out using a number of multi-element TL dosimeter designs have shown that the element readouts can be used in conjunction with a suitable algorithm to determine a suitable beta factor for use under a variety of irradiation conditions. The precision attainable in calculating the beta factor in this manner depends on a number of dosimeter design parameters and is often quite poor unless special care is exercised both in the design of the dosimeter and also in the operation of the readout system

  11. The influence of interleukin-1beta on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in rat hippocampus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, M.; Mareš, Vladislav; Šťastný, František; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Lisá, Věra; Suchomel, P.; Balcar, V. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2006), s. 461-465. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NF7626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interleukin-1beta * gamma- glutamyltranspeptidase * hippocampus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  12. Weighted $\\beta\\gamma$-summability of fuzzy functions of order $\\theta$

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, Sarita; Srivastava, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of weighted $\\beta\\gamma$ - summability of order $\\theta$ in case of fuzzy functions is introduced and classified into ordinary and absolute sense. Several inclusion relations among the sets are investigated. Also we have found some suitable conditions to get its relation with the generalized statistical convergence. Finally we have proved a generalized version of Tauberian theorem.

  13. On k-Gamma and k-Beta Distributions and Moment Generating Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to define k-gamma and k-beta distributions and moments generating function for the said distributions in terms of a new parameter k>0. Also, the authors prove some properties of these newly defined distributions.

  14. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  15. Generalized Bessel transform of $(\\beta, \\gamma)$-generalized Bessel Lipschitz functions

    OpenAIRE

    DAHER, Radouan; El Hamma, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove an analog of Younis’s theorem 5.2 in~[4] for the generalized Fourier-Bessel transform on the Half line for functions satisfying the $(\\beta, \\gamma)$-generalized Bessel Lipschitz condition in the space $\\mathrm{L}^{2}_{\\alpha,n}$.

  16. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  17. Electrokinetic remediation and microbial community shift of {beta}-cyclodextrin-dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chunli; Du, Maoan; Yang, Xue; Ma, Wencheng [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Lee, Duu-Jong [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zheng, Lina [Dalian Ocean Univ. (China). College of Marine Environmental Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Electrokinetic (EK) migration of {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD), which is inclusive of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), is an economically beneficial and environmentally friendly remediation process for oil-contaminated soils. Remediation studies of oil-contaminated soils generally prepared samples using particular TPHs. This study investigates the removal of TPHs from, and electromigration of microbial cells in field samples via EK remediation. Both TPH content and soil respiration declined after the EK remediation process. The strains in the original soil sample included Bacillus sp., Sporosarcina sp., Beta proteobacterium, Streptomyces sp., Pontibacter sp., Azorhizobium sp., Taxeobacter sp., and Williamsia sp. Electromigration of microbial cells reduced the biodiversity of the microbial community in soil following EK remediation. At 200 V m{sup -1} for 10 days, 36% TPH was removed, with a small population of microbial cells flushed out, demonstrating that EK remediation is effective for the present oil-contaminated soils collected in field. (orig.)

  18. Counting efficiency for radionuclides decaying by beta and gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, counting efficiency vs figure of merit for beta and gamma-ray emitters has been computed. It is assumed that the decay scheme has only a gamma level and the beta-ray emission may be coincident with the gamma-rays or the internal-conversion electrons. The radionuclides tabulated are: 20O, 20F, 28Al, 35P,41Ar, 42K, 47Se, 62Fe, 66Cu, 81Ge, 86Rb, 104Rh, 108Ru, 112Pd, 121Sn(m), 122In, 129I, 141Ce, 142Pr, 151Sm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 194Os, 203Hg, 205Hg, 210Pb, 225Ra, 244Am(m). It has been assumed that the liquid is a toluene based scintillator solution in standard glass vials containing 10 cm3. (Author)

  19. Standardization of 56Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardization of exp.56 Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods. The radionuclide use for calibration of nuclear instruments on range of energy over 1500 keV. The exp.56 Co had been produced by irradiation of proton by using a cyclotron with 15 MeV of energy and 300 mb of cross-section to natural iron target (99,5% of purity) at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after the irradiated source was dissolved in 8N HCI solution. The disintegration rate had been measured using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus, where the gamm gets sets on 511 and 847 keV gamma-rays. The result measurement is fairly good with the specific activity is 3078 n 15 Bq/mg

  20. Beta-ray dose assessment from skin contamination using a point kernel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a point kernel method to calculate beta-ray dose rate from skin contamination was introduced. The beta-ray doses rates were computed by performing numerical integration of the radial dose distribution around an isotropic point source of monoenergetic electrons called as point kernel. In this study, in-house code, based on MATLAB version 7.0.4 was developed to perform a numerical integration. The code generated dose distributions for beta-ray emitters from interpolated point kernel, and beta-ray dose rates from skin contamination were calculated by numerical integration. Generated dose distributions for selected beta-ray emitters agreed with those calculated by Cross et al within 20%, except at a longer distance where there are differences up to more than 100%. For a point source, calculated beta-ray doses were agreed well with those derived from Monte Carlo simulation. For a disk source, the differences were up to 17% at a deep region. Point kernel method underestimated beta-ray doses than Monte Carlo simulation. The code will be improved to deal with a three-dimensional source, shielding by cover material, air gap and contribution of photon to skin dose. For the sake of user's convenience, the code will be equipped with graphic user interface. (author)

  1. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  2. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  3. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

    2011-03-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines). PMID:21346288

  4. Chain specificity assignment of monoclonal antibodies to human laminins by using recombinant laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberhiwot, T; Wondimu, Z; Salo, S; Pikkarainen, T; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Virtanen, I; Patarroyo, M

    2000-05-01

    In the present study, the chain specificity of 16 commonly used monoclonal antibodies to human laminin(s) was analysed by using recombinant laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains. By ELISA, all antibodies reacted with purified placenta laminin, and most antibodies recognised either recombinant beta1 or gamma1 chains. Reactivity and chain specificity was confirmed against the recombinant chains in Western blotting under non-reducing conditions, and only a few antibodies were reactive under reducing conditions. Most antibodies were able to immunoprecipitate associated laminin beta1/gamma1 chains from platelet lysates. Based on these results and data from the literature, a tentative epitope map is presented. PMID:10842099

  5. First identification of. gamma. rays in the. beta. /sup +//EC decay of sup(104,105)Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneffe, K.; Coenen, E.; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van (LISOL, Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika); Vanhorenbeeck, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)); Marmol, P. del; Fettweis, P. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1985-03-01

    The ..beta../sup +//EC decay of mass-separated /sup 104/Sn and /sup 105/Sn isotopes was studied by x-ray and ..gamma..-ray singles, as well as by x-..gamma.. and ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidences. Sources were produced in the reactions /sup 92/Mo (/sup 20/Ne, ypxn). The nucleus /sub 50//sup 104/Sn with Tsub(1/2 = 23 +- 2 s was identified. A partial decay scheme of /sup 105/Sn is proposed.

  6. Beta dose rates derived from gamma spectroscopy and low beta anticoincident system of various environmental materials, mainly of archaeological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta dose-rates (BDR) have been derived from tephras, pumices and pottery of archaeological origin. The BDRs were obtained from two counting systems: (1) gamma spectrometry through appropriate conversion of gamma activity to U, Th, 40K concentration values, and (2) by counting total beta, using a gas-flow sample detector in an anticoincidence mode of counting. Assuming radioactive equilibrium in the U and Th series, the two methods of obtaining BDRs are compared. The degree of disequilibrium, the calibration, and radon escape are critically considered. The employment of either method to swift BDR measurements for the TL dating is discussed. The radioactivity measurements of tephras were used also to provenance those, as Santorini volcano might had not been the only eruption in the Aegean in the 2nd mill. B.C., it might have experienced more than one eruptive phase. BDRs in the samples ranged from 13 to about 470 mrads/year and the agreement between the two methods were in general satisfactory. 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. New detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ideas ASA is developing new detection modules for gamma, beta and X-ray cameras. Recent developments focus on modules using various semi-conductor materials (CZT, HgI, Si). The development includes ASIC design, detector module development, and implementation in camera heads. In this presentation we describe the characteristics of important ASICs and its properties in terms of electronic noise, and the modes for measuring signals (switched current modes, sparsified modes, self triggered modes). The ASICs are specific for detectors and applications. We describe recent developments using various semi - conductor materials. We describe important design aspects for medical applications and in life science (SPECT, beta, X-ray cameras)

  8. Characterization of large-area reference sources for the calibration of beta-contamination monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, H.; Klein, R.

    1996-02-01

    A method has been developed whereby the activity of a large-area reference source for the calibration of beta-contamination monitors can be determined from a series of measured countrates in a suitable detection system as a function of the distance between the surface of the source and the front face of the detector.

  9. Rat beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin biosynthesized by isolated cells of pars intermedia and pars distalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats pars intermedia cells were incubated for 3 h with the following amino-acids: a) 35S-methionine and 3H-phenylalamine; b) 3H-valine; and c) 3H-valine and 3H-lysine. Radioactive gamma-lipotropin, beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were purified on carboxy- methyl-cellulose and characterized by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis af pH 4.5, molecular weight estimation and microsequencing. Rat gamma-lipotropin was shown to differ slightly from ovine gamma-lipotropin in its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, in containing no methionine and having phenylalanine at position 6, valine at positions 13 and 27, and lysine at position 20. The same variations were observed in the sequence of rat beta-lipotropin, while rat beta-endorphin was shown to be identical to the ovine beta-endorphin. Following a 3-h pulse of rat pars distalis, the cells were extracted with care to avoid beta-lipotropin degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A peptide was purified and identified to be rat beta-endorphin, thus demonstrating that beta-endorphin is biosynthesized in pars distalis and is not an extraction artifact. (author)

  10. Scintillation characteristics of phosphich-detector for detection of beta- and gamma-radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Ananenko, A A; Gavrilyuk, V

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of individual peculiarities of the compound scintillation detector structure on the value and stability of the light yield by the gamma- and beta-radiation combined registration are presented. The phosphich detector is manufactured from the sodium iodide monocrystal, activated by thallium, and the scintillation plastic on the polystyrol basis. The comparison of the experimental results with the mathematical modeling data revealed certain regularities of the process of forming the phosphich detector light signal. The recommendations are worked out by means whereof the following characteristics of the scintillation unit: the light yield and its stability, amplitude resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio by the gamma- and beta-radiation registration were improved

  11. High beta and electron dose from 192Ir: implications for 'gamma' intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Trains of multiple 192Ir seeds are used in many clinical trials for intravascular brachytherapy. 192Ir source is commonly considered as a gamma emitter, despite the understanding that this radionuclide also emits a wide range of electron and beta energies, with a similar range of energy. The high dose from betas and electrons in the submillimeter range due to unsealed ends of seed sources should be precisely quantified to fully understand the backdrop for complications associated with 192Ir coronary artery brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C code) were performed for a model 5-seed 192Ir train used in SCRIPPS, GAMMA, and the Washington Radiation for In-Stent Restenosis (WRIST) randomized clinical trials. A stack of radiochromic films was also used to measure the dose distributions for an actual 6-seed train. Results: In the submillimeter range very close to the source, Monte Carlo results show that betas and electrons deposit a higher dose than 192Ir photons (gamma and X-rays) over the interseed gap. A high luminal dose from the combined effects of betas, electrons, and photons emitted from 192Ir can be deposited, particularly between seeds. When prescribing 15 Gy at 2 mm, the combined dose can be as high as 160 Gy at 0.5 mm. Different peak doses near the interseed gaps were noted, which may be due to variability of seed-end surfaces and nonuniformity of seed activity within a real multiseed train. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) of lumen surfaces were evaluated for an eccentric seed train. The DVH parameters indicating the extent of hot spots in the lumen wall, DV10, DV5, DV2, and DV1 (dose received by 10, 5, 2, 1% respectively of the total lumen surface), can be as high as 55, 76, 81, and 155 Gy for a lumen with 3-mm diameter, and 75, 80, 110, and 158 Gy for a narrow 2-mm lumen. Conclusion: 192Ir multiple seed trains used in the SCRIPPS, GAMMA, and WRIST trials can deposit a very high dose to the luminal wall. A particularly

  12. Evidence for gamma and beta sensory gating deficits as translational endophenotypes for schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smucny, Jason; Wylie, Korey; Rojas, Donald; Stevens, Karen; Olincy, Ann; Kronberg, Eugene; Zheng, Lijun; Tregellas, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Thorough analysis of translational endophenotypes is needed to improve therapeutic development in schizophrenia. Abnormal sensory gating, one such endophenotype, is associated with reduced expression of the α7 nicotinic receptor. However, typical gating measures such as the P50 evoked response are often low-pass filtered, and it is unclear how α7 expression affects gating at higher frequencies. Therefore, this study used time-frequency analysis to compare sensory gating at the beta and gamma ...

  13. Patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of the herpetofauna in Mexico’s Pacific lowlands and adjacent interior valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal distribution patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna were analyzed using individual binary models of potential distribution for 301 species predicted by ecological modelling for a grid of 9,932 quadrants of ~25 km2 each. We arranged quadrants in 312 latitudinal bands in which alpha, beta and gamma values were determined. Latitudinal trends of all scales of diversity were similar in all groups. Alpha and gamma responded inversely to latitude whereas beta showed a high latitudinal fluctuation due to the high number of endemic species. Alpha and gamma showed a strong correlation in all groups. Beta diversity is an important component of the herpetofauna distribution patterns as a continuous source of species diversity throughout the region.

  14. First observation of $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay in the $T_z$ = -2, $^{56}$Zn nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioğlu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first experimental observation of a very exotic decay mode at the proton drip-line, the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay, clearly seen in the $\\beta$ decay of the $T_z$ = -2, $^{56}$Zn nucleus. The $^{56}$Zn half-life and decay scheme have been determined. The decay proceeds by $\\beta$-delayed proton emission and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ de-excitation. The exotic $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton emission was also detected in three cases. It affects the usual determination of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength. Absolute Fermi and GT strengths have been deduced. Evidence for fragmentation of the Fermi strength due to isospin mixing is found.

  15. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  16. Blood platelets contain and secrete laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and adhere to laminin-8 via alpha6beta1 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberhiwot, T; Ingerpuu, S; Pedraza, C; Neira, M; Lehto, U; Virtanen, I; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Engvall, E; Patarroyo, M

    1999-12-15

    Laminins, a family of heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive/signaling properties, are characteristic components of basement membranes of vasculature and tissues. In the present study, permeabilized platelets were found to react with a monoclonal antibody to laminin gamma1 chain by immunofluorescence. In Western blot analysis of platelet lysates, several monoclonal antibodies to gamma1 and beta1 laminin chains recognized 220- to 230-kDa polypeptides, under reducing conditions, and a structure with much slower electrophoretic mobility under nonreducing conditions. Immunoaffinity purification on a laminin beta1 antibody-Sepharose column yielded polypeptides of 230, 220, 200, and 180 kDa from platelet lysates. In the purified material, mAbs to beta1 and gamma1 reacted with the two larger polypeptides, while affinity-purified rabbit antibodies to laminin alpha4 chain recognized the smallest polypeptide. Identity of the polypeptides was confirmed by microsequencing. One million platelets contained on average 1 ng of laminin (approximately 700 molecules per cell), of which 20-35% was secreted within minutes after stimulation with either thrombin or phorbol ester. Platelets adhered to plastic surfaces coated with the purified platelet laminin, and this process was largely inhibited by antibodies to beta1 and alpha6 integrin chains. We conclude that platelets contain and, following activation, secrete laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and that the cells adhere to the protein by using alpha6beta1 integrin. PMID:10585296

  17. Recombinant laminin-8 (alpha(4)beta(1)gamma(1)). Production, purification,and interactions with integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesmaa, J; Yurchenco, P; Tryggvason, K

    2000-05-19

    Laminins are a large family of heterotrimeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that, in addition to having structural roles, take part in the regulation of processes such as cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. The laminin alpha(4) chain is widely distributed both in adults and during development in tissues such as cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle fibers, vascular endothelia, lungs, and in peripheral nerves. It can associate with laminin beta(1)/gamma(1) chains to form laminin-8 and with the beta(2)/gamma(1) chains to form laminin-9. Functional studies on these laminins have been hampered by poor availability of the protein in pure and soluble forms. To facilitate studies on laminin-8, recombinant laminin-8 was produced in a mammalian expression system, purified and shown to form native Y-shaped molecules in rotary shadowing electron microscopy. Integrins mediating cell adhesion to laminin-8 were identified using function-blocking mAbs. The integrin specificities were found to differ somewhat from that of laminin-1. Integrin alpha(6)beta(1) was found to be a major mediator of adhesion of HT-1080 and cultured capillary endothelial cells to laminin-8. Considering the expression patterns of laminin-8 and integrin alpha(6)beta(1) it is likely that the former is a ligand for the latter in vivo as well. PMID:10809728

  18. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, V J

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (/sup 60/Co) and chronic (/sup 137/Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (/sup 32/P), lethality (LD/sub 50/, LD/sub 100/), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD/sub 50/ and LD/sub 100/ for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation.

  19. GFM-II large area surface monitor for alpha beta contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Du Xiang Yang; Han Shu Ping; Zhang Xia

    2002-01-01

    GFM-II large area surface monitor for alpha/beta contamination is equipped with four independent detecting channels, each channel consists one probe and one charge sensitive amplifier. The pancake probe is flow gas proportional counter tubes array. Total active area of the instrument is 1000 cm sup 2. This instrument has an rolling frame, so it can move rapidly on flat ground. Its characteristics is that: 1) Use flow gas proportional counter array instead of single counter, 2) Lower working voltage, 3) Simultaneously rapid measurement for alpha/beta

  20. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  1. Spectral shapes and a beta-gamma directional correlation in the beta decay of 172Tm (Jpi = 2-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, P.; Loft Nielsen, H.; Wilsky, K.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Baba, C. V. K.; Bhattaeherjee, S.K.

    1966-01-01

    defines parameters X and Y corresponding to the relative contributions of tensor ranks 0 and 1 respectively. The shape measurement provides the limit X2 + Y2 les 0.10, whereas the angular correlation measurement gives Y = 1.64X + (0.02 plusmn0.03). The reduced transition probabilities (f1t)-1 can......+(gamma)0+ cascade has been measured at six energies from 1010 to 1550 keV and these results too are consistent with the assumption that the 2- rarr 2+ beta transition is purely of tensor rank 2. The data for the 2- rarr 2+ transition are analysed on the basis of the modified Bij approximation, which...

  2. Alpha/Beta and Gamma Interferons Are Induced by Infection with Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, B; Brackenbury, L.S; Carr, B. V.; Fray, M D; Hope, Jayne; Howard, CJ; Morrison, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels ...

  3. Microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation on reducing microbial contamination of dried cuttle fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried cuttle fish is one of the most valuable sea products but it rapidly becomes mouldy and spoiled. To solve this problem, the studies on microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation for dried cuttle fish have been caried out base on IAEA Research Contracts No 4397/AG and 4397/R1/AG

  4. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  5. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  6. Kinetically-controlled thin-film growth of layered $\\beta$- and $\\gamma-$Na$_{x}$CoO$_{2}$ cobaltate

    OpenAIRE

    SON, J.Y.; Kim, Bog G.; Cho, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    We report growth characteristics of epitaxial $\\beta$-Na$_{0.6}$CoO$_{2}$ and $\\gamma$-Na$_{0.7}$CoO$_{2}$ thin films on (001) sapphire substrates grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Reduction of deposition rate could change structure of Na$_{x}$CoO$_{2}$ thin film from $\\beta$-phase with island growth mode to $\\gamma$-phase with layer-by-layer growth mode. The $\\gamma$-Na$_{0.7}$CoO$_{2}$ thin film exhibits spiral surface growth with multiterraced islands and highly crystallized texture compar...

  7. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm2 of 239Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  8. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'generalized radius', calculated as 3V/S, where V is the ellipsoid volume and S its surface. Radiation-specific parametric functions were obtained in order to calculate the absorbed fraction of a given radiation in a generic ellipsoidal volume. The dose from a generic radionuclide can be calculated through a process of summation and integration over the whole radionuclide emission spectrum, profitably implemented in an electronic spreadsheet. We compared the results of our analytical calculation approach with those obtained from the OLINDA/EXM computer software, finding a good agreement in a wide range of sphere radii, for the high-energy pure beta emitter 90Y, the commonly employed beta-gamma emitter 131I, and the pure alpha emitter 213Po. The generality of our approach makes it useful an easy to implement in clinical dosimetry calculations as well as in radiation safety estimations when doses from internal radionuclide uptake are to be taken into account.

  9. Improved performance of a two-element TLD badge for determining gamma and beta doses using multiple linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma/beta TLD badge used by OPPD consists of two TLD-700 chips (Harshaw G7 card), one of which (chip number sign 2) is shielded by a 0.102 cm-thick aluminum filter, and the other (chip number sign 1) is unshielded, as shown in Fig. 1. Standard procedure had been to determine the beta dose to the badge by subtracting the response of chip number sign 2 from that of chip number sign 1 and then dividing by a calibrated beta-sensitivity factor; the gamma dose was taken to be the response of chip number sign 2 divided by the chip's gamma-sensitivity factor followed by the subtraction of the background dose. A problem with this procedure is penetration of energetic beta particles through the aluminum filter on chip number sign 2 which causes an over-response. Due to the technique used to obtain the beta dose, this also results in an under-estimate of the beta dose. This problem has been corrected through application of multiple linear regression analysis on a large data base of pure gamma (137Cs), pure beta (90Sr), and mixed exposures. The outcome of the analysis is an algorithm that automatically corrects for penetration effects. Performance tests using the ANSI N13.11 standard are presented to show the improvement

  10. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  11. Optimization of detector size and scan rate for beta/gamma material release surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE facilities are required to offer for sale to the public items of salvageable value when they are no longer required by the facilities. These items have to be surveyed to ensure radioactive contamination levels do not exceed the values listed in DOE Order 5400.5. Most facilities use portable contamination monitoring.equipment with probe areas between 20 and 100 cm2 to check for fixed contamination. This procedure is very labor intensive and results in survey costs that often exceed the costs recovered from selling the items. A solution would be to use large area (> 100 cm2) detectors to find and quantify contamination. Large area scintillation detectors that can be used for beta and alpha detection simultaneously are becoming available commercially. Combining these with a rate meter that can differentiate between alpha and beta events can result in a survey that takes considerably less time to do and will save a proportional amount of money in doing so. The use and limitations of this combination of detectors and rate meters will be discussed

  12. Gamma and alpha radiation contamination of forest litter in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of the results of big research program on contamination of forests in Poland has been performed and discussed. Long lived γ-radiation nuclides in forest litters have been measured in 127 sites. The maps of contamination have been shown as an field investigations results. 49 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Low-level gamma spectrometry using beta coincidence and Compton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorescu, E L; De Felice, P; Razdolescu, Anamaria-Cristina; Luca, A

    2004-01-01

    A low-level gamma-ray spectrometry system was developed using a Ge(Li) detector with 6% relative efficiency coupled to a 2pi beta plastic detector for coincidence selection and a massive NaI(Tl) detector for Compton suppression. The integral background count rate for (50-1500)keV was 0.5 s(-1)kg(-1) (Ge), using only beta coincidences. With Compton suppression, a value of 0.25 s(-1)kg(-1) (Ge) was obtained. Spectra with and without Compton suppression were studied for 60Co, 137Cs and 152Eu point sources. Considerations are made concerning the Compton suppression advantages in different situations. PMID:15177343

  14. Contribution to decay heat calculation: fission product mean beta and gamma assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a reactor shutdown, after the fission chain process has completely faded out, a significant quantity of energy (around seven per cent of the total power of the reactor) continues to be generated in the core. This is known as residual power or decay heat. The principal source of this energy is due to the radioactive decay of fission products and is at any time equal to the sum of the powers released by these different nuclei (P = Σ = Pi). Each of the powers Pi is the product of three terms: the concentration of the relevant nuclide, its decay constant and its mean decay energy. The evaluation of the first two term is straightforward. On the other hand the evaluation of the mean energies presents some difficulties due to a lack of data in beta and gamma spectra of some fission products. This study intends, after a critical analysis of the current method of evaluation of the mean energies, to propose a new model for this calculation. The new model tested on several well known nuclides, has been proved correct and precise. It has then been applied to approximatively sixty nuclides among the lesser known ones. The results obtained have lead to a better prediction of both beta and gamma ray components of the residual power. Consequently, this new model, which allows to take into account the lack of beta branching ratio corresponding to the highest levels of the product nucleus in the beta decay reaction, can be adopted to replace the current method, for calculation of the mean energies of fission products, especially in the case of the lesser known nuclides

  15. Metabolismus der Phenylpropene Methyleugenol, (\\(\\it E \\))-Methylisoeugenol sowie alpha-, beta- und gamma-Asaron

    OpenAIRE

    Cartus, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    Methyleugenol (ME), (\\(\\it E \\))-Methylisoeugenol (MIE), alpha-Asaron (aA), beta-Asaron (bA) und gamma-Asaron (gA) sind natürlich vorkommende Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe aus der Klasse der Phenylpropene (PP) und Bestandteil der menschlichen Ernährung. ME, aA und bA erwiesen sich im Tierversuch als hepatokanzerogen. MIE und gA wurden bislang nicht untersucht. Die allylischen Hepatokanzerogene Estragol und Safrol werden im Verlauf des Fremdstoff-metabolismus durch Cytochrom P450-Enzyme (CYP) in 1‘-Po...

  16. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  17. Calibration of low-level beta-gamma coincidence detector systems for xenon isotope detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Wieslander, J S E; Auer, M; Gheddou, A

    2016-03-01

    The beta-gamma coincidence detector systems used for the measurement of the CTBT-relevant xenon isotopes (Xe-131m, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-135) in the International Monitoring System network and in the On-Site Inspection are reviewed. These detectors typically consist of a well-type or bore-through NaI crystal into which a measurement cell, serving also as a sample container, is inserted. This work describes the current calibration procedure for energy, resolution and efficiency, implementation challenges, availability and uncertainties of the specific nuclear decay data and the path forward to full calibration validation using GEANT4. PMID:26702548

  18. Design, construction and tests of well type ionization chamber for beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design, construction and tests of well type ionization chamber, with parallel plate electrodes, which is used in the measurements of radiopharmacous activities, by means of beta and/or gamma radiations detection. Its response was studied utilizing Tc-99, I-131, Co-60, Am-241 and Sr-90 sources. The results obtained show that, due to to the very low leakage current from the chamber and the linearity of response, its possible to measure activities in the range from 20KBq up to 10GBq, whith a precision better than 1%. (author)

  19. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  20. Thermoluminescent characterization of thin films of aluminium oxide submitted to beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By mean of the laser ablation technique, thin films of aluminium oxide have been deposited on kapton substrates. These films present thermoluminescent response (Tl) when they are exposed to beta and gamma radiation. The brilliance curves show two peaks between 112 C and 180 C. A dose-response relationship study was realized and the Tl kinetic parameters were determined using the computerized deconvolution of the brilliance curve (CGCD). The thin films of aluminium oxide have potential applications as ultra.thin radiation dosemeters. (Author)

  1. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry

  2. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  3. Development of a dosimetry system for personal monitoring in mixed beta and gamma field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetric thermoluminescent system for the determination of strongly and weakly penetrating radiation dose Hp(10) and Hp(0,07), respectively, was developed. The system consists of CaSO4:Dy as T L active material, a polyethylene badge and different metallic filters used for radiation attenuation. For the system development and design parameter calculation different computer codes were used. After the definition of the dosemeter an experimental validation of the whole system was performed. The research was directed towards the optimization of the design parameters. The determination of the energy deposited by beta and gamma radiations in the dosimetric material as a function of chemical composition and densities was calculated using computer codes that simulate those process. The dosemeter calibration was performed in standard fields. The angular dependency of T L response and its behavior in a mixed field was studied. The validation of the dosimetric system was performed for beta nad gamma radiations doses between 0,1 mSv and 200 MSv. Ana analysis of associated uncertainties shows that the developed dosemeters are in accordance with the ICRP-35 requirements of energetic and angular dependence for personal dosemeters. (author)

  4. The Beta-Delayed Proton and Gamma Decay of 27P for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, E.; Trache, L.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.; Lotay, G. J.; Wallace, J.; Doherty, D.; Saastamoinen, A.

    2013-03-01

    The creation site of 26Al is still under debate. It is thought to be produced in hydrogen burning and in explosive helium burning in novae and supernovae, and possibly also in the H-burning in outer shells of red giant stars. Also, the reactions for its creation or destruction are not completely known. When 26Al is created in novae, the reaction chain is: 24Mg(p,γ)25AI(β+v)25 Mg(p,γ)26Al, but this chain can be by-passed by another chain, 25Al(p, γ)26Si(p, γ)27P and it can also be destroyed directly. The reaction 26m Al (p, γ)27 Si* is another avenue to bypass the production of 26Al and it is dominated by resonant capture. We find and study these resonances by an indirect method, through the beta-decay of 27P. A clean and abundant source of 27P was produced for the first time and separated with MARS. A new implantation-decay station which allows increased efficiency for low energy protons and for high-energy gamma-rays was used. We measured gamma-rays and beta-delayed protons emitted from states above the proton threshold in the daughter nucleus 27Si to identify and characterize the resonances. The lifetime of 27P was also measured with accuracy under 2%.

  5. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  6. $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay in $^{56}$Zn: analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Orrigo, S E A; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioglu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    A study of the $\\beta$ decay of the proton-rich $T_{z}$ = -2 nucleus $^{56}$Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the $fp$ shell. Here we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focussing on the charged particle spectrum.

  7. A program to generate simulated radioxenon beta-gamma data for concentration verification and validation and training exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PNNL developed a beta-gamma simulator (BGSim) that incorporated GEANT-modeled data sets from radioxenon decay chains, as well as functionality to use nuclear detector-acquired data sets to create new beta-gamma spectra with varying amounts of background, 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe, 135Xe, and 222Rn and its decay products. After BGSim was developed, additional uses began to be identified for the program output: training sets of two-dimensional spectra for data analysts at the IDC and other NDC, and spectra for exercises such as the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 held in Jordan at the Dead Sea. (author)

  8. A New Method for Processing Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry Data for Mapping Low Level Contaminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim;

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia...

  9. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  10. Application of spectral gamma-ray borehole geophysics for characterization of radionuclide contamination at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative, passive, gamma-ray borehole logging program was developed at Hanford for the purpose of identifying and quantifying the gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopes in the subsurface. Recent nuclear counting equipment was configured into a borehole logging system and calibration methods were devised for the in situ assay of man-made radionuclides. Operation procedures and data analysis methods were developed, creating an efficient production logging system. The logging program has proven to be effective when used in a screening mode for characterizing effluent release sites at Hanford. It located the primary gamma-emitting contaminants and identified which of the sites had contributed to the groundwater contamination. At one of the single-shell tank farms, the system was used to quantify the unsaturated zone contamination and trace the contamination back to the tank leak sources. It also provided a baseline of the radioelement concentrations for future data comparisons and to permit identification of a dynamic radionuclide transport system. In this manner, the logging program can help to identify future tank leaks. When combined with an inexpensive drilling method, the logging program can produce in situ radioelement concentration data at a fraction of the cost of conventional drilling and sampling, without personnel exposure to the contamination or generation of waste, and it can be done in a matter of days instead of months. Future developments will refine the quality assurance program so that the system will produce laboratory-quality in situ assays. Future applications will require a high degree of quality assurance

  11. Scintillation response of CsI: Tl crystal under neutron, gamma, alpha particles and beta excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the converters of X and gamma radiation in light photons, known as scintillators, the one which is the most efficient emits photons with a wavelength near 400 nm. Particularly, among them, the cesium iodine doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystal is that which matches better between the light emission spectrum (peak at 540 nm) and the quantum sensitivity curve of the photodiodes and CCD (Charge Coupled Device). This explains the renewed interest in using this crystal as scintillator. Although the CsI:Tl crystal is commercially available, its local development would give the possibility to obtain it in different geometric configurations and coupling. Moreover, there is a special interest in studying new conditions that will alter the properties of this crystal in order to achieve a optimal level of its functional characteristics. Having an efficient national scintillator with low cost is a strategic opportunity to study the response of a detector applied to different types of radiation. The crystal of cesium iodide activated with thallium (CsI:Tl) has a high gamma detection efficiency per unit volume. In this paper, the CsI:Tl crystal, grown by the vertical Bridgman technique in evacuated silica ampoules and with the purpose of use as radiation detectors, is described. To evaluate the scintillator, measures of the thallium distribution in the crystal volume were taken, with overall efficiency score. The scintillator response was studied through gamma radiation from sources of 137Cs, 60Co, 22Na, 54Mn, 131I and 99mTc; the beta radiation from source of 90Sr/90Y, alpha particles from 241Am source and the scintillator response to neutrons from Am/Be source. The energetic resolution for 137Cs gamma rays (662 keV) was 10%. The results showed the validity of using the CsI:Tl crystal developed in our laboratory, in many applications in the area of radiation detectors. (author)

  12. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  13. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  14. Gamma irradiation of starch samples contaminated with anaerobic germs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch samples were mixed with spores of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens and irradiated with 60Co γ-rays of different intensities. The radiosensitivity and the survival rates of the spores were determined. Of the starch samples examined only a small part contained spores of mesophilic Clostridia. None of the samples showed signs of presence of rigidly thermophilic varieties and of Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium perfringens. 14 groups of germs were isolated from the dry products of starch industry. At least one germ group showed an activation phenomenon and a probable survival rate of 300% at 75 krad. This is true for the germ group which appears most frequently with starch and can be identified as Clostridium sporogenes. Gamma irradiation does not neutralize lysozyme dependence of the Clostridium perfringens germ which has this property. With a few reservations the standards for germ content which have been set for Bacillus spores can be also used for Clostridium spores. (orig./AJ)

  15. Skin dose from neutron-activated soil for early entrants following the A-bomb detonation in Hiroshima: contribution from beta and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    Epilation was reported among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, including "early entrance survivors" who entered the cities after the bombings. The absorbed dose to the skin by neutron-activated soil via beta and gamma rays has been estimated in a preliminary fashion, for these survivors in Hiroshima. Estimation was done for external exposures from activated soil on the ground as well as skin and hair contamination from activated soil particles, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. Assuming 26 mum thickness of activated soil on the skin as an example, the skin dose was estimated to be about 0.8 Gy, for an exposure scenario that includes the first 7 days after the bombing at 1 m above the ground at the hypocenter. In this case, 99% of the total skin dose came from activated radionuclides in the soil, i.e., 0.19 and 0.63 Gy due to beta and gamma rays, respectively. In contrast, contribution to skin dose due to skin contamination with soil particles was found to be about 1%. To make it comparable to the exposure by neutron-activated soil on the ground, a soil thickness on the skin of about 1 mm would be required, which seems to be difficult to keep for a long time. Fifty-five percent of the 7-day skin dose was delivered during the first hour after the bombing. Our estimates of the skin dose are lower than the conventionally reported threshold of 2 Gy for epilation. It should be noted, however, that the possibility of more extreme exposure scenarios for example for entrants who received much heavier soil contamination on their skin cannot be excluded. PMID:18496704

  16. Assessment of gamma, beta and alpha-particle-emitting nuclides in marine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the physical properties of radionuclides different systems must be used for their measurement. Most convenient is if gamma spectrometry can be used by germanium, Silicon or Scintillation detectors (eg. NaI). If, however, the main emission consists of beta or alpha particles or low-energy photons as is the case for radionuclides decaying by electron capture, radiochemical separation and specific source preparations must be undertaken. In such cases also the radiochemical yield must be determined. The radiochemical part mainly follows the lines presented by prof. T. Jaakkola, Department of Radiochemistry, Helsinki, Finland, at a course in radioecology in Lurid, 1991. For very long-lived radionuclides other methods such as mass spectrometry are superior although often associated with sophisticated expensive instrumentation. (author)

  17. Peculiarities of the clinical course of radiation sickness and organizational decisions for radiation accidents with beta-gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a number of recent large scale accidents involving beta-gamma sources in the last 40 years, such as those of the Marshall Islands (1954); Windscale, UK (1957); Chernobyl, USSR (1986) and Goiania, Brazil (1987) demonstrates the predominance and importance of health and social impacts. (author)

  18. Qualification of a gamma sensitive surface measuring technique for the building clearance in the NPP Stade (KKS) using the contamination monitor S.E.A.PL 525; Qualifizierung gammaempfindlicher Oberflaechenmesstechnik fuer die Gebaeudefreigabe des KKS anhand des Kontaminationsmonitors S.E.A. PL 525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juretzka, Peter; Riether, Herbert; Bacmeister, Georg U. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Stade (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Stade; Stammel, Martina [DSR Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For the clearance of contaminated buildings during reactor dismantling the evidence proof of surface contamination according StrSchV (radiation protection regulations) is required. Into the depth penetrated contamination has to be projected to the surface. Typical coverage of contamination from operation results from decontamination coatings, plastering or pavements. Using beta sensitive measurements the penetrated activity cannot be identified reliably. Using gamma sensitive measuring techniques the penetrated activity can be detected even in case of covering layers. Actually the techniques in-situ gamma spectrometry and gamma spectrometric analysis of sampling are qualified for clearance measurements. When these techniques cannot be applied is necessary to remove the surface layers. Therefore the NPP Stade developed in cooperation with the measuring device producer S.E.A. a gamma sensitive contamination monitor. The qualification has been performed, the detection limits were reached.

  19. Competition between $\\beta$-delayed proton and $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of the exotic $T_z$ = -2 nucleus $^{56}$Zn and fragmentation of the IAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, B; Fujita, Y; Blank, B; Gelletly, W; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ascher, P; Bilgier, B; Cáceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Fujita, H; Ganioglu, E; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Kamalou, O; Kozer, H C; Kucuk, L; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Molina, F; Popescu, L; Rogers, A M; Susoy, G; Stodel, C; Suzuki, T; Tamii, A; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    A very exotic decay mode at the proton drip-line, $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-proton decay, has been observed in the $\\beta$ decay of the $T_z$ = -2 nucleus $^{56}$Zn. Three $\\gamma$-proton sequences have been observed following the $\\beta$ decay. The fragmentation of the IAS in $^{56}$Cu has also been observed for the first time. The results were reported in a recent publication. At the time of publication the authors were puzzled by the competition between proton and $\\gamma$ decays from the main component of the IAS. Here we outline a possible explanation based on the nuclear structure properties of the three nuclei involved, namely $^{56}$Zn, $^{56}$Cu and $^{55}$Ni, close to the doubly magic nucleus $^{56}$Ni. From the fragmentation of the Fermi strength and the excitation energy of the two populated 0$^{+}$ states we could deduce the off-diagonal matrix element of the charge-dependent part of the Hamiltonian responsible for the mixing. These results are compared with the decay of $^{55}$Cu with one proton ...

  20. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  1. Line C17: alpha and medium-level beta-gamma laboratory pilot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Development Laboratory (LDP) uses the ATALANTE C17 line for integral testing in order to develop and validate spent fuel reprocessing methods and for overall qualification of calculation codes. Line C 17 comprises shielded cells and glove boxes, equipped with centrifugal extractors and laboratory-scale mixer-settlers to test liquid-liquid extraction processes in an alpha and medium-level beta-gamma environment. The high reliability and precision of the process instrumentation and control system allow full control of operating parameters and comprehensive operating data recording, meeting the experimentation quality requirements necessary for qualifying calculation codes. Direct online spectrophotometric analysis at various points in the process provides real-time concentration data for vital elements, some of which are difficult to analyze offline because of their poor chemical stability. Online analyses, supplemented when necessary by gamma spectrometry, provide valuable process control input for reaching stabilized operating conditions. Fifteen radioactive test campaigns have been successfully completed since line C 17 was commissioned in June 1995. (authors)

  2. A new technique for making large area beta reference sources required for calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique has been developed for making large area reference beta sources required for the calibration of beta contamination monitors. Two 13 x 33 cm2 of 90Sr/90Y sources of surface activity 4-5 Bq/cm2 were prepared for testing of a typical large area contamination monitor developed by RSSD, BARC. Two 10 x 15 cm2 of 90Sr/90Y sources were also prepared as per ISO 8769. Surface non-uniformity of these sources was measured with the help of a specially designed jig. The non-uniformity in these sources was measured to be 15%. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  4. Radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-. gamma. -radiation and formation of L(+)-. beta. -methylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loester, Heinz; Strack, Erich; Seim, Hermann

    1986-06-01

    The radiolysis of D(+)-carnitine by /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-radiation was examined to obtain optically active ..beta..-methylcholine. It was found that the radiolysis leads to a number of trimethylammonium bases but to no other betaines. (+)-..beta..-Methylcholine and acetonyltrimethylammonium could be identified by means of common analytical methods. The amounts of methylamines formed by irradiation were very small. Racemization of the D(+)-carnitine did not occur during irradiation, L(-)-carnitine was not found when an enzymatical determination method was used. The fact that (+)-..beta..-methylcholine was formed from D(+)-carnitine is pharmacologically important, because acetyl-L(+)-..beta..-methylcholine has a strong interaction with muscarinic receptors.

  5. Use of Carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CMCD) as Flushing Agent for Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, M. E.; Thyne, G. D.; McCray, J. E.; Drexler, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    One of the major challenges in remediating soil and ground water is the presence of mixed organic and inorganic contaminants. Due to their very different behavior, research has to a large extent focused on remediation of either organic or inorganic contaminants rather than mixed waste. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a group of non-toxic sugar based molecules that do not sorb to soil particles and do not experience pore size exclusion. Thus, they have good hydraulic properties. CDs enhance the solubility of organic compounds by forming inclusion complexes between organic contaminants and the non-polar cavity at the center of the CD. By substituting functional groups to the cyclodextrin molecule it can form complexes with heavy metals. Previous studies have shown that carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CMCD) can simultaneously complex organic and inorganic contaminants. The aim of this study is to compare how strongly CMCD complexes several common heavy metals, radioactive elements and a common divalent cation. Results from batch experiments show that CMCD has the ability to complex a wide array of heavy metals and radioactive elements. The solubility of metal oxalates and metal oxides clearly increased in the presence of CMCD. Logarithmic conditional formation constants ranged from 3.5 to 6 for heavy metals and from 3 to 6 for radioactive elements. Calcium, which may compete for binding sites, has a logarithmic conditional formation constant of 3.1. Batch experiments performed at 10 and 25 degrees C showed little temperature effect on conditional formation constants. Results from batch experiments were compared to results from column experiments where Pb was sorbed onto hydrous ferric oxide coated sand and subsequently removed by a CMCD solution. The results indicate that CMCD is a potential flushing agent for remediation of mixed waste sites.

  6. LRAD, semiconductor, and other radiation detectors applied to environmental monitoring for alpha and beta contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very short range of alpha particles in air (typically 2 to 3 cm) has severely limited the use of traditional alpha monitors for detecting and identifying small amounts of alpha-producing contamination in soil, water, and other materials. Monitors based on the traditional alpha detector technology are often hard pressed to meet continually increasing sensitivity requirements. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) avoids the distance restriction by detecting the ions produced by the interaction of alpha particles with air, rather than the alpha particles directly. The ions are swept into an ion detector either by a moving air current (generated by a fan) or a weak electric field. The LRAD is limited by the distance the ions can travel in the ∼5-s ion lifetime (1 to 100 m), rather than by the several-centimeter range of the alpha particles. The LRAD can be used to perform sensitive (less than 10 disintegrations per minute per 100 cm2) field scans of large surface areas (ranging from hundreds of square meters of concrete floor to thousands of square meters of soil). Because the 'active' element in a LRAD is a solid-metal ion collection plate, the detector is relatively inexpensive, easy to service, and quite rugged. However, the LRAD cannot supply any spectroscopic information to help identify the contaminant. Semiconductor, ionization chamber, and other types of particle detector can generate clean spectra from small samples of material and can identify trace amounts of surface contamination. Furthermore, these detectors are rugged enough to use routinely in a mobile laboratory for isotope identification of 'hot spots' located by the LRAD system. The combination of the LRAD with either an alpha spectrometer or a mobile laboratory with other particle detectors has applications for field beta-particle monitoring (such as would result from tritium contamination) as well as alpha particle detection. (author)

  7. Use of gamma camera for measurement of the internal contamination with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium from radioactive wastes is used for manufacturing bullets used in Iraq, Republic of Serbia and Yugoslavia. These bullets are extremely dense and capable of penetrating heavily armored vehicles. Their medical importance lies in the fact that the bullets contain seventy percent depleted uranium which creates aerosolized particles less than five microns in diameter, small enough to be inhaled, after spontaneous bullet burn at impact. Nuclear medicine scientists must be aware of this and be prepared to measure internal contamination of persons exposed to this radioactive material. Whole body counters (WBC) represent appropriate equipment for this purpose but their availability in developing countries is not sufficient. Gamma camera is an alternative. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of depleted uranium, iodine and technetium for gamma cameras was measured in this paper. Low energy X-ray 100 KeV with 20% windows are used for the depleted uranium detection. About 40% gamma emissions from depleted uranium fall within these limits. The activities measured (50-100 Bq) are about ten times higher then on WBC (5 Bq). This does not limit the use of gamma cameras for measurement of lung or whole body internal contamination with depleted uranium. (author)

  8. Application of in-situ gamma spectrometry in the remediation of radioactively contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a US Department of Energy site that is undergoing total remediation and closure. Most of the remediation effort entails massive excavation of soil for disposal, both offsite and onsite, at an engineered disposal facility. In-situ gamma spectrometry is routinely used to support soil excavation operations to accurately and quickly identify soil areas as being above or below regulatory remediation criteria. Two different in-situ gamma spectrometry systems are used. The first is a sodium iodide (NaI) detector mounted either on a tractor or a jogging stroller, depending on the terrain to be measured. The NaI system allows the collection of a gamma energy spectrum which can be analyzed to identify and quantify radioactive isotopes which are present within the detector's viewing area. Each energy spectrum is tagged by location coordinates provided by an on-board global positioning system (GPS) to precisely locate elevated contamination areas. The second is a tripod-mounted, high purity germanium detector (HPGe) gamma spectrometry system that is functionally similar to the NaI system. The principal advantage of the HPGe is its superior resolution, which allows much more accurate identification and quantification of radionuclide contaminants in soils. In order to effectively utilize the data quality objective process with these systems, three quality assurance (QA) elements had to be performed

  9. Contribution of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) to the alkaline Bohr effect of hemoglobin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M J; Acharya, A S

    1992-08-18

    Glu-43(beta) of hemoglobin A exhibits a high degree of chemical reactivity around neutral pH for amidation with nucleophiles in the presence of carbodiimide. Such a reactivity is unusual for the side-chain carboxyl groups of proteins. In addition, the reactivity of Glu-43(beta) is also sensitive to the ligation state of the protein [Rao, M. J., & Acharya, A. S. (1991) J. Protein Chem. 10, 129-138]. The influence of deoxygenation of hemoglobin A on the chemical reactivity of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) has now been investigated as a function of pH (from 5.5 to 7.5). The chemical reactivity of Glu-43(beta) for amidation increases upon deoxygenation only when the modification reaction is carried out above pH 6.0. The pH-chemical reactivity profile of the amidation of hemoglobin A in the deoxy conformation reflects an apparent pKa of 7.0 for the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta). This pKa is considerably higher than the pKa of 6.35 for the oxy conformation. The deoxy conformational transition mediated increase in the pKa of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) implicates this carboxyl group as an alkaline Bohr group. The amidated derivative of hemoglobin A with 2 mol of glycine ethyl ester covalently bound to the protein was isolated by CM-cellulose chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1354984

  10. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Bean; Jing Yi; Kurt Ungar; Weihua Zhang; Pawel Mekarski

    2011-01-01

    An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404) embedded in a CsI(Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl) crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicyl...

  11. Radon-induced surface contaminations in neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments looking for rare events, like neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD0ν) and dark matter search (DM), one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through the material selection and production. The background contribution coming from the materials used for the detector realization has to be minimized. Moreover the net reduction of the background produced by the bulk part of the apparatus has raised concerns about the background contribution coming from the surfaces. Many procedures and techniques were developed during the last years in order to remove and to minimize the presence of possible contaminants on detector surfaces. To succeed in this strategy a big effort was put in defining all possible mechanisms that lead to surface contaminations, as well as specific cleaning procedures, which are able to reduce and control the surface radioactivity. The presence in air and gases of possible radioactive elements that can stick on the detector surfaces can lead to a recontamination process that will vanish all the applied cleaning procedures. Here is presented and analyzed the contribution to the background of rare events experiments like CUORE experiment (DBD0ν) and EDELWEISS experiment (DM) produced by an exposure of their detector components to a big activity of 222Rn, radioactive daughter isotope from the 238U chain. (author)

  12. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric systems for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system. This cheque cart 12 bit SARAD spectra 5011 spectrometric system we can combine with a new developed detector, preamp and forming unit. A very important application of this new measuring system is the alpha nuclidspecific surface contamination monitoring. Especially in old nuclear power station it is very important in the decommissioning process to know the nuclide vector. We report of applications to use this new technology to measure the nuclide vector in old lead cells or construction elements in old nuclear reactors. We measure surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm2 of Pu-239 very easy. A other modification of this cheque cart spectrometer is the radon personal dosimeter. In this case we have integrated on a cheque cart a 8 bit spectrometer, a 1cm2 silicon detector, the signal processing, AD-conversion, data storage and transponder system for the data transfer. Using this transponder system we can also use a local resoluted dosimetry. The main application of this system is the radon dosimetry on workplaces, for instance water works, mines, show caves and other work places with high radon levels. This easy system can replace the passive screening methods and also the nuclear track etch dosimeters. Because the low price and the easy data read out the amortisation of such a electronic system is in the order of two years

  13. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects

  14. Ultra-low gamma-ray measurement system for neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment for the detection of 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC in 92Mo nuclei has been carried out with a scintillating crystal, CaMoO4, in coincidence with the HPGe detector. We study the background events inside the event selection window for 0ν β+/EC decays of CaMoO4 detector. For 51.2 days of data taking period, we didn't observe any event in the neutrinoless EC/EC decay event window. The 92Mo 0νβ+/EC decay half-life limit was set to 0.61×1020 years with a 90% confidence by method of Feldman and Cousins. This ultra-low gamma ray measurement utilizing coincidence technique can be used for the resonant EC/EC decay process of some nuclei which is potentially important for neutrinoless double beta decay process. - Highlights: • 0νββ experiment is the only practical way to study the nature of neutrino mass. • We performed a 0νββ experiment with a HPGe detector and a CaMoO4 crystal. • The limit of the half-life of the 0νβ+/EC is 0.61×1020 years at 90% CL

  15. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 4π β-γ coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between theβ--and γ-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs

  16. Features of gamma-logging using in conditions of contamination of boreholes walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the radioactive contamination of soil around 'Ukryttya' object is concentrated basically on pre-accident surface, which was closed by clean soil layers during liquidation of the accident consequences. During building of foundations for New Safe Confinement a lot of boreholes were drilled for sheet piling. These boreholes were used for gamma-logging to assess soil contamination with radionuclides, forecast of radioactive waste quantities, which will appear after deleting soil from the pit, and doses to the staff at the reaching the active layer of soil. Measurements of a gamma-field have been carried out almost in five hundred boreholes. In processing of gamma-logging data in these boreholes increased values of exposure dose rate below the active layer and on the bottom of some boreholes were discovered. As a result, it was found that the additional radiation below the active layer in most part of boreholes is completely explained by the strain radiation f tom active layer and by pouring out radioactive soil from upper layers to the bottom of boreholes

  17. Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eFourcaud-Trocmé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15-30 Hz and gamma (40-90 Hz. All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loops. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density analysis combined with multi-unit activity recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL and superficial areas of granule cell layer. In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings.

  18. Improvement of the in vitro dissolution of praziquantel by complexation with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becket, G; Schep, L J; Tan, M Y

    1999-03-01

    Although praziquantel (PZQ) is the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, its poor solubility has restricted its delivery via the oral route. In spite of its poor solubility, PZQ is well absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract, but large doses are required to achieve adequate concentrations at the target sites. Improving the solubility would enable the parenteral route to be used, thereby avoiding significant first pass metabolism. The aqueous solubility of PZQ was improved by forming inclusion complexes with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins (CDs). These complexes were assessed and confirmed by solubility analysis, Fourier transform infrared analysis, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry. Dissolution of PZQ from the alpha-, beta- and gamma-CD complexes was 2.6-, 5- and 8-fold greater, respectively, than that of the pure drug. However, only the beta-complex had a stability constant in the optimum range for pharmaceutical use, suggesting that the preferred complex for further development would be a water-soluble beta-CD derivative. PMID:10053203

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of beta-radiometer device used to measure milk contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of Monte Carlo modeling of the beta-radiometer device with Geiger-Mueller detector used in Belarus and Russia to measure the radioactive contamination of milk after the Chernobyl accident. This type of detector, which is not energy selective, measured the total beta-activity of the radionuclide mix. A mathematical model of the beta-radiometer device, namely DP-100, was developed, and the calibration factors for the different radionuclides that might contribute to the milk contamination were calculated. The estimated calibration factors for 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr, 144Ce, and 106Ru reasonably agree with calibration factors determined experimentally. The calculated calibration factors for 132Te, 132I, 133I, 136Cs, 89Sr, 103Ru, 140Ba, 140La, and 141Ce had not been previously determined experimentally. The obtained results allow to derive the activity of specific radionuclides, in particular 131I, from the results of the total beta-activity measurements in milk. Results of this study are important for the purposes of retrospective dosimetry that uses measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples performed with beta-radiometer devices.

  20. Proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths of astrophysically important states of $^{30}$S studied by the $\\beta$-delayed decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Koldste, G T; Borge, M J G; Briz, J A; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Giovinazzo, J; Johansen, J G; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Kurturkian-Nieto, T; Kusk, J H; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Picado, E; Riisager, K; Saastamoinen, A; Tengblad, O; Thomas, J -C; Van de Walle, J

    2013-01-01

    Resonances just above the proton threshold in $^{30}$S affect the $^{29}$P(p,$\\gamma$)$^{30}$S reaction under astrophysical conditions. The (p,$\\gamma$)-reaction rate is currently determined indirectly and depends on the properties of the relevant resonances. We present here a method for finding the ratio between the proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths of resonances in $^{30}$S. The widths are determined from the $\\beta$-2p and $\\beta$-p-$\\gamma$- decay of $^{31}$Ar, which is produced at ISOLDE, CERN. Experimental limits on the ratio between the proton and $\\gamma$- partial widths for astrophysical relevant levels in $^{30}$S have been found for the first time. A level at 4689.2(24)keV is identified in the $\\gamma$-spectrum, and an upper limit on the $\\Gamma_{p}/\\Gamma_{\\gamma}$ ratio of 0.26 (95% C.L.) is found. In the two-proton spectrum two levels at 5227(3)keV and 5847(4)keV are identified. These levels were previously seen to $\\gamma$-decay and upper limits on the $\\Gamma_{\\gamma}/\\Gamma_{p}$ ratio of 0....

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  2. Computer assisted collimation gamma camera: A new approach to imaging contaminated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement systems with the capability of imaging tissues contaminated with radioactive materials would find relevant applications in medical physics research and possibly in health physics. The latter in particular depends critically on the performance achieved for sensitivity and spatial resolution. An original approach of computer assisted collimation gamma camera (French acronym CACAO) which could meet suitable characteristics has been proposed elsewhere. CACAO requires detectors with high spatial resolution. The present work was aimed at investigating the application of the CACAO principle on a laboratory testing bench using silicon detectors made of small pixels. (author)

  3. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  4. Approaches to contamination problems of agricultural land using Na(I) Tl spectrometer and gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant made a large area of agricultural land contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and 137). Quantitative analysis for radioactivity (discriminating for Cs-134 and Cs-137) taken in vegetables from the land was carried out using NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Development of gamma camera for their imaging due to Cs 137 was performed. The shape of the peaks in the spectrum, baseline suppression, a solution of lines overlapping, enhancement of high-resolution were studied. Furthermore, the effect of water on cesium absorbing and transferring process from the root to the tissue was studied. (S. Ohno)

  5. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  6. Category-specific visual responses: an intracranial study comparing gamma, beta, alpha and ERP response selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R Vidal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of neural responses to visual objects is a major topic in visual neuroscience. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have identified several regions of the occipital and temporal lobe that appear specific to faces, letter-strings, scenes, or tools. Direct electrophysiological recordings in the visual cortical areas of epileptic patients have largely confirmed this modular organization, using either single-neuron peri-stimulus time-histogram or intracerebral event-related potentials (iERP. In parallel, a new research stream has emerged using high-frequency gamma-band activity (50-150 Hz (GBR and low-frequency alpha/beta activity (8-24 Hz (ABR to map functional networks in humans. An obvious question is now whether the functional organization of the visual cortex revealed by fMRI, ERP, GBR, and ABR coincide. We used direct intracerebral recordings in 18 epileptic patients to directly compare GBR, ABR, and ERP elicited by the presentation of seven major visual object categories (faces, scenes, houses, consonants, pseudowords, tools, and animals, in relation to previous fMRI studies. Remarkably both GBR and iERP showed strong category-specificity that was in many cases sufficient to infer stimulus object category from the neural response at single-trial level. However, we also found a strong discrepancy between the selectivity of GBR, ABR, and ERP with less than 10% of spatial overlap between sites eliciting the same category-specificity. Overall, we found that selective neural responses to visual objects were broadly distributed in the brain with a prominent spatial cluster located in the posterior temporal cortex. Moreover, the different neural markers (GBR, ABR, and iERP that elicit selectivity towards specific visual object categories present little spatial overlap suggesting that the information content of each marker can uniquely characterize high-level visual information in the brain.

  7. Primary 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides by means of plastic scintillators; Sistema primario por coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a padronizacao de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, Aida Maria

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes a 4{pi}({alpha},{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute measurement of radionuclide activity using a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry for charged particles detection and a Nal (Tl) crystal for gamma-ray detection. Several shapes and dimensions of the plastic scintillator have been tried in order to obtain the best system configuration. Radionuclides which decay by alpha emission, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +} and electron capture have been standardized. The results showed excellent agreement with other conventional primary system which makes use of a 4{pi} proportional counter for X-ray and charged particle detection. The system developed in the present work have some advantages when compared with the conventional systems, namely; it does not need metal coating on the films used as radioactive source holders. When compared to liquid scintillators, is showed the advantage of not needing to be kept in dark for more than 24 h to allow phosphorescence decay of ambient light. Therefore it can be set to count immediately after the sources are placed inside of it. (author)

  8. A protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras to estimate internal contamination in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern about accidents involving radioactive materials has led to the search of alternative methods to quickly identify and quantify radionuclides in workers and in the population. One of the options to face up an eventual demand for mass monitoring of internal contamination is the use of a nuclear medicine diagnostic equipment known as gamma camera, a device used to scan patients who have been administered specific amounts of radioactive materials for medical purposes. Although the gamma camera is used for image diagnosis, it can be calibrated with anthropomorphic phantoms or point sources for the quantification of radionuclide activities in the human body. This work presents a protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras for such application. In order to evaluate the suitability of this type of equipment, a gamma camera available in a public hospital located in Rio de Janeiro was calibrated for the in vivo measurement of 131I. The calibration includes the determination of detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities for each radionuclide. The results show that the gamma camera presents enough sensitivity to detect activity levels corresponding to effective doses below 1 mSv. The protocol is the basis to establish a network of Nuclear Medicine Centres, located in public hospitals in eight countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) and in Spain that could be requested to collaborate in remediation actions in the event of an accident involving incorporation of radioactive materials. This protocol is one of the most significant outputs of the IAEA-ARCAL Project (RLA/9/049-LXXVIII) aimed to the Harmonization of Internal Dosimetry Procedures. (authors)

  9. A protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras to estimate internal contamination in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Araujo, F.; Melo, D. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O. [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Teran, M.; Paolino, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rojo, A.M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Bejerano, G.M.L. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.; Ruiz, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Videla, R.; Pinones, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The concern about accidents involving radioactive materials has led to the search of alternative methods to quickly identify and quantify radionuclides in workers and in the population. One of the options to face up an eventual demand for mass monitoring of internal contamination is the use of a nuclear medicine diagnostic equipment known as gamma camera, a device used to scan patients who have been administered specific amounts of radioactive materials for medical purposes. Although the gamma camera is used for image diagnosis, it can be calibrated with anthropomorphic phantoms or point sources for the quantification of radionuclide activities in the human body. This work presents a protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras for such application. In order to evaluate the suitability of this type of equipment, a gamma camera available in a public hospital located in Rio de Janeiro was calibrated for the in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I. The calibration includes the determination of detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities for each radionuclide. The results show that the gamma camera presents enough sensitivity to detect activity levels corresponding to effective doses below 1 mSv. The protocol is the basis to establish a network of Nuclear Medicine Centres, located in public hospitals in eight countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) and in Spain that could be requested to collaborate in remediation actions in the event of an accident involving incorporation of radioactive materials. This protocol is one of the most significant outputs of the IAEA-ARCAL Project (RLA/9/049-LXXVIII) aimed to the Harmonization of Internal Dosimetry Procedures. (authors)

  10. CD147 is a regulatory subunit of the gamma-secretase complex inAlzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shuxia; Zhou, Hua; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K.

    2005-04-06

    {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex that cleaves the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the transmembrane region, following prior processing by {beta}-secretase, producing amyloid {beta}-peptides (A{beta}{sub 40} and A{beta}{sub 42}). Errant production of A{beta}-peptides that substantially increases A{beta}{sub 42} production has been associated with the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. Biophysical and genetic studies indicate that presenilin-1 (Psn-1), which contains the proteolytic active site, and three other membrane proteins, nicastrin (Nct), APH-1, and PEN-2 are required to form the core of the active {gamma}-secretase complex. Here, we report the purification of the native {gamma}-secretase complexes from HeLa cell membranes and the identification of an additional {gamma}-secretase complex subunit, CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein with two immunoglobulin-like domains. The presence of this subunit as an integral part of the complex itself was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation studies of the purified protein from HeLa cells and solubilized complexes from other cell lines such as neural cell HCN-1A and HEK293. Depletion of CD147 by RNA interference was found to increase the production of A{beta} peptides without changing the expression level of the other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates while CD147 overexpression had no statistically significant effect on amyloid {beta}-peptide production, other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates, indicating that the presence of the CD147 subunit within the {gamma}-secretase complex directly down-modulates the production of A{beta}-peptides. {gamma}-secretase was first recognized through its role in the production of the A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (1). {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex with unusual aspartyl protease activity that cleaves a variety of type I membrane proteins

  11. Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Alpha-Beta Aerosol Contaminant Monitor Performance Under Reactor Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis to evaluate the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor performance was done. The high potential radiation working area such as in RSG-GAS is important to monitored for personal safety. Further it is necessary to assure that the system monitor is reliable enough under normal conditions as well as emergency condition. The method uses in this analysis are monitoring and comparing with the standard source. The standard course indicator and panel in main control room indicate that the result is 1 x 110 exp 9 Ci/m exp 3. Based on data monitor observation, the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor system under reactor operation condition has a good enough performance

  12. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity (90Sr/90Y, 137Cs, 241Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of 137Cs, 90Sr/90Y and 241Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author)

  14. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  15. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  16. Pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation contributes to the N30 frontal component of somatosensory evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Axelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evoked potentials have been proposed to result from phase-locking of electroencephalographic (EEG activities within specific frequency bands. However, the respective contribution of phasic activity and phase resetting of ongoing EEG oscillation remains largely debated. We here applied the EEGlab procedure in order to quantify the contribution of electroencephalographic oscillation in the generation of the frontal N30 component of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP triggered by median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist. Power spectrum and intertrial coherence analysis were performed on EEG recordings in relation to median nerve stimulation. Results The frontal N30 component was accompanied by a significant phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25–35 Hz and to a lesser extent of 80 Hz oscillation. After the selection in each subject of the trials for which the power spectrum amplitude remained unchanged, we found pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25–35 Hz peaking about 30 ms after the stimulation. Transition across trials from uniform to normal phase distribution revealed temporal phase reorganization of ongoing 30 Hz EEG oscillations in relation to stimulation. In a proportion of trials, this phase-locking was accompanied by a spectral power increase peaking in the 30 Hz frequency band. This corresponds to the complex situation of 'phase-locking with enhancement' in which the distinction between the contribution of phasic neural event versus EEG phase resetting is hazardous. Conclusion The identification of a pure phase-locking in a large proportion of the SEP trials reinforces the contribution of the oscillatory model for the physiological correlates of the frontal N30. This may imply that ongoing EEG rhythms, such as beta/gamma oscillation, are involved in somatosensory information processing.

  17. Blood biochemical disorders in gamma irradiated rats maintained on pesticide contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the effect of 6.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on male albino rats kept ether under normal environmental condition or subjected to either short or long term of internal contamination with the environmental chemical pollutant kelthane widely applied as organo chlorine miticide. This has need introduced either through daily oral administration at the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. over 3 successive days, or through daily ingestion at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w. over feeding time periods of 3, 6, and 12 weeks. The results obtained demonstrated fluctuations in certain serum metabolites and minerals encountering increased levels serum glucose total lipids, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, and inorganic phosphorus. on the other hand, the serum levels of bilirubin, and total calcium tended to decrease. Most of these changes where significantly aggravated when radiation exposure has been undertaken following a prolonged internal contamination with the miticide. This potential risk should be carefully considered when addressing farmers from several areas exposed to pesticide contamination risks, to radiotherapy clinics or to occupational radiation practices

  18. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P. [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  19. Chondroitin sulphate modification in the alpha4 chain of human recombinant laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Doi, Masayuki; Patarroyo, Manuel; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-10-01

    We have produced human laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) using recombinant technology. Approximately half of the recombinant laminin-8 (rLN-8) molecules were found to have a chondroitin sulphate modification in the alpha4 chain. The substituted and non-substituted forms were separated and tested for cell adhesion activity. Lower cell adhesion promoting activity was seen for the substituted form, but the integrin receptor utilization was similar. We also found the human rLN-8 to behave identically in cell adhesion assays compared to a human/mouse hybrid variant of rLN-8. PMID:12392759

  20. Electronic, optical and transport properties of {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-phases of spinel indium sulphide: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Yamini, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Feroze Gandhi College, Rae Bareli 229001, U.P. (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Department of Physics, Feroze Gandhi College, Rae Bareli 229001, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    Spinel indium sulphide exists in three phases. The tetragonal {beta}-phase transforms to the cubic {alpha}-phase at 420 Degree-Sign C which further transforms to the trigonal {gamma}-phase at 754 Degree-Sign C. Due to wide energy bandgap, the phases of indium sulphide have possibilities of applications in photo-electrochemical solar cell devices as a replacement of toxic CdS. The electronic, optical and transport properties of the three phases have therefore been investigated using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) + local orbitals (lo) scheme, in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the purpose of exchange-correlation energy functional. We present the structure, energy bands and density of states (DOS) for {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-phases. The partial density of states (PDOS) of {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} is in good agreement with experiment and earlier ab initio calculations. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of these phases we have analysed their linear optical properties such as the dynamic dielectric function in the energy range of 0-15 eV. From the dynamic dielectric function it is seen that there is no directional anisotropy for {alpha}-phase since the longitudinal and transverse components are almost identical, however the {beta} and {gamma}-phases show birefringence. The optical absorption profiles clearly indicate that {beta}-phase has possibility of greater multiple direct and indirect interband transitions in the visible regions compared to the other phases. To study the existence of interesting thermoelectric properties, transport properties like electrical and thermal conductivities, Seebeck and Hall coefficients etc. are also calculated. Good agreements are found with the available experimental results. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic properties of phases of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  1. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  2. Lightweight High Temperature Beta Gamma Alloy/Process Development for Disk and Blade Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary material and manufacturing limitations of gamma TiAl alloys include processing difficulties, requiring costly non-conventional processing requirements,...

  3. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  4. Control of ergosterol producer fungi contaminating cereal grains by certain environmental conditions and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existence of ergosterol in grains usually gives an indication that these grains are contaminated by ergosterol producing fungi. So, ergosterol concentration could be a suitable marker for estimation of fungal contamination range in cereal grains. Thirty eight fungal isolates were isolated from maize, sorghum and barley grains. Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most common fungal genera among these isolates and they were tested for ergosterol production. The highest ergosterol producing fungi were identified as Alternaria alternaria, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger var.niger. The present results indicate that the most suitable conditions for producing ergosterol by these strains in maize grains were found to be at 25 degree C for 30 days. Exposing the artificially contaminated maize grains by the above three strains (107 CFU/ml) to increasing dose levels of gamma rays up to 10 kGy and storing for 30 days, gradually decreased the production of ergosterol to 7.9, 6.2 and 1.5 mg/g dry weight of grains by A. alternata and C.herbarum and A. niger var. niger, respectively. D10 values of the tested three isolates in maize grains were found to be 2, 1.61, and 1.2 kGy, respectively. The results showed that cold storage (10 degree C) clearly decreased the activity of the tested fungi for producing ergosterol during the storage periods, and a dose level of 15 kGy was quite enough to free the grains from A. alternata, Cladosporium herbarum and A. niger var. niger, regardless the contamination level of grains with these ergosterol producer fungus

  5. CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein \\(\\gamma\\) Is a Critical Regulator of IL-1\\(\\beta\\)-Induced IL-6 Production in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Yan; Ximo Wang; Jay Cao; Min Wu; Hongwei Gao

    2012-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein \\(\\gamma\\) (C/EBPγ) is a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, which lacks known activation domains. C/EBP\\(\\gamma\\) was originally described as an inhibitor of C/EBP transactivation potential. However, previous study demonstrates that C/EBP\\(\\gamma\\) augments the C/EBP\\(\\beta\\) stimulatory activity in lipopolysaccharide induction of IL-6 promoter in a B lymphoblast cell line. These data indicate a complexing functional role for C/EBP\\(\\gamma\\) in...

  6. Attenuation of beta and gamma oscillations in schizophrenia spectrum patients following hand posture perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Mørup, Morten; Thalbitzer, Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    Several electroencephalographic (EEG) studies in schizophrenia report that the patients have reduced evoked gamma activity following visual and auditory stimulation. Somatosensory gamma activity has not previously been examined. It has been suggested that a dysfunction basic to schizophrenia spec...... unexpectedly more circumscribed in the schizophrenia than in the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) patients. Future studies should include several concurrent psychophysiological measures....

  7. Study of Rare B-Meson Decays Related to the CPObservable sin(2beta+gamma) at the BABAR Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2007-08-21

    This study reports the observation of the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +} in a sample of 230 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The branching fractions {beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}) = (1.3 {+-} 0.3 (stat) {+-} 0.2 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{sub S}K{sup +}) = (2.5 {+-} 0.4 (stat) {+-} 0.4 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {beta}(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 0.5 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, and {beta}(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +}) = (2.0 {+-} 0.5 (stat) {+-} 0.4 (syst)) x 10{sup -5} are measured. The significance of the measurements to differ from zero are 5, 9, 6, and 5 standard deviations, respectively. This is a first observation of the decaysB{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +}. These results may potentially be useful in determining the CP asymmetry parameter sin(2{beta} + {gamma}) in the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}.

  8. A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of diversely substituted {beta}-aminoketones and {gamma}-aminoalcohols from 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propiophenones as starting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abonia, Rodrigo; Arteaga, Danny; Castillo, Juan; Insuasty, Braulio; Quiroga, Jairo; Ortiz, Alejandro, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia). Department of Chemistry. Research Group of Heterocyclic Compounds

    2013-09-15

    Libraries of novel {beta}-aminoketones and {gamma}-aminoalcohols showing a wide structural diversity were easily obtained from a simple approach, using 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propiophenone derivatives as key starting material. The procedure involved initially an N-alkylation of secondary benzylamines with propiophenone salts yielding the desired {beta}-aminoketones. Chemical or catalytic reduction of their carbonyl groups provided the final {gamma}-aminoalcohols in good yields. This protocol proved to be convenient as an alternative route for the synthesis of the local anesthetic Falicain Registered-Sign and for the topic antifungal drug Naftifine Registered-Sign . (author)

  9. Effects of the gamma and ultrasound radiation in orange juice contaminated by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orange juice has attributes could make that hard or even block the growth. of microorganisms, even so already have been isolated filamentous fungi, yeast, as well lactic and heat resistant bacteria. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a heat resistant bacteria that has done damage in the orange juice concentrated and frozen business. This bacterium is able the grown in temperatures below 35 deg C constituting a risk to orange juices that have been contaminated. Even those that already pass trough thermal treatment may deteriorated, if they are storage in place without refrigeration. As the traditional methods of decontamination and conservation have not been effective in unfeasible this bacterium, others methods of sterilization are need, among them are gamma and ultrasound radiation. The gamma radiation is able to sterilize foods and reduce the microbiology density, allowing in this way to enhance the period of storage. The ultrasound application has been used currently with the aim to microbiology control, been this technique effective in the microbial cell destruction. The Brazil, are the major producer and exporter of concentrated frozen orange juice, due to it, the present work was carried out to two experiments with the aim to determinate the resistance of the bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to gamma and ultrasound irradiation, in the orange juice, priory contaminated. The orange juice samples was diluted to 11,5 deg Brix and the bacteria suspensions was added, passed by process of radiation gamma with dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy and ultrasonic with the frequency of 25, 35 and 42 kHz and with the time of exposition of 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 minutes. After the treatment, the samples were stored in room temperature (25 +- 2 deg C) and of refrigeration (4 +- 1 deg C). For the microbial analyses, the samples were diluted in to decimal scale, plated by 'pour plate' technique. The Petri plates were storage in warn temperature (46 +- 2 deg C) by 48 hours

  10. Monte Carlo Models for the Production of beta-delayed Gamma Rays Following Fission of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J

    2004-02-03

    A Monte Carlo method for the estimation of {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray spectra following fission is described that can accommodate an arbitrary time-dependent fission rate and photon collection history. The method invokes direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the fissioning system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and the spectral distributions for photon emission for each decay mode. Though computationally intensive, the method can provide a detailed estimate of the spectrum that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer, and can prove useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries, for identifying gaps in these libraries, etc. The method is illustrated by a first comparison of calculated and experimental spectra from decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general purpose transport calculations, where detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may be unnecessary, it is shown that an accurate and simple parameterization of a {gamma}-ray source function can be obtained. These parametrizations should provide high-quality average spectral distributions that should prove useful in calculations describing photons escaping from thick attenuating media.

  11. The possibilities of autoradiographic imaging of the distribution of beta-emitting substances in dynamic processes by means of a gamma scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of imaging the distribution of beta-emitting substances by means of a gamma scintillation camera are described. The sensitivity and the resolving power of the gamma scintillation camera was tested by means of a 140 KeV-high resolution collimator and a newly developed lead collimator with smaller hole diameter and hole distance. As an example for tests of imaging dynamic processes the transportation of 32P-labelled defoliant in a tomato plant is examined. (author)

  12. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A helium-jet/tape-transport system is employed in the study of beta-particle and gamma-ray energy spectra of aggregate fission products as a function of time after fission. During the initial nine months of this project we have investigated the following areas: Design, assembly and characterization of a beta-particle spectrometer; Measurement of 235U(nthff) beta spectra for delay times 0.2 s to 12,000 s; Assembly and characterization of a 5 x 5 Nal(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer; Measurement of 235U(nthff) gamma-ray spectra for delay times 0.2s to 1 5,500s; Assembly and characterization of HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) Compton-and-background-suppression annulus; Measurement of 235U(n th,ff) high-resolution gamma-ray spectra for delay times 0.6 s to over 100,000 s; Comparison of individual gamma-line intensities with ENDF/B-VI; Adaptation to our computer of unfolding program FERDO for beta and gamma aggregate fission-product energy spectra and development of a spectrum-stripping program for analysis of HPGe gamma-ray spectra; Study of the helium-jet fission-fragment elemental transfer efficiency. This work has resulted in the publication of twelve BAPS abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. There are currently four Ph.D. and two M.S. candidates working on dissertations associated with the project

  13. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence System; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo no estudo da padronizacao de radionuclideos com esquema de desintegracao complexos em sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-07-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all {beta}{sup -} branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: {sup 134}Cs, {sup 72}Ga which disintegrate by {beta}{sup -} transition, {sup 133}Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and {sup 35}S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  14. Infrared Zero of $\\beta$ and Value of $\\gamma_m$ for an SU(3) Gauge Theory at the Five-Loop Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ryttov, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the value of the coupling at the infrared zero of the beta function of an asymptotically free SU(3) gauge theory at the five-loop level as a function of the number of fermions. Both a direct analysis of the beta function and analyses of Pad\\'e approximants are used for this purpose. We then calculate the value of the five-loop anomalous dimension, $\\gamma_m$, of the fermion bilinear at this IR zero of the beta function.

  15. Determination of differential dose rates in a mixed beta and gamma field using shielded Al2O3:C : Results of Monte Carlo modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Nathan, R.; Murray, A.S.;

    2003-01-01

    Mixed beta and gamma heterogeneous radiation fields are found in many circumstances, ranging from retrospective dosimetry to medical therapy treatments. It can be very important to provide a direct measurement of the contribution to dose rate from beta particles and gamma rays separately, especia...

  16. Laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) is synthesized by lymphoid cells, promotes lymphocyte migration and costimulates T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberhiwot, T; Assefa, D; Kortesmaa, J; Ingerpuu, S; Pedraza, C; Wondimu, Z; Charo, J; Kiessling, R; Virtanen, I; Tryggvason, K; Patarroyo, M

    2001-01-01

    Laminins are a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signalling functions. They are major components of basement membranes and are found in many organs, including the vasculature and other compartments of bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. However, expression, recognition and use of laminin isoforms by lymphoid cells are poorly understood. In the present study, lymphoid T cells (Jurkat) were found to synthesize laminin alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 mRNAs and polypeptides and to assemble the chains into laminin-8. Lymphoblastoid B (NAD-20) cells, lymphoid NK (NKL) cells and blood lymphocytes also contained laminin-8 and, after cell permeabilization, practically all blood lymphocytes reacted with mAbs to laminin beta1 and gamma1 chains. Following stimulation, blood lymphocytes secreted laminin-8, and this laminin isoform, but not laminin-10/11(alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), promoted chemokine-induced migration of the cells. In an activation-dependent manner, purified blood CD4 T cells adhered to immobilized laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 by using alpha6beta1 integrin, but minimally to laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1). Accordingly, laminin-8 and laminin-10/11, but not laminin-1, strongly costimulated proliferation of the T cells via the same integrin. Thus, lymphoid cells are able to synthesize and secrete complete laminin molecules. In addition, synthesis of laminin-8 and recognition of laminin-8 and -10/11 by lymphocytes indicate relevance of these laminin isoforms in lymphocyte physiology. PMID:11148143

  17. Investigation of the beta strength function at high energy: Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5.3-s 84As to 84Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system 84As(β-)84Se. We find that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe Ssub(β) by a statistical model. From the 84As decay scheme we deduce an experimental beta strength function. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV. (orig.)

  18. GammaProteobacteria as a potential bioindicator of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied on permanent grassland soil, historically presenting low contamination (i.e. less than 1 mg kg−1). Soil microcosms were spiked at 300 mg kg−1 with either single or a mixture of seven PAHs. While total dissipation of the phenanthrene was reached in under 90 days, only 60% of the PAH mixture were dissipated after 90 days. Interestingly, after 30 days, the abundance of the GammaProteobacteria class (assessed by qPCR) become significantly higher in microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. In addition, the specific abundance of the cultivable Pseudomonas spp., which belong to the GammaProteobacteria class, increased earlier and transiently (after 8 days) in the microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. Consequently, we propose to use the GammaProteobacteria as a bioindicator to detect the impact on the bacterial community of a multiple contamination by PAHs in agricultural soils. -- The abundance of the GammaProteobacteria class increases significantly in response to a spiking by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture

  19. A novel method for large-area sources preparation for the calibration of beta- and alpha-contamination monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupko-Sitniko, V; Picolo, J L; Carrier, M; Peulon, S; Moutard, G

    2002-01-01

    A method is proposed for the preparation of large-area reference sources for the calibration of beta- and alpha-contamination monitors. It is based on the incorporation, by the ion-exchange mechanism, of the radionuclide in a thin film of a conducting polymer ion-exchanger preliminarily grown on a metal support. Conducting pyrrole-based polymer functionalized by carboxylic cation-exchange groups is used to prepare 60Co and 90Sr-90Y beta-particle sources. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer on different conducting supports is studied and a special electrochemical equipment developed permitting the preparation of large-area polymer films of controlled and reproducible thickness. The ion-exchanger obtained is characterized in terms of chemical affinity for cations Co2+ and Sr2+. Incorporation of the radionuclides in the large-area ion-exchanger films thus obtained is studied and optimized with respect to the uniform distribution of the radionuclide. The performance of the procedure is demonstrated using the example of circular sources 44 mm in diameter prepared on stainless steel supports. The sources obtained are characterized in terms of activity, beta-particle flux, uniformity and source efficiency. PMID:11839017

  20. Status of BetaCage: an Ultra-sensitive Screener for Surface Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.; Grant, D. R.; Kos, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Wang, B.

    2011-01-01

    BetaCage, a gaseous neon time-projection chamber, has been proposed as a viable screener for emitters of low-energy alphas and electrons to which commercial radioactivity counting techniques are insensitive. Using radiopure materials for construction, active and passive shielding from extrinsic backgrounds, large counting area and minimal detector mass, BetaCage will be able to achieve sensitivities of 10^(−5) counts keV^(−1) kg^(−1) day^(−1) in a few days of running time. We report on progre...

  1. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  2. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium 341Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  3. Analysis of 137Cs contamination in soil using in-situ gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of radioactive contamination in the environment is often desirable so that health implications can be determined and appropriate remedial measures taken. In-situ gamma spectrometry is a potentially powerful technique that has the advantage of speed and spatial averaging over a large area. Calibration, however, is complex not least because the distribution of the activity in the field is generally unknown. To overcome this problem, methods have previously been proposed to derive information about the vertical activity distribution. All of these methods assume a fixed simple activity distribution model, the parameters of which are derived from varying in-situ spectral region ratios. In this work, these methods have been extensively assessed and compared both theoretically and experimentally for the quantification of 137Cs contamination. In all cases, the best method was that which used a lead plate to alter the contributing angular interval. Experimentally, this Lead Plate Method predicted the activity concentration to within a factor of between 1.50 and 1.66 on average. A new method, using collimated detector measurements within a shallow well was developed and theoretically optimised in terms of number and depths of detector positions and type of collimation. This optimised Submerged Detector Method was assessed and compared with the Lead Plate Method both theoretically and experimentally. The latter comparison involved 19 sites across Wales, UK where there is a wide range of 137Cs activity levels and vertical distributions. The Submerged Detector Method was found to be more accurate both in the theoretical modelling assessment and in the experimental comparison, where the method was found to predict the activity concentration to within a factor of 1.35 on average. Distribution profiles predicted by the Submerged Detector Method were also found to be generally closer to the true profiles than those obtained using the Lead Plate Method. (author)

  4. Influence from low energy x-rays and Auger electrons on 4. pi beta. -. gamma. coincidence measurements of electron-capture-decaying nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funck, E.; Larsen, A.N. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Atomphysik; Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements)

    1983-03-01

    The influence of low energy x-rays and Auger electrons emitted by electron capture nuclides on 4..pi beta..-..gamma.. coincidence measurements is investigated. Under the assumption that these radiations are not detected, correction terms are developed for a number of nuclides that are in common use.

  5. Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta activity in contaminated solutions by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) as a rapid detection method for emergency situations was studied. The application of the method to a rapid estimation of gross alpha and beta activities in spent decontamination solutions, urine and aerosol filters was tested. The applicable minimum detectable activities were derived by using the standard addition method. (orig.)

  6. Diffusion of uranium at infinite dilution in {beta}-titanium and {gamma}-iron; Diffusion de l'uranium en dilution infinie dans le titane {beta} et le fer {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keroulas, F. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    We describe a method based on the recording of fission fragments in insulators allowing the study of uranium concentrations in metals about 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} lower than those possible by autoradiography of {sup 235}U. This method has been used to study the diffusion of uranium (concentration between 10{sup -7} and 10{sup -8}) in {beta} titanium and in {gamma} iron. The diffusion coefficient obey the equation: D = D{sub 0} exp (- H/kT) with D{sub 0} = 2.10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and H = 1,43 eV/ at. for titanium and D{sub 0} = 7.10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and H = 1,38 eV/ at. for iron In titanium there is a distinct increment of diffusion when the allotropic transformation is reached; it appears to be due to the point defects created by the transformation. (author) [French] On decrit une methode, fondee sur l'enregistrement des fragments de fission dans les isolants, permettant d'etudier dans les metaux des concentrations d'uranium d'environ 10{sup 4} a 10{sup 5} fois inferieures a celles que permet l'autoradiographie de {sup 235}U. La methode a ete appliquee a l'etude de la diffusion de l'uranium (en concentration comprise entre 10{sup -7} et 10{sup -8} ) dans le titane {beta} et dans le fer {gamma}. Les coefficients de diffusion obeissent a l'equation D = D{sub 0} exp (- H/kT) avec D{sub 0} = 2.10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} et H = 1,43 eV/ at. pour le titane et D{sub 0} = 7.10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} et H = 1,38 eV/ at. pour le fer Dans le cas du titane, le passage du point de transformation {beta} ->{alpha} provoque une migration notable qui semble due aux defauts ponctuels crees par la transformation. (auteur)

  7. Beta-radiometer for the control surface contamination of different diameter tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The portable β-radiometer with composition of detector blocks for control contamination of external and inner surface tube with diameter 50 mm and charger have been developed. The main parameters of blocks detection - natural background, sensitivity to β- and γ-radiation's and surface minimum measuring activity under different mode of operation radiometer were determined. The radiometer was tested in the real conditions under control β-contamination of different diameter tubes

  8. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernels to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut kernels inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia and uninoculated kernels were gamma irradiated. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of the inoculated mold was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 weeks incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μg/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels as 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. When uninoculated peanut kernels were irradiated and stored for 1 year at ambient and frozen conditions, molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 kGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  9. Controlling the aflatoxin producing fungi contaminating animal feed by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results indicated that 9 from 24 isolates of fungi have the ability to produce aflatoxins either on synthetic medium or natural animal diet. Seven from the nine isolates producing aflatoxins belonged to genus Aspergillus and were held to five species namely A. terreus ,A. niger, A.flavus, A. orywae and A. nidulans. Meanwhile, only one species from genus penicillium was found to produce aflatoxin on both synthetic and animal diet media, while the remaining isolate, rhizopus nigricansm was found to produce aflatoxin on synthetic medium only. Aspergillus terreus isolates (1 and 3) were found to produce aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 on synthetic medium. On animal diet, strain (1) produced only aflatoxin G l, while strain (3) produced aflatoxin G 2 on the same animal diet. Exposure of these two strains to increasing doses of gamma rays up to 5 KGy decreased and finally prevented aflatoxin production. This dose was also found to be sufficient to eliminate all kinds of fungi contaminated animal feed.2 fig.,5 tab

  10. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  11. Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of β-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after β-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with β-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that β-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that β-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

  12. Investigation of Depleted Uranium Contamination in the south parts of Qatar using Gamma ray spectroscopy and (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before and during the second Gulf War training of the international forces in the Gulf region, depleted uranium (D U) emanations used in southern parts of Iraq and northern Kuwait and southern part of Saudi Arabia. These activities were led to the contamination of the region with D U. Because of the possibility of creeping D U particles to the south of Qatar.Twenty one sample of soil were collected from the south of Qatar near Saudi borders. The samples were analyzed by two method, inductively coupled plasma mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Gamma ray spectroscopy. Since the isotopic abundance of uranium in D U is different than that in nature, the only evidence of D U contamination is the disruption of the natural isotopic abundance i,e 235U/238U. The measurement shows that the region is not contaminated with depleted uranium since the235U/238U ratio is nearly 0.00709 which is the ratio for natural uranium .Gamma ray spectroscopy methods are well known analytical methods for the determination of most long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples. ICP.MS technique is very sensitive, accurate, rapid and low cost techniques for the determination low level of many long-lived radionuclides, with small sample amount needed for the analysis. Its detection limits comparable to the Gamma ray spectroscopy methods and rapid analytical capacity. However no single analytical technique can be better than other. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses. In general, ICP.MS techniques are good complementary to the Gamma ray spectroscopy techniques for the determination of most of long-lived radionuclides .The results of ICP-MS are nearly the same and more accurate than the method of gamma ray spectroscopy which is not effected by the sampling, calibration and statistical error.

  13. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  14. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate [( 3H] TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively [3H] flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-[3H]CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated [3H]muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-[3H]CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]muscimol and [3H]TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested

  15. Effect of Pseudomonas contamination or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on acute radiation lethality after neutron or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of antibiotic decontamination of Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract prior to whole-body neutron or gamma irradiation was studied. It was observed that for fission neutron doses greater than 5.5 Gy, cyclotron-produced neutron doses greater than 6.7 Gy, and 137Cs gamma-ray doses greater than 14.4 Gy, the median survival time of untreated rats was relatively constant at 4.2 to 4.5 days, indicating death was due to intestinal injury. Within the dose range of 3.5 to 5.5 Gy of fission neutrons, 4.9 to 6.7 Gy of cyclotron-produced neutrons, and 9.6 to 14.4 Gy of gamma rays, median survival time of these animals was inversely related to dose and varied from 12 to 4.6 days. This change in survival time with dose reflects a transition in the mechanisms of acute radiation death from pure hematopoietic, to a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic, to pure intestinal death. Decontamination of the GI tract with antibiotics prior to irradiation increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this transitional dose range. Contamination of the intestinal flora with Pseudomonas aeruginosa prior to irradiation reduced median survival time 1 to 5 days in the same radiation dose range. Pseudomonas-contaminated animals irradiated within this transitional dose range had maximum concentrations of total bacteria and Pseudomonas in their livers at the time of death. However, liver bacteria concentration was usually higher in gamma-irradiated animals, due to a smaller contribution of hematopoietic injury in neutron-irradiated animals. The effects of both decontamination of the GI tract and Pseudomonas contamination of the GI tract were negligible in the range of doses in which median survival time was dose independent, i.e., in the pure intestinal death dose range

  16. Four observations of surgical treatment of wounds contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of surgical treatment of wounds contaminated by radionuclides are presented and discussed. Conclusions are drawn and organization of facilities where radionuclides are manipulated is proposed. Measurements of beta and especially alpha activities in a wound are not sufficient, but must be followed by gamma- or X-radiation measurements to detect deep contamination. (B.G.)

  17. Amethyst and morion quartz gemstone raw materials from Turkey: color saturation and enhancement by gamma, neutron and beta irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, M.; Helvacı, C.; Kibar, R.; Çetin, A.; Tuncer, Y.; Can, N.

    2010-11-01

    Color-enhancement investigations without using heating treatment from dull or pale to ideal saturation and/or changes to the formation of the rarer attractive colors are widely conducted to revalue abandoned gem material sources in the world. Such an investigation is carried out on pale or dull purple-colored amethyst and smoky-colored morion samples, which are two important gem species of the crystalline quartz (SiO2) mineral that are currently abandoned in natural deposits in Turkey because of their unattractive coloration. The results of color enhancements observed on these samples, after irradiation with artificial gamma, neutron and beta beams, were examined by comparing with samples with the ideal color saturation and also with colorless samples, using optical absorption (OA) and radioluminescence (RL) spectroscopy. The ICP-AES analyses reveal that the main impurity elements of over 100 ppm in abundance in these quartz species are aluminum, iron and titanium for amethyst, and aluminum, iron, titanium and manganese for morion. The OA spectra indicate that vivid purple coloration of amethyst is due to the transmittance at about 395-420 nm band gap as a result of absorbance peaks at 375, 480 and 530 nm. These absorbances may be related to the unusual oxidized small proportions of certain impurity ions, after being exposed mainly to gamma irradiation, such as Al(IV) from the total aluminum, Ti(V) from the total titanium and Fe(IV) from the total iron, respectively. However, the RL spectroscopy of amethyst samples before and after they were exposed to artificial gamma, neutron and beta radiation beams demonstrates that the ions most affected by irradiation are Fe(IV) first and Al(IV) and Ti(V) second, and these ions represent the RL peaks at 600, 720 and 495 nm, respectively. The OA spectra indicate that dark smoky coloration in morion is due to a lack of transmittance at the visible region as a result of the absorbance peaks at 375, 450-490, 620 and 730 nm. These

  18. Amyloid-beta peptide degradation in cell cultures by mycoplasma contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell cultures have become an indispensable tool in Alzheimer's disease research for studying amyloid-β (Aβ metabolism. It is estimated that up to 35% of cell cultures in current use are infected with various mycoplasma species. In contrast with common bacterial and fungal infections, contaminations of cell cultures with mycoplasmas represent a challenging issue in terms of detectability and prevention. Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating bacteria and the consequences of an infection for the host cells are variable, ranging from no apparent effect to induction of apoptosis. Findings Here we present evidence that mycoplasmas from a cell culture contamination are able to efficiently and rapidly degrade extracellular Aβ. As a result, we observed no accumulation of Aβ in the conditioned medium of mycoplasma-positive cells stably transfected with the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP. Importantly, eradication of the mycoplasma contaminant – identified as M. hyorhinis – by treatments with a quinolone-based antibiotic, restored extracellular Aβ accumulation in the APP-transfected cells. Conclusion These data show that mycoplasmas degrade Aβ and thus may represent a significant source of variability when comparing extracellular Aβ levels in different cell lines. On the basis of these results, we recommend assessment of mycoplasma contaminations prior to extracellular Aβ level measurements in cultured cells.

  19. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  20. Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Cundill, A.; J. Bacon; Dale, P; Fordyce, F.M.; Fowler, D; Hedmark, A.; Hern, A.; Skiba, U.

    2011-01-01

    Soil contamination occurs when substances are added to soil, resulting in increases in concentrations above background or reference levels. Pollution may follow from contamination when contaminants are present in amounts that are detrimental to soil quality and become harmful to the environment or human health. Contamination can occur via a range of pathways including direct application to land and indirect application from atmospheric deposition. Contamination was identified b...

  1. EPR and TL-based beta dosimetry measurements in various tooth components contaminated by {sup 90}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: ivan.veronese@unimi.it; Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Cantone, M.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Coste, V. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Giussani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Roma (Italy); Shishkina, E.A. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, 454076 Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    Thermoluminescence-based beta dosimetry, previously proposed for the estimate of the internal contamination in teeth, and EPR has been used in this paper to investigate the homogeneity of {sup 90}Sr contamination and of dose within nine teeth of one person born in the year of the onset of waterborne radioactive releases of the Mayak plutonium facility. A large deviation of dose and activity distributions in both enamel and radical dentine of the various teeth was observed. Average dose was 27{+-}7Gy in enamel and 0.90{+-}0.31Gy in radical dentine. Average {sup 90}Sr concentration was 52{+-}8Bq/g in enamel and 5{+-}2Bq/g in radical dentine. The observed deviation around the mean value of dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration can be explained due to the specific mineral evolution of each tooth at the time of Sr intake. In the same donor, a negative correlation was also observed between radical dentine and enamel for the {sup 90}Sr specific activity as well for the dose. Similar analyses performed on one massive molar belonging to a second donor revealed absence of correlation between dose and {sup 90}Sr concentration in the same tissue, indicating a dose contribution from {sup 90}Sr present in neighbouring tissue compartments. Systematic differences in cumulated dose and activity levels between the lingual and the buccal parts of crown dentine and of enamel were also observed.

  2. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  3. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Kr and Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z line with a Total Absorption $\\gamma$-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to measure the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the decays of $^{71-75}$Kr and $^{75,76}$Sr using a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) based on a large NaI(TI) detector. The $\\gamma$-rays emitted in these decays will be detected in the TAGS in coincidence with positrons and X-rays from electron capture. Measurements of $\\beta$-delayed particles will also be performed in coincidence with the TAGS. Comparison with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach, Tamm-Dancoff and QRPA method should allow a determination of the shapes of the ground states of these nuclei.

  4. Development of a low cost, GPS-based upgrade to a standard handheld gamma detector for mapping environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low cost extension to a standard handheld radiation monitor was developed, allowing one to perform outdoor georeferenced gamma measurements. It consists of a commercial wireless Bluetooth[reg] GPS receiver, a commercial RS-232 to Bluetooth[reg] converter combined with a standard Bluetooth[reg] enabled pocket personal computer (PPC). The system is intended for use in difficult to access areas, typically for foot campaigns. As the operator walks, a straightforward homemade visual basic program alternately reads GPS position and gamma dose rate into the PPC, creating a data log. This allows a single operator on foot to map between 50 and 200 ha of environmental radiation per day in very rugged areas, depending on the accessibility of the terrain and the detail required. On a test field with known contamination, a spatial precision of about 5-10 m was obtainable. The device was also used to reveal complex contamination patterns in the flooding zones of a radioactively contaminated small river

  5. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  6. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  7. Gamma spectroscopy for examination of light Ba isotopes after beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-spin states of the nuclei 126Ba, 128Ba, and 130Ba were observed in two β-decay experiments, both carried out with the OSIRIS cube, at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator. Both measurements are based on a cyclic measuring method. Lanthanum parent nuclei are created in an 'activation phase', and the gamma radiation of the barium daughter nuclei is measured after β-decay in a subsequent 'measuring phase', with the accelerator beam shut off. One significant result of both measurements is that the K=0 band could be identified for the first time in the nuclei studied. The spin could be determined in the 130Ba nucleus by an evaluation of the γγ-correlation data. As for the nuclei 126Ba and 128Ba, data in support of the spin hypothesis were found in the type of the occupying, or de-occupying, γ-transitions and in the predictions of the IBA-1 model. (orig./DG)

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on the nutrition composition and contamination by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus on peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Care in food storage, such as temperature and humidity control, assist in the prevention of fungal diseases in peanuts. The development of filamentous fungi in food and feed can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation can be used as a preventive method against food security, promoting the inhibition of sprouting, delayed maturation, reduced microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization, disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional composition and growth inhibition of Aspergillus aflatoxigenic in samples of peanuts. Samples were collected directly of a small producer (Petrolandia-PE) and Pernambuco Central of Supply (CEASA) and then packed within / without pods and subjected to irradiation by cobalt-60 pump at doses of 0, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy, in triplicate. The material was divided into two parts: a) to conduct a nutritional analysis of non-irradiated and irradiated material, and b) for fungal analysis, before and after irradiation. The results showed that the samples originated from the CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination with peanut, not only subjected to irradiation, but also for those samples subjected to doses of 6, 9 and 12 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy was the most efficient in controlling Aspergillus aflatoxigenic for both origins because it failed to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of treatments. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in LCA. There weren't differences in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation combined with good storage conditions, was a reliable process for conservation of peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly Aspergillus aflatoxigenic, also avoiding the production and subsequent presence of aflatoxin in food, making it safer for consumption. The

  9. Influence of gamma radiation on the nutrition composition and contamination by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus on peanuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2011-07-01

    Care in food storage, such as temperature and humidity control, assist in the prevention of fungal diseases in peanuts. The development of filamentous fungi in food and feed can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation can be used as a preventive method against food security, promoting the inhibition of sprouting, delayed maturation, reduced microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization, disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional composition and growth inhibition of Aspergillus aflatoxigenic in samples of peanuts. Samples were collected directly of a small producer (Petrolandia-PE) and Pernambuco Central of Supply (CEASA) and then packed within / without pods and subjected to irradiation by cobalt-60 pump at doses of 0, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy, in triplicate. The material was divided into two parts: a) to conduct a nutritional analysis of non-irradiated and irradiated material, and b) for fungal analysis, before and after irradiation. The results showed that the samples originated from the CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination with peanut, not only subjected to irradiation, but also for those samples subjected to doses of 6, 9 and 12 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy was the most efficient in controlling Aspergillus aflatoxigenic for both origins because it failed to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of treatments. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in LCA. There weren't differences in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation combined with good storage conditions, was a reliable process for conservation of peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly Aspergillus aflatoxigenic, also avoiding the production and subsequent presence of aflatoxin in food, making it safer for consumption

  10. Radiation protection in inhomogeneous beta-gamma fields and modelling of hand phantoms with MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of beta-radiation sources in various nuclear medicine therapies is increasing. Consequently, enhanced radiation protection measures are required, as medical staff more frequently handle high-activity sources required for therapy. Inhomogeneous radiation fields make it difficult to determine absorbed dose reliably. Routine monitoring with dosemeters does not guarantee any accurate determination of the local skin dose (LSD). In general, correction factors are used to correct for the measured dose and the maximum absorbed dose received. However, strong underestimations of the maximum exposure are possible depending on the individual handling the process and the reliability of dose measurements. Simulations can be used as a tool for a better understanding of the maximum possible exposure depending on the individual-related handling. While measurements reveal the overall dose during the entire irradiation time of the dosemeter, simulations help to analyse sequences of action. Hence, simulations allow for tracking the points of highest absorbed dose received during the handling process. In this respect, simulations were performed using the MCNPX software. In order to investigate the LSD, two hand phantoms were used, a model based on geometrical elements and a voxel hand. A typical situation of radio-synoviorthesis, i.e. handling a syringe filled with 90Y, was simulated. The results of the simulations show that the annual dose limit may be exceeded within minutes at the position of maximum absorbed dose received and that finger-ring dosemeters measure significantly different doses depending on their wearing position. It is of essential importance to wear the dosemeter properly and to use suitable correction factors with respect to the individual. Simulations are a suitable tool for ensuring reliable dose determination and may help to derive recommendations regarding radiation protection measures. (authors)

  11. The radioactive equilibrium and determination methods for ratio e Ra/U; Desequilibrio Radiactivos-1. Metodo {sub {beta}}-{gamma}. Determinacion de la razon eRa/U. Valoracion del contenido en U{sub 3}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingarro, E.

    1966-07-01

    The main problems concerning the radioactive non-equilibrium on minerals and a simultaneous counting procedure for {beta}- and {gamma}- activities developed to solve those problems, are described. (Author)

  12. Verification tests on nondestructive assay for 238U content in uranium-contaminated waste drums using gamma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a new theory on gamma assay for 238U determination of uranium-contaminated waste drums. According to this theory, regardless of the inhomogeneity of waste matrix density or uranium source distribution, we can accurately determine the amount of 238U contained in drums nondestructively using count rates of gamma rays of two energies(1001keV and 766keV) emitted from 238U progeny nuclide 234mPa. In this paper, we have verified the theory by tests under various waste conditions made by simulated waste drums. We have estimated the relative error to be less than 20%, and the detection limit to be 1.2Bq/g when the specific activity of uranium is 25000Bq/g, in these cases. We have confirmed that this new assay system is efficient for the rational classification of uranium wastes to be disposed of. (author)

  13. Skin dose estimation due to a contamination by a radionuclide {beta} emitter: are doses equivalent good estimator of protection quantities?; Estimation de la dose extremite due a une contamination par un radionucleide emetteur {beta}: l'equivalent de dose est-il un bon estimateur de la grandeur de protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgois, L. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France)

    2011-04-15

    When handling radioactive {beta} emitters, measurements in terms of personal dose equivalents H{sub p} (0.07) are used to estimate the equivalent dose limit to skin or extremities given by regulations. First of all, analytical expressions for individual dose equivalents H{sub p} (0.07) and equivalent doses to the extremities H{sub skin} are given for a point source and for contamination with a radionuclide {beta} emitter. Second of all, operational quantities and protection quantities are compared. It is shown that in this case the operational quantities significantly overstate the protection quantities. For a skin contamination the ratio between operational quantities and protection quantities is 2 for a maximum {beta} energy of 3 MeV and 90 for a maximum {beta} energy of 150 keV. (author)

  14. Development of CaMoO4 crystal scintillators for double beta decay experiment with 100-Mo

    OpenAIRE

    Annenkov, A.N.; Buzanov, O. A.; Danevich, F. A.; Georgadze, A. Sh.; Kim, S K; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Y.D.(Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon, 305-811, Korea); Kobychev, V. V.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Korzhik, M.; Lee, J. I.; Missevitch, O; Mokina, V. M.; S. S. Nagorny(INR Kiev); Nikolaiko, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Energy resolution, alpha/beta ratio, pulse-shape discrimination for gamma rays and alpha particles, temperature dependence of scintillation properties, and radioactive contamination were studied with CaMoO4 crystal scintillators. A high sensitivity experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100-Mo by using CaMoO4 scintillators is discussed.

  15. Measurement of activity of surfaces contaminated by beta-emitting nuclides and 55Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responses of a variety of different types of surface contamination monitoring probes to both small area and distributed sources of the β-emitting nuclides, 90Sr/90Y, 204Tl, 147Pm, 14C and 63Ni, have been measured. The responses to the low-energy X-ray emitting electron-capture nuclide, 55Fe, have also been measured. A figure of merit for the comparison of different types of probe has been derived and applied to the measured responses. The responses of a beryllium-window sodium iodide scintillation probe to 55Fe with integral and differential bias is described in detail; calculated responses to the electron-capture nuclides, 109Cd and 125I, are also included in this report. (author)

  16. Photocatalytic performance of nano-sized {beta}- and {gamma}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the degradation of hydrazine in aqueous solution under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Hariharan; Sasidhar, Palagummi; Echambadi Kannan, Sriperumbudur; Kumar Sinha, Pradeep [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Safety Research Inst.

    2008-12-15

    We report on photocatalytic degradation of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) using nanophased wide band gap, {beta}- and {gamma}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} under ambient conditions using UV radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm) and compare this with a benchmark photocatalyst, P-25 TiO{sub 2} (P-25). The average particle size of the combustion-synthesized photocatalysts was estimated (X-ray diffraction studies) to be 30 and 3 nm respectively for {beta}- and {gamma}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Hydrazine degradation was followed by a spectrophotometric procedure. Though complete degradation of hydrazine was achieved in less than 2 h using all the catalysts, the kinetics of degradation was found to be in the order {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} {>=} P-25 TiO{sub 2} > {gamma}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was found that neutral and alkaline pH conditions favour the higher kinetics for hydrazine degradation whereas the acidic pH does not. Degradation of hydrazine results in the formation of innocuous products such as nitrogen and water in addition to trace quantities of nitrate. The requirement of the catalyst for the above degradation is as low as 3 mg for 1 000 mL of 100 mg . kg{sup -1} hydrazine. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of The Use of Beta and Gamma Counter Apparatus in Determination of Radiochemical Purity 188/186Re-CTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTMP (1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclo tetradecil-1,4,8,11-tetrametilenfosfonat) labeled 188/186Re is one of the radiopharmaceuticals being developed in PTNBR-BATAN. It is commonly used for palliative therapy of bone metastasis. 188/186Re can be yielded from Na188/186ReO4 and CTMP with addition SnCl2 as reductor. Radiochemical side products that can be generated from the reaction are 188/186ReO4 - and 188/186Re reducted. As radiopharmaceutical, 188/186Re-CTMP has fulfilled some standard qualifications, such as radiochemical purity >90 %. The paper chromatography method is was used to determine radiochemical purity. To obtain quantitative data from chromatography, therefore can be done by using radiation counter apparatus. 188/186Re is a beta radiation emitter radionuclide with energy 1.07 MeV (92%) and gamma radiation emitter with energy 137 keV (7%). As a consequence of these characteristics, so that radioactivity testing can be determined based on beta radiation emission by using Geiger Mueller (GM) beta counter, otherwise based on gamma radiation emission by using gamma counter NaI(Tl). The experiment showed there is similarity radiochemical purity with regression value 0.9951%. (author)

  18. An endothelial laminin isoform, laminin 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), is secreted by blood neutrophils, promotes neutrophil migration and extravasation, and protects neutrophils from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Juronen, Erkki; Xie, Xun; Lindbom, Lennart; Doi, Masayuki; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Thyboll, Jill; Tryggvason, Karl; Fadeel, Bengt; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2004-09-15

    During extravasation, neutrophils migrate through the perivascular basement membrane (BM), a specialized extracellular matrix rich in laminins. Laminins 8 (LN-8) (alpha4beta1gamma1) and 10 (LN-10) (alpha5beta1gamma1) are major components of the endothelial BM, but expression, recognition, and use of these laminin isoforms by neutrophils are poorly understood. In the present study, we provide evidence, using a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies against human laminin alpha4 (LNalpha4) chain, that neutrophils contain and secrete LN-8, and that this endogenous laminin contributes to chemoattractant-induced, alphaMbeta2-integrin-dependent neutrophil migration through albumin-coated filters. Phorbol ester-stimulated neutrophils adhered to recombinant human (rh) LN-8, rhLN-10, and mouse LN-1 (mLN-1) (alpha1beta1gamma1) via alphaMbeta2-integrin, and these laminin isoforms strongly promoted chemoattractant-induced neutrophil migration via the same integrin. However, only rhLN-8 enhanced the spontaneous migration. In addition, recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneum following an inflammatory stimulus was impaired in LNalpha4-deficient mice. rhLN-8 also protected isolated neutrophils from spontaneous apoptosis. This study is the first to identify a specific laminin isoform in neutrophils and provides evidence for the role of LN-8 in the adhesion, migration, extravasation, and survival of these cells. PMID:15172971

  19. Formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ ions from metal-cationized tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Sandra M; Ochola, Sila O; Talaty, Erach R; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The presence and position of a single beta-alanine (betaA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaABu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap) residue has been shown to have a significant influence on the formation of b(n)+ and y(n)+ product ions from a series of model, protonated peptides. In this study, we examined the effect of the same residues on the formation of analogous [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products from metal (Li+, Na+ and Ag+)-cationized peptides. The larger amino acids suppress formation of b3+ from protonated peptides with general sequence AAXG (where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid), presumably because of the prohibitive effect of larger cyclic intermediates in the 'oxazolone' pathway. However, abundant [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products are generated from metal-cationized versions of AAXG. Using a group of deuterium-labeled and exchanged peptides, we found that formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ involves transfer of either amide or alpha-carbon position H atoms, and the tendency to transfer the atom from the alpha-carbon position increases with the size of the amino acid in position X. To account for the transfer of the H atom, a mechanism involving formation of a ketene product as [b3 - 1 + cat]+ is proposed. PMID:18449851

  20. RBE [relative biological effectiveness] of tritium beta radiation to gamma radiation and x-rays analyzed by both molecular and genetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation to 60Co gamma radiation was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL) induced in Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa as the biological effect. The SLRL test, a measure of mutations induced in germ cells transmitted through successive generations, yields a linear dose-response curve in the range used in these experiments. From these ratios of the slopes of the 3H beta and the 60 Co gamma radiation linear dose response curves, an RBE of 2.7 is observed. When sources of error are considered, this observation suggests that the tritium beta particle is 2.7 ± 0.3 times more effective per unit of energy absorbed in inducing gene mutations transmitted to successive generation than 60Co gamma radiation. Ion tracks with a high density of ions (high LET) are more efficient than tracks with a low ion density (low LET) in inducing transmissible mutations, suggesting interaction among products of ionization. Molecular analysis of x-ray induced mutations shows that most mutations are deletions ranging from a few base pairs as determined from sequence data to multi locus deletions as determined from complementation tests and Southern blots. 14 refs., 1 fig

  1. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Feijoo-Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and alpha, beta, and gamma diversity of Diplopoda in the Otún basin, Colombia. Objective: To determine the relationshipbetween changes in ecosystems and agrosystems provoked by human intervention and the alpha, beta and gamma diversity of theDiplopoda in the middle basin of the Otún river. Materials and methods: In this research we used a stratified systematic design with sevensampling windows and 16 sampling points. Millipedes were divided into families and morphotypes to calculate the alpha, beta and gammadiversity related to the heterogeneity of land uses. Results: We identified 35 morphotypes from 12 families and five orders. Alpha diversityof Diplopoda revealed significant differences between land uses (P 85% in spite of the low diversity in the land uses, which determined the high contribution of the betadiversity to the gamma diversity of the landscape. Conclusion: The heterogeneity of land uses showed that the changes modify the structureof diversity in Diplopoda with gradients diverging from the preserved ones to the highly transformed ones.

  2. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Investigation of personnel beta and gamma dosimetry results at Amok Ltd, Cluff Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparent skin doses significantly higher than expected have been indicated by some thermoluminescent dosimeters worn by employees at Amok Ltd., Cluff Lake. Calculations have indicated that skin doses as a result of exposure to uranium ore are likely to be no more than twice the whole body doses. Experiments were conducted to expose TL dosimeters to a variety of radioactive materials commonly found in the mill environment under different conditions. The results of these experiments togethr with a re-examination of the original dosimeters leads to the conclusion that contamination either on or inside the dosimeter badge was the cause of the abnormal apparent skin doses. It is therefore recommended that for individuals with apparent skin doses in excess of twice the body dose, the actual skin dose should be considered to be equal to twice the body dose for purposes of determining compliance with the AEC Regulations. It is further recommended that the National Dose Registry records of anomalous skin doses to Amok employees be amended to reflect this. (author)

  4. The Modifying Effect of Beta 1,3-D Glucan on Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Male Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta 1,3-D glucan is a natural polysacharide dericed from the cell walls of baker's yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, with immunoenhancing capabilities. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of beta 1,3-D glucan on antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase activities and the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxides (TBARS) in liver and blood of male mice. In addition, cytogenetic end points (sister chromatid exchanges) were identified in bone marrow. Mice were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 2 Gy every other day up to dose 8 Gy. Beta 1,3-D glucan was supplemented daily (65 mg/kg b wt/day) by gavage for 15 days before and during exposure to gamma irradiation. Experimental investigations were carried out 1, 7 and 14 days after exposure to the last radiation dose. The results obtained showed that beta 1,3-D glucan significantly minimized the radiation induced increase in the amount of TBARS in liver and blood of irradiated mice. Furthermore, significant amelioration in SOD and catalase activities was observed 7 and 14 days from the last irradiation fraction in liver and blood. The results obtained showed that the amelioration in the decrease of reduced glutatgione in liver was obvious 7 and 14 days after irradiation Supplementation of beta 1,3-D glucan was also effective in minimizing the radiation induced increase in sister chromatid exchanges throughout the experimental period. It could be concluded that intensifying antioxidant capability of irradiated mice by beta 1,3-D glucan administration, could ameliorate the genotoxicity signs that appears after radiation exposure

  5. Temporal and spatial patterns in [alpha]- and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in industrially contaminated rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, A.A.; Wright, J.; Osborn, D. (Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)); Leeks, G.J.L.; Wass, P.D. (Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom))

    1999-06-15

    Fluxes of HCH isomers [alpha]- and [gamma]-HCH dynamics were determined in four industrial UK rivers feeding the North Sea. Sampling was conducted weekly basis over a 2-year period. This was complemented by discrete studies of events where two hourly sampling periods were used to investigate the fine time scale dynamics of fluxes. Two intensively industrialized rivers had average isomer concentrations of [approximately] 20 ng L[sup [minus]1] for both isomers, while average concentrations in the two less industrialized rivers ranged between 1.5 and 5.0 ng L[sup [minus]1]. [alpha]-HCH concentrations showed no strong temporal patterns on any river, which contrasts with [gamma]-HCH levels that increased considerably during late summer/early autumn following sustained periods of low river flow. Sampling during high river flow events on rivers with differing HCH pollution histories both showed the same dynamics in HCH isomer concentrations. [gamma]-HCH concentrations decreased 4-fold during events while [alpha]-HCH concentrations stayed constant. The increases in [gamma]-HCH concentrations under low flow conditions and the rapid dilution of this isomer during events indicate that [gamma]-HCH has current inputs to these river systems. It was calculated that these four rivers export 30.8 kg yr[sup [minus]1] of [gamma]-HCH and 14.8 kg yr[sup [minus]1] of [alpha]-HCH to the North Sea.

  6. Study of radon and thoron by electrostatic collection and gamma spectrometry in the double beta decay NEMO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of the NEMO (Neutrino Ettore Majorana Observatory) experiment that is looking for an extremely rare radioactivity: the double beta decay without neutrino emission. Such process could prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could give an estimation of its absolute mass. The particularity of this experiment, currently running in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM), is the extreme weak signal (for T1/2∼1024 years, a few events per year). It requires therefore very stringent conditions on all components of the background among which the level of radon and thoron activity. After a reminding of the general properties of radon and thoron as well as their influence on the NEMO data, this thesis focuses on the detection of these radioactive gases using the technique of electrostatic collection. The radon and/or the thoron daughters are collected by an electrostatic field on the surface of a silicon diode, where their characteristic alphas are detected. We have shown that the detection efficiencies are strongly influenced by the experimental conditions and that sensitivity around 1 mBq/m3 can be achieved for the radon in a gas. A series of measures through low background gamma spectrometer allowed us to understand the origin of the radon background, and thus showing that better sensitivity could be obtained by increasing the detection volume and by carrying out a strict selection of non-radioactive materials. For the thoron gas, which had never been studied before, the detection efficiencies have been found very low as a consequence of the short periods involved. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of the level of thoron in the NEMO gas is excluded, which underlines the importance for the NEMO experimental device to be able to control its own background. (author)

  7. Optimized inhibition assays reveal different inhibitory responses of hydroxylamine oxidoreductases from beta- and gamma-proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaya, Yuki; Fujimoto, Zui; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2016-07-29

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ubiquitous chemoautotrophic bacteria, convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2(-)) via hydroxylamine as energy source. Excessive growth of AOB, enhanced by applying large amounts of ammonium-fertilizer to the farmland, leads to nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide gas emission. To suppress these unfavorable phenomena, nitrification inhibitors, AOB specific bactericides, are widely used in fertilized farmland. However, new nitrification inhibitors are desired because of toxicity and weak-effects of currently used inhibitors. Toward development of novel nitrification inhibitors that target hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO), a key enzyme of nitrification in AOB, we established inhibitor evaluation systems that include simplified HAO purification procedure and high-throughput HAO activity assays for the purified enzymes and for the live AOB cells. The new assay systems allowed us to observe distinct inhibitory responses of HAOs from beta-proteobacterial AOB (βAOB) Nitrosomonas europaea (NeHAO) and gamma-proteobacterial AOB (γAOB) Nitrosococcus oceani (NoHAO) against phenylhydrazine, a well-known suicide inhibitor for NeHAO. Consistently, the live cells of N. europaea, Nitrosomonas sp. JPCCT2 and Nitrosospira multiformis of βAOB displayed higher responses to phenylhydrazine than those of γAOB N. oceani. Our homology modeling studies suggest that different inhibitory responses of βAOB and γAOB are originated from different local environments around the substrate-binding sites of HAOs in these two classes of bacteria due to substitutions of two residues. The results reported herein strongly recommend inhibitor screenings against both NeHAO of βAOB and NoHAO of γAOB to develop HAO-targeting nitrification inhibitors with wide anti-AOB spectra. PMID:27173879

  8. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on isolated canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine expression (IL-4, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta) in healthy and atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Melanie E; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Göbel, Thomas W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2010-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been used to treat dogs with atopic dermatitis but the mechanism of action has not been well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro influence of PUFA on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC isolated from eleven dogs with atopic dermatitis and eleven healthy control dogs were stimulated with concanavalin A and Dermatophagoides farinae extract in the presence of linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and GLA/EPA/DHA. Subsequently, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta m-RNA was performed. In the presence of concanavalin A, only PBMC of healthy dogs showed a gradual reduction in proliferation index from incubation without PUFA to incubation with ALA, EPA/DHA and GLA/EPA/DHA, respectively. A similar reduction was seen in normal and in atopic dogs in the presence of D. farinae allergen after incubation with ALA, EPA/DHA and GLA/EPA/DHA. In both groups IL-4 and IFN-gamma but not TGF-beta gene transcription was upregulated, when cells were incubated with D. farinae. Allergen-induced upregulation was not influenced by incubation with PUFA. These findings suggest that PUFA are able to influence proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy and atopic dogs but do not seem to influence gene transcription of IL-4, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta. PMID:20187917

  9. Calculation of absorbed dose for skin contamination imparted by beta radiation through the VARSKIN modified code for 122 interesting isotopes for nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the VARSKIN code for calculation of absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by Beta emitting is presented. The modification consists on the inclusion of 47 isotopes of interest even Nuclear Plants for the dose evaluation in skin generated by 'hot particles'. The approach for to add these isotopes is the correlation parameter F and the average energy of the Beta particle, with relationship to those 75 isotopes of the original code. The methodology of the dose calculation of the VARSKIN code is based on the interpolation, (and integration of the interest geometries: punctual or plane sources), of the distribution functions scaled doses in water for beta and electrons punctual sources, tabulated by Berger. Finally a brief discussion of the results for their interpretation and use with purposes of radiological protection (dose insurance in relation to the considered biological effects) is presented

  10. Recombinant human laminin-10 (alpha5beta1gamma1). Production, purification, and migration-promoting activity on vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masayuki; Thyboll, Jill; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Jansson, Katarina; Iivanainen, Antti; Parvardeh, Masomeh; Timpl, Rupert; Hedin, Ulf; Swedenborg, Jesper; Tryggvason, Karl

    2002-04-12

    The laminin (LN) family of large heterotrimeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins has multiple functions: LNs take part in the regulation of processes such as cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation, in addition to contributing to the structure of basement membranes. LN-10, composed of alpha5, beta1, and gamma1 chains, is widely distributed in most basement membranes of both epithelia and endothelia. We determined the complete human cDNA sequence for the LN alpha5 chain and produced recombinant human LN-10 (rLN-10) in HEK293 cells by triple transfection of full-length cDNAs encoding the human LN alpha5, beta1, and gamma1 chains. The rLN-10 was purified using affinity chromatography and had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 800 kDa in SDS-PAGE and a native domain structure in rotary shadowing electron microscopy. By using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, integrin alpha(3)beta(1) was found to be a major mediator of adhesion of HT-1080 and human saphenous vein endothelial cells. Human saphenous vein endothelial cells adhered more strongly to rLN-10 than to LN-1 and LN-8 and showed better migration on rLN-10, compared with several other matrices. Considering the cell adhesive and migration-promoting properties of rLN-10 on endothelial cells, this molecule could be useful in improving the biocompatibility and endothelialization of vascular grafts. PMID:11821406

  11. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A.; Brunet, M.; Kermagoret, M.; Labeyrie, J.; Roux, G.; Vasseur, J.; Weil, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les

  12. Evaluation of a low background proportional counter for detection of high energy beta particles with application to {sup 90}Sr surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, K.T.S.; Johnson, L.; Brey, R.R.; Gesell, T.F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); McIsaac, C. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Conventional radiochemical methods used to quantify {sup 90}Sr are complicated and time-consuming. A relatively simple, inexpensive instrument has been developed for analysis of high energy beta surface contamination in the presence of lower energy beta emitters. The instrument detects beta particles from {sup 90}Y, which is in secular equilibrium with {sup 90}Sr. The device consists of three stacked gas-flow proportional detectors. The bottom two are operated in coincidence mode and the top detector is operated in anti-coincidence to the others for reducing cosmic-ray background. Shielding is used to reduce the background from terrestrial sources. The thickness of the bottom two counters eliminates beta particles with energies below 660 keV from the second detector. The end-point energy of the {sup 90}Sr beta is 546 KeV, while that for {sup 90}Y is 2.28 MeV. Greater than 69% of the particles emitted during the decay of {sup 90}Y have energies above the endpoint energy of {sup 90}Sr. Because of these conditions, this instrument, which has an efficiency of about 10%, is practical for measurements near environmental magnitudes. The instrument is expected to have application in decontamination and decommissioning, decisions concerning release of materials, and waste management.

  13. Evaluation of a low background proportional counter for detection of high energy beta particles with application to 90Sr surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiochemical methods used to quantify 90Sr are complicated and time-consuming. A relatively simple, inexpensive instrument has been developed for analysis of high energy beta surface contamination in the presence of lower energy beta emitters. The instrument detects beta particles from 90Y, which is in secular equilibrium with 90Sr. The device consists of three stacked gas-flow proportional detectors. The bottom two are operated in coincidence mode and the top detector is operated in anti-coincidence to the others for reducing cosmic-ray background. Shielding is used to reduce the background from terrestrial sources. The thickness of the bottom two counters eliminates beta particles with energies below 660 keV from the second detector. The end-point energy of the 90Sr beta is 546 KeV, while that for 90Y is 2.28 MeV. Greater than 69% of the particles emitted during the decay of 90Y have energies above the endpoint energy of 90Sr. Because of these conditions, this instrument, which has an efficiency of about 10%, is practical for measurements near environmental magnitudes. The instrument is expected to have application in decontamination and decommissioning, decisions concerning release of materials, and waste management

  14. Beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency and energy resolution optimization by Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations for a phoswich well detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    A single-channel phoswich well detector has been assessed and analysed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic cell (BC-404) embedded in a CsI(Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). It can be used to distinguish 30.0-keV X-ray signals of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe using their unique coincidence signatures between the conversion electrons (CEs) and the 30.0-keV X-rays. The optimum coincidence efficiency signal depends on the energy resolutions of the two CE peaks, which could be affected by relative positions of the plastic cell to the CsI(Tl) because the embedded plastic cell would interrupt scintillation light path from the CsI(Tl) crystal to the PMT. In this study, several relative positions between the embedded plastic cell and the CsI(Tl) crystal have been evaluated using Monte Carlo modeling for its effects on coincidence detection efficiency and X-ray and CE energy resolutions. The results indicate that the energy resolution and beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency of X-ray and CE depend significantly on the plastic cell locations inside the CsI(Tl). The degraded X-ray and CE peak energy resolutions due to light collection efficiency deterioration by the embedded cell can be minimised. The optimum of CE and X-ray energy resolution, beta-gamma coincidence efficiency as well as the ease of manufacturing could be achieved by varying the embedded plastic cell positions inside the CsI(Tl) and consequently setting the most efficient geometry. PMID:20598559

  15. Collision-induced dissociation of protonated tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Erach R; Cooper, Travis J; Osburn, Sandra; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the presence and position of a single beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid residue on the tendency to form b(n)+ -and y(n)+ -type product ions was determined using a group of protonated tetrapeptides with general sequence XAAG, AXAG and AAXG (where X refers to the position of amino acid substitution). The hypothesis tested was that the 'alternative' amino acids would influence product ion signal intensities by inhibiting or suppressing either the nucleophilic attack or key proton transfer steps by forcing the adoption of large cyclic intermediates or blocking cyclization altogether. We found that specific b ions are diminished or eliminated completely when betaA, gammaAbu, Cap or 4AMBz residues are positioned such that they should interfere with the intramolecular nucleophilic attack step. In addition, differences in the relative proton affinities of the alternative amino acids influence the competition between complementary b(n) and y(n) ions. For both the AXAG and the XAAG series of peptides, collision-induced dissociation (CID) generated prominent b ions despite potential inhibition or suppression of intramolecular proton migration by the betaA, gammaAbu, Cap or 4AMBz residues. The prominent appearance of b ions from the AXAG and XAAG peptide is noteworthy, and suggests either that proton migration occurs through larger, 'whole' peptide cyclic intermediates or that fragmentation proceeds through a population of [M+H]+ isomers that are initially protonated at amide O atoms. PMID:17066369

  16. Beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency and energy resolution optimization by Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations for a phoswich well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-channel phoswich well detector has been assessed and analysed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of 131mXe and 133mXe. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic cell (BC-404) embedded in a CsI(Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). It can be used to distinguish 30.0-keV X-ray signals of 131mXe and 133mXe using their unique coincidence signatures between the conversion electrons (CEs) and the 30.0-keV X-rays. The optimum coincidence efficiency signal depends on the energy resolutions of the two CE peaks, which could be affected by relative positions of the plastic cell to the CsI(Tl) because the embedded plastic cell would interrupt scintillation light path from the CsI(Tl) crystal to the PMT. In this study, several relative positions between the embedded plastic cell and the CsI(Tl) crystal have been evaluated using Monte Carlo modeling for its effects on coincidence detection efficiency and X-ray and CE energy resolutions. The results indicate that the energy resolution and beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency of X-ray and CE depend significantly on the plastic cell locations inside the CsI(Tl). The degraded X-ray and CE peak energy resolutions due to light collection efficiency deterioration by the embedded cell can be minimised. The optimum of CE and X-ray energy resolution, beta-gamma coincidence efficiency as well as the ease of manufacturing could be achieved by varying the embedded plastic cell positions inside the CsI(Tl) and consequently setting the most efficient geometry.

  17. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  18. Fully automated system for Pu measurement by gamma spectrometry of alpha contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a fully automated system developed at Comb/Mepis Laboratories which is based on the detection of specific gamma signatures of Pu isotopes for monitoring Pu content in 15-25 l containers of low density (0.1 g/cm3) wastes. The methodological approach is discussed; based on experimental data, an evaluation of the achievable performances (detection limit, precision, accuracy, etc.) is also given

  19. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and Constraints on sin(2beta+gamma) with Partial Reconstruction of B0 -> D*-+ pi+- Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le, F; Diberder; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Monchenault; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graugès-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-01-01

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to the final states D*-+ pi+-, using approximately 82 million B B bar events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+ e- storage ring. Events containing these decays are selected with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the high-momentum pi+- from the B decay and the low-momentum pi-+ from the D*-+ decay are used. We measure the amplitude of the asymmetry to be -0.063 +- 0.024(stat.) +- 0.014(syst.) and compute bounds on |sin(2beta + gamma)|.

  20. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 activity in bovine rod outer segments by the beta gamma subunits of transducin and its inhibition by the alpha subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelsema, C L; Axelrod, J

    1987-01-01

    In the rod outer segments (ROS) of bovine retina, light activation of phospholipase A2 has been shown to occur by a transducin-dependent mechanism. In this report, the transducin-mediated stimulation of phospholipase A2 is shown to require dissociation of the alpha beta gamma heterotrimer. Addition of transducin to dark-adapted transducin-poor ROS stimulated phospholipase A2 activity only with coincident exposure to white light or, in the dark, with addition of the hydrolysis-resistant GTP an...

  1. Localization of alpha/beta and gamma/delta T lymphocytes in Cryptosporidium parvum-infected tissues in naive and immune calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, M S; Lancto, C A; Walcheck, B; Layton, W.; Jutila, M A

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the host's T-lymphocyte population within the intestinal villi following Cryptosporidium parvum infection was characterized with a bovine model of cryptosporidiosis. In naive animals, infection with C. parvum resulted in substantial increases in the numbers of alpha/beta T cells, both CD4+ (150%) and CD8+ (60%), and of gamma/delta T cells (70%) present within the intestinal villi of the infected ileum. In immune animals, the host T-lymphocyte response to a challenge infection wi...

  2. Inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor binding to cultured keratinocytes by antiproliferative molecules gamma interferon, cyclosporin A, and transforming growth factor-beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of cultured human keratinocytes (KC) is inhibited by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), cyclosporin A and transforming growth factor-beta, but not by tumor necrosis factor. When these antiproliferative molecules were added to KC they induced a concentration and time-dependent inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor (I-EGF) binding. These anti-proliferative molecules primarily reduced the number of binding sites by approximately 25%-50% without affecting the binding affinity. Tumor necrosis factor did not influence the ligand binding by I-EGF. In parallel with the ability of the antiproliferative molecules to inhibit I-EGF binding, there was an increase in transforming growth factor-alpha production. These results suggest that several different antiproliferative molecules may share a common mechanism to inhibit cell growth by reducing I-EGF binding to KC

  3. A theoretical comparison of methods of quantification of radioactive contamination in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry offers a rapid method of assessing radioactive contamination in soil. For accurate quantification, however, a knowledge of the activity-depth distribution is essential. Three methods, the multiple peak method, the peak to valley method and the lead plate method, for deriving the distribution were compared by evaluating the uncertainty on the derived activity concentration for two types of distribution: an exponential model and a gaussian model. The lead plate method showed the lowest uncertainty for all distributions and, thus, appeared to offer the best method. Of the other two methods, the peak to valley method offered slightly lower uncertainties at low values of the depth parameter but was worse at high values. (author)

  4. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S;

    2001-01-01

    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma...... opposed to the staining of the (gamma2/alpha1)-containing receptors, which was only slightly higher than background. To explain this, the (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeras may act like alpha1 and gamma2 subunits, respectively, indicating that the extracellular N-terminal segment is important...... for assembly. However, the (alpha1/gamma2) chimeric subunit had characteristics different from the alpha1 subunit, since the (alpha1/gamma2) chimera gave rise to no desensitization after GABA stimulation in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, which was independent of whether the chimera was expressed...

  5. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas Yurena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPARγ2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPARγ2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPARγ in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPARγ dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-β signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Size and frequency characteristics of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells in the spleens of normal and cyclophosphamide-suppressed virus-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbura, M; Webster, R G; Cooper, M; Doherty, P C

    1991-08-01

    The characteristics of avian lymphocytes expressing surface CD8 (CT8) and T cell receptor (TCR) glycoproteins have been monitored by two-color flow microfluorimetry. Exposure of 1-month-old birds to a lethal influenza A virus, which is known to be lympholytic, significantly decreased the frequency of both the alpha beta TCR2+CT8+ and gamma delta TCR1+CT8- subsets in spleen. However, all categories of T cells showed evidence of greater mean cell size, indicating that they are responding. Inoculation of baby chicks with fowl pox virus induced a response more typical of specific immunity in the TCR2+CT8+ set, in that the lymphocytes increased in both frequency and mean cell size. Greater numbers of lymphoblasts were also found for the TCR2+CT8-, TCR1+CT8+, and TCR1+CT8- subsets, but the total cell counts for the minority TCR1+CT8- cells in spleen were consistently decreased. Immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide prior to infection eliminated 90% of the white blood cells from spleen, with the greatest effect being on the TCR1+ populations. The CT8+ alpha beta T cell response in chick spleen following exposure to a poxvirus is thus comparable to the situation observed for this subset of lymphocytes in mice infected with other viruses. However, although the gamma delta T cells increase in size, their frequency in spleen either does not change (CT8+) or is significantly decreased (CT8-). PMID:1647883

  7. IL-4 is able to reverse the CD2-mediated negative apoptotic signal to CD4-CD8- alpha beta and/or gamma delta T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, F; Nicoletti, I; Agea, E; Belia, S; Moraca, R; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1995-11-01

    Activation of immature thymocytes or transformed T lymphocytes via T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 signalling can induce programmed cell death (apoptosis). Recent data indicate that anti-CD3/TCR monoclonal antibodies (mAb) also trigger apoptosis in activated (but not resting) mature peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Here we report that triggering of resting CD4-CD8-TCR alpha beta+ and/or TCR gamma delta+ via the alternative CD2-dependent activation pathway is able to induce programmed cell death. A pair of mitogenic anti-CD2 mAb provoked a dramatic rise in [Ca2+]i that was almost entirely sustained by extracellular fluxes, and the inhibition of membrane [Ca2+/Mg2+] ATPase. The resulting endonuclease activation was able to induce DNA fragmentation, as revealed by propidium iodide staining and gel electrophoresis. Induction of apoptosis was prevented by the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as by endonuclease inactivation with 100 microM ZnCl2, but enhanced by the contemporary block of protein kinase C. Thus it seems that in resting T lymphocytes the strong calcium signal delivered by the alternative CD2 activation pathway may act as a negative apoptotic signal in both alpha beta and gamma delta T cells with low (non-major histocompatibility complex restricted) antigenic affinity, so limiting the extension of polyclonal T-cell growth. PMID:8550074

  8. Study and construction of a {beta}-spectrometer of uniform axial magnetic field fitted with a {beta}-{gamma} coincidence selector. Study of the {beta} spectra of {sup 32}P, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Measurement of the conversion coefficients of {sup 203}Ti and of {sup 198}Hg; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre-{beta} a champ magnetique axial uniforme, muni d'un selecteur de coincidence {beta}-{gamma}. Etude des spectres {beta} du {sup 32}p, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Mesure des coefficients de conversion du {sup 203}Ti et du {sup 198}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsignault, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    In the first part is given the principle of the beta spectrometer with uniform axial field using systematically the idea of caustics. The apparatus is described and its properties compared to those deduced from trajectory calculations. The {beta}-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors and the device for selecting coincidences with a 2 {tau} resolution of 5 nanoseconds are also presented. In the second part, the spectrometer is used for studying reference elements and the most accurate results are confirmed. The {beta} spectrum of {sup 60}Co has a statistical form with an accuracy of 1 per cent; the maximum energy E{sub 0} is 316.5 {+-} 1.5 keV. That of the 7/2 + {yields} 11/2 transition for {sup 137}Cs has a unique form, once forbidden. E{sub 0}= 522 {+-} 3 keV. Conversion coefficients {alpha}{sub k} = 96 {+-} 1 X 10{sup -3} {alpha}L + M + N = 20.9 {+-} 0.5 X 10{sup -3}. The two {beta} spectra of {sup 59}Fe, separated by coincidence with the gamma, have the statistical form E{sub 0} = 462 {+-} 2 keV (55.1 + 0,3 per cent) and E{sub 1} = 275 {+-} 4 keV (44.9 {+-} 0.3 per cent). It is then verified whether the l selection rule is apparent in the shape of the phosphorus 32 beta spectrum. It is found in fact that it is not of statistical shape and its shape coefficient is determined. For a theoretical interpretation it is necessary to have better approximations than those generally used and this interpretation will not be unique. This work has also made it possible to show that the source contains a small proportion of {sup 33}P. The study of the {sup 203}Hg {beta} spectrum followed by the 279 keV gamma spectrum is designed to determine the conversion coefficients. The interior spectrum of gold 198 is not of statistical shape either. The form coefficient is determined together with the conversion coefficients which are in slight disagreement with those calculated by Rose or Sliv. An interpretation of the spectrum is put forward which proposes an imperfect compensation for the

  9. Effect of alpha thalassaemia trait and enhanced gamma chain production on disease severity in beta thalassaemia major and intermedia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gringras, P; Wonke, B; Old, J.; Fitches, A; Valler, D; Kuan, A M; Hoffbrand, V

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and twenty patients with homozygous beta thalassaemia were selected to determine the clinical effects of certain genetic factors which may modify disease severity. Genetic analysis defined specific beta thalassaemia mutations, the alpha thalassaemia genotype, and the presence of an XmnI restriction enzyme site, associated with increased fetal haemoglobin (HbF) production under certain conditions. Genotypic data with globin chain synthesis were related to the age when regular trans...

  10. Review of contamination monitoring systems based on large area plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the applicability of wide area plastic scintillation detectors for contamination monitoring in radiation facilities. Plastic scintillation detectors have proved themselves to be more compliant for beta/gamma contamination monitoring. The detector discussed in this paper has an area of ∼ 500 cm2 and is coupled to matching light guide with an embedded 2 pi sensitive photomultiplier tube. Three systems based on these detectors have been developed and evaluated for their performance. These are (i) Ground surface contamination monitor; (ii) Hand and Foot contamination monitor and (iii) Handheld contamination monitor. A brief review of the experience gained in this development work has been described. The contamination monitoring systems developed with the plastic scintillation detectors are very effective for estimation of contamination in all radiation facilities where beta/gamma contamination levels on ground surfaces, hands and feet of radiation workers as well as their clothes and shoes are to be assessed. The systems equipped with a user friendly interface and high degree of personal comfort to the user serve to help check beta/gamma contamination associated radiation risks. The systems provide a visual alarm to flag contamination levels much lower than the limits fixed by the regulatory authorities

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on maize samples contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira-Castro, F.L. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: fabilucy@usp.br; Aquino, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Greiner, R. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Centre for Molecular Biology, Haid-und-Neu-Strasse 9, D 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ribeiro, D.H.B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reis, T.A. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-08-15

    The efficacy of {gamma}-irradiation as a method of decontamination of maize containing Fusarium verticillioides under controlled conditions of relative humidity (RH) (97.5%) and water activity has been studied. Maize grains inoculated with a spore suspension of F. verticillioides were irradiated to 2, 5, and 10 kGy. Thereafter, the irradiated and control samples were analyzed for the presence of fumonisins, their viable cells were counted, and their morphology was investigated by electronic microscopy. It was found possible to decrease the risk of exposure to fumonisins by irradiating maize to 5 or 10 kGy. However, at the dose of 2 kGy, the survived fungi (36%) can produce more fumonisins than the fungi in the control unirradiated samples under the same conditions.

  12. Study of the transformation of uranium-niobium alloys with low niobium concentrations, tempered from the gamma and beta + gamma 1 regions and then annealed at different temperatures. Comparison with uranium-molybdenum alloys (1963); Etude des transformations des alliages uranium-niobium a faible teneur en niobium trempes depuis les domaines gamma et beta + gamma 1 puis revenus a differentes temperatures. Comparaison avec les alliages uranium-molybdene (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-09-15

    The author shows that uranium-niobium alloys, like uranium-molybdenum alloys, tempered from the gamma region, give a martensitic phase with a structure deriving from that of alpha uranium by a slight contraction parallel to the axis [001], The critical cooling rate allowing the formation of this martensite is 80 deg. C/s at 750 deg. C. Retention of the beta phase of uranium-niobium alloys is particularly difficult, the critical retention rate being 700 deg. C/s at 668 deg. C for an alloy containing 2.5 at. per cent of Nb. This beta phase is completely converted to the alpha phase at room temperature in about 6 hours. The TTT curves of this beta alloy are effectively reduced to the lower branch of the lower 'C'. The beta phase conversion law is expressed as: 1-x = exp. (kt){sup n} x being the degree of progression of the conversion, t the time, n an exponent no-varying with temperature and having approximately the value 2 for the alloy considered, k an increasing function of temperature. The activation energy of conversion is of the order of 14,600 cal/mole. Niobium is much less active than molybdenum as a stabiliser of beta uranium. (author) [French] Dans ce travail l'auteur montre que les alliages uranium-niobium, comme d'ailleurs les alliages uranium-molybdene, trempes depuis le domaine gamma, donnent une phase martensitique dont la structure derive de celle de l'uranium alpha par une legere contraction parallele de l'axe [001]. La vitesse critique de refroidissement permettant la formation de cette martensite est de 80 deg. C/s a 750 deg. C. La retention de la phase beta des alliages uranium-niobium est particulierement delicate car la vitesse critique de retention est de 700 deg. C/s a 668 deg. C pour l'alliage a 2,5 at. pour cent de Nb. Cette phase beta se transforme completement en phase alpha a la temperature ordinaire en 6 heures environ. Les courbes TTT de cet alliage de structure beta se reduisent pratiquement a la

  13. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 103-105 cells/g, which they ranged between 102 and 106 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D10 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D10 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  14. Excitation of the isomeric states 1h sub 1 sub 1 sub / sub 2 in the nuclear reactions with gamma-quanta, neutrons and at beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Belov, A G; Melnikova, L M; Ponomarev, V Yu; Tsoneva, N; Stoyanov, C; Balabanov, N P; Tonchev, A P

    2001-01-01

    The isomeric ratios (IR) were measured in the isotones with N = 81 ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 5 Xe, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Ba, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Nd, and sup 1 sup 4 sup 3 Sm). Isomers with J suppi 11/2 sup - were excited in the reactions (n, gamma), (gamma, n), and beta sup + decay of sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Pr and sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Pm. The activation methods of gamma-spectrum measurement of reaction products was used. The marked difference of IR was observed in the isotones with the different atomic numbers Z but in the same reactions. The calculations of IR using low-level spectrum of final nuclei and probability of radiation transitions on the base of the quasiparticle phonon model were performed. The satisfactory agreement of the measured and calculated IR was obtained for all studied isotopes. The dependence of IR on Z is explained by the different energy of reaction and different probability levels population of the activation

  15. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds; Cacao (camera a collimation assistee par ordinateur): une nouvelle approche pour reconstruire et visualiser des contaminations d'emetteurs X et gamma dans les blessures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douiri, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere (LENA), 75 - Paris (France); Jeanguillaume, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Larrey, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Quartuccio, M.; Begot, S. [Faculte des Sciences d' Orsay (LPS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2003-07-01

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium {sup 341}Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  16. Assessment of human skin decontamination from radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable and practicable means for assessing skin decontamination and percutaneous adsorption of radioactive skin contaminants is developed by comparing the streams of beta-particles and gamma-quanta characterizing the penetration and distribution of radioactive skin contaminants. The principal requirements which a preparation for human skin decontaminants should meet are: effectiveness of the preparation, minimal percutaneous absorption, broad activity spectrum on compounds and radionuclides, preservation of integrity of the treated skin and a simple method of use of the decontaminant. (author)

  17. Application of gamma irradiation to reduce microbial contamination in herbal cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count in facial herbal powder, herbal rose brush on and talcum. Pre-irradiated samples showed total colony counts of 3.00×104, 2.70×104 and 1.00×103 CFU/g. At 3rd day after application, irradiation reduced the total colony counts to 1.90×102, 6.00×102 and 1.20×102 CFU/g. Moreover, the total colony counts of the three samples were found to be less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. The non-uniformity of ΔE⁎ revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum, which differed from their original color; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05), by reducing its brightness and increasing redness and yellowness of the products. Paired preference tests were conducted in facial herbal powder and herbal rose brush on. The results showed no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated of the two products at P max=75%, α=0.05, β=0.10. This concludes that the irradiation does not affect the preference of the products, and it can be an alternative technology to reduce microbial decontaminations in herbal products. - Highlights: ► This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count. ► At 3 days after application, irradiation reduced the total colony count at level 102 CFU/g and less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. ► The non-uniformity of ΔE* revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05). ► Paired preference tests showed that there were no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated.

  18. Integrin alpha1beta1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor activation by controlling peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent caveolin-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiwu; Whiting, Carrie; Borza, Corina; Hu, Wen; Mont, Stacey; Bulus, Nada; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-06-01

    Integrin alpha1beta1 negatively regulates the generation of profibrotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation; however, the mechanism by which it does this is unknown. In this study, we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a scaffolding protein that binds integrins and controls growth factor receptor signaling, participates in integrin alpha1beta1-mediated EGFR activation. Integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells (MCs) have reduced Cav-1 levels, and reexpression of the integrin alpha1 subunit increases Cav-1 levels, decreases EGFR activation, and reduces ROS production. Downregulation of Cav-1 in wild-type MCs increases EGFR phosphorylation and ROS synthesis, while overexpression of Cav-1 in the integrin alpha1-null MCs decreases EGFR-mediated ROS production. We further show that integrin alpha1-null MCs have increased levels of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which leads to reduced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a transcription factor that positively regulates Cav-1 expression. Moreover, activation of PPARgamma or inhibition of ERK increases Cav-1 levels in the integrin alpha1-null MCs. Finally, we show that glomeruli of integrin alpha1-null mice have reduced levels of Cav-1 and activated PPARgamma but increased levels of phosphorylated EGFR both at baseline and following injury. Thus, integrin alpha1beta1 negatively regulates EGFR activation by positively controlling Cav-1 levels, and the ERK/PPARgamma axis plays a key role in regulating integrin alpha1beta1-dependent Cav-1 expression and consequent EGFR-mediated ROS production. PMID:20368353

  19. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x103/g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x105/g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x102/g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x102/g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  20. In situ gamma-spectroscopy. A technology for the integrated preparation of contamination registers for buildings and site areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the assigned buildings and site areas must be inspected for their contamination, in particular for free release by the nuclear authority. Whereas at least two different measuring techniques were required for that until now, RWE NUKEM has developed and qualified a single process for this task. Based on a 3D model of the facility, the location of measuring points, the measuring results and proposals for decontamination measures to be taken can be generated on base of a limited number of measurements. The process was industrially applied for the first time in the dismantling of a former fuel fabrication plant in Hanau, Germany. The measuring technique is applicable for the activity measurement of gamma-emitters, e.g. Co-60 and Cs-137, as well as alpha emitters, e.g. U-235 and Am-241, via related gamma lines. Thus the existing nuclide spectra of nuclear power stations, of Uranium processing facilities and other nuclear installations can be measured. The nuclides not being measured directly are usually calculated through nuclide vectors and detectable nuclides. The measuring system consists of one Ge-semiconductor detector, cooled with liquid Nitrogen. The measuring signals are routed via a pre and a main amplifier and an analogous/digital converter to the multi channel analyser and are analyzed by a PC. The paper gives as an application the decommissioning of a fuel fabrication plant. Site models are discussed as well as decommissioning process in two steps: Step 1 - Free release of building structures and Step 2 - Free release of the site. In conclusion, in situ measurements - supported by the soil sorting gate, Marinelli measurements and borehole sampling - have proven to be an effective approach for the free release of surface structures of the former fuel element fabrication plant at Hanau. These surfaces include inner walls of rooms as well as the outside surface of buildings and layers of soil. The

  1. High-temperature fracture and fatigue resistance of a ductile {beta}-TiNb reinforced {gamma}-TiAl intermetallic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.T.V. [Guidant Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States). Advanced Cardiovascular Systems; Ritchie, R.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1998-07-24

    The high-temperature fatigue-crack propagation and fracture resistance of a model {gamma}-TiAl intermetallic composite reinforced with 20 vol. % ductile {beta}-TiNb particles is examined at elevated temperatures of 650 and 800 C and compared with behavior at room temperature. TiNb reinforcements are found to enhance the fracture toughness of {gamma}-TiAl, even at high temperatures, from about 123 to {approximately}40 MPa m{sup {1/2}}, although their effectiveness is lower compared to room temperature due to the reduction in strength of TiNb particles. Under monotonic loading, crack-growth response in the composite is characterized by resistance-curve behavior arising from crack trapping, renucleation and resultant crack bridging effects attributable to the presence of TiNb particles. In addition, crack-tip blunting associated with plasticity increases the crack-initiation (matrix) toughness of the composite, particularly at 800 C, above the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for {gamma}-TiAl. High-temperature fatigue-crack growth resistance, however, is marginally degraded by the addition of TiNb particles in the C-R (edge) orientation, similar to observations made at room temperature; premature fatigue failure of TiNb ligaments in the crack wake diminishes the role of bridging under cyclic loading. Both fatigue and fracture resistance of the composite are slightly lower at 650 C (just below the DBTT for TiAl) compared to the behavior at ambient and 800 C. Overall, the beneficial effect of adding ductile TiNb reinforcements to enhance the room-temperature fracture and fatigue resistance of {gamma}-TiAl alloys is retained up to 800 C, in air environments. There is concern, however, regarding the long-term environmental stability of these composite microstructures in unprotected atmospheres.

  2. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy; Um sistema de modulos NIM conjugados com entrada opcional por amplificador pHEMT para espectroscopia beta e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail: barbarakonradmev@gmail.com, E-mail: eludke@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LAE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Astrofisica e Eletronica

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles.

  3. [Induction of emotional states during oral reading of texts with different emotional valence and EEG power dynamics in frequency bands beta2 and gamma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan'ko, S G; Gracheva, L V; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Solov'eva, M L

    2011-01-01

    EEG power in frequency bands beta2 (18.5-29.5 Hz) and low gamma (30-40 Hz) was compared for situations while reading aloud with the technique "self-regulative utterance" texts as follow: a text with neutral emotional-semantic dominant; literary texts with either a positive or a negative emotional-semantic dominant; personal texts--recollections with similar dominants. Two groups of healthy subjects participated--a group of actor students (N=22) and a group of non-actor students (N=23). EEG power values in the states of emotiogenic texts reading are reproducibly differed with statistical significance from those in the state of reading ofa non-emotiogenic text. States of reading emotionally-positive texts are characterized by increases of EEG power in these bands, while those for emotionally negative texts--by decreases if compared with the state of emotionally neutral reading. PMID:22117457

  4. The existence and space-time decay rates of strong solutions to Navier-Stokes Equations in weighed $L^\\infty(|x|^\\gamma{\\rm dx})\\cap L^\\infty(|x|^\\beta{\\rm dx})$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Khai, D. Q.; Tri, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove some results on theexistence and space-time decay rates of global strong solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in weighed $L^\\infty(\\mathbb R^d,|x|^\\gamma{\\rm dx})\\cap L^\\infty(\\mathbb R^d,|x|^\\beta{\\rm dx})$ spaces.

  5. Immunoassay for Visualization of Protein-Protein Interactions on Ni-Nitrilotriacetate Support: Example of a Laboratory Exercise with Recombinant Heterotrimeric G[alpha][subscript i2][beta][subscript 1[gamma]2] Tagged by Hexahistidine from sf9 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Aljosa

    2004-01-01

    We have developed an "in vitro assay" for following the interaction between the [alpha][subscript i2] subunit and [beta][subscript 1[gamma]2] dimer from sf9 cells. This method is suitable for education purposes because it is easy, reliable, nonexpensive, can be applied for a big class of 20 students, and avoid the commonly used kinetic approach,…

  6. Aperiodic phase re-setting in scalp EEG of beta-gamma oscillations by state transitions at alpha-theta rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Walter J; Burke, Brian C; Holmes, Mark D

    2003-08-01

    We evaluated the rapid changes in regional scalp EEG synchronization in normal subjects with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding prior art 10-fold with a high spatial density array and the Hilbert transform. A curvilinear array of 64 electrodes 3 mm apart extending 18.9 cm across the scalp was used to record EEG at 200/sec. Analytic amplitude (AA) and phase (AP) were calculated at each time step for the 64 traces in the analog pass band of 0.5-120 Hz. AP differences approximated the AP derivative (instantaneous frequency). The AP from unfiltered EEG revealed no reproducible patterns. Filtering was necessary in the beta and gamma ranges according to a technique that optimized the correlation of the AP differences with the activity band pass filtered in the alpha range. The sizes of temporal AP differences were usually within +/-0.5 radian from the average step corresponding to the center frequency of the pass band. Large AP differences were often synchronized over distances of 6 to 19 cm. An optimal pass band to detect and measure these recurring jumps in AP in the beta and gamma ranges was found by maximizing the alpha peak in the cospectrum of the correlation between unfiltered EEG and the band pass AP differences. Synchronized AP jumps recurred in clusters (CAP) at alpha and theta rates in resting subjects and with EMG. Cortex functions by serial changes in state. The Hilbert transform of EEG from high-density arrays can visualize these state transitions with high temporal and spatial resolution and should be useful in relating EEG to cognition. PMID:12874778

  7. ROLE OF SYNUCLEIN BETA (SNCB) AND SYNUCLEIN GAMMA (SNCG) IN GLAUCOMA AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASES – A BIOINFORMATIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Kumar Reddi; T K Rama Krishna Rao

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma disease is deterioration of the optic nerve which slowly robs victims of their sight. Alzheimers is a slow death of brain cells that erodes memory and erases personality. Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegeneration of the optic nerve which affects the elder persons , so it has some similarity to Alzheimers since Alzheimers is also a disorder which affects elderly persons. In Glaucoma ,Optic nerves seem to accumulate the same amyloid beta protein that is theunderlying cause of neuron deat...

  8. Correlation of gamma spectrometer measurements at surface with concentrations and distributions of subsurface radium contamination: Development, verification and application of methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a step forward in the investigation of data gathering principles and analysis tools for improved estimates of subsurface radium contamination concentrations and distributions using surface gamma radiation spectra. Techniques to solve the inverse problem of estimating surface gamma radiation spectra given a fully known subsurface radium distribution have been investigated and applied with success. These techniques fell into three broad categories: empirical (using laboratory and field data), analytical (using mathematical derivations of relationships), and computer simulation (using Monte-Carlo photon transport simulation methods). Methods of analyzing surface spectra to estimate certain source parameters have been studied. The most fully developed methods are those involving the ratio of the areas of two peaks of differing energy from the same radionuclide to determine the source depth. For a point source of radium and its progeny, these techniques are able to reliably estimate the source depth from a single gamma radiation spectrum taken at the surface directly above the source. The only significant uncertainties in this case are the soil density and uncertainties introduced as a result of counting statistics. Further work remains to fully achieve the goals of the larger project: to develop a comprehensive suite of tools for the improved interpretation of surface gamma radiation spectra from subsurface distributions of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  9. Development of a neural network approach to characterise 226Ra contamination at legacy sites using gamma-ray spectra taken from boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a large number of sites across the UK and the rest of the world that are known to be contaminated with 226Ra owing to historical industrial and military activities. At some sites, where there is a realistic risk of contact with the general public there is a demand for proficient risk assessments to be undertaken. One of the governing factors that influence such assessments is the geometric nature of contamination particularly if hazardous high activity point sources are present. Often this type of radioactive particle is encountered at depths beyond the capabilities of surface gamma-ray techniques and so intrusive borehole methods provide a more suitable approach. However, reliable spectral processing methods to investigate the properties of the waste for this type of measurement have yet to be developed since a number of issues must first be confronted including: representative calibration spectra, variations in background activity and counting uncertainty. Here a novel method is proposed to tackle this issue based upon the interrogation of characteristic Monte Carlo calibration spectra using a combination of Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks. The technique demonstrated that it could reliably distinguish spectra that contained contributions from point sources from those of background or dissociated contamination (homogenously distributed). The potential of the method was demonstrated by interpretation of borehole spectra collected at the Dalgety Bay headland, Fife, Scotland. Predictions concurred with intrusive surveys despite the realisation of relatively large uncertainties on activity and depth estimates. To reduce this uncertainty, a larger background sample and better spatial coverage of cores were required, alongside a higher volume better resolution detector. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Borehole gamma-ray spectra provide means of characterising contamination at depth

  10. CdZnTe- and TlBr-detectors response simulation for registration of the mixed beta- and gamma-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches for reconstructing the spectra of the mixed beta- and gamma-radiation, produced by wide band-gap semiconductor detectors, and the subsequent identification of radionuclides that are comprised in the mixture composition is a method based on various methods of spectral deconvolution. The presence of the detector response functions for each individual source of radiation is a key point in the studying such techniques. The response of TlBr- and CdZnTe-detectors to gamma-rays from 90Sr and 137Cs was simulated by Monte-Carlo method via Geant4 package. The computer experiments were conducted with using a β-filter and without it. It was shown that optimal thickness of the Al β-filter required for complete suppressing the conversion electrons in the 137Cs spectrum is 0.5 mm. The modification of 661.7 keV photopeaks with a using β-filter was investigated.

  11. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  12. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0–75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M1V1–M1V3 generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl−1 PEG6000. Of the M1V3 plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l−1 PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  13. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayse, E-mail: senayse@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Alikamanoglu, Sema [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M{sub 1}V{sub 1}-M{sub 1}V{sub 3} generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl{sup -1} PEG6000. Of the M{sub 1}V{sub 3} plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l{sup -1} PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase-like function is shared by the beta- and gamma- subset of the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad V Kuny

    Full Text Available The UL97 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or HHV-5 (human herpesvirus 5, is a kinase that phosphorylates the cellular retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor and lamin A/C proteins that are also substrates of cellular cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks. A functional complementation assay has further shown that UL97 has authentic Cdk-like activity. The other seven human herpesviruses each encode a kinase with sequence and positional homology to UL97. These UL97-homologous proteins have been termed the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases (CHPKs to distinguish them from other human herpesvirus-encoded kinases. To determine if the Cdk-like activities of UL97 were shared by all of the CHPKs, we individually expressed epitope-tagged alleles of each protein in human Saos-2 cells to test for Rb phosphorylation, human U-2 OS cells to monitor nuclear lamina disruption and lamin A phosphorylation, or S. cerevisiae cdc28-13 mutant cells to directly assay for Cdk function. We found that the ability to phosphorylate Rb and lamin A, and to disrupt the nuclear lamina, was shared by all CHPKs from the beta- and gamma-herpesvirus families, but not by their alpha-herpesvirus homologs. Similarly, all but one of the beta and gamma CHPKs displayed bona fide Cdk activity in S. cerevisiae, while the alpha proteins did not. Thus, we have identified novel virally-encoded Cdk-like kinases, a nomenclature we abbreviate as v-Cdks. Interestingly, we found that other, non-Cdk-related activities reported for UL97 (dispersion of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs and disruption of cytoplasmic or nuclear aggresomes showed weak conservation among the CHPKs that, in general, did not segregate to specific viral families. Therefore, the genomic and evolutionary conservation of these kinases has not been fully maintained at the functional level. Our data indicate that these related kinases, some of which are targets of approved or developmental antiviral drugs

  15. Effect ALPHA Globalin Gene Deletion and GAMMA Globin Gene -158 (C/T) Polymorphism in BETA- Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta-thalassemias (β- thalassemias) are among the most common autosomal recessive disorders. They have a remarkably high frequency in the Mediterranean region and represent one of the most common genetic diseases in Egypt. In this study, the spectrum of P- thalassemia mutations and genotype-to-phenotype correlations were defined in 32 β- thalassaemic patients (β- thalassemias major and intermedia) with varying disease severity in two cities of the Suez Canal region. Ten different mutations were identified and the most frequent ones were: Isi-6 (T-C) (37.5%), IVSI-110 (G-A) (34.4%) and both IVSI-1 (G-A), IVSII-745 (C-G) and -102 (C-G) (12.5% each). There was a wide spectrum of phenotypic severity in all patients. We studied the Xmnl polymorphism (C/T) in γ- globin gene position -158 of P- thalassemia as a modulating factor of the disease severity. Presence of the polymorphism was found in two patients and this was not sufficient to explain the diversity of the phenotype encountered. Co-inheritance of alpha thalassaemia as a modulating factor was not evident in our patients. In conclusion, we have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in all our patients. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition.

  16. Thermoluminescence response of new KClxBr1-x :EuCl3 sintered phosphors exposed to beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkali halides crystals have been the subject of intense research for an understanding of their radiation-induced defects and luminescence properties. They exhibit noteworthy thermoluminescence (TL) properties when exposed to ionising radiation. Currently, these materials are grown employing expensive and rather complicated techniques. In this work, the results on the TL properties of new alkali halides phosphors fabricated by a simple and inexpensive procedure are presented. The samples were made by mixing KCl, KBr and EuCl3 salts, and compressing them at a pressure of 3.2 x 107 Pa during 3 min, followed by sintering at 700 deg. C during 24 h under air atmosphere. The dosimetric response of the samples showed an increase with radiation dose in the 1.5-20.0 Gy dose range for beta and gamma radiation. The TL glow curves in sintered samples presented significant differences in their peak structures compared with monocrystalline samples, indicating that the nature of the trapping states and the recombination mechanisms may be different. (authors)

  17. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  18. L{sub i} ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, l) subshell X-ray production cross-sections and theirs emission ratio in Pb and Au for proton energy 1-2.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouziane, S [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111 Alger (Algeria); Amokrane, A [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111 Alger (Algeria); Toumert, I [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger (Algeria)

    2006-05-15

    The L{sub i} ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, l) subshell X-ray production cross-sections for Pb and Au were measured at incident proton energy between 1 to 2.5 MeV. The obtained data are compared to available data given in Sokhi and Crumpton and Orlic and al. compilations. The given data are also compared with the predictions of ECPSSR model. The comparison shows a good agreement.

  19. Research by beta and gamma spectrometry methods of presence admixings in the radionuclide Sr-89 obtained in the nuclear reactor from Y2O3 by reaction (n, p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The obtaining of Sr-89 in the nuclear reactor WWR-SM by means of irradiation of Y-89 according to (n, p) reaction had been investigated in this work. The calculations was made on formation of the basic product and admixtures. By application of the scintillation plastic beta detector and the germanium-lithium gamma detector there was detected the activity of strontium-89 and the contents of the admixtures in a main product

  20. STAT5 activation by human GH protects insulin-producing cells against interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis independent of nitric oxide production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne; Galsgaard, Elisabeth D; Karlsen, Allan E;

    2005-01-01

    proliferation and insulin production in pancreatic beta-cells and rat insulin-producing INS-1 cells. Here we report that human (h) GH can prevent the apoptotic effects of IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in INS-1 and INS-1E cells. Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, we found that the anti-apoptotic effect...... expression and in fact augmented the IL-1beta-stimulated nitric oxide production. As the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene has been shown to harbour a STAT5-binding element we measured the expression of Bcl-xL as well as the pro-apoptotic Bax. We found that hGH increased the Bcl-xL/Bax ratio both in the absence and...

  1. Beta-Negative Binomial Process and Poisson Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Hannah, Lauren; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    A beta-negative binomial (BNB) process is proposed, leading to a beta-gamma-Poisson process, which may be viewed as a "multi-scoop" generalization of the beta-Bernoulli process. The BNB process is augmented into a beta-gamma-gamma-Poisson hierarchical structure, and applied as a nonparametric Bayesian prior for an infinite Poisson factor analysis model. A finite approximation for the beta process Levy random measure is constructed for convenient implementation. Efficient MCMC computations are...

  2. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm2 has been achieved in both these cases

  3. Heterogeneity of chromosome damage in [beta]-thalassaemia traits. An evaluation of spontaneous and [gamma]-ray-induced micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in vitro after G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] phase irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaja, A.P.; Sharma, N.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Molecular Biology and Agriculture Div.)

    1994-07-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the chromosomal radiosensitivity of [beta]-thalassaemia traits compared with healthy individuals from the general population, necessitated by the fact that [beta]-thalassaemia trait is present in 1-17% of different population groups in India and the chances of encountering them in radiation and chemical related industries do exist. Spontaneous chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from [beta]-thalassaemia traits were found to be in the normal range, whereas significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei (MN) were observed in thalassaemia traits. Based on MN frequency at 2 Gy, [beta]-thalassaemia traits fall into two distinct categories. A hypersensitive group with significant increase in radiation-induced MN over the control group, and a second group with MN frequency slightly above normal individuals. Even when compared with the fitted data at 2 Gy obtained from the pooled results of extensive dose-response investigations from 0.5-5 Gy [gamma]-rays with normal donors for MN, dicentrics and total aberrations, the difference between the means of MN frequencies in [beta]-thalassaemia traits and normals is significant. (author).

  4. β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+ pathway in xenopus gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seitz

    Full Text Available β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+ cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+ pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC and Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII. We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

  5. Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

    2004-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the

  6. Increase in cytokine production (IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF) by stimulated whole blood cells in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S X; Vrindts, Y; Lopez, M; De Groote, D; Zangerle, P F; Collette, J; Franchimont, N; Geenen, V; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a progressive disorder characterized by a decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. Several investigations have suggested that one of the mechanisms through which estrogen prevents bone loss was a modulation on secretion or release of various cytokines that are known to influence bone remodeling, even if some recent data have challenged this hypothesis. However, in established osteoporosis, the possibility that enhanced cytokines activity may account for the progression of this disease remains unclear and controversial. We sought here to determine whether production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and LIF, after direct stimulation in whole blood, was different in healthy (n = 30) or osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n = 24) and whether lumbar bone density (1-BMD) correlated with the values of cytokine production observed in these conditions. A significant difference was observed between the osteoporotic and control subjects for IL-1 beta (p immune cells cultured in autologous whole blood suggests that in women more than 10 years past the menopause and presenting a decrease in lumbar bone density corresponding to the new WHO definition of "osteoporosis', production of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is still increased compared to controls matched for age and ovarian function, while no differences are reported for IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF production. PMID:9032749

  7. Interferon gamma, interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats: dynamics of cellular mRNA expression in the central nervous system and lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Mustafa, M; Ljungdahl, A; Höjeberg, B; Dagerlind, A; Elde, R; Olsson, T

    1995-01-01

    spinal cord with no clear relation to clinical signs or histopathology. In contrast, expression of mRNA for TGF-beta did not increase until day 13 p.i., at height of the disease, shortly preceding recovery. These data are consistent with a disease upregulating role of IFN-gamma, while TGF-beta may act to......-beta) both in sections of spinal cords and the antigen-induced expression of these cytokines by lymphoid cells after stimulation with a dominant encephalitogenic peptide of MBP (MBP 63-88) during the course of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. In spinal cords......, the target organ in EAE, cells expressing mRNA for IFN-gamma, first appeared at the onset of clinical signs, i.e., day 10 postimmunization (p.i.), peaked at the height of disease (day 13 p.i.) and then gradually decreased concomitant with recovery. Very few IL-4 mRNA-expressing cells appeared in the...

  8. Impairment of adrenal Gland in albino rat embryo in response to polytrin contamination and/or whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, investigations have been carried out in view of evaluation of the biological hazard exerted on adrenal gland of albino rat embryos subjected to the pesticide polytrin and whole body gamma irradiation either individually or in succession. Histological and histochemical studies showed in general, vacuolation, karyolysis, pyknotic nuclei and increased signs of necrosis in adrenal tissue exposed to irradiation. Pesticide treatment resulted in severe degeneration in between zona glomerulosa and fasciculata accompanied by intercellular degeneration. Combined effect of polytrin together with gamma irradiation showed to exert more intensive degeneration in tissue cells with affected chromatin material as compared with the effect of either polytrin or irradiation when applied individually. The histochemical investigations revealed decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in all treated groups. 14 figs

  9. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-08-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3-6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. PMID:23632647

  10. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3–6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. - Highlights: • The mortality of T. castaneum increased with an increase of the radiation dose. • R. officinalis was more toxic to T. castaneum than P. atriplicifolia. • Gamma radiation and essential oils could be used as combined methods in IPM. • Combination of radiation with essential oils made a synergistic effect. • The synergistic effect of the R–G was much more appropriate from P–G

  11. Closed-form expressions for moments of a class of beta generalized distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Gauss M.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, we derive explicit closed-form expressions for moments of some beta generalized distributions including the beta gamma, beta normal, beta beta, beta Student t and beta F distributions. These expressions are given as infinite weighted sums of well-known special functions for which numerical routines for computation are available.

  12. Development of a tomographic system adapted to 3D measurement of contaminated wounds based on the Cacao concept (Computer aided collimation Gamma Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) is a gamma camera using a collimator with large holes, a supplementary linear scanning motion during the acquisition and a dedicated reconstruction program taking full account of the source depth. The CACAO system was introduced to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution in nuclear medicine. This thesis focuses on the design of a fast and robust reconstruction algorithm in the CACAO project. We start by an overview of tomographic imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. After modelling the physical CACAO system, we present the complete reconstruction program which involves three steps: 1) shift and sum 2) deconvolution and filtering 3) rotation and sum. The deconvolution is the critical step that decreases the signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. We propose a regularized multi-channel algorithm to solve the deconvolution problem. We also present a fast algorithm based on Splines functions and preserving the high quality of the reconstructed images for the shift and the rotation steps. Comparisons of simulated reconstructed images in 2D and 3D for the conventional system (CPHC) and CACAO demonstrate the ability of CACAO system to increase the quality of the SPECT images. Finally, this study concludes with an experimental approach with a pixellated detector conceived for a 3D measurement of contaminated wounds. This experimentation proves the possible advantages of coupling the CACAO project with pixellated detectors. Moreover, a variety of applications could fully benefit from the CACAO system, such as low activity imaging, the use of high-energy gamma isotopes and the visualization of deep organs. Moreover the combination of the CACAO system with a pixels detector may open up further possibilities for the future of nuclear medicine. (author)

  13. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were

  14. H2O2-Activated Mitochondrial Phospholipase iPLA2 gamma Prevents Lipotoxic Oxidative Stress in Synergy with UCP2, Amplifies Signaling via G-Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR40, and Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic beta-Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2015), s. 958-972. ISSN 1523-0864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/11/P320; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02033S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S; GA ČR GA15-02051S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial phospholipase iPLA2 gamma * uncoupling protein UCP2 * G-protein coupled receptor - 40 * glucose -stimulated insulin secretion * pancreatic beta cells Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 7.407, year: 2014

  15. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  16. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana, E-mail: idjaneoliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  17. Microbial contamination of red meat and consideration of gamma irradiation effects for increasing the shelf-life and decontamination of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red meat has a lot of microbial flora from different sources. Prevention of outbreak of food born diseases that are caused by pathogenic agents and prevention of microbial spoilage of meat that makes many losses to the human health and economic of society are very important. Also, different methods for decreasing the microbial flora under a standard allowance for increasing the shelf life and decontamination of microbial pathogens have been proposed. In this research, irradiation technique was used for this purposes. After drawing dose/survival curves for all kinds of meats microbial contamination, an optimum dose of 3 kGy for decreasing the contamination and specially for decontamination of salmonella was obtained. When meat is irradiated by 3 kGy gamma rays, it can be kept in a 4-7 digC refrigerator for 2 week without appearing any spoilage nor color changes or odor. Also, some of biochemical factors were analyzed and amounts of 16 amino acids were measured in the irradiated and controlled samples and no difference was observed between the samples

  18. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 137Cs and 134Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  19. Use of a nanoplanktonic alga as a test organism in marine molysmology. Some responses of Dunaliella Bioculata Butcher 1959 to gamma irradiation and to chromium and cadmium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some response of a nanoplanktonic alga, Dunaliella bioculata to gamma irradiation (60Co) and to heavy metal contamination, (chromium and cadmium) used either at strong concentrations (stable isotopes) or as tracers (51Cr) and (109Cd) were studied. The average variation of several biological functions under the effect of these agents was followed: mitotic activity, culture development, cell volume, chlorophyll a and protein concentrations per cell per unit volume (μm3), respiratory and photosynthetic activities, ultrastructure or cytological aspect of the algae. Concentration factors were investigated in cases of contamination. The method used include standard digital counting with a Thoma cell or a particle counter coupled to an amplitude analyser, volume estimation using the hematocrit, pigment determination by acetone extraction, protein determination by the Nessler method. The polarographic method of dissolved oxygen measurement was adapted for successive respiration and photosynthesis experiments on the material concerned. Any Cr and Cd incorporated by Dunaliella bioculata were determined after splitting of the cells and separation of the membranes from the cell contents. The quantity of metal present was measured on each fraction by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

  20. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme. Progress Report for 1983/84 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium contaminated material (PCM) is a generic term applied to a wide variety of materials which have become contaminated by plutonium compounds, by virtue of their use inside the primary containment of fuel cycle plants, but which generally have low beta gamma content. The report falls under the headings: introduction; organisation and role of the PCMWP; management practices; 1983/84 progress report (a) reduction of arisings; (b) plutonium measurement; (c) treatment of solid PCM; (d) treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes; (e) actinide chemistry; (f) engineering objectives. (U.K.)

  1. Self-Correction of Lanthanum-Cerium Halide Gamma Spectra (pre-print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yuan, Paul Guss, and Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2009-04-01

    Lanthanum-cerium halide detectors generally exhibit superior energy resolutions for gamma radiation detection compared with conventional sodium iodide detectors. However, they are also subject to self-activities due to lanthanum-138 decay and contamination due to beta decay in the low-energy region and alpha decay in the high-energy region. The detector’s self-activity and crystal contamination jointly contribute a significant amount of uncertainties to the gamma spectral measurement and affect the precision of the nuclide identification process. This paper demonstrates a self-correction procedure for self-activity and contamination reduction from spectra collected by lanthanum-cerium halide detectors. It can be implemented as an automatic self-correction module for the future gamma radiation detector made of lanthanum-cerium halide crystals.

  2. Self-Correction of Lanthanum-Cerium Halide Gamma Spectra (pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanum-cerium halide detectors generally exhibit superior energy resolutions for gamma radiation detection compared with conventional sodium iodide detectors. However, they are also subject to self-activities due to lanthanum-138 decay and contamination due to beta decay in the low-energy region and alpha decay in the high-energy region. The detector's self-activity and crystal contamination jointly contribute a significant amount of uncertainties to the gamma spectral measurement and affect the precision of the nuclide identification process. This paper demonstrates a self-correction procedure for self-activity and contamination reduction from spectra collected by lanthanum-cerium halide detectors. It can be implemented as an automatic self-correction module for the future gamma radiation detector made of lanthanum-cerium halide crystals.

  3. Development of a neural network approach to characterise (226)Ra contamination at legacy sites using gamma-ray spectra taken from boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul

    2015-02-01

    There are a large number of sites across the UK and the rest of the world that are known to be contaminated with (226)Ra owing to historical industrial and military activities. At some sites, where there is a realistic risk of contact with the general public there is a demand for proficient risk assessments to be undertaken. One of the governing factors that influence such assessments is the geometric nature of contamination particularly if hazardous high activity point sources are present. Often this type of radioactive particle is encountered at depths beyond the capabilities of surface gamma-ray techniques and so intrusive borehole methods provide a more suitable approach. However, reliable spectral processing methods to investigate the properties of the waste for this type of measurement have yet to be developed since a number of issues must first be confronted including: representative calibration spectra, variations in background activity and counting uncertainty. Here a novel method is proposed to tackle this issue based upon the interrogation of characteristic Monte Carlo calibration spectra using a combination of Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks. The technique demonstrated that it could reliably distinguish spectra that contained contributions from point sources from those of background or dissociated contamination (homogenously distributed). The potential of the method was demonstrated by interpretation of borehole spectra collected at the Dalgety Bay headland, Fife, Scotland. Predictions concurred with intrusive surveys despite the realisation of relatively large uncertainties on activity and depth estimates. To reduce this uncertainty, a larger background sample and better spatial coverage of cores were required, alongside a higher volume better resolution detector. PMID:25461525

  4. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  5. Overactivation of phospholipase C-gamma1 renders platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor-expressing cells independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway for chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnstrand, L; Siegbahn, A; Rorsman, C;

    1999-01-01

    ., Siegbahn, A. , Rorsman, C., Engström, U., Wernstedt, C., Heldin, C.-H., and Rönnstrand, L. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 5299-5313). Here we show that the increased chemotaxis correlates with increased activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), measured as inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate release. By two......-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping, the increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was shown not to be selective for any site, rather a general increase in phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 was seen. Specific inhibitors of protein kinase C, bisindolylmaleimide (GF109203X), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), LY294002......, did not affect the activation of PLC-gamma1. To assess whether increased activation of PLC-gamma1 is the cause of the hyperchemotactic behavior of the Y934F mutant cell line, we constructed cell lines expressing either wild-type or a catalytically compromised version of PLC-gamma1 under a tetracycline...

  6. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  7. Differential cytokine modulation of the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, encoding the constitutive polypeptides, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, of human laminin 5 in epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang, K; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Mauviel, A

    1995-07-24

    Laminin 5, an anchoring filament protein previously known as nicein/kalinin/epiligrin, consists of three polypeptide chains, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. The expression of laminin 5 was detected by Northern hybridization with specific cDNA probes in various epidermal keratinocyte cultures, whereas no expression of any of the three genes could be detected in foreskin fibroblast cultures. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) enhanced LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes, as well as in HaCaT and Balb/K cells in culture, although the extent of enhancement was greater for LAMA3 and LAMC2 genes than for LAMB3. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-alpha) alone did not alter the expression of LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in human epidermal keratinocytes, whereas it inhibited the expression of LAMA3. These results suggest that the expression of the three genes encoding the laminin 5 subunits is not coordinately regulated by the cytokines tested. PMID:7635220

  8. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  9. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  10. Delta beta-thalassaemia in southern Italy: evidence for a single mutational event.

    OpenAIRE

    Carè, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Improta, T; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Marinucci, M.; Tagarelli, A; Brancati, C

    1984-01-01

    Haematological and molecular studies on 32 heterozygotes for G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia from 15 unrelated families from southern Italy are reported. The haematological features of G gamma A gamma delta beta(0)-thalassaemia carriers are compared with those of beta-thalassaemia and Hb Lepore heterozygotes. Striking similarity exists between the phenotypic expression of beta-thalassaemia and Lepore mutations. Globin gene mapping studies indicated that the molecular lesion underly...

  11. Simulation in double-beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed understanding of background radiation sources is a key to interpretation and enhanced sensitivity of double-beta decay experiments. Improvement of several techniques will be discussed. An implementation of the EGS4 code was developed to improve the accuracy of detector simulations, in particular for a 100Mo double-beta decay experiment. The efficiency modification due to the angular dependence of the 539 keV - 590 keV gamma-ray coincidence was successfully determined. The success of the 100Mo effort led to the modeling of uranium-thorium backgrounds found in an electroformed copper shield built for a 76Ge experiment. The large copper mass increased our sensitivity to contaminants present in copper produced this way, and led to changes in our cryostat electroforming technique. The original goal was the determination of the 210Pb content of the 450 year old lead shield previously used in 71Ge two-neutrino double-beta decay measurements. The results pertaining to low background materials and fabrication techniques will also be discussed

  12. Dealing with a Pa-231 contaminated ventilation duct - 59248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge University had worked in the 1960's and 1970's with Pa-231, a decay product of U-235. The fume cupboards discharged into ventilation ducting made from asbestos cement. The university wished to refurbish the laboratory and the RPA had negotiated over many years with the Environment Agency to set up a project to remove the ducting both to reduce the radiological hazards and as part of a programme to remove unwanted circuits and upgrade the ventilation system to modern standards. Contamination levels were significant and low dose rates were measurable on the external surface. The aim was to be able to remove the ducting and treat it as asbestos waste, rather than to have to treat the debris as asbestos contaminated radioactive waste. The age of the contaminant was such that a large fraction of the decay chain had grown in, giving a mixture of alpha, beta and gamma emissions. The most useful nuclides for surface monitoring were Pb-211 and Tl-207, both of which are energetic beta emitters. A wide energy range beta detector was used, but it was fitted with a filter to absorb any alpha radiation which otherwise would have contributed to the signal for good surfaces but not for dusty, damp or rough surfaces and would have contributed to the uncertainty in the activity assessment. Samples were checked using gamma spectrometry to confirm that only Pa-231 and its progeny were present in significant quantities. The gamma spectrum is complicated and this paper describes the difficulties in confirming that the spectrum only contained the Pa-231 decay chain. The vast majority of the contaminated ducting was successfully consigned as asbestos, rather than radioactive, waste. The other problem was dealing with the soft waste produced during the dismantling process. This was monitored using simple equipment and it was possible to demonstrate that it could be disposed of with the rest of the waste under the relevant UK legislation. (authors)

  13. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo Varskin modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1992-06-15

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma stimulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagnerová, Karla; Loukotová, Jana; Ergang, Peter; Musílková, Jana; Mikšík, Ivan; Pácha, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 6 (2011), s. 577-581. ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase * thiazolidinediones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.829, year: 2011

  15. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  16. Decommissioning and dismantling. Development and prototypical application of an in-situ X-ray fluorescence-/gamma spectrometer to detect heavy metal contamination (Th, U, Pu) during dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clearance of buildings of nuclear facilities, which were dealing with nuclear fuel, is characterized by enhanced operation of in-situ measuring methods for release. In spite of the well known chain of sample collection, sample preparation and laboratory analysis, in-situ- techniques are more representative. In the past, surface contamination monitors and the in-situ-gamma-spectroscopy were used for the characterization of contamination by heavy metals, such as uranium, thorium and plutonium. Both methods are able to produce specific data from different depth of the object (sample) and for different averaging areas after a carefully calibration procedure. These data were the base for the calculation of the area related activity or the specific activity of nuclides (contaminants) with the knowledge of decay data. The created method of in-situ-X-ray-spectrometry is able to measure the concentration of uranium, thorium and plutonium directly, without the use of specific activities. The thickness of concrete which is detected by the method is about 4 cm. The averaging area is comparable with that of contamination monitors. Important results of the investigations are: The high sensitivity of the method compared to the determination of the nuclides 238U and 232Th by gamma spectrometry of their daughter nuclides, the detection limits for uranium and thorium are lower than the clearance levels, the method are able to detect contamination of heavy metals that are penetrated to a certain depth or covered by a layer of paint, metal or concrete. In the case of contamination by plutonium the conditions for the detection are formulated and recommendations are made. The method was applied at concrete structures contaminated by uranium or thorium. (orig.)

  17. Prolixe-prototype reprocessing unit for irradiating wastes contamined with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of hot cells are employed for research on nuclear fuel reprocessing and the production of isotope of transuranium elements. These activities generate solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters. The Prolixe hot cell was built in order to: 1/ reprocess the solid wastes contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters produced in the Radiochemistry building: 2/ produce package wastes storable in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ develop a process sufficiently flexible to make it applicable to waste produced in other installations. The process is based on waste leaching after grinding. Depending on the type of wastes the leaching reactant will have a different composition 1/ nitric acid solution for cellulose waste: 2/ nitric solutions containing Ag(II) for other material. The complete process should achieve: 1/ a high waste volume reduction factor: 2/ the production of immobilized waste packages storage in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ the recycling of transuranium elements: 4/ the generation of a minimal volume of effluents. This process can be considered as an alternative process to incineration for the reprocessing of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters

  18. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  19. Exploitation of the FLK-60 slagging incinerator for different alpha waste streams and study of the feasibility of medium-level alpha-beta-gamma waste incineration in FLK-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FLK-60 high temperature slagging incinerator and its peripherals were developed by SCK/CEN with the help of the Commission of the European Communities in the framework of contract no. EUR-017-76-7 WAS-B. This second contract, which covered the period between October 1980 and December 1982, aimed at gaining exploitation experience by running the FLK-60 installation with beta-gamma radioactive waste in semi-industrial conditions. At the end of those 27 months, the system was ready for exploitation in alpha-conditions with plutonium-containing materials. This report describes the various plant parameters during the 25 runs carried out in the framework of this contract and the results of characterization tests carried out on the final product and the secondary waste streams. In the meantime, typical operation balances are computed

  20. Kinetic method for the determination of nanogram amounts of cadmium(II) by its catalytic effect on the complex formation of manganese(II) with. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. gamma. , $delta-tetra-(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, M. (Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering); Tanaka, M. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium(II) accelerates the complex formation reaction of manganese(II) with ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.., $delta-tetra(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphine (H/sub 2/TPPS/sub 4/). Cadmium(II) concentration as low as 1O/sup -7/ mol dm/sup -3/ can be determined from the decrease in absorbance at 413 nm ($lambdasub(max) H/sub 2/TPPS/sub 4/) at a fixed time after the start of the reaction of manganese(II) with H/sub 2/TPPS/sub 4/. After the separation of lead(II) by coprecipitation of manganese(IV) oxide, the method is highly selective and is free from interference of most substances usually encountered. Sandell's sensitivity calculated from the calibration curve at 30 min after the start of the reaction is 1.43 x 10/sup -/ /sup 1/ ng cm/sup -2/.

  1. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  2. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu. Final report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final reporting on the composition of separate beta and gamma decay heat measurements following neutron fission of 235U and 238U and 239Pu and on cumulative and independent yield measurements of fission products of 235U and 238U. What made these studies unique was the very short time of 0.1 s after fission that could be achieved by incorporating the helium jet and tape transport system as the technique for transporting fission fragments from the neutron environment of the fission chamber to the low-background environment of the counting area. This capability allowed for the first time decay heat measurements to extend nearly two decades lower on the logarithmic delay time scale, a region where no comprehensive aggregate decay heat measurements had extended to. This short delay time capability also allowed the measurement of individual fission products with half lives as short as 0.2s. The purpose of such studies was to provide tests both at the aggregate level and at the individual nuclide level of the nation's evaluated nuclear data file associated with fission, ENDF/B-VI. The results of these tests are in general quite encouraging indicating this data base generally predicts correctly the aggregate beta and aggregate gamma decay heat as a function of delay time for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. Agreement with the measured individual nuclide cumulative and independent yields for fission products of 235U and 238U was also quite good although the present measurements suggest needed improvements in several individual cases

  3. Indigenous and Contaminant Microbes in Ultradeep Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Moser, D. P.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Brockman, F. J.; Phelps, T. J.; White, D. C.; Peacock, A.; Balkwill, D.; Hoover, R. B.; Krumholz, L. R.; Borscik, M.; Kieft, T. L.; Wilson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometers depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approx. 1 meter wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulfide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerates. The microbial community in the service water was dominated by mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic, alpha, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria with a total biomass concentration approx. 10(exp 4) cells/ml, whereas, that of the mine air was dominated by members of the Chlorobi and Bacteroidetes groups and a fungal component. The microorganisms in the Carbon Leader were predominantly mesophilic, aerobic heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and methylotrophic, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria that were more closely related to service water microorganisms rather than air microbes. Rhodamine WT dye and fluorescent microspheres employed as contaminant tracers, however, indicated that service water contamination of most of the rock samples was < 0.01% during acquisition. The microbial contaminants most likely originated from the service water, infiltrated the low permeability rock through and accumulated within mining-induced fractures where they survived for several days prior to being mined. Combined PLFA and terminal restriction fragment length profile (T-RFLP) analyses suggest that the maximum concentration of indigenous microorganisms in the Carbon Leader was < 10(exp 2) cells/g. PLFA, (35)S autoradiography and enrichments suggest that the adjacent quartzite was less contaminated and contained approx. 10(exp 3) cells/gram of a thermophilic, sulfate reducing bacteria, SRB, some of whom are delta Proteobacteria. Pore water and rock geochemical analyses suggest that these SRB's may have been sustained by sulfate diffusing from the adjacent U-rich, Carbon Leader where it was formed by radiolysis of sulfide.

  4. Measurement and release of low-level contaminated materials from nuclear power plants into environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of low-level contaminated solid materials originated from the operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants into the environment for their recycling, reuse or liquidation is one of the main ways for the minimization of radioactive wastes production. Regulated measurement of contamination and quantitative determination of radionuclides in materials to be released are relatively complicated but manageable processes. AllDeco operates 2 measuring devices for materials release. For this purpose measuring chambers of RTM type are used for the determination of total gamma activity of radionuclides in materials. Activities of alpha and beta radionuclides are calculated by statistical results processing based on radionuclide vectors established in the laboratory for samples of similar materials. Possible spatial inhomogeneities of the contamination in measured materials can be identified by the devices software. The measurement of total gamma activity is completed by controlling spectrometric determination of present gamma radionuclides using NaI or Ge detectors. Limits for the release are measured and observed according to assigned accuracy for measuring chambers as authorized official measures. The stipulated reference levels are controlled by selective measurements of the surface alpha and beta activities and by the determination of the ratio of main gamma radionuclides. (authors)

  5. Characterization and calibration of a large area beta scintillation detector for determination of Sr-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area beta scintillation detector has been developed which is currently capable of determining Sr-90/Y-90 contamination in surficial soils. The detector system employs scintillating fiber optic arrays, with active dimensions approximately 15 cm wide by 100 cm long, both ends of which are coupled to multiple photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Electronic processing includes coincidence requirements to optimize sensitivity and selectivity for the 2.28 MeV (maximum) beta particle from Y-90. Low energy beta particles and gamma rays are discriminated against using double ended and multi-layer coincidence requirements. The detector systems is personal-computer-software controlled and data restored in a format compatible with standard database software for ease of final data reduction. Experimental calibration studies have shown a linear response for Sr-90/Y-90 soil concentrations from 12 to over 500 pCi/g and a discrimination factor of 50 to 1 versus Cs-137. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Time dependent changes in platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) and PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors following gamma-irradiation of rat plasma and sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Han Young [Ansan Junior College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang Yul [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The total-bodies of 10 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with single doses 4.5 and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The effects on plasma and sciatic nerve platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) concentrations and sciatic nerve PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors densities were examined up to 10 days post-treatment. There was no consistent significant variation in the plasma and sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations in time over the period of study between 4.5 and 7.5 Gy groups. Plasma PDGF concentrations were significantly reduced to 58% of control values between 5 and 10 days with 4.5 Gy and to 51% of control values as percentage of control values between 5 and 10 days with 7.5 Gy after irradiation, respectively(p<0.05). Sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations were increased to 118% of control values at 1 day with 4.5 Gy and to 130% of control values at 1 day with 7.5 Gy after irradiation, respectively(p>0.05). After irradiation, the levels of PDGF {alpha} -receptor protein density were reduced to 33% of control values at 2 days with 4.5 Gy and to 50% at 2 days with 7.5 Gy, while the levels of PDGF {beta} -receptor protein density were reduced to maximally 26% of control values at 2 days with 4.5 Gy and to 27% at 2 days with 7.5 Gy, respectively, but both initial decreased levels of those were increased subsequently after 2 days following irradiation. These results suggest that the radiation-induced alteration of plasma and sciatic nerve PDGF concentrations, and sciatic nerve PDGF {alpha} -and {beta} -receptors densities may be involved in the pathogenesis of bone marrow stem cell and peripheral neuron damages.

  7. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  8. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z Line with a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Caballero ontanaya, L

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the shapes of the ground states of the parent nucleus, we propose to carry out measurements of the complete Gamow-Teller strength distribution for the $^{76-80}$Sr isotopes, with a new Total Absorption Gamma Spectrometer installed on a new beam line. The results will be compared with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach. A brief report on the IS370 experiment on $^{72-75}$Kr decay, which was recently performed at ISOLDE, will be given and the performance of the sum spectrometer will be presented.

  9. Performances of a large mass ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometer for a next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beeman, Jeff W.; Bellini, Fabio; Brofferio, Chiara; Cardani, Laura; Casali, Nicola; Cremonesi, Oliviero; Dafinei, Ioan; Di Domizio, Sergio; Ferroni, Fernando; Gorello, Edoardo; Galashov, Evgeny N.; Gironi, Luca; Nagorny, Sergey S.; Orio, Filippo; Pavan, Maura

    2012-01-01

    We present the performances of a 330 g zinc molybdate (ZnMoO4) crystal working as scintillating bolometer as a possible candidate for a next generation experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo. The energy resolution, evaluated at the 2615 keV gamma-line of 208Tl, is 6.3 keV FWHM. The internal radioactive contaminations of the ZnMoO4 were evaluated as

  10. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  11. ASSESSMENTOF BETA PARTICLE FLUX FROM SURFACE CONTAMINATION AS A RELATIVE INDICATOR FOR RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION ON EXTERNAL SURFACES OF A MULTI-STORY BUILDING IN PRIPYAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-17

    How would we recover if a Radiological Dispersion Device (e.g., dirty bomb) or Improvised Nuclear Device were to detonate in a large city? In order to assess the feasibility of remediation following such an event, several issues would have to be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of the required resources to accomplish decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multi-story building, which had not been previously decontaminated and therefore could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces. The 7-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some of the results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. The authors consequently recommend that existing decontamination procedures for tall structures be re-examined and modified accordingly.

  12. Assessment of beta particle flux from surface contamination as a relative indicator for radionuclide distribution on external surfaces of a multistory building in Pripyat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Gaschak, Sergii P; Maksymenko, Andriy M; Jannik, G Tim; Marra, James C; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Donnelly, Elizabeth H

    2011-02-01

    Several issues should be considered when assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device (e.g., dirty bomb) or improvised nuclear device in a large city. These issues include the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently, little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multistory building that had not been decontaminated and, therefore, could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces over 23 y. The seven-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. Consequently, the authors recommend that thorough decontamination should be considered for all the floors of tall buildings (not just lower floors). PMID:21399438

  13. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  14. Fission product migration in intact fuel rods. S176 experiments 1-5: Gamma spectrometric and beta autoradiography results on radial fission product distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third of a group which present the results obtained during the first 5 experiments in the S176 series of irradiation experiments. The aim of this series is to provide information on the distribution of fission products in intact irradiated fuel rods, both within the UO2, fuel and on the inside of the Zircaloy clad. Fuel rods, previously irradiated to appreciable burnups in the Aagesta R3 reactor, after cooling, are reirradiated in the Studsvik R2 test reactor for short periods to build up significant inventories of short-lived fission products of interest. The irradiation conditions are well defined. Examination of sections of fuel and clad within a short time after removal from the reactor is performed by means of high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry. The fuel sections are also examined metallographically to determine fuel structure, and by β autoradiography

  15. Free infinite divisibility for beta distributions and related ones

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We prove that many of beta, beta prime, gamma, inverse gamma, Student t- and ultraspherical distributions are freely infinitely divisible, but some of them are not. The latter negative result follows from a local property of probability density functions. Moreover, we show that the Gaussian, many of ultraspherical and Student t-distributions have free divisibility indicator 1.

  16. Free infinite divisibility for beta distributions and related ones

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We prove that many of beta, beta prime, gamma, inverse gamma, Student t- and ultraspherical distributions are freely infinitely divisible, but some of them are not. The latter negative result follows from a local property of probability density functions. Moreover, we show that the Gaussian, ultraspherical and many of Student t-distributions have free divisibility indicator 1.

  17. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  18. Study of the N=28 shell closure by one neutron transfer reaction: astrophysical application and {beta}-{gamma} spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei around N=32/34 and N=40; Etude de la fermeture de couche N=28 autour du noyau {sub 18}{sup 46}Ar{sub 28} par reaction de transfert d'un neutron: application a l'astrophysique et Spectroscopie {beta}-{gamma} de noyaux riches en neutrons de N=32/34 et N=40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudefroy, L

    2005-09-15

    The study of the N=28 shell closure has been presented as well as its astrophysical implications. Moreover the structure of neutron rich nuclei around N=32/34 and 40 was studied. The N=28 shell closure has been studied trough the one neutron transfer reaction on {sup 44,46}Ar nuclei. Excitation energies of states in {sup 45,47}Ar nuclei have been obtained, as well as their angular momenta and spectroscopic factors. These results were used to show that N=28 is still a good magic number in the argon isotopic chain. We interpreted the evolution of the spin-orbit partner gaps in terms of the tensor monopolar proton-neutron interaction. Thanks to this latter, we showed it is not necessary to summon up a reduction of the intensity of the spin-orbit force in order to explain this evolution in N=29 isotopes from calcium to argon chains. The neutron capture rates on {sup 44,46}Ar have been determined thanks to the results of the transfer reaction. Their influence on the nucleosynthesis of {sup 46,48}Ca was studied. We proposed stellar conditions to account for the abnormal isotopic ratio observed in the Allende meteorite concerning {sup 46,48}Ca isotopes. The beta decay and gamma spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei in the scandium to cobalt region has been studied. We showed that beta decay process is dominated by the {nu}f{sub 5/2} {yields} {pi}f{sub 7/2} Gamow-Teller transition. Moreover, we demonstrated that the {nu}g{sub 9/2} hinders this process in the studied nuclei, and influences their structure, by implying the existence of isomers. Our results show that N=34 is not a magic number in the titanium chain and the superior ones. (author)

  19. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  20. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites

  1. 16 alpha-[77Br]bromoestradiol-17 beta: a high specific-activity, gamma-emitting tracer with uptake in rat uterus and uterus and induced mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    16 alpha-[77Br]bromoestradiol-17 beta (Compound 1) has been synthesized by radiobromination of estrone enoldiacetate. Tissue uptake studies performed 1 h after administration of Compound 1 to immature or mature female rats showed uterus-to-blood ratios of 13, with nontarget issue-to-blood ratios ranging from 0.6 to 2. Co-administration of unlabelled estradiol caused a selective depression in the uterine uptake with no effect on nontarget tissue uptake. In adult animals bearing adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene), tumor-to-blood ratios of 6.3 were obtained, this uptake also being depressed in animals treated with unlabeled estradiol. The studies demonstrate that Compound 1 has suitable binding properties and sufficiently high specific activity so that its uptake in estrogen target tissues in vivo is mediated primarily by the estrogen receptor. Furthermore, they suggest that this compound may be suitable for imaging human breast tumors that contain estrogen receptors

  2. Curcumin Attenuates Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neuroinflammation via Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Function in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-Jing; Li, Zhong-Hao; Liu, Lei; Tang, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yu; Dong, Ming-Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is known to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and curcumin has been reported to have therapeutical effects on AD because of its anti-inflammatory effects. Curcumin is not only a potent PPARγ agonist, but also has neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemic injury. However, whether PPARγ activated by curcumin is responsible for the anti-neuroinflammation and neuroprotection on AD remains unclear, and needs to be further investigated. Here, using both APP/PS1 transgenic mice and beta-amyloid-induced neuroinflammation in mixed neuronal/glial cultures, we showed that curcumin significantly alleviated spatial memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice and promoted cholinergic neuronal function in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin also reduced the activation of microglia and astrocytes, as well as cytokine production and inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, suggesting the beneficial effects of curcumin on AD are attributable to the suppression of neuroinflammation. Attenuation of these beneficial effects occurred when co-administrated with PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or silence of PPARγ gene expression, indicating that PPARγ might be involved in anti-inflammatory effects. Circular dichroism and co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that curcumin directly bound to PPARγ and increased the transcriptional activity and protein levels of PPARγ. Taking together, these data suggested that PPARγ might be a potential target of curcumin, acting to alleviate neuroinflammation and improve neuronal function in AD. PMID:27594837

  3. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  4. High-resolution mapping of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13, and localization of breakpoints in two Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, D.; Wagstaff, J.; Woolf, E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Glatt, K. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Kirkness, E.J. (National Inst. of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States))Lalande, M. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels constituting the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. In order to determine the genomic organization of the GABA[sub A] receptor [beta]3 subunit gene (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 subunit gene (GABRA5) in chromosome 15q11-q13, the authors have constructed a high-resolution physical map using the combined techniques of field-inversion gel electrophoresis and phage genomic library screening. This map, which covers nearly 1.0 Mb, shows that GABRB3 and GABRA5 are separated by less than 100 kb and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. GABRB3 encompasses approximately 250 kb, while GABRA5 is contained within 70 kb. This difference in size is due in large part to an intron of 150 kb within GABRB3. The authors have also identified seven putative CpG islands within a 600-kb interval. Chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints -- in one Angelman syndrome (AS) patient with an unbalanced translocation and in another patient with a submicroscopic deletion -- are located within the large GABRB3 intron. These findings will facilitate chromosomal walking strategies for cloning the regions disrupted by the DNA rearrangements in these AS patients and will be valuable for mapping new genes to the AS chromosomal region. 64 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on the activity of alpha and beta amylases in germinating fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-Graceum, L.) beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous experiments, three weeks old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were observed to be healthier and heavier than their non-irradiated controls. A hypothesis was set that this phenomenon was due to the accumulation of carbohydrate in the cotyledons. To test this hypothesis an experiment was designed to determine the sugars and starch contents in the cotyledons of an irradiated and nonirradiated groups at different stages of development. At the same time the amylases activities in the same groups were assayed. Results indicated that there was actually increased amount of sugars ad starch in the two and three week old cotyledons of the irradiated as compared to their controls group. These findings support the above hypothesis. The amylase activities were also higher in the irradiated groups as compared to their non-irradiated controls. These results suggest that irradiation induced stimulation of the photosynthetic rate, and amylases' activities, meanwhile, slowed the translocation of carbohydrate nutrients from the cotyledons into the growing seedlings

  6. Study on the Development and Dosimetric Properties of New CaSO4:Dy TL Detectors Bonded by P-compounds for Gamma, Beta and Neutron Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    material, α particle and 3H particle are produced via the 6Li(n,α)3H reaction when exposed to thermal neutron, and their energies are absorbed by the CaSO4:Dy TL phosphor to produce a TL. The TL pellets combination of our KCT-306/KCT-300, the commercially avaliable TLD-600/TLD-700, and TLD-600H/TLD-700H (Harshaw, USA) have been irradiated in the neutron/gamma mixed fields of a D2O moderated (30 cm dia.) 252Cf neutron source in KAERI. The TLD-700, TLD-700H and KCT-300 were used at the same time for gamma ray discriminators in the neutron/gamma mixed fields. It was found that the neutron/gamma response ratio of KCT-306/KCT-300, which is developed in this study, was about 4 times higher than that of the commercial TLD-600/TLD-700 or TLD-600H/TLD-700H. This means that the KCT-306 in combination with KCT-300 could be used as a thermal neutron dosimeter in a mixed radiation field. The TL materials KCT-300 and KCT-306 developed in this study could be utilized in a more precise measurement and evaluation of the personal as well as environmental radiation doses by using TLD

  7. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  8. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V) has been designed using the PIC12F675 micro controller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments. (author)

  9. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  10. Neural rhythmic symphony of human walking observation: Upside-down and Uncoordinated condition on cortical theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eZarka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological motion observation has been recognized to produce dynamic change in sensorimotor activation according to the observed kinematics. Physical plausibility of the spatial-kinematic relationship of human movement may play a major role in the top-down processing of human motion recognition. Here, we investigated the time course of scalp activation during observation of human gait in order to extract and use it on future integrated brain-computer interface using virtual reality (VR. We analyzed event related potentials (ERP, the event related spectral perturbation (ERSP and the inter-trial coherence (ITC from high-density EEG recording during video display onset (-200 to 600 ms and the steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP inside the video of human walking 3D-animation in three conditions: Normal; Upside-down (inverted images; and Uncoordinated (pseudo-randomly mixed images. We found that early visual evoked response P120 was decreased in Upside-down condition. The N170 and P300b amplitudes were decreased in Uncoordinated condition. In Upside-down and Uncoordinated conditions, we found decreased alpha power and theta phase-locking. As regards gamma oscillation, power was increased during the Upside-down animation and decreased during the Uncoordinated animation. An SSVEP-like response oscillating at about 10 Hz was also described showing that the oscillating pattern is enhanced 300 ms after the heel strike event only in the Normal but not in the Upside-down condition. Our results are consistent with most of previous point-light display studies, further supporting possible use of virtual reality for neurofeedback applications.

  11. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  12. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  13. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  14. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  15. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  16. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  17. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  18. $\\beta$-decay study of $^{77}$Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Patronis, N; Górska, M; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Pauwels, D; Van de Vel, K; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thomas, J-C; Franchoo, S; Cederkäll, J; Fedosseev, V; Fynbo, H; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Materna, T; Mathieu, L; Serot, O; Weissman, L; Müller, W F; Mishin, V I; Fedorov, D

    2009-01-01

    A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

  19. A survey of 16S rRNA and amoA genes related to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta-subdivision of the class proteobacteria in contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, I. A.; Stephen, J. R.; Chang, Y-J.; Bruggemann, J.; Macnaughton, S. J.; White, D. C. [Tennessee Univ., Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN (United States); Long, P. E.; McKinley, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kowalchuk, G. A. [Netherlands Inst. of Ecology, Centre for Terrestrial Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    Various genetic study methods were combined to profile beta-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing populations in ground water extracted from the subsurface of a contamination plume resulting from the disposal of tailings from a uranium mill at Shiprock, New Mexico. The objectives of this study were to characterize the ammonia-oxidizing populations at this site in terms of the diversity of dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria 16S and amoA genes, and to determine whether the ground water ammonia-oxidizing populations were linked to the dissolved nitrate concentration. Several studies have suggested that the genus Nitrosospira dominates over Nitrosomonas in bulk soil environments. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial population sizes were estimated by competitive polymerase chain reaction targeting the gene amoA; it correlated significantly with nitrate concentration. Both 16S rDNA and amoA analyses suggested that all samples were dominated by Nitrosomonas over Nitrosospira in ground water, suggesting that ground water ammonia oxidizers are more like those dominating freshwater sediments than those dominant in bulk soil. It was concluded that the failure of the Shiprock site to remediate anthropogenic nitrogen is not likely to be related to the toxic effects of uranium on autotrophic nitrification. Indeed, it is more likely to be the result of factors such as the availability of organic carbon or other electron donors. 45 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  2. Methodology for solving the problem of contamination in pencils of Co-60 from the CNEA (Argentine) for the recharge of the gamma irradiator of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently report the methodology used to identify the source of contamination detected in a shipment with 5.0 X 10 Bq of Co-60 coming from Argentina is described, as well as the solution outlined to solve the problem. Its are presented by way of conclusion the experiences but outstanding learned in the process. (Author)

  3. Effects of {gamma} ({sup 60}Co) and {beta} ({sup 90}Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death; Efeitos das radiacoes {gamma} ({sup 60}Co) e {beta} ({sup 90}Sr) em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1): inducao de micronucleos e morte celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Daniella

    2003-07-01

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of {sup 90}Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with {sup 60}Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of {sup 60}Co (0.34 Gy.min{sup -1}) and {sup 90}Sr (0.23 Gy.min{sup -1}) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with {sup 60}Co than in cells irradiated with {sup 90}Sr, whereas {sup 90}Sr was more damaging than {sup 60}Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to {sup 90}Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with {sup 60}Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  4. The $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*\\to\\eta_c$ transition form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We study the $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*\\to\\eta_c$ transition form factor, $F_{\\eta_c\\gamma\\gamma}(Q_1^2,Q_2^2),$ with the local-duality (LD) version of QCD sum rules. We analyse the extraction of this quantity from two different correlators, $$ and $,$ with $P,$ $A,$ and $V$ being the pseudoscalar, axial-vector, and vector currents, respectively. The QCD factorization theorem for $F_{\\eta_c\\gamma\\gamma}(Q_1^2,Q_2^2)$ allows us to fix the effective continuum thresholds for the $$ and $$ correlators at large values of $Q^2=Q_2^2$ and some fixed value of $\\beta\\equiv Q_1^2/Q_2^2$. We give arguments that, in the region $Q^2\\ge10$--$15 GeV^2$, the effective threshold should be close to its asymptotic value such that the LD sum rule provides reliable predictions for $F_{\\eta_c\\gamma\\gamma}(Q_1^2,Q_2^2).$ We show that, for the experimentally relevant kinematics of one real and one virtual photon, the result of the LD sum rule for $F_{\\eta_c\\gamma}(Q^2)\\equiv F_{\\eta_c\\gamma\\gamma}(0,Q^2)$ may be well approximated by the sim...

  5. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  6. Modelling and Monte Carlo organ dose calculations for workers walking on ground contaminated with Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pair of walking phantoms was developed from deformable mesh phantoms to represent individuals walking on contaminated ground. The Monte Carlo N-particle extended version code was used to calculate organ doses from ground contamination scenarios involving parallel and isotropic planar sources of Cs-137 and Co-60 with concentrations of 30 kBqm-2. For the parallel plane source case, the organ doses were up to 78% greater for walking phantoms than those for the standing phantoms. The dose difference is because the widely open legs during walking provide less shielding to several organs, especially the kidneys, ovaries and liver, from parallel sources. The effective doses of the walking phantoms were on average 15% higher than the standing phantoms. On the other hand, when isotropic planar sources were considered, no significant dose difference was observed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using deformable phantoms to represent realistic postures for organ dose calculations in environmental dosimetry studies. (authors)

  7. Effects of the gamma and ultrasound radiation in orange juice contaminated by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris;Efeitos das radiacoes gama e ultra-sonica em suco de laranja contaminado por Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Cristiane Cassiolato, E-mail: cristiane_cassiolato@yahoo.com.b

    2006-07-01

    The orange juice has attributes could make that hard or even block the growth. of microorganisms, even so already have been isolated filamentous fungi, yeast, as well lactic and heat resistant bacteria. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a heat resistant bacteria that has done damage in the orange juice concentrated and frozen business. This bacterium is able the grown in temperatures below 35 deg C constituting a risk to orange juices that have been contaminated. Even those that already pass trough thermal treatment may deteriorated, if they are storage in place without refrigeration. As the traditional methods of decontamination and conservation have not been effective in unfeasible this bacterium, others methods of sterilization are need, among them are gamma and ultrasound radiation. The gamma radiation is able to sterilize foods and reduce the microbiology density, allowing in this way to enhance the period of storage. The ultrasound application has been used currently with the aim to microbiology control, been this technique effective in the microbial cell destruction. The Brazil, are the major producer and exporter of concentrated frozen orange juice, due to it, the present work was carried out to two experiments with the aim to determinate the resistance of the bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to gamma and ultrasound irradiation, in the orange juice, priory contaminated. The orange juice samples was diluted to 11,5 deg Brix and the bacteria suspensions was added, passed by process of radiation gamma with dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy and ultrasonic with the frequency of 25, 35 and 42 kHz and with the time of exposition of 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 minutes. After the treatment, the samples were stored in room temperature (25 +- 2 deg C) and of refrigeration (4 +- 1 deg C). For the microbial analyses, the samples were diluted in to decimal scale, plated by 'pour plate' technique. The Petri plates were storage in warn temperature (46 +- 2 deg C

  8. A beta and gamma radiation counter device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1988 and 1990, 1800 small Geiger-Mueller counters have been distributed in French high schools (caesium 137 as the radioactive source) for pupils' information about radioactivity (vocabulary, protection, ...). The INSTN (Institute for nuclear science and technology) has set up seminars for teachers' formation

  9. Microbial diversity in contaminated soils along the T22 trench of the Chernobyl experimental platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of bacterial communities exposed to radioactive contamination in Chernobyl soils was examined by a combination of molecular and culture-based approaches. A set of six radioactive soil samples, exhibiting high levels of 137Cs contamination, were collected from the T22 trench. Three samples were also collected in nearby soils with low contamination. Complex bacterial community structures were observed in both highly and weakly contaminated samples, using a molecular approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the presence of specific populations within samples from highly contaminated soils could not be revealed by statistical analysis of the DGGE profiles. More than 200 culturable isolates, representative of dominant morphotypes, were grouped into 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and affiliated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroïdetes. No specific pattern linked to contamination was observed for these culturable bacteria. The results show that both highly and weakly contaminated soils host a wide diversity of bacteria, suggesting that long term exposure to radionuclides does not lead to the extinction of bacterial diversity.

  10. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  11. Rational numbers with purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczewski, Boris; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    We study real numbers $\\beta$ with the curious property that the $\\beta$-expansion of all sufficiently small positive rational numbers is purely periodic. It is known that such real numbers have to be Pisot numbers which are units of the number field they generate. We complete known results due to Akiyama to characterize algebraic numbers of degree 3 that enjoy this property. This extends results previously obtained in the case of degree 2 by K. Schmidt, Hama and Imahashi. Let $\\gamma(\\beta)$ denote the supremum of the real numbers $c$ in $(0,1)$ such that all positive rational numbers less than $c$ have a purely periodic $\\beta$-expansion. We prove that $\\gamma(\\beta)$ is irrational for a class of cubic Pisot units that contains the smallest Pisot number $\\eta$. This result is motivated by the observation of Akiyama and Scheicher that $\\gamma(\\eta)=0.666 666 666 086 ...$ is surprisingly close to 2/3.

  12. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs

  13. Highly sensitive gamma-spectrometers of GERDA for material screening: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Budjá?, D; Gangapshev, A; Hampel, W; Heisel, M; Heusser, G; Hult, M; Klimenko, A; Kuzminov, V; Laubenstein, M; Maneschg, W; Nisi, S; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Tomei, C; di Vacri, A; Vasilev, S; Zuzel, G

    2008-01-01

    The GERDA experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76Ge and possibly for other rare processes. The sensitivity of the first phase is envisioned to be more than one order of magnitude better than in previous neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments. This implies that materials with ultra-low radioactive contamination need to be used for the construction of the detector and its shielding. Therefore the requirements on material screening include high-sensitivity low-background detection techniques and long measurement times. In this article, an overview of material-screening laboratories available to the GERDA collaboration is given, with emphasis on the gamma-spectrometry. Additionally, results of an intercomparison of the evaluation accuracy in these laboratories are presented.

  14. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder; Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao gama para extensao da vida util de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were

  15. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with 137 cesium on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Elise; Gueguen, Yann; Grison, Stephane; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maamar [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection and Human Health Division, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP no 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS 6547, Physiologie Comparee et Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d' Auvergne, Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    More than 20 years after Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, radionuclids are still mainly bound to the organic soil layers. The radiation exposure is dominated by the external exposure to gamma-radiation following the decay of {sup 137}Cs and by soil-to-plant-to-human transfer of {sup 137}Cs into the food chain. Because of this persistence of contamination with {sup 137}Cs, questions regarding public health for people living in contaminated areas were raised. We investigated the biological effects of chronic exposure to {sup 137}Cs on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis metabolisms in rat. Animals were exposed to radionuclide in their drinking water for 9 months at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (610 Bq/kg/day). Cesium contamination decreases the level of circulating 17{beta}-estradiol, and increases corticosterone level. In testis, several nuclear receptors messenger expression is disrupted; levels of mRNA encoding Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and LXR{beta} are increased, whereas farnesoid X receptor mRNA presents a lower level. Adrenal metabolism presents a paradoxical decrease in cyp11a1 gene expression. In conclusion, our results show for the first time molecular and hormonal modifications in testicular and adrenal steroidogenic metabolism, induced by chronic contamination with low doses of {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  16. Verification of radioactive contamination surveys for practical use in biological research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsealed sources are commonly used in science research laboratories. Their manipulation may imply a radioactive contamination hazard. Therefore, adequate and sensitive survey meters must be available, and must have an effective and accurate response to intensity and type of radiation emitted by the used radionuclides to identify and quantify the possible contamination and then be able to avoid any associated or unwanted consequences that may arise. Periodic surveys are performed to show control, any time, any place radioactive contamination is suspected, and to ensure radioisotopes are being used safely. The immediate work areas must be often checked with portable survey monitors, including the entire lab and particularly bench tops, personnel protective equipment or solely designated equipment for isotope use (micro-fuges, water baths, incubators). These are carried out with portable survey instruments like Geiger-Muller tubes, proportional counters and scintillation detectors that provide direct or indirect measurements capabilities. The Radiation Safety Office (R.S.O.) as well as the radioactive compounds working laboratories at the Instituto de Inv. Biomedicas 'A. Sols' (Madrid-Spain) are provided with an adequate radiation measurement instrument. But, before a portable survey instrument is used, several quality checks should be made (batteries, calibration sticker), and the instrument response should be tested with a check source. This paper aims at determining, with a R.S.O. procedure, these surveys working parameters -detection efficiency, calibration factors and minimum detectable activities-, using reference checking sources (14C, 36Cl, and 90Sr/90Y) with known radioactivity covering the energy range of beta emitting isotopes used in biological research. No gamma portable monitors have been tested for the R.S.O. has no gamma checking sources. Therefore, 58 beta monitors were tested, obtaining t he efficiency values, the calibration factors (Bq cm-2 s) and

  17. Implicit Theories and Beta Change in Longitudinal Evaluations of Training Effectiveness: An Investigation Using Item Response Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Stephen Bartholomew

    2002-01-01

    Golembiewski, Billingsly, and Yeager (1976) conceptualized three distinct types of change that might result from development interventions, called alpha, beta, and gamma change. Recent research has found that beta and gamma change do occur as hypothesized, but the phenomena are somewhat infrequent and the precise conditions under which they occur have not been established. This study used confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory to identify gamma and beta change on a multidimensi...

  18. Evaluation of the instrument correction factors need in beta dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of portable survey instruments using Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors, ionization chambers, or scintillation detectors exists for the measurement of gamma dose rates. Generally, the same instruments are used for beta monitoring, but the beta response of these instruments has been secondary to their development, calibration, and use; information on the beta response is difficult to obtain and seldom provided by the manufacturer. This paper summarizes observations on energy, angular, and source-geometry response of survey instruments

  19. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  20. A Search for the Rare Decay $B\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-06-02

    We report the result of a search for the rare decay B{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} in 426 fb{sup -1} of data, corresponding to 226 million B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} pairs, collected on the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider using the BABAR detector. We use a maximum likelihood fit to extract the signal yield and observe 21{sub -12}{sup +13} signal events with a statistical signficance of 1.9 {sigma}. This corresponds to a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}) = (1.7 {+-} 1.1(stat.) {+-} 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -7}. Based on this result, we set a 90% confidence level upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}) < 3.2 x 10{sup -7}.

  1. Immobilisation of alpha contaminated lubricating oils in cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha contaminated lubricating oil wastes are generated from the reprocessing plants and other alpha handling facilities. Incineration of these spent lubricating oils requires specially designed facility to handle the aerosols of actinide oxides released to the off-gases. Hence immobilisation of these wastes into cement matrix could be a viable alternative. Work was therefore initiated to examine the possibility of immobilising such waste in cement matrix with the help of suitable additives. This work led to the selection of sodium hydroxide and silica fumes as additives for their distinct role in immobilization of such waste in cement. The selected formulation was tested extensively both on laboratory scale and full scale for acceptable waste form. The leach test on laboratory scale indicated negligible release of alpha and beta gamma activity after 180 days. This report gives a brief on the formulation of the admixture and its effect on the immobilization of waste. (author)

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  3. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  4. Evidence of an association between genetic variation of the coactivator PGC-1beta and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G; Wegner, L; Yanagisawa, K; Rose, C S; Lin, J; Glümer, C; Drivsholm, T; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jørgensen, T; Hansen, T; Spiegelman, B M; Pedersen, O

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) is a recently identified homologue of the tissue specific coactivator PGC-1alpha, a coactivator of transcription factors such as the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors and nuclear respiratory factors. PGC-1al......alpha is involved in adipogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid beta oxidation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis....

  5. An alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer based on the photon–electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation (PERALS®) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of selected actinide isotopes in the presence of high beta/gamma fields. The system is based on a PERALS® liquid scintillation counter for beta/alpha discrimination and was successfully tested with both high purity germanium and bismuth germanate, gamma-ray detectors using conventional analog electronics

  6. RCUT: A Non-Invasive Method for Detection, Location, and Quantification of Radiological Contaminants in Pipes and Ducts - 12514

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological Characterization Using Tracers (RCUT) is a minimally invasive method for detection and location of residual radiological contamination in pipes and ducts. The RCUT technology utilizes reactive gaseous tracers that dissociate when exposed to gamma and/or beta radiation emitting from a radiological contaminant in a pipe or duct. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was selected as a tracer for this radiological application, because it is a chemically inert gas that is both nonflammable, nontoxic, and breaks down when exposed to gamma radiation. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the tracer pair of SF6 and O2 formed SO2F2 when exposed to a gamma or beta radioactive field, which indicated the presence of radiological contamination. Field application of RCUT involves first injecting the reactive tracers into the pipe to fill the pipe being inspected and allowing sufficient time for the tracer to interact with any contaminants present. This is followed by the injection of an inert gas at one end of the pipe to push the reactive tracer at a known or constant flow velocity along the pipe and then out the exit and sampling port at the end of the pipeline where its concentration is measured by a gas chromatograph. If a radiological contaminant is present in the pipe being tested, the presence of SO2F2 will be detected. The time of arrival of the SO2F2 can be used to locate the contaminant. If the pipe is free of radiological contamination, no SO2F2 will be detected. RCUT and PCUT are both effective technologies that can be used to detect contamination within pipelines without the need for mechanical or human inspection. These methods can be used to detect, locate, and/or estimate the volume of a variety of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, and heavy metals. While further optimization is needed for RCUT, the key first step of identification of a tracer compound appropriate for the application of detecting

  7. Residual Environmental Contamination at a Former Ferroniobium Production Site in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an aerial gamma survey, a site with residues from a former ferroniobium production facility was identified. In close collaboration with the current site operator, an inventory of the mineral residue piled on the ground was made and the material was characterized in terms of its radionuclide content (<1–12 and <1–60 Bq/g for radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series, respectively). The possibilities for total or partial use of this kind of heterogeneous material were evaluated and were mostly hindered by its chemical composition. Since it was documented that the residues had been used in the past for the levelling and filling of the site, a systematic gamma screening survey of the whole site was performed at ground level. Gamma dose rates of up to 6 μSv/h were detected at certain locations. Residues with elevated radionuclide concentrations were found to have been buried to depths of up to 1.5 m. In two measurement campaigns, the shallow and deep groundwater was screened for gross alpha and beta activity and for its chemical composition. Gross alpha and beta activity concentrations of up to 1000 and 6000 mBq/L, respectively, were found. At some locations, the pH reached a value of 12.9, as a result of past contamination by a certain calcium product. Short term and long term strategies for the cleanup process are currently under discussion. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystal scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.it [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Galenin, E.; Gektin, A. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Isaienko, V. [National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, 04655 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Nagorny, S.S.; Podviyanuk, R.B. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Tkachenko, S. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-04-01

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI{sub 2}(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to a characterization that includes relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for {gamma} quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of the SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both by using it as scintillator at sea level and by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI{sub 2}(Eu) detector to {alpha} particles ({alpha}/{beta} ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the {sup 226}Ra internal trace contamination of the crystal. We have measured: {alpha}/{beta}=0.55 at E{sub {alpha}}=7.7MeV, and no difference in the time decay of the scintillation pulses induced by {alpha} particles and {gamma} quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in {sup 84}Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity: T{sub 1/2}{approx}10{sup 15}-10{sup 16}yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation applications, including low-level counting experiments.

  9. A simple method with imaging plates for examination of soil contaminated with radioactive caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and convenient system with imaging plates (IPs) was well constructed for the radioactivity examination of soil contaminated with radioactive caesium. A set of two IP strips was vacuum-sealed with thin polyethylene film to prevent the IP strips from direct contacting soil and from being moisturized. In the examination of radioactive soil, a stainless steel pipe including this IP strip monitor was put into the ground and then it was kept in a lead container after being pulled out of the ground for the reduction of the surrounding gamma-ray background. In addition, a sensitive reader was well made for the measurement of the photostimulated luminescence through the scanning of a laser beam on the IP strip. It was confirmed from experiments on actual radioactive-caesium-contaminated soil that the IP strip monitor with the reader effectively detected beta-rays from radioactive caesium and could be satisfactorily used for the examination of radioactive soil. (author)

  10. Measurement of plutonium contamination through paint using a fiddler probe - 59250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha contamination detection usually relies on good surface conditions - unobstructed, smooth, clean and flat. However, in many circumstances, the conditions may be difficult, or it may be that there is a significant chance that contamination has been deliberately or accidentally painted over. Hence an alternative method of monitoring would be useful. In some areas of fuel manufacture and reprocessing, and in weapons manufacture, potential contamination is dominated by plutonium isotopes and by ingrown Am-241, derived from the beta decay of Pu-241. Plutonium is often thought of as a mainly an alpha emitter, together with a few weak betas detectable by direct means only with extreme difficulty. However, the alpha emitting isotopes of plutonium also emit significant L x-rays in the 11 to 20 keV energy range, as does Am-241, which also emits a 60 keV gamma with a 36 % probability. These X-rays are un-attenuated to any extent in air over a range of 1 metre. They also penetrate paint significantly, which makes them detectable by a suitable probe. The Fiddler probe was designed as an efficient detector of these X and gamma radiations. The window is thin beryllium and the scintillator is thin sodium iodide. This leads to a very efficient detection of both the X-rays in question and the 60 keV gamma radiation while keeping the background as low as possible. The signal from such a detector can be processed in several ways - gross counting above a threshold, counting in regions of interest or full spectrometry. The advantages of the latter include the minimisation of background, easy background correction, the ability to use the recorded X-ray spectrum to correct the measured counts and the identification of the presence of other gamma emitters. Nuvia Ltd have been developing techniques to look at the spectrum from Fiddler probes and derive a calibration factor, either from using the 60 keV gamma measurement only where the fingerprint is well known and stable, or by using

  11. The separation of transuranium elements from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:Common measurement methods for clearance measurements are either done qualitative by contamination monitors, or quantitative by in situ gamma spectrometry. But both methods have big disadvantages, because they're unable to detect HTD nuclides ('hard-to-detect') like 90Sr, a pure beta-emitter and among the transuranium nuclides the plutonium isotopes 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, which emit only alpha particles and 241Pu, which is an alpha- and beta emitting nuclide. Following the documents, screening the contaminated area by in-situ methodologies and determining the activity concentration of possible radionuclides, is the most recommended method for remediation strategies. In comparison with national and international recommended limits, the activity concentration of the respective radionuclides are of special interest, before any decontamination activity can start. Therefore, under remediation conditions, such radionuclides can only be evaluated by determining the nuclide vector with the definition of a suitable lead nuclide. Concerning the transuranium elements, 241Am, because of its attending gamma emission at 59.6 keV and being the progeny of 241Pu, lends itself being the lead nuclide for 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu. In order to establish the nuclide vector, soil samples from the contaminated areas have to be taken and analysed for HTD nuclides. In the beginning, soils samples have to be prepared before any analytical measurement can start. The samples have to be dried followed by calcination at 600 C degrees, grinding to powder, before leaching with 8 M nitric acid. After filtration radionuclides are separated by co-precipitation, ion exchange and extraction chromatography. But there're two hassles in this connection. First, the sampling preparation has to be done very sensitively; second, the amount of recovery from the soil matrix that is leached and passed into solution can only be estimated. The first problem can be kept under control by doing the sample

  12. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  13. Infrared spectra of olivine polymorphs - Alpha, beta phase and spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.

    1980-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of several olivines (alpha phase) and their corresponding beta phase (modified spinel) and spinel (gamma) high-pressure polymorphs are determined. Spectra were measured for ground and pressed samples of alpha and gamma A2SiO4, where A = Fe, Ni, Co; alpha and gamma Mg2GeO4; alpha Mg2SiO4; and beta Co2SiO4. The spectra are interpreted in terms of internal, tetrahedral and octagonal, and lattice vibration modes, and the spinel results are used to predict the spectrum of gamma Mg2SiO4. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples of gamma Mg2GeO4 heated to 730 and 1000 C provides evidence that partial inversion could occur in silicate spinels at elevated temperatures and pressures.

  14. The $\\{\\beta\\}$-expansion formalism in perturbative QCD and its extension

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the $\\{ \\beta \\}$-expansion for renormalization group invariant quantities tracing this expansion to the different contractions of the corresponding incomplete BPHZ $R$-operation. All of the coupling renormalizations, which follow from these contractions, should be taken into account for the $\\{ \\beta \\}$-expansion. We illustrate this feature considering the nonsinglet Adler function $D^\\text{NS}$ in the third order of perturbation. We propose a generalization of the $\\{ \\beta \\}$-expansion for the renormalization group covariant quantities -- the $\\{ \\beta,\\gamma \\}$-expansion.

  15. Fast-timing studies of nuclei below $^{68}$Ni populated in the $\\beta$-decay of Mn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Jokinen, A; Simpson, G S; Garcia borge, M J; Turrion nieves, M; Koester, U H; Georgiev, G P; Fraile prieto, L M; Aprahamian, A

    2008-01-01

    We intend to investigate structure of nuclei populated in the $\\beta$-decay of Mn isotopes via the ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) technique. With this method we will measure dynamic moments in Fe isotopes and their daughters in order to characterize the role of particle-hole excitation across the ${N}$=40 sub-shell closure and the development of collectivity.

  16. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  17. Malarial pigment haemozoin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and LPS do not stimulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in immuno-purified human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceretto Monica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO following upmodulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS by haemozoin (HZ, inflammatory cytokines and LPS may provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria by killing hepatic and blood forms of parasites and inhibiting the cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (RBC to endothelial cells. Monocytes and macrophages are considered to contribute importantly to protective upregulation of iNOS and production of NO. Data obtained with murine phagocytes fed with human HZ and synthetic HZ (sHZ indicate that supplemental treatment of those cells with IFN-gamma elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NO production, providing a potential mechanism linking HZ phagocytosis and increased production of NO. Purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of P. falciparum HZ and sHZ supplemental to treatment with IFN-gamma and/or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix on iNOS protein and mRNA expression in immuno-purified human monocytes. Methods Adherent immunopurified human monocytes (purity >85%, and murine phagocytic cell lines RAW 264.7, N11 and ANA1 were fed or not with P. falciparum HZ or sHZ and treated or not with IFN-gamma or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix. Production of NO was quantified in supernatants, iNOS protein and mRNA expression were measured after immunoprecipitation and Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCT, respectively. Results Phagocytosis of HZ/sHZ by human monocytes did not increase iNOS protein and mRNA expression and NO production either after stimulation by IFN-gamma or the cytokine-LPS mix. By contrast, in HZ/sHZ-laden murine macrophages, identical treatment with IFN-gamma and the cytokine-LPS mix elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NOS metabolites production, in agreement with literature data. Conclusion Results indicate that human monocytes fed or not with HZ/sHZ were constantly

  18. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  19. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut. PMID:24003482

  20. Sources of radioactive contamination inside houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People may be exposed at home to multiple sources of nuclear radiation such as gamma, beta and alpha rays emitters. House atmosphere is polluted with nuclear radiation from water pollutants and rocks used in the construction. Radon is the only radioactive non-metallic element. Environmental organizations estimated that all houses contain varying concentrations of radon gas, and the residents are exposed to levels of radon over the years. The source of radon in houses is uranium, which may be found in rocks of the house, soil of the garden, water of the deep artesian wells and building materials, especially granite rocks. Breathing air that contains high levels of radon causes lung cancer. Radon is the second cause of lung disease after smoking. There are many means to reduce house pollution including: utilisation of air filters to remove contaminated dust particles, keep residential areas away from the establishments that use nuclear technology or embedded by nuclear waste, avoid using materials made from asbestos in construction works and proper use and disposal of chemicals and medicines containing radioactive isotopes. (author)

  1. Induction of nuclear factor-kappaB and its downstream genes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta has a pro-apoptotic role in pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, F; Pirot, P; Naamane, N; Kreins, A Y; Rasschaert, J; Moore, F; Théâtre, E; Verhaeghe, C; Magnusson, N E; Chariot, A; Orntoft, T F; Eizirik, D L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IL-1beta and TNF-alpha contribute to pancreatic beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Both cytokines activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but recent observations suggest that NF-kappaB blockade prevents IL-1beta + IFN-gamma- but not TNF-alpha + IFN......: Blocking NF-kappaB activation protected beta cells against IL-1beta + IFNgamma- or TNFalpha + IFNgamma-induced apoptosis. Blocking de novo protein synthesis did not increase TNF-alpha- or IL-1beta-induced beta cell death, in line with the observations that cytokines induced the expression of the anti...

  2. Measuring the Luminosity of a gamma gamma Collider with gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma Events

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko, V.; Moenig, K.; Shishkina, T.

    2003-01-01

    The process gamma gamma -> l+ l- is highly suppressed when the total angular momentum of the two colliding photons is zero so that it cannot be used for luminosity determination. This configuration, however is needed for Higgs production at a photon collider. It will be shown that the process gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma can be used in this case to measure the luminosity of a collider with a precision that is good enough not to limit the error on the partial decay width Gamma(H -> gamma gamma).

  3. Phoswich Detector for Simultaneous Measuring Alpha/beta Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new type phoswich detector consisting of the ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for alpha/beta-ray simultaneous counting was developed for monitoring radiological contamination inside pipes. The detection performance was estimated using the PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method as a function of distance between the scintillator and radioactive source. The attenuation of particles traveling through a thin film for preventing the detector from being contaminated was experimentally estimated. It is concluded from our investigation that the phoswich detector developed can provide a sufficient alpha/beta-ray discrimination. The application of a thin film for preventing the detector from being contaminated was proven to be feasible.

  4. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  5. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  6. A silicon array detector for high-energy betas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of significant levels of certain gamma and beta emitting isotopes could allow on-site Inspection teams working under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to localize probable vent and fissure locations. Thus, sophisticated drilling and radionuclide measurements could then be made more effectively allowing for a higher probability of correctly identifying a nuclear event. In order to address this need we have developed a silicon array coupled with a Nal for detecting gammas, high-energy betas, and beta-gamma coincidences. The pursuit of this detection method is now viable since large-area, high-purity silicon wafers are now commercially available making this layered, large-area technique technically and economically feasible. We have designed, constructed, and tested a prototype detector system and we will present out initial test data

  7. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms

  8. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 protects beta cells against IL-1beta-mediated toxicity through inhibition of multiple nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated proapoptotic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Allan Ertman; Heding, P E; Frobøse, H;

    2004-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via pathways dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C. We recently showed suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 to be a natural negative feedback...... regulator of IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-mediated signalling in rat islets and beta cell lines, preventing their deleterious effects. However, the mechanisms underlying SOCS-3 inhibition of IL-1beta signalling and prevention against apoptosis remain unknown....

  9. Low background detector with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators to search for double beta decay of 116Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S; Bernabei, R; Boiko, R S; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Chernyak, D M; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Vacri, M L; Dossovitskiy, A E; Galashov, E N; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Konovalov, S I; Kovtun, G P; Kudovbenko, V M; Laubenstein, M; Mikhlin, A L; Nisi, S; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Shlegel, V N; Solopikhin, D A; Stenin, Yu G; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vasiliev, Ya V; Virich, V D

    2011-01-01

    A cadmium tungstate crystal boule enriched in $^{116}$Cd to 82% with mass of 1868 g was grown by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique. The isotopic composition of cadmium and the trace contamination of the crystal were estimated by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry. The crystal scintillators produced from the boule were subjected to characterization that included measurements of transmittance and energy resolution. A low background scintillation detector with two $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ crystal scintillators (586 g and 589 g) was developed. The detector was running over 1727 h deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy), which allowed to estimate the radioactive contamination of the enriched crystal scintillators. The radiopurity of a third $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ sample (326 g) was tested with the help of ultra-low background high purity germanium $\\gamma$ detector. Monte Carlo simulations of double $\\beta$ processes in $^{116}$Cd were used to estimate ...

  10. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga; Fastbom, J; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2004-01-01

    (beta-sAPP) in brain tissue sections from the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe. Strong granular beta-sAPP staining was found throughout the gray matter of all three areas, while white matter staining was considerably weaker. beta-sAPP was found to be localized in astrocytes and in axons. We found...... the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques and......beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...

  11. Molecular comparison of delta beta-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin DNAs: evidence of a regulatory area?

    OpenAIRE

    Ottolenghi, S; Giglioni, B; Taramelli, R; Comi, P; Mazza, U; Saglio, G.; Camaschella, C.; Izzo, P; Cao, A; Galanello, R; Gimferrer, E.; Baiget, M.; Gianni, A M

    1982-01-01

    The hematological phenotypes of several Mediterranean patients with delta beta-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin have been characterized. Although clinical and hematological characteristics are essentially superimposable in all heterozygous delta beta-thalassemics, these patients show typical G gamma/A gamma ratios in their Hb F, ranging from approximately 0.07 in Sardinian to approximately 0.15 in Sicilian and approximately 0.35 in Spanish patients. A gamma Sardinian...

  12. Modeling the transmission of beta rays through thin foils in planar geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ionescu, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of the transmission of beta rays through thin foils in planar geometry based on the plane source concept, using Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport and least squares fitting. Applications of modeling results for calculating the efficiency of large-area beta sources, transmission coefficient of beta rays through thin foils and the beta detection efficiency of large-area detectors used in surface contamination measurements are also presented. PMID:26524407

  13. The treatment as tritium wastes of expired beta light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After about 10 years of operation, the loss of luminance of the beta light sources amounts up to 75% and consequently, their replacement is required. The storage without conditioning of expired sources as radioactive wastes is not recommended due to the fragility of their glass envelope and to the gaseous state of the radioactive material. Different technological procedures for beta light source treatment were identified. Technological principles consist in breaking the expired sources in a vacuum chamber followed by: (a) 3 He-3 H mixture separation and selective absorption of tritium on the 238 U; (b) Na3H and NaB3H synthesis or; (c) catalytic oxidation at T2O and CH3COOT synthesis by hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. Resulting contaminated gases were oxidized at HTO (liquid tritium waste). The storage of HTO, as conditioned radioactive waste requires its incorporation in absorbed materials, the most utilized being silica gel and zeolites. Due to its high capacity for water absorption, the polyacrylic acids (PAA) represent an interesting alternative for HTO storage. Simulation of self radiolytic processes was realized using the gamma radiation field emitted by an irradiation source of 60 Co (IETI 10000 - NIPNE-HH) which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 3 kGy (0.3 Mrad/h). The test was performed on hydrogels with various swelling degrees (PAA:water from 1:1 to 1:300) and absorbed doses between 0.1 and 20 kGy. The gel/sol ratio variation of PAA hydrogels was analyzed. (authors)

  14. Utilization of wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive surface contamination measurements require lightweight, large area and high efficiency detector. In most existing scintillation detectors there is a tradeoff between effective area and scintillation light collection. By using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers the scintillation light may be collected efficiently also in a large area detector. In this study, WLS fibers were coupled to a beta sensitive plastic scintillator layer and to a alpha sensitive silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) layer for detecting both alpha and beta particles. The WLS fibers collect the scintillation light from the whole detector and transfer it to a single PMT. This first prototype unique configuration enables monitoring radioactive contaminated surfaces by both sides of the detector and provides high gamma rejection. In this paper, the detector structure, as well as the detector’s measured linear response, will be described. The measured detection efficiency of 238Pu alpha particles (5.5 MeV) is ~63%. The measured detection efficiency for beta particles is ~89% for 90Sr–90Y (average energy of 195.8 keV, 934.8 keV), ~50% for 36Cl (average energy of 251.3 keV), and 35% for 137Cs (average energy of 156.8 keV)

  15. Utilization of wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifergan, Y.; Dadon, S.; Israelashvili, I.; Osovizky, A.; Gonen, E.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Smadja, D.; Knafo, Y.; Ginzburg, D.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Mazor, T.

    2015-06-01

    Low level radioactive surface contamination measurements require lightweight, large area and high efficiency detector. In most existing scintillation detectors there is a tradeoff between effective area and scintillation light collection. By using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers the scintillation light may be collected efficiently also in a large area detector. In this study, WLS fibers were coupled to a beta sensitive plastic scintillator layer and to a alpha sensitive silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) layer for detecting both alpha and beta particles. The WLS fibers collect the scintillation light from the whole detector and transfer it to a single PMT. This first prototype unique configuration enables monitoring radioactive contaminated surfaces by both sides of the detector and provides high gamma rejection. In this paper, the detector structure, as well as the detector's measured linear response, will be described. The measured detection efficiency of 238Pu alpha particles (5.5 MeV) is ~63%. The measured detection efficiency for beta particles is ~89% for 90Sr-90Y (average energy of 195.8 keV, 934.8 keV), ~50% for 36Cl (average energy of 251.3 keV), and 35% for 137Cs (average energy of 156.8 keV).

  16. Utilization of wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifergan, Y., E-mail: Yairifergan@gmail.com [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Dadon, S. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Osovizky, A. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd, Beer Sheva (Israel); Gonen, E.; Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Smadja, D. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Knafo, Y.; Ginzburg, D. [Radiation Detection Department, Rotem Industries Ltd, Beer Sheva (Israel); Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Mazor, T. [Electronics & Control Laboratories, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2015-06-01

    Low level radioactive surface contamination measurements require lightweight, large area and high efficiency detector. In most existing scintillation detectors there is a tradeoff between effective area and scintillation light collection. By using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers the scintillation light may be collected efficiently also in a large area detector. In this study, WLS fibers were coupled to a beta sensitive plastic scintillator layer and to a alpha sensitive silver-activated zinc sulfide ZnS(Ag) layer for detecting both alpha and beta particles. The WLS fibers collect the scintillation light from the whole detector and transfer it to a single PMT. This first prototype unique configuration enables monitoring radioactive contaminated surfaces by both sides of the detector and provides high gamma rejection. In this paper, the detector structure, as well as the detector’s measured linear response, will be described. The measured detection efficiency of {sup 238}Pu alpha particles (5.5 MeV) is ~63%. The measured detection efficiency for beta particles is ~89% for {sup 90}Sr–{sup 90}Y (average energy of 195.8 keV, 934.8 keV), ~50% for {sup 36}Cl (average energy of 251.3 keV), and 35% for {sup 137}Cs (average energy of 156.8 keV)

  17. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm2xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm2xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm2xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm2xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm2xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm2xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  18. Constraining sterile neutrinos with a low energy beta-beam

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwalla, Sanjib K.; Huber, Patrick; Link, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    We show that a low energy beta-beam facility can be used to search for sterile neutrinos by measuring the disappearance of electron anti-neutrinos. This channel is particularly sensitive since it allows to use inverse beta decay as detection reaction; thus it is free from hadronic uncertainties, provided the neutrino energy is below the pion production threshold. This corresponds to a choice of the Lorentz gamma=30 for the 6He parent ion. Moreover, a disappearance measurement allows the const...

  19. Constraining sterile neutrinos with a low energy beta-beam

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility to use a low energy beta-beam facility to search for sterile neutrinos by measuring the disappearance of electron anti-neutrinos. This channel is particularly sensitive since it allows to use inverse beta decay as detection reaction; thus it is free from hadronic uncertainties, provided the neutrino energy is below the pion production threshold. This corresponds to a choice of the Lorentz gamma=30 for the 6He parent ion. Moreover, a disappearance measurement allows th...

  20. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  1. Cross sections for low-energy $\\pi^-\\gamma$ reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, N.(Physik Department T39, Technische Universität München, Garching, D-85747, Germany); Friedrich, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    We review the cross sections for low-energy $\\pi^- \\gamma$ reactions in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. Charged pion Compton scattering, $\\pi^- \\gamma\\to \\pi^-\\gamma$, is considered up to one-loop order where the pion's internal structure enters through the difference of the electric and magnetic pion polarizability, $\\alpha_\\pi - \\beta_\\pi$. The ongoing COMPASS experiment aims at measuring this important structure constant with high statistics using the Primakoff effect. In the ...

  2. The characteristics of a low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer at China JinPing underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low background germanium gamma ray spectrometer, GeTHU, has been installed at China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The integral background count rate of the spectrometer was 0.629 cpm between 40 and 2700 keV, the origins of which were studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Detection limits and efficiencies were calculated for selected gamma peaks. Some samples of rare event experiments were measured and 137Cs contamination was found in boric acid. GeTHU will be mainly used to measure environmental samples and screen materials in dark matter and double beta decay experiments. - Highlights: • The first low background gamma ray spectrometer (GeTHU) was developed at CJPL. • It has a large inner chamber which can host large samples for different purposes. • The background characteristics are presented and the origin is studied. • Detection limits are given for selected radionuclides and efficies are calculated. • Some samples were measured and 137Cs contamination was found in boric acid

  3. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return of the...

  4. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  5. Radiological characterisation on V1 NPP technological systems and buildings - Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : average dose rate, maximum dose rate, average surface contamination of floor and walls and possible identified higher local surface contamination. In the scope of the project, more than 3400 direct dose rates measurements, 1450 direct surface contamination measurements, 1200 laboratory alpha/beta/gamma analysis of outer surfaces, 560 sample analysis of primary circuit technological equipment inner surface, 20 in situ gamma spectrometric measurements and 15 sample analysis of concrete drilling cores, have been performed. Final list of RNV included 8 vectors for contamination. Radiological data of individual items in DDB have been used for determination of total radiological inventory of V1 NPP. (authors)

  6. Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs

  7. Comparison of a bioremediation process of PAHs in a PAH-contaminated soil at field and laboratory scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was carried on the same initial soil and at the same time than a windrow treatment in order to compare results at field and laboratory scales for a soil mainly contaminated with PAHs. After 6 months, laboratory experiments gave similar but less scattered results than those obtained in the field indicating that the field biotreatment was well optimised. The total amount of PAHs degraded after 6 months was ca. 90% and degradation rates followed a negative exponential trend. Relative degradation rates of 3- and 4-ring PAHs were about 32 and 7.2 times greater than those of 5- and 6-ring PAHs, respectively. With respect to the bacterial community, bacteria belonging to Gamma-proteobacteria persisted whereas Beta-proteobacteria appeared after three months of biotreatment when PAH concentration was low enough to render the soil non-ecotoxic. - Highlights: ► Laboratory experiment representative of PAH-contaminated soil biotreatment. ► Beta-proteobacteria : a good bioindicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment. ► Optimizing biotreatment conditions with a laboratory experiment. ► Monitoring biotreatment process with a laboratory experiment. - Comparison of field and laboratory biotreatments of the same PAH-contaminated soil gave similar results with respect to PAH concentration and bacterial diversity.

  8. Nuclear shape phase transition within a conjonction of {\\gamma}-rigid and {\\gamma}-stable collective behaviours in deformation dependent mass formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Chabab, M.; Batoul, A. El; Lahbas, A.; Oulne, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of a conjonction of $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable collective motions in critical point symmetries of the phase transitions from spherical to deformed shapes of nuclei using exactly separable version of the Bohr Hamiltonian with deformation-dependent mass term. The deformation-dependent mass is applied simultaneously to $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable parts of this famous collective Hamiltonian. Moreover, the $\\beta$ part of the problem is ...

  9. On the four-loop strong coupling beta-function in the SM

    CERN Document Server

    Bednyakov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In the talk the leading four-loop contribution to the beta-function of the strong coupling in the SM is discussed. Some details of calculation techniques are provided. Special attention is paid to the ambiguity due to utilized $\\gamma_5$ treatment and a particular prescription with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ is advocated. As a by-product of our computation the four-loop beta-function in QCD with "gluino" is also obtained.

  10. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  11. GammaModeler 3-D gamma-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide 3-D visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of 3-D visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders

  12. Development of Dose Assessment Procedures and a Computer Code for Control of Skin Exposure due to Radioactive Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High doses to skin lead to harmful effects to the exposed skin, such as skin erythema, severe deep ulceration of the dermis, and cancer induction. Skin exposure due to contamination, on skin or clothing is highly localized and the skin dose equivalent cannot be adequately measured by a personal dosimeter, which calls for detection and quantification of personal contamination and appropriate assessment of skin doses from the results. In this study, new and pragmatic procedures and a computational tool are developed for skin exposure control at a nuclear facilities involving unsealed radioactive material. As a trigger for initiation of skin dose assessment, a screening level of 600 ccpm (corrected counts per minute) measured with a standard frisker having a pancake GM detector is derived based on the dose limit to skin, potential frequency of contamination, and correlations between beta count rates and estimated dose rates to skin. A quick dose assessment model directly relating count rates to skin dose rates was provided for use at lower level contamination. For initiation of detailed dose assessment, which requires considerable efforts such as sampling of contaminant, gamma spectroscopy and computation of skin doses, a screening level of 12000 ccpm is proposed. With respect to the hot particle issue, a screening level of 25000 ccpm is recommended for initiation of actions to search hot particles. For use in the detailed skin dose assessment, a new compute code, K-SKIN, has been developed. The K-SKIN code calculates dose distribution over the area under contamination using point kernels of monoenergetic electrons. These kernels are averaged over the beta spectra of contaminated radionuclides to get the dose distributions. Then beta dose rates to the skin are calculated by numerical integration of point kernel data over contaminated area. Photon dose rates, if involved, are calculated using the specific gamma-ray dose constant for the radionuclides. K-SKIN also has

  13. High-resolution studies of beta-delayed proton emitters at IGISOL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Hankonen, S; Honkanen, A; Huikari, J; Lhersonneau, G; Lipas, PO; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Oinonen, M; Nieminen, A; Siiskonen, T; Wang, JC

    1998-01-01

    Beta-decays of Al-23 and Ti-41 have been studied by applying ion guide techniques, gamma detection and a gas-Si telescope for charged-particle detection. The experimental beta-decay strength of Ti-41 was found to be quenched by a factor of q(2) = 0.64 compared to our shell model calculations below 8

  14. Characterisation of radioactive contaminated materials by combined radiometric and spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, a combined analytical methodology is described, for characterization of radioactive contaminated materials. The subject of testing activities was a set of solutions provided by the Cernavoda NPP, which are originating from processes of radiological survey of workplaces in the plant. In the introduction section, a theoretical approach was given to the origin and nature of main radionuclides occurring in the primary cooling system of the nuclear power plant, with the aim to establish selection criteria and performance requirements for the analytical methods to be used in the development of the characterization methodology. A combination of radiometric and spectrometric methods was selected, based on gross beta counting, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. (authors)

  15. Radioecological state of some surface water systems of contaminated areas of both Gomel and Mogilev Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological situation of different ecosystems of Belarus and their components has been analysed. Such components of the surface water ecosystems as water, suspensions, sediments and soils of water-collection areas were used for the investigation of the content of cesium 137 and strontium 90. The received data were given since 1990. The content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in the components of water ecosystems was counted in the laboratory conditions by means of standard methods of beta radiometry, semiconductor gamma spectrometry and radiochemistry. The error of measurement of radioactivity was not higher than 25 and 35% for cesium 137 and strontium 90 accordingly. Water ecosystems were distinguished by the state of contamination of water-collection areas and hydrological parameters. These and some other reasons considered in the article influence on the character of cesium 137 and strontium 90 behaviour in water ecosystems

  16. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  17. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 2. The primary structure of the gamma 1 protein chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, R; Hempel, J; Kaiser, R; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    The primary structure of the gamma 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme gamma 1 gamma 1 was deduced by characterization of 36 tryptic and 2 CNBr peptides. The polypeptide chain is composed of 373 amino acid residues. gamma 1 differs from the beta 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 21 positions, and from the E subunit of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 43 positions including a gap at position 128 as in the beta 1 subunit. All zinc-liganding residues from the E subunit of the horse protein and the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme are conserved, but like beta 1, gamma 1 also has an additional cysteine residue at position 286 (in the positional numbering system of the horse enzyme) due to a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most amino acid exchanges preserve the properties of the residues affected and are largely located on the surface of the molecules, away from the active site and the coenzyme binding region. However, eight positions with charge differences in relation to the E subunit of the horse enzyme are noticed. These result in a net positive charge increase of one in gamma 1 versus E, explaining the electrophoretic mobilities on starch gels. Of functional significance is the conservation of Ser-48 in gamma 1 relative to E. The residue is close to the active site but different (Thr-48) in the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme. Thus, the closer structural relationship between human gamma 1 and horse E enzyme subunit than between beta 1 and E is also reflected in functionally important residues, explaining a greater similarity between gamma 1 gamma 1 and EE than between beta 1 beta 1 and EE. PMID:6391921

  18. Habitat heterogeneity drives the geographical distribution of beta diversity: the case of New Zealand stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Astorga, Anna; Death, Russell; Death, Fiona; Paavola, Riku; Chakraborty, Manas; Muotka, Timo

    2014-01-01

    To define whether the beta diversity of stream invertebrate communities in New Zealand exhibits geographical variation unexplained by variation in gamma diversity and, if so, what mechanisms (productivity, habitat heterogeneity, dispersal limitation, disturbance) best explain the observed broad-scale beta diversity patterns. We sampled 120 streams across eight regions (stream catchments), spanning a north–south gradient of 12° of latitude, and calculated beta diversity (with both species rich...

  19. Applications of TAGS data in beta decay energies and decay heat calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, N. S.; 片倉 純一

    2007-01-01

    The recent data of beta-decay intensity measured by using the total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (TAGS), for several fission products (FP), has been applied for calculations of the average energies and spectra, and decay heat summations. The calculations were performed based on the Gross theory of beta decay, in which the beta strength functions were experimentally derived from TAGS data. The deviations of decay heat power predictions from the original decay data of JENDL Decay Data File...

  20. Total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy of beta delayed neutron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Rice, S.; Agramunt, J.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Porta, A.; Fallot, M.; Jordan, M. D.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Bowry, M.; Bui, V. M.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eloma, V.; Eronen, T.; Garcia, A.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Moore, I.; Rissanen, J.; Ńystö, J.; Penttilä, H.; Kankainen, A.; Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.; Perez, A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Farrelly, G. F.; Weber, C.; Mendoza, E.; Igisol People

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary results of the data analysis of the beta decay of 94Rb using a novel - segmented- total absorption spectrometer are shown in this contribution. This result is part of a systematic study of important contributors to the decay heat problem in nuclear reactors. In this particular case the goal is to determine the beta intensity distribution below the neutron separation energy and the gamma/beta competition above.

  1. Contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'Contaminated sites' refers to soil and groundwater contamination caused by local sources such as landfills or industrial sites. As of July 2002, there were in Austria 2,372 sites registered as potentially contaminated sites, from them: 165 sites required remediation, for 55 sites non remedial measures were necessary and to date 65 sites were remediated with a cost of 700,000 M Euro. An overview about funding of remedial measures, estimation of the extent of the problem (remediation requirements, chlorinated hydrocarbons accidents), deficits (lack of legal harmonization, slow implementation of remedial measures, etc.) is presented. Table 1. (nevyjel)

  2. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  3. Possible background reductions in double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, R; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Bing, O; Brudanin, V B; Caffrey, A J; Caurier, E; Errahmane, K; Etienvre, A I; Guyonnet, J L; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Jollet, C; Jullian, S; Kochetov, O I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Leccia, F; Longuemare, C; Marquet, C; Mauger, F; Nicholson, H W; Ohsumi, H; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu P; Simard, L C; Stekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Timkin, V; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vàla, L; Vanyushin, I A; Vasilyev, V; Vorobel, V; Vylov, T D; Hubert, Ph.; Marquet, Ch.; Shitov, Yu.; Vylov, Ts.

    2003-01-01

    The background induced by radioactive impurities of $^{208}\\rm Tl$ and $^{214}\\rm Bi$ in the source of the double beta experiment NEMO-3 has been investigated. New methods of data analysis which decrease the background from the above mentioned contamination are identified. The techniques can also be applied to other double beta decay experiments capable of measuring independently the energies of the two electrons.

  4. Antropogen contamination of the earth atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the antropogen contamination sources of the earth atmosphere the total beta activity of rain water, carbon 14 activity according to the annual rings of trees and the krypton 85 activity of the air were determined systematically for several years in Hungary. The data of aerial contamination due to atmospheric nuclear explosions and to the impact of nuclear facilities especially nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants are discussed and demonstrated in graphs. (V.N.) 12 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  6. Gamma-ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques using gamma radiation are described. The methods include gamma-ray induced reactions, selective gamma-ray scattering and methods which rely on natural radioactivity. The gamma-ray resonance scattering technique can be used for the determination of copper and nickel in bulk samples and drill cores. The application of gamma-gamma methods to iron ore analysis is outlined

  7. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  8. The beta strength function structure in \\beta + decay of lutecium, thulium and cesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Alkhazov, G D; Naumov, Yu V; Orlov, S Yu; Vitman, V D

    1981-01-01

    The spectra of total gamma -absorption in the decays of some lutetium, thulium and cesium isotopes have been measured. The probabilities for level population in the decay of the isotopes have been determined. The deduced beta strength functions reveal pronounced structure. Calculations of the strength functions using the Saxon-Woods potential and the residual Gamow-Teller interaction are presented. It is shown that in beta /sup +/ decay of light thulium and cesium isotopes the strength function comprises more than 70% of the Gamow-Teller excitations with mu /sub tau /=+1. This result is the first direct observation of the Gamov-Teller resonance in beta /sup +/ decay of nuclei with T/sub z/>0. (21 refs).

  9. Cost comparison of laboratory methods and four field screening technologies for uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the problem of characterizing uranium-contaminated surface soil at federal facilities, the Department of Energy has the development of four uranium field screening technologies, under the direction of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program. These four technologies include: a long-range alpha detector a beta scintillation detector, an in situ gamma detector, and a mobile laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP/AES) laboratory. As part of the performance assessment for these field screening technologies, cost estimates for the development and operation of each technology were created. A cost study was conducted to compare three of the USID field screening technologies to the use of traditional field surveying equipment to adequately characterize surface soils of a one-acre site. The results indicate that the use of traditional equipment costs more than the in situ gamma detector, but less than the beta scintillation detector and LRAD. The use of traditional field surveying equipment results in cost savings of 4% and 34% over the use of the beta scintillation and LRAD technologies, respectively. A study of single-point surface soil sampling and laboratory analysis costs was also conducted. Operational costs of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory were compared with operational costs of traditional sampling and analysis, which consists of collecting soil samples and conducting analysis in a radiochemical laboratory. The cost study indicates that the use of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory results in cost savings of 23% and 40% over traditional field sampling and laboratory analysis conducted by characterization groups at two DOE facilities

  10. Beta-delayed neutron decay of $^{33}$Na

    CERN Document Server

    Radivojevic, Z; Caurier, E; Cederkäll, J; Courtin, S; Dessagne, P; Jokinen, A; Knipper, A; Le Scornet, G; Lyapin, V G; Miehé, C; Nowacki, F; Nummela, S; Oinonen, M; Poirier, E; Ramdhane, M; Trzaska, W H; Walter, G; Äystö, J

    2002-01-01

    Beta-delayed neutron decay of /sup 33/Na has been studied using the on-line mass separator ISOLDE. The delayed neutron spectra were measured by time-of-flight technique using fast scintillators. Two main neutron groups at 800(60) and 1020(80) keV were assigned to the /sup 33/Na decay, showing evidence for strong feeding of states at about 4 MeV in /sup 33/Mg. By simultaneous beta - gamma -n counting the delayed neutron emission probabilities P/sub 1n/ = 47(6)% and P /sub 2n/ = 13(3)% were determined. The half-life value for /sup 33 /Na, T/sub 1/2/ = 8.0(3) ms, was measured by three different techniques, one employing identifying gamma transitions and two employing beta and neutron counting. (21 refs).

  11. A probabilistic description of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discrete probability model is used to aid in the description of gamma-ray spectroscopic data obtained from a radioactively contaminated territory. The approach gives a natural probability for distinguishing contaminated regions and is useful for describing spatial vector valued discrete random fields. Using the simplest variant of this model, a part of the territory adjoining the former Semipalatinsk's nuclear test site in Kazakhstan has been investigated. Probabilities of exceeding the safety limits for 137Cs and integral gamma-radiation have been estimated

  12. Gamma sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal action of gamma radiation is based on the disruption of DNA molecules. The sensitivity of (micro)organisms towards radiation varies. In industrial sterilization generally a radiation dose of 25 kGy is applied. Industrial radiation facilities consist of a radiation source, a biological shield and an automatic transport system. Radiation penetrates from all directions into the product and at all positions approximately the same dose is received. The only variable parameter is the velocity of the transport, which in turn determines the total dose received by the product. A number of provisions ensure that the product receives the correct treatment. Some materials show dose-dependent changes resulting from a radiation treatment. Several manufacturers of plastics offer radiation-stable compositions. Hospitals and other users of an irradiation facility have to ensure that the product they offer for gamma sterilization, can stand a treatment. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Double beta decay experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  14. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  15. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  16. GARCH Gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Engle; Joshua V. Rosenberg

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of hedging option positions when the underlying asset exhibits stochastic volatility. By parameterizing the volatility process as GARCH, and utilizing risk- neutral valuation, we estimate hedging parameters (delta and gamma) using Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate hedging parameters for options on the Standard and Poor's 500 index, a bond futures index, a weighted foreign exchange rate index, and an oil futures index. We find that Black-Scholes and GARCH delta...

  17. Simulation studies for Tin Bolometer Array for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, V; Mathimalar, S; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify and reduce the gamma radiation which can be a significant source of background for any double beta decay experiment. The TIN.TIN detector array, which is under development for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in $^{124}$Sn, has the potential to utilize the hit multiplicity information to discriminate the gamma background from the events of interest. Monte Carlo simulations for optimizing the design of a Tin detector module has been performed by varying element sizes with an emphasis on the gamma background reduction capabilities of the detector array.

  18. Development of a three-layer phoswich alpha–beta–gamma imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiation monitoring at the sites of such nuclear power plant accidents as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors are needed not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. In some applications, imaging detectors are required to detect the distribution of plutonium particles that emit alpha particles and radiocesium in foods that emits beta particles and gamma photons. To solve these requirements, we developed an imaging detector that can measure the distribution of alpha and beta particles as well as gamma photons. The imaging detector consists of three-layer scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: ~5 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. Using pulse shape discrimination, the images of these layers can be separated. The position information is calculated by the Anger principle from 8×8 anode signals from the PSPMT. The images for the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons are individually formed by the pulse shape discriminations for each layer. We detected alpha particle images in the first layer and beta particle images in the second layer. Gamma photon images were detected in the second and third layers. The spatial resolution for the alpha and beta particles was ~1.25 mm FWHM and less than 2 mm FWHM for the gamma photons. We conclude that our developed alpha–beta–gamma imaging detector is promising for imaging applications not only for the environmental monitoring of radionuclides but also for medical and molecular

  19. Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60Co, 22Na, 47Ca and 148Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.)

  20. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high

  1. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 106 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO2, the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  2. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity on ...

  3. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity on...

  4. Measurement of radioactive contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos, a comprehensive program is underway for the development of sensitive, practical, nondestructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics in bulk solid wastes. The program encompasses a broad range of techniques, including sophisticated active and passive gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron detection systems, pulsed portable neutron generator interrogation systems, and electron accelerator-based techniques. The techniques can be used with either low-level or high-level beta-gamma wastes in either low-density or high-density matrices. The techniques are quite sensitive (< 10 nCi/g detection) and, in many cases, isotopic specific. Waste packages range in size from small cardboard boxes to large metal or wooden crates. Considerable effort is being expended on waste matrix identification to improve assay accuracy

  5. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  6. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  7. Limits on the quartic couplings $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ and $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ from $e^+e^-$ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A; Montano, J; Pérez, M A

    2013-01-01

    We obtain limits on the quartic neutral gauge bosons couplings $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ and $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ using LEP 2 data published by the L3 Collaboration on the reactions $e^+e^-\\to \\gamma\\gamma\\gamma, Z\\gamma\\gamma$. We also obtain $95 {0.8mm}%$ C. L. limits on these couplings at the future linear colliders energies. The LEP 2 data induce limits of order $10^{-5}$ for the $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ couplings and of order $10^{-2}$ for the $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ couplings, which are still above the respective Standard Model predictions. Future $e^+e^-$ linear colliders may improve these limits by one or two orders of magnitude.

  8. Gamma1- and gamma2-syntrophins, two novel dystrophin-binding proteins localized in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, G; Mirabella, M; Ricci, E; Belsito, A; Abbondanza, C; Servidei, S; Puca, A A; Tonali, P; Puca, G A; Nigro, V

    2000-05-26

    Dystrophin is the scaffold of a protein complex, disrupted in inherited muscular dystrophies. At the last 3' terminus of the gene, a protein domain is encoded, where syntrophins are tightly bound. These are a family of cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins. Three genes have been described encoding one acidic (alpha1) and two basic (beta1 and beta2) proteins of approximately 57-60 kDa. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel putative members of the syntrophin family, named gamma1- and gamma2-syntrophins. The human gamma1-syntrophin gene is composed of 19 exons and encodes a brain-specific protein of 517 amino acids. The human gamma2-syntrophin gene is composed of at least 17 exons, and its transcript is expressed in brain and, to a lesser degree, in other tissues. We mapped the gamma1-syntrophin gene to human chromosome 8q11 and the gamma2-syntrophin gene to chromosome 2p25. Yeast two-hybrid experiments and pull-down studies showed that both proteins can bind the C-terminal region of dystrophin and related proteins. We raised antibodies against these proteins and recognized expression in both rat and human central neurons, coincident with RNA in situ hybridization of adjacent sections. Our present findings suggest a differentiated role of a modified dystrophin-associated complex in the central nervous system. PMID:10747910

  9. Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be

  10. Gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela satellite series has recently detected gamma bursts in the 0.2-1.5MeV energy range. These bursts last an average of from 0.1 to 10s and have a fine time structure, with pulses lasting less than several tens of milliseconds. With simultaneous observations from different satellites it has been possible to determine the spatial origin of some of the bursts. No correlation, however, has been made with known objects. In spite of the fragmentary character of the information received to date, several theories have already been proposed to account for these phenomena

  11. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Sprague, Andrew G; de Fougerolles, Antonin R; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of...... alpha(1)beta(1) parallels that of viral-specific effector CD8(+) T cells (defined by tetramer and IFN-gamma staining). In an adoptive transfer model, mAb-mediated blockade of these integrins on activated effector and memory T cells inhibited Ag-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity responses; similar...

  12. Suppression of EAE by oral tolerance is independent of endogenous IFN-beta whereas treatment with recombinant IFN-beta ameliorates EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Ingrid; Ericsson, Ida; Navikas, Vaidrius; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2010-01-01

    IFN-beta is anticipated to have an important function in mucosal tolerance, as it is one of the major cytokines produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and has recently been suggested as central to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Here, we have investigated whether oral tolerance is...... induction was associated with lower production of antigen-specific IFN-gamma, no shift toward antigen-specific Th2, Th17 or TGF-beta response was observed. Oral tolerance in IFN-beta(-/-) mice was also associated with the induction of regulatory and memory T cells in the mucosal-associated immune organs...... dependent on endogenous IFN-beta by feeding low-dose self-antigen myelin basic protein to IFN-beta(-/-) mice with subsequent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study shows that oral tolerance was readily induced in IFN-beta(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type littermates...

  13. Comparison of scintillation and gas filled detectors for contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are now for radioactive contamination monitoring not only instruments with gas filled detectors but also devices with scintillation detectors in use. These detection techniques have significant physical differences and utilize hardware with specific properties. Therefore there are special advantages and drawbacks for the user and the application. A scintillator is usually a rugged component with a relatively low weight and high detection efficiency. The technical problems with scintillators are mainly in effective and uniform light detection. Gas filled detectors have good uniformities in detection efficiencies. Their main disadvantages are the gas supply and thin entrance windows. These foils can easily be damaged resulting in gas leakage. For both types of instruments efficiencies, typical background levels, position dependent responses and minimum detectable activities for a wide range of radionuclides are summarized and discussed. Also other handling features, like for instance weight, temperature ranges and aspects of service and maintenance are discussed. In addition to the presented data characterizing the different types of contamination monitors it is also important to think about service and maintenance. In general gas filled detectors could more easily be destroyed than scintillators. On an average this generates more problems and also higher repair cost. This is certainly one of the reasons that made scintillators in contamination monitoring so popular. Scintillation detection has been proven to be a reliable and competitive technology for contamination monitoring. The efficiencies and detection limits are in general superior to comparable gas filled detectors. This is also true for many nuclear medicine nuclides with photon emitters. Simultaneous and separate measurement of alpha- and beta-gamma radiation can easily be achieved by pulse analysis. The overall weight of a scintillation based instrument can be substantially lower than the weight of

  14. Measurement of Branching Fractions in Radiative BDecays to eta K gamma and Search for B Decays to eta' K gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-03-31

    The authors present measurements of the B {yields} {eta}K{gamma} branching fractions and upper limits for the B {yields} {eta}'K{gamma} branching fractions. For B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma} they also measure the time-integrated charge asymmetry. The data sample, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represents 232 x 10{sup 6} produced B{bar B} pairs. The results for branching fractions and upper limits at 90% C.L. in units of 10{sup -6} are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sup 0}{gamma}) = 11.3{sub -2.6}{sup +2.8} {+-} 0.6, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma}) = 10.0 {+-} 1.3 {+-} 0.5, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'K{sup 0}{gamma}) < 6.6, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}'K{sup +}{gamma}) < 4.2. The charge asymmetry in the decay B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma} is {Alpha}{sub ch} = -0.09 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.01. The first errors are statistical and the second systematic.

  15. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et

  16. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  17. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  18. Troglitazone stimulates {beta}-arrestin-dependent cardiomyocyte contractility via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Douglas G., E-mail: douglas.tilley@jefferson.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Nguyen, Anny D. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Rockman, Howard A. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists are commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases, and are reported to have several effects on cardiovascular function that may be due to PPAR{gamma}-independent signaling events. Select angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) interact with and modulate PPAR{gamma} activity, thus we hypothesized that a PPAR{gamma} agonist may exert physiologic effects via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor (AT1{sub A}R). In AT1{sub A}R-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, both angiotensin II (Ang II) and the PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone (Trog) enhanced AT1{sub A}R internalization and recruitment of endogenous {beta}-arrestin1/2 ({beta}arr1/2) to the AT1{sub A}R. A fluorescence assay to measure diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation showed that although Ang II induced AT1{sub A}R-G{sub q} protein-mediated DAG accumulation, Trog had no impact on DAG generation. Trog-mediated recruitment of {beta}arr1/2 was selective to AT1{sub A}R as the response was prevented by an ARB- and Trog-mediated {beta}arr1/2 recruitment to {beta}1-adrenergic receptor ({beta}1AR) was not observed. In isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, Trog increased both % and rate of cell shortening to a similar extent as Ang II, effects which were blocked with an ARB. Additionally, these effects were found to be {beta}arr2-dependent, as cardiomyocytes isolated from {beta}arr2-KO mice showed blunted contractile responses to Trog. These findings show for the first time that the PPAR{gamma} agonist Trog acts at the AT1{sub A}R to simultaneously block G{sub q} protein activation and induce the recruitment of {beta}arr1/2, which leads to an increase in cardiomyocyte contractility.

  19. Cross sections for low-energy $\\pi^-\\gamma$ reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2008-01-01

    We review the cross sections for low-energy $\\pi^- \\gamma$ reactions in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. Charged pion Compton scattering, $\\pi^- \\gamma\\to \\pi^-\\gamma$, is considered up to one-loop order where the pion's internal structure enters through the difference of the electric and magnetic pion polarizability, $\\alpha_\\pi - \\beta_\\pi$. The ongoing COMPASS experiment aims at measuring this important structure constant with high statistics using the Primakoff effect. In the same way, the reaction $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^- \\pi^0$ serves as a test of the QCD chiral anomaly (via the $\\gamma 3\\pi$-coupling constant $F_{\\gamma3\\pi}$). Furthermore, we calculate the total cross sections for neutral and charged pion-pair production, $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^- \\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$, which are governed by the chiral $\\pi\\pi$-interaction. Finally, we investigate the radiative (correction) process $\\pi^- \\gamma \\to \\pi^- \\gamma \\gamma$ and calculate the corresponding two-photon m...

  20. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...