WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta externos parte

  1. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;{alpha}). Since H' (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  2. Operaciones de Flujo de Fluidos. Tema 6: Flujo externo

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Flujo externo. El tema resume las principales características del flujo externo fluido-partícula. Trata tanto del movimiento de las partículas sólidas en el seno de un fluido como del flujo del fluido a través de lechos porosos, tanto fijos como fluidizados.

  3. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  4. Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ferrer Narvaez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran interés para la ingeniería colombiana el efecto del refuerzo externo de elementos estructurales con elementos metálicos. La Unidad de Estructuras ha venido realizando en el transcurso de esta década estudios en elementos en concreto con refuerzos externos a flexión con resultados satisfactorios. El proyecto ''Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo" sirve de base en el estudio del comportamiento de este tipo de elementos estructurales y la extrapolación de los resultados obtenidos en elementos de concreto reforzado a concreto preesforzado.

  5. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  6. Conocimiento del desfibrilador automático externo (dea) por parte de candidatos a instructores en reanimación básica

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Vargas, José Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes. El uso apropiado del desfibrilador automáticoexterno (DEA) hace parte del tercer eslabón de la cadena desupervivencia, fundamental para el manejo del paro cardiacomás frecuente en el adulto, la Fibrilación Ventricular (FV). Lacapacitación en las maniobras básicas de reanimación tiene 3estaciones de trabajo: la RCP o maniobras de compresiones yventilaciones, el manejo de la obstrucción de la vía aérea y elmanejo del DEA.Objetivo. Evaluar el conocimiento previo que tienen sobre el...

  7. Financiamiento externo desde una perspectiva de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Guercio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, se estima que las empresas dirigidas por mujeres recurren al financiamiento externo en menor proporción a las empresas dirigidas por hombres. Además, dadas sus características y a la escasa demanda de financiamiento por parte de ellas, las primeras presentan mayores limitaciones para acceder al financiamiento externo en comparación con las segundas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la relación existente entre las fuentes de financiamiento utilizadas y el género del gerente de la empresa. Para ello se realiza un análisis bivariado que incluye datos para el año 2010 de 866 Micro, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas argentinas. De acuerdo con los resultados, el acceso a las fuentes de financiamiento para las empresas dirigidas por mujeres se ve limitado principalmente, por las características de sus empresas: son más pequeñas, se inscriben con formas legales que no implican responsabilidad patrimonial, tienen mayor presencia de familiares en la empresa y pertenecen principalmente al sector servicios. Se concluye que el perfil de las empresas dirigidas por mujeres podría ser una causa, y al mismo tiempo, una consecuencia del menor uso y acceso al financiamiento externo.

  8. Conocimiento del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA por parte de candidatos a instructores en reanimación básica Trainee basic reanimation instructors' knowledge concerning an automated external defibrillator (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NavarroVargas José Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El uso apropiado del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA hace parte del tercer eslabón de la cadena de supervivencia, fundamental para el manejo del paro cardiaco más frecuente en el adulto, la Fibrilación Ventricular (FV. La capacitación en las maniobras básicas de reanimación tiene 3 estaciones de trabajo: la RCP o maniobras de compresiones y ventilaciones, el manejo de la obstrucción de la vía aérea y el manejo del DEA. Objetivo. Evaluar el conocimiento previo que tienen sobre el DEA, los aspirantes a instructores en Reanimación Cardiocerebropulmonar (RCCP Básico. Material y Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal descriptivo, en asistentes al taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico (n=4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos, durante el Congreso Peruano de Anestesiología (octubre de 2012. En la estación de manejo del DEA se realizó un taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico a 4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos. En la estación del manejo del DEA se realizó una encuesta a partir de 3 interrogantes básicos: ¿para qué sirve?, los factores que interfieren en su funcionamiento y las indicaciones. Resultados. Los 33 asistentes respondieron la encuesta. 17 participantes, respondieron correctamente la primera pregunta. En la segunda pregunta, 14 participantes no propusieron ningún factor; 11 acertaron con un solo factor, 3 con 2 factores y 5 con 3 factores. En la tercera pregunta, 14 contestaron correctamente. Conclusión. Este estudio encontró un desconocimiento al ingreso al taller, de los principios básicos del DEA. Se sugiere continuar con los lineamientos básicos de enseñanza en el manejo del DEA y de renovar la adquisición de estas competencias en un periodo no mayor de 2 años.Background. The proper use of an automated external defibrillator (AED forms part of the third link in the chain of survival; it is fundamental in managing ventricular

  9. Impacto da auditoria interna na externa: ótica do auditor externo

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vânia Marlene Pereira

    2012-01-01

    O desempenho do compromisso de auditoria é executado num ambiente em constante mutação sendo, o posicionamento da auditoria interna nas empresas cada vez mais importante. Atendendo a que parte do trabalho do auditor interno é de proeminente interesse para a auditoria externa, importa analisar o possível impacto que poderá ter no trabalho do auditor externo. Deste modo, salientamos que o auditor externo deverá intervir nas áreas que podem ser alvo de melhorias e de uma coorde...

  10. Beta-carbolines, psychoactive compounds in the mammalian body. Part I: Occurrence, origin and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, M M; Kari, I

    1981-02-01

    We review the occurrence in nature and the formation and biotransformation in mammals of beta-carbolines, the condensation products of tryptophan and indolealkylamines with aldehydes, with special reference to their possible role in man. They are found in many plants, some of which have been used as hallucinogens and drugs. They also occur as minor constituents in tobacco smoke. In man tetrahydro-beta-carboline (tetrahydronorharman), formed from tryptamine condensed with formaldehyde, occurs normally in plasma and is highly concentrated in platelets. The corresponding products from 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-methoxytryptamine have been identified in rats but their concentrations in man have not yet been assessed. 1-Methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline (tetrahydroharman) is formed in the body as the acetaldehyde condensate after alcohol intake and its concentration is usually greatest at the time of hang-over. Its oxidation product, 1-methyl-beta-carboline (harman), has also been found in human urine and platelets. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may be oxidized to corresponding dihydro-beta-carbolines and beta-carbolines, at least in vitro. Due to the interesting biochemical and pharmacological effects (see part II) of beta-carbolines, several hypotheses about their role in the body can be made. The concentrations and roles of beta-carbolines in different neuropsychiatric diseases, however, remain to be determined, as suitable evaluation methods have only been developed in recent years.

  11. Ablation dynamics in laser sclerotomy ab externo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Droege, Gerit; Mohrenstecher, Dirk; Scheu, M.; Birngruber, Reginald

    1996-01-01

    Laser sclerostomy ab externo with flashlamp excited mid-IR laser systems emitting in the 2-3 micrometer spectral range is in phase II clinical trials. Although acutely high success rates were achieved, the restenosis rate after several months is about 40%. Laser pulses of several hundreds of microseconds, known to induce thermo-mechanical explosive evaporation were used for this procedure. We investigated the ablation dynamics in tissue and the cavitation bubble dynamics in water by means of an Er:YAG laser system to estimate the extent of mechanical damage zones in the sclera and in the anterior chamber, which may contribute to the clinical failure. We found substantial mechanical tissue deformation during the ablation process caused by the cavitation effects. Stress waves up to several bar generated by explosive evaporization were measured. The fast mechanical stretching and collapsing of the scleral tissue induced by cavitation resulted in tissue dissection as could be proved by flash photography and histology. The observed high restenosis might be a result of a subsequent enhanced wound healing process. Early fistula occlusions due to iris adherences, observed in about 20% of the clinical cases may be attributed to intraocular trauma induced by vapor bubble expansion through the anterior chamber after scleral perforation. An automatic feedback system minimizing adverse effects by steering and terminating the laser process during scleral fistulization is demonstrated. Moreover, a new approach in laser sclerostomy ab externo is presented using a cw-IR laser diode system emitting at the 1.94 micrometer mid-IR water absorption peak. This system was used in vitro and showed smaller damage zones compared to the pulsed laser radiation.

  12. EL SECTOR EXTERNO COSTARRICENSE EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Araya Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de globalización y los cada vez mayores flujos de comercio mundiales, envuelven a las economías grandes y pequeñas, en un proceso de mayor apertura comercial y de redireccionamiento de sus políticas para la captación de nuevos mercados y de flujos de inversión extranjera en mayores proporciones.Costa Rica, una economía pequeña y muy abierta, no ha sido la excepción en este proceso, así, el logro de metas claves en saldos macroeconómicos; expansión comercial; captar inversión y mejorar la competitvidad internacional, son el eje central del esquema de desarrollo actual de nuestro país.Bajo este contexto, y como un aporte al debate que ha generado el tema, se presentan las siguientes notas con miras a conocer y caracterizar en el corto plazo, la evolución del sector externo costarricense, tomando como eje central de estudio las principales cuentas de la Balanza de Pagos, en el año de 1996

  13. IDENTIDAD CORPORATIVA DE CONATEL EN SU CLIENTE EXTERNO: EMPRESARIOS MARABINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sofía Romero Henríquez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La Investigación tiene como objeto de estudio la Identidad corporativa de CONATEL en su público externo: empresarios Marabinos. Fundamentado en los postulados teóricos de la Identidad e Imagen Corporativa de Joan Costa, Scheinsohn, Van Riel y Villafañe, entre otros. Asimismo la metodología utilizada fue la revisión documental, on line, y las entrevistas semiestructuradas a informantes claves. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que la adecuada gestión de la Identidad corporativa, genera una sólida imagen corporativa positiva en sus públicos internos y externos.

  14. Vulnerabilidad del sector externo de México

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En la primera década de este siglo, el sector externo y, en particular, el comercio exterior han tenido un auge significativo en las relacio- nes económicas internacionales. México no escapa a esta evolución de la globalización. El presente trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis de las diversas vulnerabilidades del sector externo mexicano. Entre las limitaciones se examinan: la concentración de las exportaciones en Estados Unidos, la pérdida de competitividad de las ventas con el exterior, los efec...

  15. Molecular mechanisms associated with increased fetal hemoglobin G gamma-type in part-aboriginal family with beta thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motum, P I; Lammi, A; Trent, R J

    1989-07-01

    A part-Aboriginal family with beta thalassemia and raised hemoglobin F (HbF) was studied at the molecular level to determine if there were identifiable gene changes associated with increased production of HbF. Two beta thalassemia heterozygotes aged eight years and 18 months had raised HbF levels of 2.9% and 22% respectively. HbF was predominantly G gamma in composition. Five family members were typed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) using nine restriction enzymes and five DNA probes specific for the beta globin cluster on chromosome 11. RFLPs were combined to construct haplotypes for the beta thalassemia and the high HbF defects. A beta globin subhaplotype comprising only 5' RFLP markers (-(+)-(+) +) co-segregated with the high HbF determinant. This has previously been associated with increased G gamma expression in beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. An additional Xmnl RFLP 5' to the G gamma gene, which has been described in individuals with elevated G gamma expression, was also demonstrated in those family members with increased G gamma levels. In this study both the 5' beta globin subhaplotype (-(+)-(+) +) and the Xmnl/gamma RFLP are present in the one family but the relative contributions of each cannot be determined.

  16. Formulación de un proceso de gestión eficiente de proveedores externos de insumos/servicios Implementado en BPM.

    OpenAIRE

    Coneo-Mercado, Athony

    2013-01-01

    La gestión de proveedores externos de insumos/servicios constituye una pieza clave en la consecución de los resultados operativos de una compañía, ya que estos se encuentran integrados en la cadena de valor a nivel Operativo, Táctico y en algunas ocasiones Estratégico de cualquier empresa. De la efectiva y eficiente ejecución del proceso para la gestión de proveedores externos dependerá en parte el cumplimiento de los objetivos estratégicos de la compañía, ya que estos aprovisionan los ins...

  17. Choques externos y política monetaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Dancourt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un objetivo de este documento es discutir el impacto macroeconómico que un boom (o unacaída de los precios internacionales de las materias primas de exportación tiene sobre una economíapequeña y abierta que opera en un marco de libre movilidad internacional de los capitales.Para el análisis de los efectos de este choque externo real se utiliza un modelo Mundell-Flemingconvenientemente adaptado. Se distinguen dos efectos: el cambiario, que perjudica al resto de laeconomía, y el efecto vía la demanda agregada, que estimula al resto de la economía. Se comparatambién el impacto macroeconómico de un choque externo real con el de un choque externofinanciero (cambios en la tasa de interés internacional en una economía dolarizada y con tipo de cambio flexible. El otro objetivo de este documento es mostrar que la intervención esterilizada del banco central en el mercado cambiario puede ser una respuesta eficaz frente a los choques externos reales o financieros. Para determinar el impacto de estos distintos choques externos no solo importan las características de la estructura económica, sino también el sistema vigente de políticas monetarias y fiscales y, en particular, la naturaleza del régimen cambiario. -- One goal of this paper is to discussing the macroeconomic impact that an international commodityprices boom has in a small open economy under perfect capital mobility. A Mundell-Flemingmodel with some adaptations is used for the analysis of this real external shock. There are twoeffects: the monetary one that is a recessionary impulse, and the one that increases aggregatedemand. Also the macroeconomic impact of a real external shock is compared with the effectof a financial external shock (changes in the external rate of interest, in a dollarized economywith a floating exchange rate. The other goal of this paper is to show that central bank sterilizedintervention in the foreign exchange market can be an effective policy response

  18. Determinantes dos investimentos diretos externos em países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Basicamente, os determinantes dos investimentos diretos externos (IDE podem ser relativos às firmas e a características dos países de origem - push factors - ou a fatores locacionais - pull factors. A maior parte da literatura teórica relativa a empresas multinacionais nos últimos quarenta anos, justamente por focar sua atenção nas empresas, enfatizou os fatores relacionados a vantagens das firmas, dando pouca importância aos fatores macroeconômicos. O objetivo desse trabalho é estimar, com base em dados em painel para 33 países para o período 1975-2000, os principais determinantes dos IDEs em direção aos países em desenvolvimento. Fatores como o tamanho e o ritmo de crescimento do produto, a qualificação da mão de obra, a receptividade em relação ao capital externo, o risco do país e o desempenho das bolsas de valores estão entre os principais determinantes de IDE. Além disso, por meio da aplicação de uma teste de causalidade no contexto de dados em painel, foi possível mostrar que o investimento direto externo não tem efeito positivo sobre o PIB. Ao contrário, esse procedimento lidade mostrou que o PIB do país é que tem efeito sobre a entrada de IDE.Basically, foreign direct investments (FDI determinants may be referred to firms and country characteristics - push factors - or to locational factors - pull factors. Most of theoretical literature relative to multinational enterprises in the last forty years, has emphasized firms advantages, giving no weight to macroeconomic factors. The purpose of this paper is to estimate, based on panel data of 33 countries for the period 1975-2000, the main determinants of FDI inflows in developing economies. Factors as size and pace of growth of economic activity, the level of labor qualification, friendly policies towards foreign capital, country risk and stock market performance are the main determinants of FDI. In addition, a causality test, in the special context of panel

  19. Jasmonate and ethylene signalling and their interaction are integral parts of the elicitor signalling pathway leading to beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2004-05-01

    Roles of jasmonate and ethylene signalling and their interaction in yeast elicitor-induced biosynthesis of a phytoalexin, beta-thujaplicin, were investigated in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures. Yeast elicitor, methyl jasmonate, and ethylene all induce the production of beta-thujaplicin. Elicitor also stimulates the biosynthesis of jasmonate and ethylene before the induction of beta-thujaplicin accumulation. The elicitor-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation can be partly blocked by inhibitors of jasmonate and ethylene biosynthesis or signal transduction. These results indicate that the jasmonate and ethylene signalling pathways are integral parts of the elicitor signal transduction leading to beta-thujaplicin accumulation. Methyl jasmonate treatment can induce ethylene production, whereas ethylene does not induce jasmonate biosynthesis; methyl jasmonate-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation can be partly blocked by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, while blocking jasmonate biosynthesis inhibits almost all ethylene-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation. These results indicate that the ethylene and jasmonate pathways interact in mediating beta-thujaplicin production, with the jasmonate pathway working as a main control and the ethylene pathway as a fine modulator for beta-thujaplicin accumulation. Both the ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways can be regulated upstream by Ca(2+). Ca(2+) influx negatively regulates ethylene production, and differentially regulates elicitor- or methyl jasmonate-stimulated ethylene production.

  20. Dogmas y actualidades del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en prevención secundaria. Primera parte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Morales Salinas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existe consenso con respecto a las directrices clínicas de que los betabloqueadores (BB aportan incuestionables beneficios en varios entornos de la prevención secundaria, como son la insuficiencia cardiaca y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Sin embargo, en la práctica son subutilizados en aquellos contextos donde no están contraindicados; tal es el caso de la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. En el presente artículo se analizan las evidencias disponibles acerca de la efectividad de los betabloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. Se concluye que son abrumadoras las evidencias a favor del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca crónica con fracción de eyección deprimida; mientras que en los episodios de descompensación aguda de la insuficiencia cardiaca debe evitarse la suspensión de los mismos siempre que sea posible.DOGMAS AND UPDATES ON THE USE OF BETA-BLOCKERS IN SECONDARY PREVENTION. FIRST PART. There is consensus on clinical guidelines that beta-blockers (BB provide unquestionable benefits in several environments of secondary prevention, such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. However, in everyday practice they are underused in contexts where they are not contraindicated. Such is the case of heart failure with ejection fraction. This article presents an analysis on the available evidence of beta blockers’ effectiveness in heart failure with ejection fraction. It is concluded that overwhelming evidence favours the use of beta-blockers in chronic heart failure with ejection fraction, whereas in episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, their suspension should be avoided whenever it is possible.

  1. Adhesion molecules in Wilms tumor (part II : beta-catenin expression and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-catenin is a glicoprotein which has an important role in cell-cell adhesion, as well as in cell signal transmition, in u regulation of gen expression and in interaction with axin and APC (adenomatous poliposis coli. Its oncogenic role in several types of carcinomas in human population is well known. It is very likely that b-catenin as an protooncogen plays an importante role in genesis of Wilms tumor. It is well known that in 15% Wilms tumors there are b-catenin mutations, which indicates that there is a disorder in Wnt signal paththat plays an important role in Wilms tumor genesis. The aim of our study was to investigate b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor, to compaire it with the expression in normal renal tissue as well as to see if there is a positive correlation between b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor with tumor stage, histologic type and/ or prognostic group.

  2. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma; Gomes, Rachel L R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno.

  3. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6% and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%. In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57% in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28% anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14% posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0% were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50% anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0% posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno.

  4. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno. PMID:27293878

  5. A superformula for neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay; 2, The short range part

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V; Kovalenko, S G

    2001-01-01

    A general Lorentz-invariant parameterization for the short-range part of the 0vBB decay rate is derived. Combined with the long range part already published this general parameterization in terms of effective B-L violating couplings allows one to extract the 0vBB limits on arbitrary lepton number violating theories.

  6. Los informes contables externos y la legitimidad organizacional con el entorno: estudio de un caso en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gómez Villegas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este documento es una aproximación académica a la contabilidad y a los informes contables externos. Su preocupación es la caracterización y comprensión del papel de la contabilidad en las organizaciones y en la sociedad. Por ello sintetiza la visión económica dominante y algunas de las perspectivas sociales e institucionales sobre el rol de la contabilidad y la información contable financiera. Parte de la pregunta: ¿Aporta la contabilidad al propósito de legitimidad organizacional con el entorno? Así, el objetivo del trabajo es realizar una síntesis de las visiones que explican el papel de los informes contables externos, los estados financieros particularmente, desde la visión dominante y desde una perspectiva neoinstitucional en contabilidad. Para ello el documento recoge un primer estudio de caso, que pretende aportar a la necesaria contrastación empírica para la comprensión del rol de la contabilidad en Colombia. Adoptamos la visión según la cual, ante todo, la información contable desempeña un rol institucional, como mecanismo de legitimación de la organización con su entorno

  7. Sistema modular de fijador externo: vigencia 15 años despues. Importancia de un concepto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Melissari Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 1981, un equipo de trabajo del Instituto de Ensayo de Materiales de la Facultad de Ingeniería de Uruguay ha estado realizando actividades de investigación sobre comportamiento biomecánico de los distintos fijadores externos utilizados a nivel mundial, con un traumat ólogo de la más alta calificación y experiencia. En lo que concierne a fijadores externos para el tratamiento de fracturas de extremidades, hace quince años se ha desarrollado un nuevo diseño de rótula tubo-tubo que permite el empleo de fijadores modulares de tres tubos, que poseen las mejores propiedades en cuanto a la maniobrabilidad y libertad de movimiento permitiendo la correcta alineación de las dos partes a unir, con estabilidad comparable con los fijadores convencionales rígidos. Para optimizar el dise ño de la rótula se efectuaron ensayos de evaluación de la estabilidad de distintos diseños de rótula, con diferentes grados de apriete, a través de la determinación del límite de deslizamiento que se define como la carga necesaria para producir una deformación remanente (sin carga igual al 10 % de la deformación cuando la carga está aplicada. A partir de la rótula diseñada más estable, se armó un fijador modular que se sometió a ensayo de estabilidad, con diferentes grados de apriete, para evaluar su comportamiento mecánico. En este caso, el índice de estabilidad resultó similar al que se obtiene en fijadores convencionales rígidos de menor maniobrabilidad y libertad de movimiento, para un intervalo usual de apriete, en el quirófano. Este sistema de fijación modular desarrollado en Uruguay es utilizado en todo el mundo desde hace más de 15 años y representa un nuevo concepto de fijación externa que se mantiene vigente 15 años después de su desarrollo. Decenas de miles de enfermos operados en todo el mundo, confirma en los hechos, los excelentes resultados obtenidos en la utilización de la rótula diseñada, en un sistema de

  8. Funciones de costos internos y externos en un modelo estratégico de transporte de carga

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Se revisan las funciones de costos internos y externos,con fines de modelación estratégica del transportede carga. Se estudian el costo interno del tiempo, elcosto interno de operación y cinco componentes delcosto externo: costo externo de la congestión, costoexterno de los accidentes, costos de la polución delaire, costo del cambio climático y costo externo dela infraestructura; a partir de estos se deriva la funciónde costo marginal total. Se encuentra que es posibleestimar de forma empíric...

  9. Fisiología del nucleo motor ocular externo en el gato

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Los propósitos del presente trabajo experimental son:A). Estudiar la actividad eléctrica de las neuronas del núcleo motor ocular externo principal durante distint ... Específicamente se analiza la conducta de motoneuronas e interneuronas del núcleo motor ocular externo principal durante posiciones mantenidas del ojo en la órbita, así como durante movimiento sacádicos voluntarios o inducidos por estimulación visual o vestibular. Para ello, se realiza el registro extracelular de las neuronas ob...

  10. Deletion of glutamate dehydrogenase in beta-cells abolishes part of the insulin secretory response not required for glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Frigerio, Francesca; Rubi, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    secretion was reduced by 37% in betaGlud1(-/-). Furthermore, isolated islets with either constitutive or acute adenovirus-mediated knock-out of GDH showed a 49 and 38% reduction in glucose-induced insulin release, respectively. Adenovirus-mediated re-expression of GDH in betaGlud1(-/-) islets fully restored...

  11. Avaliação de sauveiros externos em eucaliptais de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Cristiane Magistrali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma grande dificuldade em aperfeiçoar as técnicas de manejo de formigas cortadeiras, sobretudo no que diz respeito aos sauveiros externos localizados próximos a plantios florestais. Por causa disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar aspectos como tamanho e distância de sauveiros externos em plantações de eucaliptos. A avaliação foi realizada em aceiros externos de três fazendas localizadas nos municípios de João Pinheiro e Buritizeiro, em Minas Gerais, seis meses após ser realizado o combate convencional às formigas cortadeiras. Foram encontrados nove sauveiros externos, com área média de terra solta de 62,5 ± 11,1 m2, localizados a uma distância média de 33,94 ± 8,68 metros entre a margem do plantio e o local do formigueiro. Constatou-se que tais características podem ser úteis no ajuste da largura da faixa de segurança de combate, a qual deve ser igual a 50 m. O gênero Trachymyrmex e as espécies Atta laevigata e Atta sexdens rubropilosa foram registrados como ocorrências novas no município de Buritizeiro, e o gênero Acromyrmex como uma nova ocorrência nos dois municípios.

  12. Introduciendo factores externos de riesgo en el análisis de riesgo cuantitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Salzano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El procedimiento convencional para la evaluación cuantitativa de riesgos de instalaciones industriales o áreas industriales, así como la planeación del uso de la tierra en relación a los principales peligros de accidentes deberían incluir escenarios de accidentes generados por factores externos de riesgos. En particular, el efecto dominó (también conocido como escalación o encadenados debido a i lugares cercanos, ii eventos naturales como terremotos o inundaciones, iii maloperaciones internacionales que, principalmente, se da por la interferencia de actos malintencionados. Una perspectiva de estos problemas se mostrará a continuación y, a la vez, se discutirán los enfoques actuales y futuros disponibles para la evaluación cuantitativa de estos factores externos de riesgo en el marco de la evaluación cuantitativa de riesgos (QRA.

  13. Metodologías de Selección de Mercados Externos y Mercados Emergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Gladys Rossana Montero Santos

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es comprobar si existe entre los académicos la preocupación por confirmar si la metodología usualmente aplicada para la selección y evaluación de mercados externos es adecuada para el caso de los llamados países emergentes. En este sentido desde el punto de vista metodológico se ha recurrido a una búsqueda ordenada de documentación respecto a dos ejes temáticos; mercados emergentes (ME) y metodologías de selección de mercados externos (SME). Los hallazgos señ...

  14. Sector externo, crecimiento económico y bienestar en Baja California: 1970-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García Montaño

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene el objetivo de presentar los efectos del desarrollo del sector externo de Baja California en el crecimiento de la economía local y en relación con algunos indicadores del bienestar social. También se estudian algunos indicadores nacionales comparativos entre la entidad y los promedios nacionales, tal que permitan ubicar las especificidades del desarrollo de Baja California. El trabajo se divide en varios apartados: ciclos económicos, comportamiento del sector externo y sus relaciones con el producto interno bruto y la inflación. Todas estas variables interactúan en este estudio macroeconómico regional.La conclusión, hace referencia a que en Baja California el sector externo cumple el papel determinante para el crecimiento económico y el bienestar social; por lo tanto, cualquier trastorno negativo en sus variables desagregadas impacta inmediatamente las tasas de crecimiento y los niveles de vida de la población bajaca1iforniana, fundamentalmente los cambios extraordinarios del tipo de cambio peso-dólar y los ajustes de las políticas en comercio exterior. De ahí la actualidad del estudio, dado que el Tratado de Libre Comercio de México con Estados Unidos y Canadá tendrá, seguramente, importantes impactos en la entidad.

  15. Satisfacción de clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo E. Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta en el artículo tuvo como propósito determinar el nivel de satisfacción de los clientes externos respecto al servicio brindado por las empresas aseguradoras en el Municipio Maracaibo. Los objetivos específicos buscaban identificar los componentes de calidad que determinan la satisfacción de los clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras e identificar los factores que influyen en su comportamiento de compra; por último, se determinaron los rasgos básicos de los elementos que dan como resultado la satisfacción del cliente. Los resultados arrojaron que los niveles de satisfacción de los clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras pueden considerarse moderado, al presentar rangos bajos en algunos aspectos de la calidad de los servicios específicamente, lo concerniente a la confiabilidad, respuesta y tangibilidad y dentro de sus mejores fortalezas, estuvieron los aspectos de la seguridad y la empatía

  16. Funciones de costos internos y externos en un modelo estratégico de transporte de carga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan las funciones de costos internos y externos,con fines de modelación estratégica del transportede carga. Se estudian el costo interno del tiempo, elcosto interno de operación y cinco componentes delcosto externo: costo externo de la congestión, costoexterno de los accidentes, costos de la polución delaire, costo del cambio climático y costo externo dela infraestructura; a partir de estos se deriva la funciónde costo marginal total. Se encuentra que es posibleestimar de forma empírica los parámetros de lasfunciones aplicables al transporte de cargainterregional en Colombia en los modos de transportecarretero, ferroviario y fluvial, y con ellos estudiarlos costos marginales sobre una red estratégica detransporte de carga.

  17. Metodologías de Selección de Mercados Externos y Mercados Emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rossana Montero Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es comprobar si existe entre los académicos la preocupación por confirmar si la metodología usualmente aplicada para la selección y evaluación de mercados externos es adecuada para el caso de los llamados países emergentes. En este sentido desde el punto de vista metodológico se ha recurrido a una búsqueda ordenada de documentación respecto a dos ejes temáticos; mercados emergentes (ME y metodologías de selección de mercados externos (SME. Los hallazgos señalan la existencia de consenso en resaltar que los mercados emergentes muestran características que los diferencian de los mercados desarrollados, situación que genera oportunidades y amenazas que deben ser consideradas para la evaluación de los mismos. Así mismo, se han ubicado tres investigaciones que señalan las limitaciones de los métodos de selección usualmente aplicados al momento de evaluar el potencial de los mercados emergentes, proponiendo adaptaciones a las metodologías existentes. Sin embargo la comprobación empírica de estas propuestas es limitada. Finalmente consideramos importante señalar que hemos encontrado un número mayor de artículos conceptuales que estudios empíricos respecto al tema de Selección de Mercados Externos.

  18. Metodologías de Selección de Mercados Externos y Mercados Emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rossana Montero Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es comprobar si existe entre los académicos la preocupación por confirmar si la metodología usualmente aplicada para la selección y evaluación de mercados externos es adecuada para el caso de los llamados países emergentes. En este sentido desde el punto de vista metodológico se ha recurrido a una búsqueda ordenada de documentación respecto a dos ejes temáticos; mercados emergentes (ME y metodologías de selección de mercados externos (SME. Los hallazgos señalan la existencia de consenso en resaltar que los mercados emergentes muestran características que los diferencian de los mercados desarrollados, situación que genera oportunidades y amenazas que deben ser consideradas para la evaluación de los mismos. Así mismo, se han ubicado tres investigaciones que señalan las limitaciones de los métodos de selección usualmente aplicados al momento de evaluar el potencial de los mercados emergentes, proponiendo adaptaciones a las metodologías existentes. Sin embargo la comprobación empírica de estas propuestas es limitada. Finalmente consideramos importante señalar que hemos encontrado un número mayor de artículos conceptuales que estudios empíricos respecto al tema de Selección de Mercados Externos.

  19. Exoneración legal de enlace externo | Smokefree Español

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esta notificación gráfica significa que usted esta dejando el sitio en la red de Smokefree.gov y yendo a un sitio en red que no es del gobierno federal. Este sitio externo en la red provee información adicional que es consistente con el propósito buscado de los sitios de la red de Smokefree.gov. Smokefree.gov no puede garantizar la certeza de un sitio en la red que no es del gobierno federal.

  20. Fluctuaciones económicas y shocks externos, Perú 1950-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Dancourt

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es describir el patrón de las fluctuacioneseconómicas en el Perú durante el periodo 1950-1996, y mostrar elrol que jugaron los shocks externos en estas fluctuaciones.Una primera conclusión es que el patrón de las fluctuaciones económicasen el Perú parece ser independiente de los modelos de desarrollo o estrategiasde crecimiento. Tanto en el período de vigencia del modelo de industrializacionvía sustitución de importaciones, este patrón, sobre todo el de las recesiones,es el mismo. Las recesiones tienden a estar asociadas con una aceleración delas tasas de inflación y devaluación, una caida del gasto público y del créditosreales y, por último, con una caída de la capacidad de importación.La segunda conclusión es que no se abstrae el rol de los shocksexternos cuando se busca explicar el comportamiento de la economía peruanadurante 1950-96. De las seis recesiones identificadas en este período, todas,salvo una, coinciden con shocks externos adversos.

  1. Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mota Gonzalez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da avaliação tomográfica da extensão profunda dos carcinomas espinocelulares do conduto auditivo externo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames tomográficos com cortes axiais e coronais com janelas para partes moles e óssea em seis pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo, com idade variando entre 55 e 71 anos, internados no Hospital Heliópolis, no período entre maio de 1995 e dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Dos seis pacientes, todos apresentavam aumento de partes moles no conduto auditivo externo, cinco (83,3% tinham erosão óssea e invasão da orelha média, quatro (66,7% possuíam comprometimento da mastóide e da glândula parótida, três (50% apresentavam invasão da articulação temporomandibular, dois (33,3% tinham invasão da fossa média, do canal carotídeo e linfonodomegalia júgulo-carotídea alta ipisilateral. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação da extensão tumoral profunda fornecida pela tomografia computadorizada é importante no estadiamento clínico, possibilitando um planejamento terapêutico mais eficaz.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at "Hospital Heliópolis", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. RESULTS: Thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%, invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%, invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%, and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3% patients. CONCLUSION: Assessment of

  2. El valor del suelo habitacional y la intervención de agentes externos Valle de Bravo, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Zuleica Torres Pulido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte fundamental de los estudios de planeación se encuentra el territorio, el suelo como componente esencial de la estructura urbana y sustento de las diferentes actividades realizadas por el hombre, cobra singular importancia al momento que el valor, el uso y los agentes que en ellos interviene se vuelven factores que impulsan o retraen el desarrollo de un lugar, trayendo como consecuencia segregaciones sociales. De ahí que en este trabajo se da a conocer, a partir del caso de Valle de Bravo, la influencia que ejercen los agentes externos en los cambios del valor de suelo habitacional, tomando como punto de partida la evolución del patrón de ocupación del suelo y las actividades económicas.

  3. EL VALOR DEL SUELO HABITACIONAL Y LA INTERVENCIÓN DE AGENTES EXTERNOS VALLE DE BRAVO, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Zuleica Torres Pulido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte fundamental de los estudios de planeación se encuentra el territorio, el suelo como componente esencial de la estructura urbana y sustento de las diferentes actividades realizadas por el hombre, cobra singular importancia al momento que el valor, el uso y los agentes que en ellos interviene se vuelven factores que impulsan o retraen el desarrollo de un lugar, trayendo como consecuencia segregaciones sociales. De ahí que en este trabajo se da a conocer, a partir del caso de Valle de Bravo, la infl uencia que ejercen los agentes externos en los cambios del valor de suelo habitacional, tomando como punto de partida la evolución del patrón de ocupación del suelo y las actividades económicas.

  4. Dogmas y actualidades del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en prevención secundaria. Primera parte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Morales Salinas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existe consenso con respecto a las directrices clínicas de que los betabloqueadores (BB aportan incuestionables beneficios en varios entornos de la prevención secundaria, como son la insuficiencia cardiaca y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Sin embargo, en la práctica son subutilizados en aquellos contextos donde no están contraindicados; tal es el caso de la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. En el presente artículo se analizan las evidencias disponibles acerca de la efectividad de los betabloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. Se concluye que son abrumadoras las evidencias a favor del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca crónica con fracción de eyección deprimida; mientras que en los episodios de descompensación aguda de la insuficiencia cardiaca debe evitarse la suspensión de los mismos siempre que sea posible.

  5. On decay constants and orbital distance to the Sun—part III: beta plus and electron capture decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommé, S.; Stroh, H.; Paepen, J.; Van Ammel, R.; Marouli, M.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Hult, M.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Schrader, H.; Juget, F.; Bailat, C.; Nedjadi, Y.; Bochud, F.; Buchillier, T.; Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; van Rooy, M. W.; van Staden, M. J.; Lubbe, J.; Simpson, B. R. S.; Fazio, A.; De Felice, P.; Jackson, T. W.; Van Wyngaardt, W. M.; Reinhard, M. I.; Golya, J.; Bourke, S.; Roy, T.; Galea, R.; Keightley, J. D.; Ferreira, K. M.; Collins, S. M.; Ceccatelli, A.; Verheyen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Vodenik, B.; Korun, M.; Chisté, V.; Amiot, M.-N.

    2017-02-01

    The hypothesis that seasonal changes in proximity to the Sun cause variation of decay constants at permille level has been tested for radionuclides disintegrating through electron capture and beta plus decay. Activity measurements of 22Na, 54Mn, 55Fe, 57Co, 65Zn, 82+85Sr, 90Sr, 109Cd, 124Sb, 133Ba, 152Eu, and 207Bi sources were repeated over periods from 200 d up to more than four decades at 14 laboratories across the globe. Residuals from the exponential nuclear decay curves were inspected for annual oscillations. Systematic deviations from a purely exponential decay curve differ from one data set to another and appear attributable to instabilities in the instrumentation and measurement conditions. Oscillations in phase with Earth’s orbital distance to the sun could not be observed within 10-4-10-5 range precision. The most stable activity measurements of β + and EC decaying sources set an upper limit of 0.006% or less to the amplitude of annual oscillations in the decay rate. There are no apparent indications for systematic oscillations at a level of weeks or months.

  6. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  7. Proceso de publicación: responsabilidad de autores, editores y revisores externos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuan P. Copana-Olmos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Revista Científica Ciencia Médica empezamos otro año renovando nuestra ilusión y energía para lograr una mejor calidad en publicación y en contenido científico, con ese empeño nos convertimos en una de las primeras revistas estudiantiles en Bolivia indizadas a bases de datos científicos de gran prestigio como Latindex, IMBIOMED e Index Copernicus. Por eso sabemos que el proceso de publicación engloba la relación y la capacidad de los autores, editores y revisores externos siendo así uno de los pilares fundamentales para la realizaci��n de un revista.

  8. TGF-beta1 system in Leydig cells. Part II: TGF-beta1 and progesterone, through Smad1/5, are involved in the hyperplasia/hypertrophy of Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Candela R; Gonzalez, Betina; Rulli, Susana B; Dos Santos, Mara L; Mattos Jardim Costa, Guilherme; França, Luiz R; Calandra, Ricardo S; Gonzalez-Calvar, Silvia I

    2010-08-01

    Several reports indicate that transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) participates in the regulation of cell cycle progression. In this work, we analyzed the in vitro effect of TGF-beta1 on Leydig cell proliferation markers and the in vivo effect of this cytokine in Leydig cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy. The in vitro effect of TGF-beta1 (1 ng/ml) plus progesterone (10(-6) M) on purified Leydig cells from 3 week-old mice increased the immunocytochemically detected PCNA and stimulated the phosphorylation of Smad 1/5. Progesterone (10(-6) M) in the presence or absence of TGF-beta1 diminished the ratio Bax/Bcl-2. Morphometric testicular studies of mice treated with progesterone (s.c.) plus TGF-beta1 (intratesticular), showed an increase in interstitial volume and a decrease in tubular volume. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic volume of Leydig cells showed an increment in this experimental group with a diminution in nuclear volume. Thus, it turned out that the administration of progesterone and TGF-beta1 augmented the volume of Leydig cells. These results indicate a clear effect of TGF-beta1 in the hypertrophy/hyperplasia of Leydig cells.

  9. Osteoma de meato acústico externo: relato de nove casos e revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testa José Ricardo G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma de meato acústico externo corresponde a um crescimento ósseo anormal e benigno, que se desenvolve abaixo da pele do conduto e pode causar obstrução total ou parcial do meato acústico externo. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de série. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Apresentamos neste estudo nove casos de osteoma de meato acústico externo. A idade dos pacientes variou de 23 anos (idade mínima e 70 anos (idade máxima, sendo a média 40,6 anos. Desses nove pacientes, 5 eram do sexo feminino e 4 eram do sexo masculino. RESULTADO: Os sintomas mais comuns foram: hipoacusia, causada pela obstrução parcial ou total do conduto, otites externas recorrentes e também impactação de cerume de difícil remoção. CONCLUSÃO: A conduta nos casos apresentados foi cirúrgica, com boa evolução, não ocorrendo recidivas.

  10. Benzopyrans as selective estrogen receptor beta agonists (SERBAs). Part 3: synthesis of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone intermediates for C-ring modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Timothy I; Dodge, Jeffrey A; Durst, Gregory L; Pfeifer, Lance A; Shah, Jikesh; Wang, Yong; Durbin, Jim D; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Norman, Bryan H

    2007-09-01

    Benzopyrans are selective estrogen receptor (ER) beta agonists (SERBAs), which bind the ER subtypes alpha and beta in opposite orientations. Here we describe the syntheses of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone intermediates for SAR studies of the C-ring on the benzopyran scaffold. Modification of the C-ring disrupts binding to ERalpha, thus improving ERbeta selectivity up to 100-fold. X-ray cocrystal structures confirm previously observed binding modes.

  11. Responsabilidad frente al cliente externo como elemento competitivo del sector metalmecánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferrer Soto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda una relación entre la responsabilidad y las dimensiones de competitividad expresadas en requerimientos del cliente, información técnica, especificaciones exigidas, asistencia técnica, atención oportuna, entre otros; evidenciando como esta categoría permite fortalecer los cimientos, en el manejo de factores competitivos de las organizaciones, bajo espacios de mercados representados en el estudio, por la empresa metalmecánica zuliana. Siendo una investigación descriptiva, de campo, para el levantamiento de la información se adoptó un muestreo aleatorio estratificado, sobre la base del tamaño de las empresas, utilizando afijación proporcional. La muestra resultó de cuarenta y cinco (45 empresas, de las cuales veintitrés (23 son pequeñas, trece (13 son medianas y nueve (9 son grandes. Del conjunto de resultados, puede inferirse que existe una correlación positiva, dado que en la medida que aumenta el tamaño, aumenta la presencia de dimensiones competitivas, y a la vez se evidencia el cumplimiento del rasgo responsabilidad; presentando así, una correlación significativa global desde el punto de vista estadístico de 0,708. Se concluye, como en la medida en que aumenta el tamaño de la empresa se van generando elementos de confianza y credibilidad resultado de la responsabilidad de la empresa, frente a clientes internos y externos, convirtiendo tal fortaleza en una ventaja competitiva que expresa el posicionamiento en el mercado de consumidores.

  12. Comparison beta absorbed dose from 203Hg, 166Ho and 177LU isotopes in cortex and medulla in tree part kidney and integrated kidney using Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large quantities of radiopharmaceuticals prescribed for treatment and diagnosis are excreted through kidney. Therefore, radiation unwanted dose is created in kidney. As a result, exact calculation of prescribed medicine amount is important. In Mird pamphlet, 5 kidneys have considered in ellipsoidal shape that radiopharmaceutical is uniform distributed in them and gamma absorption fraction is calculated and recorded in the tables and the fraction of beta absorption is considered unit. While, kidney has internal organs and radioisotope is not uniform distributed in and beta absorbed fraction is not unit. Material and method: In this research, for the first time kidney is considered integrated shape and for the second time has been considered that it is consisted of three areas, pelvis, medulla and cortex. It is supposed that radiopharmaceutical is distributed in medulla. Then, beta absorbed dose is calculated in medulla and cortex using MCNPX code and is compared with integrated kidney results. Resuts: This research has been showed that beta absorbed dose from 203Hg, 166Ho and 177Lu isotopes in medulla is four times as much as dose in integrated kidney and beta dose in cortex is 0.004 to 0.012 times as much as beta dose in integrated kidney. Conclusion: Internal structure of kidney should be considered in simulation to achieve a more accurate prescribed dose. It is recommended that simulation results of three areas kidney are replaced with integrated kidney to prevent from renal toxicity.

  13. Expandindo além das fronteiras através do investimento externo: um estudo dos fatores determinantes do investimento externo direto da companhia providência nos Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Carla Fabiana Kaizer

    2014-01-01

    Devido ao crescente movimento de investimento externo direto das empresas brasileiras nas últimas décadas, optou-se por desenvolver um estudo sobre esse fenômeno. Para Morschett, Schramm-Klein e Swoboda (2010), apesar de muitas décadas de pesquisa de fato não se sabe ao certo quais são as variáveis que determinam a decisão de modo de entrada no exterior. Fato que afeta também as empresas brasileiras, pois pouco se sabe sobre o impacto das variáveis que determinam a decisão do modo de entrada....

  14. Ataque de viento externo con manifestaciones de parálisis facial periférica tratado con acupuntura

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón Ramírez, Betty Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    El ataque de viento externo es considerado desde la medicina china como un síndrome patológico que puede cursar con manifestaciones de parálisis facial semejante a la parálisis de Bell o parálisis facial idiopática de la medicina occidental, la cual también es efectivamente tratada con acupuntura; sin embargo en la actualidad no hay estudios al respecto en nuestra población. El objetivo es describir las características de población, presentación y evolución de la parálisis facial asociada ...

  15. Determinantes microeconómicos del acceso al financiamiento externo de la estructura de capital de empresas del sector industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Hernández Carmen; Humberto Ríos Bolivar; Celso Garrido Noguera

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, por medio de un modelo econométrico de datos de panel, por efectos fijos y aleatorios, los determinantes microeconómicos del acceso al financiamiento externo que afectan la estructura de capital de las empresas del sector industrial, que cotizaron en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV) en el periodo 2000-2010, a fin de demostrar que la crisis financiera internacional del 2007 modifica la relación entre dichos determinantes y la estructura de capital, ...

  16. Metodología para monitorear riesgos estratégicos provenientes del entorno externo (Methodology to monitor strategic risks)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Para las empresas es de vital importancia contar con una metodología que facilite el monitoreo de los riesgos estratégicos provenientes del entorno externo, ya que esta les permite ajustar sus planes estratégicos de acuerdo con los cambios del entorno -- La información que se obtiene con el monitoreo es el principal insumo para la toma de decisiones de la alta gerencia, ya que facilita tener una mejor visión de los hechos relevantes que pueden afectar la consecución de su ...

  17. Fragilidade financeira externa, a partir de Minsky, e os desequilíbrios externos no Plano Real (1994-98)

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Afonso Monteiro Pudwell

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho é uma aplicação da estrutura analítica de Minsky às relações financeiras entre países, no atual contexto de abertura financeira das economias emergentes. Constrói-se assim uma tipologia das posturas financeiras para países e do modelo dos dois sistemas de preços com financiamento externo. A separação da dinâmica dos diferentes ativos enseja a ocorrência de ciclos de ativos e/ou de investimentos, dados pelo influxo de capitais nas economias em desenvolvimento e se analisa a...

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE ARGAMASSAS PARA USO EM SISTEMAS DE VEDAÇÃO VERTICAL EXTERNO (SVVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Arruda de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas publicou em maio de 2010 uma nova norma de desempenho, a NBR 15.575, referente as edificações de até cinco pavimentos. Essa norma trará impactos importantes a fabricantes de materiais, projetistas, construtoras e prestadores de serviços, portanto os laboratórios de construção civil, como o LCC do IFRN, devem estar atentos a implicações destas normas, buscando gerar conhecimento a cerca dos aspectos nela envolvida, quanto para estarem aptos a avaliarem os materiais de construção e os sistemas construtivos empregados nas edificações abordadas na norma. Dentro deste contexto este artigo pretende caracterizar argamassas de revestimento para uso em sistema de vedação vertical externo (SVVE compostos de blocos cerâmicos, revestidos com argamassas em diferentes composições, visando propor inovações tecnológicas aplicados ao processo de produção de SVVE, objetivando a melhoria de desempenho, qualidade e custo dos SVVE. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: argamassa de revestimento, sistemas de vedação vertical externo, propriedades no estado fresco.

  19. Investimento direto externo e industrialização no Brasil Foreign direct investment and industrialization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir o papel do investimento direto externo - IDE no processo de industrialização da economia brasileira entre 1860 e 1980. Utiliza-se como referência de periodização desse processo a proposta elaborada por Tavares (1975 e Mello (1982, que apresenta a seguinte configuração: (1 Crescimento com diversificação da atividade industrial (1860-1933; (2 Industrialização restringida (1933-1955; e (3 Industrialização pesada (1955-1980. A análise demonstra que o comportamento dos IDEs deve ser entendido à luz das condições vigentes no plano interno e externo, como proposto originalmente por Possas (1983.This paper analyses the role of the foreign direct investment - FDI, in the industrialization process of Brazilian economy between 1860 and 1980. The reference for the division the period was the proposal by Tavares (1975 and Mello (1982: Growth with industrial activity diversification (1860-1933; Restrict industrialization (1933-1955 and 3. Heavy industrialization (1955-1980. The research demonstrate that to comprehend the behavior of the FDI, it's necessary to considerate the domestic and foreign conditions, as the proposal by Possas (1983.

  20. Importancia del vínculo externo remunerado en la gestión de las universidades públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Arroyo Venegas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto del siglo XXI, en lo que se refiere al quehacer de las universidades –tanto públicas como privadas– se enfatiza el vínculo Universidad-Sociedad, a través de nuevos enfoques de gestión universitaria que permiten atender las necesidades específicas que plantean los distintos sectores de la sociedad.En términos generales, las actividades de vínculo externo –remunerado y no remunerado– constituyen, además de una responsabilidad de todas las univer-sidades y en especial las de naturaleza pública, una estrategia efectiva para fortalecer su financiamiento y consecuentemente la gestión universitaria.El impacto financiero y social del Vínculo Externo Remunerado de las universidades públicas queda evidenciado en el análisis a nivel de ingresos, aportes e inversiones que genera esta actividad dentro del marco de operación, que desde los distintos ámbitos, desarrollan estas instituciones de educación supe-rior.

  1. Análisis de la comunicación del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones con su público externo a través de redes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Granados Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : El desarrollo de este tema tiene como objetivo analizar la incursión del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones en las nuevas tendencias sobre comunicación como las redes sociales, con el fin de llegar a todos sus públicos externos, brindando información relativa a las funciones institucionales que sean de interés para la ciudadanía. La investigación forma parte de un proyecto de tesis de graduación para optar por el grado de Licenciatura en Comunicación de Mercadeo. Se muestran los resultados de una encuesta realizada a seguidores del perfil institucional en Facebook y una entrevista a funcionarios de la institución.

  2. Percepción de la automedicación con antibióticos en los usuarios externos en un hospital publico en lima

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cevallos, Leonel Christian

    2013-01-01

    “PERCEPCIÓN DE LA AUTOMEDICACIÓN CON ANTIBIÓTICOS EN LOS USUARIOS EXTERNOS DE UN HOSPITAL PÚBLICO EN LIMA PERÚ” AUTOR: Dr. Leonel Christian Martínez Cevallos ASESOR: Dr. Eduardo Demetrio Matos Prado PROBLEMA: ¿Cuál es la percepción sobre la automedicación con antibióticos en los usuarios de consultorio externo del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza? Hipótesis: Existe relación directa entre el grado de instrucción y la automedicación con antibióticos en los sujetos de estudio....

  3. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Renato V. Alves; Fabiano H. Brandão; José E. P. Aquino; Maria R. M. S. Carvalho; Suzana M. Giancoli; Eduado A. P. Younes

    2005-01-01

    Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external audi...

  4. Nevo melânico intradérmico do meato auditivo externo Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato V. Alves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Muito comuns, os nevos intradérmicos constituem um tumor cutâneo pigmentado benigno. Seu aparecimento no meato auditivo externo é inabitual. Os aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos dos nevos intradérmicos dentro do meato auditivo externo são apresentados e a literatura é revisada.Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  5. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co{sub 60}; Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte I. Estudio de la homogeneidad de la respuesta dosimetros personales (tarjetas G-1, TLD-100), en campos de radiacion de Co{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    A sample of 40 composed personal dosemeters by cards model: G-l, (each card is made up of two TLD-100 crystals encapsulated in teflon), Harshaw trademark; those personal dosemeters present a free window and another with a filter of A1 of 171.7 mg cm{sup -2} of mass thickness.The objective of the work is to select of this sample of 40 personal dosemeters a population with the same stocking and standard deviation. The technique used is that of comparison of stockings, (ANOVA; Variance Analysis, when samples of the same one were had size; and/or GLM, Widespread Lineal Models, when the samples were of different size), by means of the use of those Duncan statistics, SNK, Tukey, Gabriel; the results are validated proving the kindness of adjustment of the experimental data to a Normal distribution by means of the Shapiro-Wilks statistics.The experimental design used consists on a test of two vias: a via is the variable card with two levels, (crystal 1 and 2), the other via is the variable irradiation position with four levels, (LS=left superior, SR= right superior, LI= left Inferior, IR = right inferior). The irradiations carried out in blocks of four personal dosemeters in a gamma radiation beam range of Cobalt 60; carrying out three repetitions of the design. With object of proving the homogeneity of the filter of A1 in those personal dosemeters the experimental design was executed for those cards without personal dosemeters.They were also carried out tests of stockings to the readings of bottom and sensibility of the reader equipment, (Harshaw, model marks 2271), certain that doesn{sup t} exist differences for sequence of reading, but if in the stockings of the sensibility, (they were 4 different populations). The responses of the dosemeters were corrected subtracting him the reading correspondence of bottom and by sensibility of the reader equipment before subjecting them to the tests of stockings mentioned. Of the results of the tests of stockings for the cards with and without personal dosemeters, and for the bottom readings and sensibility of the reader equipment; and of the adjustment kindness to the normal for each game of data.The main conclusions that they were derived of this study they are: i.That the reader equipment presents differences statistically significant ({alpha}=5%) in their sensibilities; that which is necessary correct the readings of the dosemeter, making stand out the necessity of building the curves of operation of the equipment for the bottom and the sensibility. ii. The filter of A1 is not equivalent among the different personal dosemeters i i.For this sample of 40 cards with personal dosemeters to the one fewer exist: eleven populations different statistic significant, ({alpha}) to the response glass 1 five for the response of the glass 2, respectively. i v. That exist difference significant statistical, ({alpha} =5%) among the repetitions; what implies that it is necessary to control but strictly the experimental parameters to the one moment of carrying out the irradiations, (field size, correction for time of obturator of the source, distances source-detecting, etc), since the influence of the reader equipment it has already been considered. (Author)

  6. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative ICRU magnitudes, for external fields of beta radiation. Part III. Determination of the joint of factors of angular conversion for the secondary source pattern Nr. - 86 Of (1850) MBq; Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion Beta externos. Parte III. Determinacion del conjunto de factores de conversion angular para la fuente patron secundario Nr.- 86 de (1850) MBq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    It determined the assembly of factors of angular conversion T(0;{alpha}), for the source secondary pattern of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq) at a distance detecting source of 30 cm, in the following angles: 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75{sup 0}. Obtaining the values of: 1.01, 1.05, 1.13, 1.19 and 0.95, respectively. Their Global uncertainty is smaller to 1.5% for all the cases and its percentage differences with regard to the values reported by the Draft of the norm ISO 6980(1992) they are smaller to 3.0% for all the cases.The technique employee was that of the extrapolation Chamber and the treatment of the uncertainties is made of agreement with the recommendations of the BIPM. (Author)

  7. Superando el síndrome del "enemigo externo" en una firma autopartista a través del kaizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos problemas de una firma autopartista, con causas atribuidas inicialmente a factores externos no controlables (síndrome del "enemigo externo", motivan el uso del kaizen, incorporando concepciones filosóficas y metodológicas. La metodología propuesta consta de tres etapas; la primera, iniciar, pretende conducir hacia el compromiso, la participación y el desarrollo de habilidades iniciales de los empleados; luego sigue desarrollar, que ejecuta el análisis y la solución del problema; se culmina con sostener, para mantener las contramedidas, evitar la recurrencia del problema e incentivar a los participantes. Al desplegar la metodología en los dos casos objeto de estudio (1. Muda de espera por falta de suministro y 2. Muda de defectos de hojas impresas, se identificó que las causas de dichos muda se debieron a factores internos a la empresa y no a las creencias iniciales de la firma sobre aspectos externos, no controlables. La causa del muda de espera estuvo relacionada con la cantidad de personal programado en la línea de ensamble; las impresiones defectuosas se asociaron a la política de almacenaje y protección de las hojas, así como a las instrucciones de impresión. El impacto del despliegue en la empresa se dedujo satisfactorio, ya que mediante la implantación de contramedidas basadas en creatividad, sentido común, consenso y participación de los empleados, se favorecen indicadores asociados a los problemas precisos, entre ellos, costos anuales de los muda (reducción: 87% en costos del muda de espera y 60,5% en costos de hojas defectuosas. Este trabajo provee elementos teóricos y metodológicos, que posibilitan la adaptación a otros contextos, exigiendo: compromiso directivo, justificación del cambio, entrenamiento de empleados, incentivos, comunicación y estrategias de aprendizaje, entre otros, para solucionar problemas y sostener los eventos kaizen.

  8. El sector externo y su incidencia en la ocupación en Colombia 1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Bonilla Olano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora emprendió una investigación que se fijó como objetivo realizar, mediante un modelo econométrico de regresión, la validación empírica del impacto que sobre la ocupación nacional han tenido las siguientes actividades relacionadas con el sector externo: exportaciones (X, importaciones (M, exportaciones netas (XN e inversión extranjera directa (IED. Los resultados indican que existe una alta asociación entre la ocupación y las exportaciones. No obstante, este efecto prácticamente se anula con el incremento de las importaciones. En cuanto a la IED que tiene una baja participación en el PIB, su correlación con el empleo no es significativa.

  9. ELEVACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD EN LOS SERVICIOS A PARTIR DE LA INTERRELACIÓN CLIENTES INTERNOS Y EXTERNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Romero Perdomo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de diseñar una metodología que permita a las empresas medir y elevar la calidad en sus productos y/o servicios, aplicando el modelo de gestión de la calidad según ISO 9001:2008, integrado a requisitos vinculados con la formación del Capital Humano. Su aplicación garantiza a las organizaciones mayor confianza en la capacidad de sus productos y un marco para la mejora continua a partir de una mayor formación de los clientes internos. Al evaluar sus resultados en la práctica, las autoras comprobaron la correlación existente entre la satisfacción de los clientes internos y externos y un aumento de la productividad de la organización.

  10. Espaços externos para brincar: o olhar das crianças através de fotos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    As ruas e os espaços públicos nas grandes cidades têm sido percebidos pelos adultos como impróprios para crianças em virtude da violência e do movimento de pessoas e veículos. Verifica-se então, tendência a interiorização e institucionalização dos espaços de brincadeiras. Com o objetivo de investigar, através do olhar das próprias crianças, quais os seus lugares externos para brincar, 39 crianças, meninos e meninas de status sócio-econômico baixo e médio, moradoras na cidade de Salvador, foto...

  11. Evaluación de la transferencia de oxígeno en un biorreactor convencional con aireador externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Buitrago H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Evaluation of oxygen transfer in a conventional bioreactor with external aeratorResumen: En el cultivo de microorganismos aerobios se ha observado que los biorreactores convencionales conducen a inconvenientes asociados a la limitación de oxígeno. Para dar solución a esta problemática se diseñó, construyó y evaluó un prototipo de biorreactor con aireador externo. Este sistema permitió incrementar la velocidad de transferencia del oxígeno desde la fase gaseosa a la fase líquida, superando la limitación de oxígeno. Sin embargo, esta nueva configuración carece de modelos empíricos o teóricos para predecir la transferencia de oxígeno a través del cálculo del coeficiente global de transferencia de oxígeno (KLa. En ese sentido, en este trabajo se propuso el uso de análisis dimensional (Teorema Pi de Buckingham, como herramienta para evaluar el efecto sobre el KLa de las diferentes variables involucradas en el proceso, como las de operación, las propiedades de los fluidos y dimensiones geométricas. Luego de desarrollar el análisis propuesto, se encontró una correlación de 0.89 entre los valores generados por el modelo y los datos experimentales disponibles. Se encontró que las variables con mayor incidencia sobre el coeficiente KLa son el flujo de medio de cultivo que circula por el aireador externo denominado flujo de recirculación, la presión en el aireador externo y la velocidad de agitación.Palabras clave: aireador externo, coeficiente volumétrico de transferencia de oxígeno (KLa, Teorema Pi de Buckingham.Abstract: In aerobic microorganism culture, it has been observed that conventional bioreactors lead to disadvantages associated with oxygen limitation. To solve this problem it was designed, built and tested a bioreactor prototype with external aerator. This system allowed increasing the speed of oxygen transfer from gas phase to liquid phase, overcoming the limitation of oxygen. However, this

  12. Los directivos externos y la sucesión en la empresa familiar: un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    José Ángel Zúñiga-Vicente; María Sacristán- Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza un tema crítico en la empresa familiar: las razones que pueden motivar la contratación de un directivo externo en la posición de CEO, y en qué medida esta circunstancia puede conducir al éxito empresarial. El análisis se realiza con una empresa familiar española de tamaño medio del sector logístico, que sufrió un proceso de sucesión entre 1998 y 2004. Se constata la importancia el papel desempeñado por el nuevo CEO y la familia durante el proceso de sucesión. Se concluye ...

  13. Breves reflexiones en torno al control externo administrativo y sus consecuencias en la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mabel Ivanega

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo contiene una reflexión sobre la Ley 24.156 sobre administración financiera y sistemas de control de la República Argenti na, que puede ser aplicable a otros países. El control público externo debe, de un lado, no sólo exigir el cumplimiento de la ley sino ser también el primero en cumplirla y, por otro,  debe ser útil  a la sociedad, es decir, comprometerse con el bien común y en forma más es pecífica,   ser  efectivo,   independiente,   transparente  y oportuno.

  14. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  15. From ligand to complexes. Part 2. Remarks on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibition by beta-diketo acid metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Alessia; Biemmi, Mariano; Carcelli, Mauro; Carta, Fabrizio; Compari, Carlotta; Fisicaro, Emilia; Rogolino, Dominga; Sechi, Mario; Sippel, Martin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Sanchez, Tino W; Neamati, Nouri

    2008-11-27

    Previously, we synthesized a series of beta-diketo acid metal complexes as novel HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (J. Med. Chem. 2006, 46, 4248-4260). Herein, a further extension of this study is reported. First, detailed docking studies were performed in order to investigate the mode of binding in the active site of the free ligands and of their metal complexes. Second, a series of potentiometric measurements were conducted for two diketo acids chosen as model ligands, with Mn(2+) and Ca(2+), in order to outline a speciation model. Third, we designed and synthesized a new set of complexes with different stoichiometries and tested them in an in vitro assay specific for IN. Finally, we obtained the first X-ray structure of a metal complex with HIV-1 IN inhibition activity. Analysis of these results supports the hypothesis that the diketo acids could act as complexes and form complexes with the metal ions on the active site of the enzyme.

  16. Falhas dos componentes externos do implante coclear: influência da idade e do tempo de uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Martins Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar quais são as falhas técnicas mais frequentes dos componentes externos do implante coclear e verificar a influência da idade do usuário e o tempo de uso do dispositivo nestas falhas.MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo, por meio da análise de 128 prontuários da Associação dos Deficientes Auditivos, Pais, Amigos e Usuários de Implante Coclear, que apresentaram alguma queixa no funcionamento do componente externo, no período de junho a agosto de 2011. Para análise dos dados foi realizada a análise descritiva dos componentes que apresentaram falha técnica, bem como das variáveis estudadas. Posteriormente, foi aplicada a estatística inferencial por meio do teste Kruskal-Wallis para verificar a influência da idade do paciente e tempo de uso do implante coclear com a falha apresentada, com nível de significância p< 0,05.RESULTADOS: os componentes que apresentaram mais falhas foram: antena externa (29,7%, seguida do compartimento de bateria (23,4%, processador de fala (14,10%, microfone (10,90%, cabos de transmissão (9,40%, controlador (6,30%, baterias (5,50% e carregador de baterias (0,80%. Não foi verificada influência do tempo de uso do implante coclear e a idade cronológica do paciente em relação às falhas apresentadas no presente estudo.CONCLUSÃO: os achados obtidos a partir do presente estudo podem auxiliar os profissionais da área na orientação sobre a manutenção destes componentes, mas as tendências aqui apresentadas não podem ser generalizadas para todo território nacional, pois estas foram analisadas em um número limitado de casos.

  17. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  18. Cuidando desde la central de estirilización al cliente interno y externo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A partir del concepto de cuidado, pretendo mostrar la importancia que representa la labor de enfermería en la central de esterilización, lugar desde el cual, en forma muy silenciosa, se realizan acciones que sin discusión alguna garantizan el éxito de los diferentes procedimientos que se realizan por parte del equipo de salud relacionados con la técnica aséptica.La complejidad de la Central de Esterilización es tal, que puede ser comparada con una gran industria, en la cual se encuentran una ...

  19. Impacto de las fusiones bancarias en los clientes externos. Caso: Fondo Común Banco Universal-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Muñoz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las instituciones financieras venezolanas han pasado por varias etapas, tratando de adaptarse a los cambios de la economía nacional. Inicialmente, pasaron de ser empresas financieras regionales a nacionales y luego de especializadas a universales, sin embargo, estas estrategias no resultaron del todo, teniendo que buscar otras alternativas como las fusiones. La investigación se orientó a determinar el impacto que causan las fusiones bancarias en sus clientes externos, tomando como caso específico a la entidad financiera venezolana: Fondo Común Banco Universal, para lo cual se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptivo y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios o juicios de los investigadores. De acuerdo a la opinión generalizada por los consultados, el nuevo banco es percibido por los clientes como una entidad menos ágil a la hora de prestar sus servicios.

  20. Transportación ósea en defectos masivos de la tibia con fijador externo RALCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Milanés Castellanos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente masculino, de 20 años de edad, que sufrió una fractura expuesta de la tibia derecha, grado II, el cual fue tratado, según el protocolo de urgencia, con la aplicación de antibióticos, desbridamiento, colocación de osteosíntesis interna mediante una placa de compresión y cobertura cutánea de la fractura. Se comenzó a observar una evolución desfavorable, con enrojecimiento de la piel y sepsis local mantenida, a pesar de desbridamientos repetidos y antibioticoterapia, lo cual provocó una osteomielitis postraumática y, finalmente, una seudoartrosis séptica. Fue necesaria la realización de una resección segmentaria amplia de la tibia, con la aplicación de un fijador externo RALCA, para la realización de una transportación ósea, como proceder de salvataje, para cubrir el defecto óseo y lograr la curación definitiva del paciente

  1. Validación y aplicabilidad de encuestas SERVQUAL modificadas para medir la satisfacción de usuarios externos en servicios de salud.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Emilio; Médico Pediatra Endocrinólogo, Maestro en Medicina y Salud Pública, Profesor Asociado Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima.; Chirinos, Jesús L.; Médico Internista, MD, Dr. PH., Profesor Principal Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Validar y evaluar la aplicabilidad de encuestas para medir la satisfacción de los usuarios en consulta externa (CE) y emergencia (E) de un hospital público. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, basado en la encuesta SERVQUAL. Las variables del constructo luego de perfeccionamiento consecutivo, incorporaron las principales actividades del proceso de atención y requisitos de calidad de los usuarios externos. La validez de contenido fue analizada con 5 expertos, la val...

  2. ANÁLISIS Y PREDICCIÓN DE LA SERIE DE TIEMPO DEL PRECIO EXTERNO DEL CAFÉ COLOMBIANO UTILIZANDO REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael García Martín

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se busca diseñar un modelo no lineal para el análisis y predicción de la serie de tiempo del precio externo del café colombiano utilizando Redes Neuronales Artificiales. El objetivo escomparar los alcances y limitaciones de este modelo frente a un modelo clásico de predicción lineal ARIMA.

  3. Proposição de uma tipologia para a internacionalização de P&D interno e externo nas multinacionais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na atualidade, a inovação deve ser gerenciada global e dinamicamente e seu entendimento deve englobar não só a análise das atividades inovadoras desenvolvidas dentro dos limites físicos da matriz e das subsidiárias (pesquisa e desenvolvimento - P - interno, mas também, primordialmente, envolver a avaliação das atividades inovadoras abertas, com destaque para as interações firmadas entre empresas, universidades e institutos de pesquisa nacionais e internacionais (P externo. Foi a partir desse cenário que se propôs a desenvolver uma tipologia genérica para a internacionalização de P, enfocando as possibilidades estruturais para os desenvolvimentos interno e externo. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa descritiva e foram estudados em profundidade três casos: Embraco, Tigre e WEG. Os resultados da pesquisa abordaram uma tipologia genérica para a internacionalização de P, a caracterização das multinacionais estudadas, as particularidades da internacionalização produtiva e de P dessas empresas e a análise dos casos ante a tipologia apresentada. A partir da estrutura proposta, foi possível inferir que, para a internacionalização de P interno, a Embraco e a WEB transitam entre as estruturas intermediária e madura; já para a internacionalização de P externo, há uma oscilação entre as estruturas embrionária e intermediária. No caso específico da Tigre, prevalece a estrutura embrionária para a internacionalização tanto de P interno quanto de P externo.

  4. A superação da dualidade interno/externo nas teorias fenomenológicas de Binswanger e Merleau-Ponty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ernesto Coelho Junior

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende acompanhar e discutir as concepções de Merleau-Ponty sobre o espaço e sua relação com as idéias de Binswanger, principalmente aquelas expostas em Traum und Existenz (1930 e em Das Raumproblem in der Psychopathologie (1933. Pretende considerar também as conseqüências destas concepções para a superação da dualidade externo/interno.

  5. Papel de Visitas Técnicas na Aprendizagem e Institucionalização de Práticas de Controle Externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felício Ribas Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever o processo de aquisição de conhecimentos externos mediante visitas técnicas e sua contribuição para a institucionalização de práticas de controle externo no Tribunal de Contas da União - TCU. Foram caracterizadas as visitas técnicas realizadas pelo TCU no período de 1998 a 2004. O referencial teórico baseou-se nos estudos da aprendizagem em organizações e na abordagem institucional, com foco em isomorfismo institucional. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e a coleta de dados foi realizada em 2006, em duas etapas, sendo a primeira composta de exame documental e a segunda da realização de 18 entrevistas semi-estruturadas com atores envolvidos com as visitas técnicas. Utilizou-se análise de conteúdo para análise dos dados e os resultados sugerem que a realização de visitas técnicas, aliada a processos de conversão do conhecimento adquirido, influencia a institucionalização de práticas de controle externo no TCU, em um contexto isomórfico.

  6. ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING INTERNACIONAL E A RELAÇÃO COM A PERFORMANCE EXPORTADORA E ORIENTAÇÃO PARA MERCADO EXTERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a relação entre estratégias de marketing das empresas exportadoras do Vale do Taquari, performance exportadora e orientação para mercado externo. Para concretizar o objetivo proposto buscou-se a elaboração de referencial teórico, formado pelos itens estratégias de marketing internacional, performance exportadora e orientação para mercado externo. No nível epistemológico, foi realizado um levantamento tipo survey, com aplicação de questionário em uma amostra de 25 empresas exportadoras que desempenham atividades industriais, escolhidas de maneira não probabilística. Por fim, observou-se que as decisões chaves no modo de atuar nos diversos mercados em termos de estratégias de marketing internacional – satisfação com mercado interno, coerência internacional, adaptação e nível de localização das estratégias – possuem correlação com a orientação para mercado externo e a performance exportadora das empresas estudadas.

  7. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Determinantes microeconómicos del acceso al financiamiento externo de la estructura de capital de empresas del sector industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Hernández Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, por medio de un modelo econométrico de datos de panel, por efectos fijos y aleatorios, los determinantes microeconómicos del acceso al financiamiento externo que afectan la estructura de capital de las empresas del sector industrial, que cotizaron en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV en el periodo 2000-2010, a fin de demostrar que la crisis financiera internacional del 2007 modifica la relación entre dichos determinantes y la estructura de capital, lo que explica los cambios en la política de financiamiento en moneda extranjera que siguieron estas empresas. Los hallazgos muestran que las empresas exportadoras, las emisoras de ADRs (Recibos de depósito americano y las de gran tamaño se financiaron en moneda extranjera antes de la crisis, y después de esta, solo las empresas exportadoras y las emisoras de ADRs, aunque en mayor proporción las empresas exportadoras, lo que muestra que estas, al resolver de mejor forma sus problemas de información asimétrica con sus acreedores, al contar con buenos colaterales en las cuentas por cobrar en moneda extranjera, y dar a los inversionistas una señal positiva de una buena situación económica, lograron continuar financiándose en moneda extranjera a pesar de la crisis. Derechos reservados © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  9. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  10. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  11. Factores externos y rasgos estructurales que caracterizan el desarrollo de los cibermedios en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said-Hung, Elias

    2012-09-01

    de interacción y la personalización de la información publicada en estos medios, además de una segmentación del desarrollo de estos medios por regiones, con diferencias sustantivas en cuanto a la concentración demográfica, conectividad y número de abonados a Internet y el porcentaje de población rural, entre otros aspectos, entre los países analizados. Asimismo, se logra establecer como uno de los factores externos que inciden en el tema tratado la densidad de usuarios conectados a Internet.

  12. "O Brasil em 1889": um país para consumo externo "Brazil in 1889": a country for foreign consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nunes Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1889, patrocinada pelo governo do Império e organizada por Francisco J. de Santa-Anna Nery para a Exposição Universal de Paris, era publicada a obra Le Brésil en 1889. O livro tinha como objetivo exaltar o Império do Brasil, fazendo um balanço dos "progressos" vividos pela monarquia nas últimas décadas - dentre os quais se destacava a abolição da escravidão. Entre seus autores estão alguns nomes importantes da elite política e intelectual brasileira desse período, como Rio Branco, André Rebouças e Eduardo Prado. Nosso objetivo é analisar os textos dos autores da coletânea sob a dupla perspectiva da modernização econômico-social e da questão da formação do povo brasileiro. Trata-se de verificar como esses temas foram tratados numa obra desenvolvida para "consumo externo". Enfim, que imagem de Brasil se projetava - oficialmente - em 1889, finda a escravidão e às vésperas da República.Le Brésil en 1889 is a publication organized by Francisco J. de Santa-Anna Nery, and sponsored by the Brazilian imperial government, for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889. Its main purpose was to highlight the recent achievements of the Brazilian Monarchy, especially the abolition of slavery, for a foreign audience. Among its contributors were some of the most important intellectuals and politicians from that time, such as Rio Branco, André Rebouças and Eduardo Prado. This article goal is to analyze their essays, particularly how they have portrayed the issues of socialeconomic modernization and the formation of Brazilian people. We are interested in the kind of image that Brazil was - officially - trying to project in 1889, after the abolition and just before the proclamation of the Republic.

  13. Os espaços externos como possibilidade de múltiplas experiências na Educação Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Aguiar Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4512.2015n31p264 Neste texto abordamos a relação das crianças e profissionais com os espaços externos das instituições de Educação Infantil, a partir de uma experiência vivenciada no Estágio em Docência em Educação Infantil no Curso de Pedagogia da Universidade Federal de Paraná. O estágio foi realizado em um Centro Municipal de Educação Infantil de Curitiba, durante o ano letivo de 2013, com encontros semanais, sendo as observações de campo realizadas predominantemente no período vespertino, com dois grupos de crianças organizados por idade de acordo com a instituição. A base teórica está constituída por uma breve análise dos documentos mandatários da educação infantil, as concepções de espaços e as interações, estabelecendo uma relação com as práticas vivenciadas e com a teoria histórico-cultural. Nosso foco de análise se constituiu nos espaços e nas suas organizações, bem como possibilidades de experiências das crianças a partir das relações sociais e com a natureza, que se estabelecem no espaço externo. Nesse sentido, abordamos a importância da consideração dos espaços externos nos planejamentos e práticas pedagógicas, ampliando o contato das crianças com os elementos da natureza, assim como as situações de brincadeira e movimento.

  14. Down-regulation of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase V is a critical part of etoposide-induced apoptotic process and could be mediated by decreasing Sp1 levels in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianhai; Shen, Jialin; Wu, Tao; Wei, Yuanyan; Chen, Xiaoning; Zong, Hongliang; Zhang, Si; Sun, Maoyun; Xie, Jianhui; Kong, Xiangfei; Yang, Yanzhong; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Hanzhou; Gu, Jianxin

    2006-11-01

    beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase V (beta1,4GalT V; EC 2.4.1.38) is considered to be very important in glioma for expressing transformation-related highly branched N-glycans. Recently, we have characterized beta1,4GalT V as a positive growth regulator in several glioma cell lines. However, the role of beta1,4GalT V in glioma therapy has not been clearly reported. In this study, interfering with the expression of beta1,4GalT V by its antisense cDNA in SHG44 human glioma cells markedly promoted apoptosis induced by etoposide and the activation of caspases as well as processing of Bid and expression of Bax and Bak. Conversely, the ectopic expression of beta1,4GalT V attenuated the apoptotic effect of etoposide on SHG44 cells. In addition, both the beta1,4GalT V transcription and the binding of total or membrane glycoprotein with Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) were partially reduced in etoposide-treated SHG44 cells, correlated well with a decreased level of Sp1 that has been identified as an activator of beta1,4GalT V transcription. Collectively, our results suggest that the down-regulation of beta1,4GalT V expression plays an important role in etoposide-induced apoptosis and could be mediated by a decreasing level of Sp1 in SHG44 cells, indicating that inhibitors of beta1,4GalT V may enhance the therapeutic efficiency of etoposide for malignant glioma.

  15. FACTORES INTERVINIENTES EXTERNOS A LA ORGANIZACIÓN ASOCIADOS AL ÉXITO GERENCIAL EN LA EMPRESA: “SUPLIDORA DEL CARIBE, C.A.”.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La investigación tiene como propósito determinar factores intervinientes externos a la organización tales como: Gubernamentales, de Competencia, Circunstancias Macroeconómicas del país y Tecnológicos, asociados al éxito gerencial con la finalidad de proyectar y proponer un modelo de éxito gerencial fundamentado en el reforzamiento de conductas gerenciales tomando en cuenta la misión y visión de la organización, para que sirva a empresas pequeñas o medianas dedicadas a cualquier tipo de activi...

  16. Modelo de autoevaluación institucional global con apoyo externo en un centro educativo particular de Lima. Un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Los centros educativos de gestión privada (CEP) enfrentan exigencias y demandas del sector educación y de la sociedad, y se ven urgidos de competir con otras instituciones similares para sobrevivir en el mercado. Esta situación la enfrentan realizando procesos de evaluación institucional como una de las estrategias válidas.Existen muchos modelos de evaluación institucional, nosotros sustentamos teórica y metodológicamente un modelo de autoevaluación institucional (AI) global con apoyo externo...

  17. Integración y desarrollo en la Argentina (1955-1975): sector externo, industria e integración regional

    OpenAIRE

    Tirre, Emilce

    2002-01-01

    La presente investigación se ha dedicado al análisis de la evolución y resultados del proceso de desarrollo ISI y al de las crisis del sector externo argentino en el período comprendido entre 1955 y 1975. Las hipótesis que se intentan demostrar son que estas crisis, que han sido continuas y recurrentes desde la década de 1820 y por consiguiente previas al origen de las industrias sustitutivas de importaciones (ISI), se han visto atenuadas durante el período en cuestión y que de aplicarse polí...

  18. Desarrollo de la comunidad bacteriana del floc biológico de barros activados y respuesta a la desestabilización mediada por agentes externos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ayarza, J. M. (2013). Desarrollo de la comunidad bacteriana del floc biológico de barros activados y respuesta a la desestabilización mediada por agentes externos (Tesis de Doctorado). Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal, Argentina. El tratamiento de efluentes basado en barros activados es el proceso más ampliamente empleado en todo el mundo para el tratamiento biológico de efluentes de origen industrial o domiciliario. El éxito del proceso radica no sólo en la selección de poblacion...

  19. La auditoría operativa de gestión pública y los organismos de control externo (OCEx). El caso español.

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Ruiz Fonticiella

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan la auditoria operativa de gestión pública y la función que ejercen en ella los denominados Órganos de Control Externo (OCEx) de la administración pública española. Para ello se definen las funciones y el alcance de la auditoria operativa de gestión en el sector público, así como se expresan las definiciones y las funciones de esta auditoria según la legislación y la normativa. A continuación se estudian las funciones de los OCEx en la auditoria opera...

  20. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  1. A cultura do algodão e a questão da integração entre preços internos e externos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bragança Coelho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a interação entre preços internos e externos do algodão nas últimas duas décadas para determinar se a abertura comercial ocorrida na década de 90 representou um aumento da influência dos preços externos sobre os preços internos da pluma no país. Para este fim, a metodologia escolhida foi a análise de co-integração, especificamente o Procedimento de Johansen. Os resultados obtidos com a análise da amostra completa indicam que o mercado brasileiro e o norte-americano podem ser considerados perfeitamente integrados. Dividindo a amostra, os resultados referentes à década de 80 mostram que o mercado brasileiro de algodão em pluma pode ser considerado como um mercado fechado neste período, enquanto na década de 90 os resultados indicam que o mercado brasileiro pode ser considerado integrado aos mercados internacionais.

  2. Carcinoma adenóide cístico de conduto auditivo externo Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pimenta Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma adenóide cístico é um raro tumor originado das glândulas salivares, principalmente quando se localiza no conduto auditivo externo. Apresenta alta taxa de invasão perineural e metástases, devendo ser tratado com combinação de cirurgia agressiva seguida de radioterapia. Relatamos um caso de carcinoma adenóide cístico de conduto auditivo externo em paciente de 77 anos com queixa de hipoacusia e otalgia. A mesma foi tratada com mastoidectomia radical e radioterapia.Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare tumor originating from the salivary glands, especially when arise the external auditory canal. This tumor has high rate of perineural invasion and metastasis, then must be treated with aggressive surgery combined with postoperative radiation. We report a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma arising the external auditory canal of 77 years old female patient, who complained hypoacusis and pain. She was treated by radical mastoidectomy and radiotherapy.

  3. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Mezzetto, M; Monrabal, F; Sorel, M

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has evolved from being almost a marginal activity in neutrino physics to one of the highest priorities for understanding neutrinos and the origin of mass. There are two main reasons for this paradigm shift: the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which clearly established the existence of massive neutrinos; and the existence of an unconfirmed, but not refuted, claim of evidence for neutrinoless double decay in 76Ge. As a consequence, a new generation of experiments, employing different detection techniques and {\\beta}{\\beta} isotopes, is being actively promoted by experimental groups across the world. In addition, nuclear theorists are making remarkable progress in the calculation of the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements, thus eliminating a substantial part of the theoretical uncertainties affecting the particle physics interpretation of this process. In this report, we review the main aspects of the double beta decay pro...

  4. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  5. Aprendizagem e institucionalização de práticas de controle externo : o papel de visitas técnicas do Tribunal de Contas da União

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever em que medida o processo de aquisição de conhecimentos externos mediante visitas técnicas tem contribuído para a institucionalização de práticas de controle externo no Tribunal de Contas da União. Foram identificadas e caracterizadas as visitas técnicas realizadas pelo TCU no período de 1998 a 2004 bem como os processos de socialização e codificação com elas relacionadas. A institucionalização das práticas de controle externo ligadas a essas visitas foi ...

  6. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH......). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor...

  7. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  8. Choques cambiais, política monetária e equilíbrio externo da economia brasileira em um ambiente de hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kühl Teles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de hysteresis sugere que um choque sobre a taxa de câmbio de um país desloca o equilíbrio do setor externo. Neste contexto, a experiência das flutuações do caso brasileiro a partir do Plano Real é exa-minada à luz dessa teoria, obtendo-se três conclusões centrais: 1 uma política monetária de juros altos diminui a magnitude do impacto de uma desvalorização cambial sobre as exportações, o que implica um deslocamento do equilíbrio externo; 2 uma elevação da taxa de juros aumenta a defasagem esperada das exportações com relação a choques cambiais, ou seja, aumenta a defasagem da curva J para a economia brasileira; 3 a mudança do regime cambial de câmbio fixo para flexível em 1999 alterou os parâmetros do processo estocástico que rege as flutuações cambiais, de forma a afetar os parâmetros de decisão de entrada no mercado externo das firmas domésticas e de modo a tornar necessária uma desvalorização cambial maior para a firma doméstica decidir exportar.The concept of hysteresis suggests that a shock on exchange rate change the foreign equilibrium of the economy. In that context, the experience of the fluctuations of the Brazilian case from the Real Plan is examined, obtaining three central conclusions: 1 A high interest rate monetary policy diminishes the magnitude of the impact of an exchange depreciation about the exports, what imply a shift of the external equilibrium; 2 An elevation of the interest rate increase the lag of the J curve for the Brazilian economy; 3 The change of the exchange rate regime from fixed to flexible in 1999, altered the parameters of the stochastic process that governs the exchange fluctuations, affecting the entrance decision parameters in the external market of the domestic firms, being necessary a bigger exchange depreciation to the domestic firm decide to export.

  9. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  10. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  11. DO ESTRANGULAMENTO EXTERNO À MORATÓRIA: A NEGOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA COM O FMI NO GOVERNO FIGUEIREDO (1979-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Salomão

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de endividamento externo adotado nos anos 1970 esteve diretamente associado à necessidade de financiamento do II PND. A necessidade de legitimação do regime discricionário compeliu o governo a inserir a economia brasileira de modo imprudente no circuito financeiro internacional. Após o segundo choque do petróleo, em 1979, a política econômica da tecnocracia resumiu-se a administrar a crise do balanço de pagamentos. Estabeleceu-se, então, uma longa e hesitante negociação com o FMI e com os credores internacionais, e as divergências dela decorrentes ensejaram a decretação da moratória da dívida externa anos depois.

  12. La auditoría operativa de gestión pública y los organismos de control externo (ocex). el caso español

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Fontichella, María Teresa

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan la auditoría operativa de gestión pública y la función que ejercen en ella los denominados Órganos de Control Externo (OCEx) de la administración pública española. Para ello se definen las funciones y el alcance de la auditoría operativa de gestión en el sector público, así como se expresan las definiciones y las funciones de esta auditoría según la legislación y la normativa. A continuación se estudian las funciones de los OCEx en la auditoría operativa de gestión...

  13. LA AUDITORÍA OPERATIVA DE GESTIÓN PÚBLICA Y LOS ORGANISMOS DE CONTROL EXTERNO (OCEX). EL CASO ESPAÑOL

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Fontichella, María Teresa

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan la auditoría operativa de gestión pública y la función que ejercen en ella los denominados Órganos de Control Externo (OCEx) de la administración pública española. Para ello se definen las funciones y el alcance de la auditoría operativa de gestión en el sector público, así como se expresan las definiciones y las funciones de esta auditoría según la legislación y la normativa. A continuación se estudian las funciones de los OCEx en la auditoría operativa de gestión...

  14. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  15. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  16. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  17. Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\

  18. Metabolic Stress and Compromised Identity of Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Beta cell failure is a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular underpinnings of the process remain only partly understood. It has been suggested that beta cell failure in T2D involves massive cell death. Other studies ascribe beta cell failure to cell exhaustion, due to chronic oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cellular dysfunction. More recently it was proposed that beta cells in T2D may lose their differentiated identity, possibly even gaining features of other islet cell types. The loss of beta cell identity appears to be driven by glucotoxicity inhibiting the activity of key beta cell transcription factors including Pdx1, Nkx6.1, MafA and Pax6, thereby silencing beta cell genes and derepressing alternative islet cell genes. The loss of beta cell identity is at least partly reversible upon normalization of glycemia, with implications for the reversibility of T2D, although it is not known if beta cell failure reaches eventually a point of no return. In this review we discuss current evidence for metabolism-driven compromised beta cell identity, key knowledge gaps and opportunities for utility in the treatment of T2D.

  19. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  20. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  1. Gorduras de descarte e componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos Trim fat and external components of the body of steers and cull cows from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Cattelan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar as proporções das diferentes gorduras de descarte e os componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte 5/8Charolês (Ch 3/8Nelore (Ne e 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. A idade média dos animais ao final do período experimental foi de 23 meses para os novilhos e 68 meses para as vacas de descarte. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento até atingirem acabamento para o abate. A dieta alimentar continha relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60 (base na matéria seca, com 14,2% de proteína bruta e 2.869kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (2 categorias x 2 grupos genéticos. Houve maior peso de abate (PAB (509,67 contra 414,50kg e de corpo vazio (PCVZ (433,01 contra 355,27kg para as vacas em relação aos novilhos. Quando os componentes foram expressos em valores absolutos e ajustados para PCVZ e PAB, as vacas apresentaram maiores pesos de gordura inguinal/úbere, gordura renal e no total de gordura interna. Quando os pesos dos componentes foram ajustados para PAB e PCVZ, os novilhos foram superiores no peso da cabeça, patas, vassoura da cauda e no total dos componentes externos. Os animais 5/8Ch 3/8Ne apresentaram maior peso absoluto da cabeça e maior peso relativo ao PCVZ da gordura ruminal, em relação aos 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. Por outro lado, os 5/8N e 3/8Ch apresentaram maiores pesos relativos ao PAB e PCVZ do couro e do PAB do total de componentes externos, quando comparados aos 5/8Ch 3/8Ne. Não houve correlação entre o rendimento de carcaça e os componentes não integrantes da carcaça.The objective of this research was to evaluate the trim fat and external components of the body of two categories, steers and cull cows, from two genetic groups: 5/8 Charolais (Ch 3/8 Nellore (Ne and 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. The average age of animals at the end of the experimental period was of 23 and 68 months, for steers and cull

  2. Plastocrono e rendimento de feijão-de-vagem cultivado sob ambiente protegido e no ambiente externo em semeadura tardia no outono Plastochron and snap bean yield grown under protected environment and in open field in late fall sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L., ou feijão-vagem, é uma hortaliça que, durante o outono no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, pode ser favorecida pelo cultivo no interior de estufa plástica (cultivo protegido. A determinação do intervalo de tempo entre a emissão de dois nós consecutivos em dicotiledôneas, denominada plastocrono, é importante em estudos de modelagem e para o manejo dessa hortaliça. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o plastocrono e o rendimento da cultura de feijão-de-vagem em cultivo sob ambiente protegido por estufa plástica e no ambiente externo. Um experimento foi conduzido durante o outono de 2009, em Santa Maria, em dois ambientes: em ambiente protegido (estufa plástica de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 100µm de espessura e em ambiente externo (céu aberto. Foram determinadas a densidade de fluxo de radiação solar global incidente, a temperatura do ar, a soma térmica diária, a emissão de nós (plastocrono na haste principal até o florescimento e o rendimento precoce de vagens nos dois ambientes. A disponibilidade de radiação foi 26% menor no ambiente protegido, e as temperaturas mínima, média e máxima diária foram superiores. O plastocrono foi maior (velocidade de emissão de nós foi menor no ambiente protegido, enquanto o rendimento de vagens foi similar nos dois ambientes. A redução da densidade de fluxo de radiação solar global incidente em função da cobertura plástica foi apontada como a causa da menor velocidade de emissão de nós (maior plastocrono pelas plantas no ambiente protegido, enquanto o crescimento reprodutivo no ambiente protegido foi similar ao do ambiente externo, provavelmente devido a menor exposição das plantas a possíveis estresses, mecânico por vento e hídrico parcial nas horas mais quentes dos dias de maior demanda hídrica, além do aumento da fração difusa da radiação solar, que, em parte, compensou o sombreamento pela estufa.Snap bean

  3. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  4. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  5. Endividamento externo e controles de capitais: uma análise computacional de um modelo macrodinâmico Pós-keynesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Oreiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o impacto dos controles de capitais sobre a trajetória temporal de uma série de variáveis macroeconômicas para economias em desenvolvimento a partir de um modelo pós-keynesiano de economia aberta e sem governo. Inicialmente, apresentamos um modelo macroeconômico que introduz o controle de capitais como variável de escolha de política econômica. A partir da análise de estabilidade do modelo deduzimos um conjunto de valores economicamente plausíveis para os parâmetros. Com base nestes parâmetros analisamos o comportamento dinâmico do grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva, do endividamento externo, das exportações líquidas e da taxa de juros sob diferentes condições iniciais. Na seqüência, analisamos a sensibilidade da economia a choques externos como, por exemplo, variações da taxa de juros internacional e do fluxo internacional de comércio. Nesse contexto, constatamos que os controles de capitais podem contribuir para a redução da volatilidade da dívida externa a choques exógenos, mas amplificam os efeitos desses choques sobre o grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva. Desta forma, a desejabilidade da adoção de controles de capitais é condicional às preferências da sociedade no que se refere à volatilidade do grau de utilização da capacidade vis-à-vis à volatilidade do endividamento externo.This article analyses the effects of capital controls over the time-path of several macroeconomic variables of developing economies by means of a post-Keynesian macroeconomic model for an open economy without government activities. First of all, we present a macroeconomic model that embodies capital controls as an economic policy instrument. After the stability analysis of the model, we deduce a set of economic plausible values for the parameters. Using these parameter values, we describe the dynamical behavior of capacity utilization level, external debt, net exports and interest rate

  6. Fitomejoramiento participativo de cultivos alimenticios en Centro América: panorama, resultados y retos. Un punto de vista externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Hocd\\u00E9

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante milenios, el fitomejoramiento fue obra de los propios agricultores. En el siglo pasado, particularmente en la segunda mitad, éste fue considerado como un mandato para los científicos. En esta tarea, buena parte de los fitomejoradores confiscaron para ellos mismos esta responsabilidad y poco tomaron en cuenta a los usuarios de sus resultados. Recientemente, en muchos países, núcleos de científicos han reconsiderado su posición e involucran en sus trabajos, de una manera u otra, a los agricultores, lo que llaman fitomejoramiento participativo (FP o, en inglés, participatory plant breeding. El presente artículo ofrece una visión global de los trabajos de FP que grupos de científicos junto con técnicos y agricultores llevan a cabo en América Central. Después de presentar brevemente las experiencias en curso, el texto analiza rápidamente los resultados obtenidos a tres niveles: variedades, metodologías y aprendizaje de los actores involucrados. En una tercera parte, se enfatiza el proceso que ha dado soporte a estas acciones, concluye en una cuarta parte, con los principales retos planteados por estas iniciativas. Las experiencias en curso revelan actitudes y conocimientos, metodologías, dispositivos organizativos y estrategias que facultan la implementación de interacciones exitosas entre agricultores, investigadores y técnicos. Estas implicaciones a su vez desembocan en el desarrollo de variedades adaptadas a los contextos de agricultura campesina, en la cual el fitomejoramiento participativo y el convencional se complementan y enriquecen

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and programmed cell death in the vertebrate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenker, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a precisely regulated phenomenon essential for the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Developmental systems, particularly the nervous system, have provided key observations supporting the physiological role of PCD. We have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in mediating ontogenetic PCD in the nervous system. As part of the central nervous system the developing retina serves as an ideal model system for investigating apoptotic processes during neurogenesis in vivo as it is easily accessible experimentally and less complex due to its limited number of different neurons. This review summarizes data indicating a pivotal role of TGF-beta in mediating PCD in the vertebrate retina. The following topics are discussed: expression of TGF-beta isoforms and receptors in the vertebrate retina, the TGF-beta signaling pathway, functions and molecular mechanisms of PCD in the nervous system, TGF-beta-mediated retinal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and interactions of TGF-beta with other pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

  9. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-01-01

    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  10. Seguimiento del contorno externo de la boca en imágenes de vídeo Outer Lip contour tracking in video images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexánder Ceballos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El seguimiento preciso de la boca de una persona, cuando está hablando, es un desafío importante en varias aplicaciones, como la identificación de la cara o la interacción con el computador. La complejidad de forma, textura y color de la boca, y los cambios de iluminación y fondos de los posibles escenarios hacen que este sea aún un problema abierto. En este artículo se propone un algoritmo para el seguimiento del contorno externo de la boca, sin utilizar marcadores o alguna clase de maquillaje para resaltar los labios, basado en apariencia y en restricciones morfológicas definidas en el estándar MPEG-4. El algoritmo es robusto ante la presencia de barba, tono de piel y calidad de la imagen.An accurate tracking of a person's mouth when he/she is speaking is an important challenge in several applications such as face identification or interaction with computer. Complexity of shape, texture, and color of the mouth, as well as changes in lighting and backgrounds of possible scenarios makes of it an open problem yet. This article proposed an algorithm for a tracking of the mouth external contour without using markers or any kind of make-up for highlighting lips, based on appearance and morphological restrictions defined by the MPEG-4 Standard. Algorithm is robust before the presence of beard, skin tone, and image quality.

  11. La auditoría operativa de gestión pública y los organismos de control externo (OCEx. El caso español.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ruiz Fonticiella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan la auditoria operativa de gestión pública y la función que ejercen en ella los denominados Órganos de Control Externo (OCEx de la administración pública española. Para ello se definen las funciones y el alcance de la auditoria operativa de gestión en el sector público, así como se expresan las definiciones y las funciones de esta auditoria según la legislación y la normativa. A continuación se estudian las funciones de los OCEx en la auditoria operativa de gestión pública en aspectos tales como su semblanza, información a emitir, sus relaciones con los órganos de control interno y la colaboración de auditores privados en la auditoria pública. Finalmente se formulan unas conclusiones.

  12. Colgajos de pectoral mayor y oblicuo externo para cobertura de expansores y/o prótesis en reconstrucción postmastectomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dávalos-Dávalos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción mamaria inmediata postmastectomía radical modificada o subcutánea devuelve la feminidad a las pacientes al crear una neomama con volumen adecuado, simetría, visión tridimensional, forma anatómica y sensibilidad táctil en el área reconstruida. Para este fin se han descrito múltiples técnicas quirúrgicas, entre las cuales nosotros hemos utilizado los expansores cutáneos y prótesis mamarias texturizadas de forma anatómica, de perfil alto y altura moderada. Describimos nuestra técnica quirúrgica mediante la cual, al realizar la mastectomía, creamos un bolsillo retromuscular amplio, sin tensión, conformado por el músculo pectoral mayor que es desinsertado en su base inferior, y un colgajo con pedículo lateral interno del músculo oblicuo externo, los cuales al suturarse entre sí, cubren, protegen y crean un amplio bolsillo para el expansor o prótesis mamaria. Estos colgajos se cubren a su vez por un colgajo cutáneo-adiposo.

  13. Modelo de autoevaluación institucional global con apoyo externo en un centro educativo particular de Lima. Un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mercedes Revilla Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los centros educativos de gestión privada (CEP enfrentan exigencias y demandas del sector educación y de la sociedad, y se ven urgidos de competir con otras instituciones similares para sobrevivir en el mercado. Esta situación la enfrentan realizando procesos de evaluación institucional como una de las estrategias válidas.Existen muchos modelos de evaluación institucional, nosotros sustentamos teórica y metodológicamente un modelo de autoevaluación institucional (AI global con apoyo externo centrado en la mejora. Este fue validado en un CEP de Monterrico, en el distrito de Surco, Lima. La investigación —que fue evaluativa, de tipo descriptivo y usó la modalidad de estudio de caso único— concluye con una propuesta de Plan de AI listo para su puesta en práctica. Los resultados contribuyen a la planificación y ejecución de procesos de autoevaluación en la institución escolar favoreciendo el desarrollo y la calidad de la gestión de las organizaciones escolares.

  14. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  15. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  16. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  17. La modelización de la imagen de ciudad desde la perspectiva de los líderes de opinión externos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVADOR DEL BARRIO GARCÍA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En la planificación estratégica de una ciudad un elemento de partida está constituido por la imagen que diversos públicos tienen de la misma. El concepto de imagen de ciudad es multidimensional y no se limita únicamente a aspectos urbanísticos sino que incluye otras dimensiones. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer qué dimensiones son las que utilizan los líderes de opinión en la formación de dicha imagen. Para ello, se ha llevado a cabo un trabajo de campo en el que a los líderes de opinión externos seleccionados se les pidió que valoraran un conjunto de cuestiones relativas a una determinada ciudad. Tras validar las escalas de medida, se estima un modelo teórico que ayuda a comprender cómo se forma la imagen de una ciudad. La interpretación y las consecuencias que se deducen del modelo complementan el diagnóstico y sugieren actuaciones a realizar para mejorar la imagen de la ciudad.In strategic city planning a starting point is an evaluation of the image of the city from diverse viewpoints. The concept of city image is multidimensional and it is not limited solely to urbanisticfeatures since it includes other dimensions. The objective of this article is to identify the dimensions that opinion leaders use in the formulation of this image. To achieve this, fieldwork was conducted in which selected opinion leaders were asked to value a range of questions relating to the city. Having validated the measurement scales, a theoretical model is constructed to understand how city images are formed. The interpretation and consequences derived from this model complement the diagnostic and lead to actions to undertake to improve a city's imag.

  18. EFECTOS DE LOS CHOQUES DE ORIGEN EXTERNO SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EL TIPO DE CAMBIO REAL DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mayorga V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó la técnica de vectores autorregresivos (VAR a datos trimestrales del periodo 1982 a 1995, para analizar los principales efectos que generan sobre la producción y el tipo de cambio real de Costa Rica, los choques externos comerciales y financieros. Los primeros fueron aproximados por indicadores de demanda externa y de precios internacionales (PIB de EEUU y la relación de términos de intercambio del país; los segundos, por la tasa de interés estadounidense. Con respecto a otras investigaciones sobre el tema, el estudio permite tener idea sobre la magnitud, el sentido y la permanencia de los choques.La evidencia estadística sugiere que un aumento en el dinamismo de la economía mundial tiende a producir un aumento permanente y amplio en la producción nacional y una apreciación real reducida y transitoria del colón (de poco más de un año luego de ocurrido el evento.Un mejoramiento de los precios relativos de los bienes objeto de comercio internacional del país tiende a aumentar en forma limitada y por corto tiempo (medio año el PIB doméstico y a ocasionar una apreciación del colón reducida aunque de duración importante (alrededor de dos años y medio.Un aumento de las tasas de interés externas afecta negativamente el producto real del país y, sorprendentemente, aprecia en términos reales, en forma permanente y profunda, al colón.

  19. Institutional change in Latin America: external models and their unintended consequences Cambio institucional en América latina: modelos externos y consecuencias no previstas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt WEYLAND

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories claim that institutions shape actor behavior but are sustained by these actors’ behavior. How do scholars escape from this trap of endogeneity? This article highlights a partially exogenous factor: institutional models and blueprints. Since these ideational schemes do not emerge from actor preferences, they play an independent, irreducible role in institutional creation. In fact, Latin America has borrowed many blueprints from the «First World». But transferred to a different setting, these imported models often fail to command firm, reliable compliance and do not operate well. Therefore, informal mechanisms arise and guide behavior. External borrowing thus produces persistent disjunctures in institutional development.Influyentes teorías aseguran que las instituciones moldean el comportamiento de los actores, pero están fundamentadas en el comportamiento de estos mismos actores. ¿Cómo evitan los académicos esta trampa de endogeneidad? Este artículo resalta la relevancia de un factor parcialmente exógeno: los modelos institucionales y sus diseños. Dado que estos esquemas conceptuales no emergen de las preferencias de los actores, juegan un papel independiente, irreducible en la creación institucional. De hecho, América Latina ha tomado prestados muchos diseños del «Primer Mundo». Sin embargo, una vez importados a un escenario distinto, estos modelos frecuentemente fracasan a la hora de garantizar un cumplimiento confiable y firme, por lo que no operan bien. Así, aparecen mecanismos informales que guían el comportamiento de los actores. El préstamo externo produce, de esta manera, fracturas persistentes en el desarrollo institucional.

  20. The external impacts of Central Bank independence Os impactos externos da independência dos Bancos Centrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Howard Griffin

    2010-12-01

    , tanto desenvolvidos como em desenvolvimento. Desde a primeira literatura acadêmica a respeito no final dos anos 80, muitos países começaram a adotar essa política e muitos governos a reconheceram como padrão. Assim, muitos países ao redor do mundo concederam autonomia a seus bancos centrais nos anos 80 e 90. A maior parte dos estudos existentes investigou principalmente o impacto da independência do banco central na inflação. Porém, os benefícios teóricos adicionais vão muito além, resultado de um ambiente macroeconômico mais estável e próspero. Ademais, somente agora há dados suficientes para a determinação empírica da veracidade de muitas dessas alegações. Este estudo investiga a independência dos bancos centrais em países em desenvolvimento na América Latina e na Ásia, além de determinados países desenvolvidos, para determinar o real impacto de um banco central autônomo. Também examina fenômenos como crises financeiras (inclusive a crise global em curso no período 2008-2009, estabelecimento de metas de inflação, sistemas legais, desenvolvimento dos países e política fiscal para determinar os efeitos destes itens não somente na inflação, mas no espectro amplo de resultados macroeconômicos. Apesar de haver evidências empíricas para apoiar os benefícios da independência do banco central, seu escopo é limitado a determinadas áreas.

  1. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  2. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe [Department of Chemistry, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); CSGI (Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase), Florence (Italy); Grimaldi, Manuela; D' Ursi, Anna Maria [Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); D' Errico, Gerardino, E-mail: gerardino.derrico@unina.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); CSGI (Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase), Florence (Italy)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  3. Sizeable beta-strength in 31Ar (beta 3p) decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Koldste, G.; Blank, B.; J. G. Borge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time precise spectroscopic information on the recently discovered decay mode beta-delayed 3p-emission. The detection of the 3p events gives an increased sensitivity to the high energy part of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution from the decay of 31Ar revealing that as ...

  4. Exploring functional beta-cell heterogeneity in vivo using PSA-NCAM as a specific marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Karaca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mass of pancreatic beta-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous beta-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of beta-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats. METHODS: Two rat beta-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e. beta(high and beta(low-cells. Insulin release, Ca(2+ movements, ATP and cAMP contents in response to various secretagogues were analyzed. Gene expression profiles and exocytosis machinery were also investigated. In a second part, beta(high and beta(low-cell distribution and functionality were investigated in animal models with decreased or increased beta-cell function: the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat and the 48 h glucose-infused rat. RESULTS: We show that beta-cells are heterogeneous for PSA-NCAM in rat pancreas. Unlike beta(low-cells, beta(high-cells express functional beta-cell markers and are highly responsive to various insulin secretagogues. Whereas beta(low-cells represent the main population in diabetic pancreas, an increase in beta(high-cells is associated with gain of function that follows sustained glucose overload. CONCLUSION: Our data show that a functional heterogeneity of beta-cells, assessed by PSA-NCAM surface expression, exists in vivo. These findings pinpoint new target populations involved in endocrine pancreas plasticity and in beta-cell defects in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  6. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had their spleens removed. Slower growth rates. The anemia resulting from beta thalassemia can cause children to grow more slowly and also can lead ... boost production of new red blood cells. Some children with moderate anemia may require an occasional blood transfusion , particularly after ...

  7. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  9. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  10. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is a multifunctional growth factor involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. Unlike mammals, the function of TGF-beta in the reproduction of lower vertebrates, such as fish, is not clear. Recently, we showed that TGF-beta1 inhibits gonadotropin- and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP-induced maturation in zebrafish. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying this action. Method To determine if the effect of TGF-beta1 on oocyte maturation involves transcription and/or translation, ovarian follicles were pre-treated with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, and cyclohexamide, an inhibitor of translation, and incubated with hCG or DHP, either alone or in combination with TGF-beta1 and oocyte maturation scored. To determine the effect of TGF-beta1 on mRNA levels of several key effectors of oocyte maturation, three sets of experiments were performed. First, follicles were treated with control medium or TGF-beta1 for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Second, follicles were treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta1 (0 to 10 ng/ml for 18 h. Third, follicles were incubated with hCG in the absence or presence of TGF-beta1 for 18 h. At the end of each experiment, total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. PCR using primers specific for 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD which is involved in DHP production, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control, were performed. Results Treatment with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, reduced the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on DHP-induced oocyte maturation, indicating that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta1 is in part due to regulation of gene transcription. Treatment with TGF-beta1 caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in mRNA levels of 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta in

  11. Calpain inhibition prevents amyloid-beta-induced neurodegeneration and associated behavioral dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, Ivica; Nyakas, Csaba; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Halmy, Laszlo G.; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Moeller, Achim; Nimmrich, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (A beta) is toxic to neurons and such toxicity is - at least in part - mediated via the NMDA receptor. Calpain, a calcium dependent cystein protease, is part of the NMDA receptor-induced neurodegeneration pathway, and we previously reported that inhibition of calpain prevents excitotoxi

  12. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E

    1998-06-01

    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  13. TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IL-10, IL-6, and INF-gamma alleles among African Americans and Cuban Americans. Report of the ASHI Minority Workshops: Part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nancy L; Esquenazi, Violet; Lucas, Donna P; Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2004-12-01

    Point mutations or single nucleotide substitutions in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may affect levels of cytokine expression and have been associated with acute and chronic rejection in organ transplantation, severity of graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and predisposition to autoimmune disorders. Because these cytokine variants have been studied primarily among Caucasians, we defined the alleles and frequencies of five cytokines among 691 unrelated, adult African Americans and 296 Cuban Americans in the American Society for Histocompatibility/National Institutes of Health Minority HLA Workshops. The genotypes of all cytokines, except for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta among African Americans, were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Genotype frequencies among African American and Cuban American participants were compared with those of 75 North American Caucasian bone marrow donors and with published frequencies. Significant differences were observed in all comparisons except between Cuban and Caucasian Americans for alleles of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. The most notable differences were in genotype frequencies of African Americans compared with those of the two other populations. The frequency of the IFN-gamma genotype A/A, which is associated with low expression, was significantly higher in African Americans than in Caucasian or Cuban Americans (0.66 vs 0.37 and 0.26, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). The high-expression G/G genotype for IL-6 was more than twice as prevalent among African Americans as among Caucasians and 1.5 times more frequent than among Cuban Americans (respective frequencies: 0.85 vs 0.38 and 0.49; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In African Americans, the frequency of the high-expression genotype for IL-10, GCC/GCC, was approximately half that of the frequency in Cuban and Caucasian Americans (0.10 vs 0.19 and 0.23, respectively; p < 0

  14. Study on the complexation of isoquercitrin with {beta}-cyclodextrin and its derivatives by spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yunlong; Qiao Xiaona; Li Wenchao; Zhou Yehong; Jiao Yong [Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Wu Cheng Road 36, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yang Cheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Dong Chuan, E-mail: dc@sxu.edu.cn [Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Wu Cheng Road 36, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Shuang, Shaomin, E-mail: smshuang@sxu.edu.cn [Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Wu Cheng Road 36, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2009-09-14

    The inclusion complexes of isoquercitrin (IQ) with cyclodextrins (CDs) including {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP-{beta}-CD) and dimethyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (DM-{beta}-CD) have been investigated using the methods of steady-state fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and induced circular dichroism. The stoichiometric ratio of the three complexes was found to be 1:1 and the stability constants (K) were estimated from spectrofluorometric titrations, as well as the thermodynamic parameters. Maximum inclusion ability was measured in the case of DM-{beta}-CD due to the increased hydrophobicity of the host cavity, followed by HP-{beta}-CD and {beta}-CD. The effect of pH on the complexation process was also quantitatively assessed. IQ exists in different molecular forms depending on pH and {beta}-CDs were most suitable for inclusion of the neutral form of IQ. The phase-solubility diagrams obtained with {beta}-CD, HP-{beta}-CD and DM-{beta}-CD were all classical A{sub L} type. And DM-{beta}-CD provided the best solubility enhancement, 12.3-fold increase compared to 2.8- and 7.5-fold increase for {beta}-CD and HP-{beta}-CD. The apparent stability constants obtained from the solubility data at 25 deg. C were comparable with those obtained from the fluorescence assays. Moreover, {sup 1}H NMR was carried out, which revealed that the IQ favorably inserted into the inner cavity from the chromone part instead of the phenyl part, which was in agreement with molecular modeling studies.

  15. Síntesis de la valoración del recién nacido con anomalías de los genitales externos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Forero Caballero

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Los niños con ambigüedad sexual requieren un diagnóstico, una orientación y tratamiento adecuados en edad temprana. Es importante lograr un diagnóstico definitivo, establecer un plan de tratamiento apropiado, informar sobre el pronóstico participativo y comunicar prudentemente los riesgos precisos de las complicaciones.

    En algunos casos es conveniente conformar un equipo de especialistas para resolver estas conductas de manera oportuna y eficiente. Al pediatra le corresponde la evaluación del diagnóstico, la coordinación del equipo de especialistas, ayudar a la familia para entender las condiciones médicas del niño y mantener una comunicación amplia entre la familia y los miembros del equipo de orientación. En la sala de nacimiento no es conveniente asignarle un género al niño que ha nacido con genitales ambiguos; debe referirse como a “su bebé”.

    A los padres se les debe demostrar el defecto y explicarles que en el feto las estructuras primordiales del sexo son las mismas y que la evolución de la diferencia sexual puede ser normal o existir desarrollo incompleto o exagerado de los genitales externos, los cuales son posibles de corregir. Animar a los padres para que no se le dé nombre, ni se registre el bebé hasta que se defina el sexo de crianza. Cada niño requiere una atención individual, especialmente un cuidadoso examen físico, estudios de laboratorio y prodigarle sentimientos paternos. El tono emocional de los profesionales de la salud para transmitir esta información puede conducir a una influencia valiosa sobre el concepto de los padres en relación con el desarrollo normal de los genitales. Por tanto es indispensable una atmósfera positiva para principiar las relaciones de los padres con su niño...

  16. Scalar-mediated double beta decay and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzales, L; Hirsch, M; Kovalenko, S G

    2016-01-01

    The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta decay could be dominated by short-range diagrams involving heavy scalar particles ("topology-II" diagrams). Examples are diagrams with diquarks, leptoquarks or charged scalars. Here, we compare the discovery potential for lepton number violating signals at the LHC with constraints from dijet and leptoquark searches and the sensitivity of double beta decay experiments, using three example models. We note that already with 20/fb the LHC will test interesting parts of the parameter space of these models, not excluded by current limits on double beta decay.

  17. Sistematización del colgajo musculocutáneo unipediculado de párpado superior en reconstrucción de párpado inferior, canto interno y externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Vera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Están publicadas diferentes técnicas para la reconstrucción del párpado inferior y de los cantos interno y externo, algunas de ellas muy ingeniosas, pero a la vez muy complicadas, y sólo accesibles para cirujanos con amplia experiencia. Por lo tanto, simplificar y sistematizar una técnica sería muy útil para obtener un mejor resultado quirúrgico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la sistematización de un colgajo musculocutáneo unipediculado del párpado superior, de 40 mm de largo y de 7, 10 o 15 mm de ancho, con pedículo en el canto palpebral externo o interno, para reconstruir total o parcialmente el párpado inferior, el canto interno o externo. Esta sistematización consiste en el diseño del colgajo teniendo en cuenta referencias anatómicas de la órbita fáciles de establecer. Para reconstruir la lamela o capa interna del párpado, que corresponde al tarso y conjuntiva, se utiliza un injerto de cartílago auricular o de septo nasal y para la capa externa del párpado, un colgajo musculocutáneo compuesto por piel y músculo orbicular del párpado superior. Con ello, se hace posible una fácil ejecución de la técnica quirúrgica, a la vez que se aprovecha al máximo la versatilidad del colgajo en la reconstrucción palpebral.

  18. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF INNOVATION CAPABILITY IN PORTUGUESE SERVICES FIRMS: A LOGIT APPROACH DETERMINANTES INTERNOS Y EXTERNOS DE LA CAPACIDAD DE INNOVAR DE LAS EMPRESAS DE SERVICIOS PORTUGUESAS: MODELO LOGIT DETERMINANTES INTERNOS E EXTERNOS DA CAPACIDADE INOVADORA DAS EMPRESAS DE SERVIÇOS PORTUGUESAS: MODELO LOGIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the degree of importance of factors internal and external determinants of innovative company, under the Portuguese service companies. Based on the literature has built up a conceptual model and hypotheses were formulated several research have been tested empirically, using the secondary data provided by the Center for Science  and Higher Education (OCES, belonging to the 4th Community Innovation Survey (CIS 4, supervised by EUROSTAT. The method was to use logistic regression. According to the results, as greater financial investment in internal  research activities and development in acquisition of external knowledge and marketing activities in the greater propensity of firms to innovate at the level of services. The results allow a joint analysis of the factors that promote and restrict the innovative capacity of service companies, which identify the main determinants and improve the knowledge on innovation in services. The contribution of the results refers to the identification of which factors are really important in stimulating innovation in service firms.Esta investigación analizó el grado de importancia de los factores internos y externos determinantes de la capacidad innovadora empresarial en el ámbito de las empresas de servicios portuguesas. Con base en la literatura se construyó un  modelo conceptual y se formularon varias hipótesis de investigación que fueron testadas empíricamente, utilizándose los datos secundarios facultados por el “Observatorio de Ciencia y de la Enseñanza Superior” (OCES, pertenecientes a la 4ª Indagación Comunitaria a la Innovación (CIS 4, bajo la supervisión de EUROSTAT. El método utilizado fue la regresión logística. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, cuanto mayores sean las inversiones financieras en actividades internas de investigación y desarrollo, en adquisición de conocimientos externos y en actividades de marketing, mayor es la

  19. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  20. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  1. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  2. La enseñanza de los sistemas externos de representación matemáticos y lingüísticos en la educación infantil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es identificar factores que contribuyen a mantener un enfoque básicamente instrumental para enseñar los sistemas externos de representación matemáticos y lingüísticos en las primeras edades de escolarización. En el estudio han participado 123 maestros de Educación Infantil de diversos centros escolares públicos de Andalucía, Asturias, Cataluña y Navarra que han asistido a cursos de formación permanente del profesorado. El análisis cualitativo realizado se basa en g...

  3. Revisión sobre el manejo de atresia de conducto auditivo externo mediante el uso de dispositivos auditivos implantables osteointegrados: A propósito de un caso exitoso con un implante Bonebridge®

    OpenAIRE

    Sanhueza C,David; Esquivel C,Patricia; Dentone S,Claudia

    2014-01-01

    La atresia de conducto auditivo externo tiene una incidencia de 1 por 1.000 ó 2.000 nacidos vivos, predominantemente unilateral. Su manejo actual es controversial, en especial la cirugía de reconstrucción. En el último tiempo se han desarrollado dispositivos osteointegrados, que han revolucionado el tratamiento y cuestionado la indicación de cirugía. El liderazgo por un tiempo importante lo ha tenido el dispositivo tipo BAHA, pero que ha tenido problemas en el largo plazo, principalmente en r...

  4. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  5. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  6. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  7. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  8. Micellisation and immunoreactivities of dimeric beta-caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Haertle, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    be explained by differences of distances and/or by differences of relative orientations of the donor (Trp) and acceptor (ANS), as well as by differences in quenching properties of the disulfide bridges and intra-molecular hydrophobic interactions. The immunoreactivity assays showed somewhat lower IgE response to C208 beta-CND than to C4 beta-CND. Thus, dimerization of C208 beta-CN, connecting two C-terminal hydrophobic domains of two monomers doubling long-range hydrophobic interactions, possibly may hide a part of epitopes in the hydrophobic interface/core of C208 beta-CND that is consistent with the results of DLS and fluorescence studies. The obtained results indicate structural differences of dimers - possibly the formation of Y- and U-shaped structures for C208 beta-CND and C4 beta-CND, respectively. This study not only demonstrated the importance of the organization of polar and hydrophobic regions during micellisation of the constrained and oriented beta-CN dimers but also confirmed a possible role of C-terminal hydrophobic domain in the immunoreactivity profile of native beta-CN.

  9. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  10. Use of beta blockers in various clinical states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Vesna V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the convincing evidence, a decline in mortality rate has been achieved with beta-blockers in patients with an acute myocardial infarction and in post-infarction follow-up. In fact, there has been a clear reduction of sudden coronary death. The necessary condition for the efficiency of beta-blockers is an early use. They are also a medication of choice for angina after an infarction. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of beta-blockers after a myocardial infarction in various clinical states and to eliminate doubts concerning their prescription. Beta blockers Even in conditions considered contraindications for administration of beta blockers such as old age, diabetes, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, arterial disease, heart insufficiency, ventricular arrhythmias, renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and depression, patients benefit from beta blockers when they are given along with a right choice of the medication and a regular follow-up of the patient. Preference is given to cardioselective beta blockers in patients with diabetes or lung disease. Beta-blockers do not cause long-term lipid alterations. Therefore, the matter of clinically significant alterations of lipids or blood glucose levels should not need further consideration as a problem of the treatment of diabetics. Discussion and conclusion. Investigations have proved that the use of beta-blockers reduces the development of cerebrovascular accidents, heart insufficiency and hypertension. Despite strong arguments and numerous recommendations, beta-blockers have not been accepted to a sufficient extent as an integral part of treatment of acute coronary syndrome and related diseases, to the detriment of many lost lives and in spite of favourable pharmaco-economic aspect.

  11. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  12. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  13. Host-guest interaction of L-tyrosine with beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M; Ramesh, D; Nagalakshmi, V; Kavitha, R; Rajamohan, R; Stalin, T

    2008-11-01

    The inclusion complexes of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with L-tyrosine (L-TYN) were investigated by using spectrophotometers. The absorption and fluorescence enhancement occurs with beta-CD and L-TYN forms 1:1 inclusion complex. The unusual blue shift of hydroxyl ion in the beta-CD medium confirms OH groups present in the interior part of the beta-CD cavity and -COOH group present in the upper part of the beta-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain inclusion process. The inclusion interaction was examined and the thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS were determined. The results indicated that the inclusion process was an exergonic and spontaneous process. Stable solid inclusion complexes were established and characterized by FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods.

  14. The catalytic role of beta effect in barotropization processes

    CERN Document Server

    Venaille, Antoine; Griffies, S M

    2012-01-01

    The vertical structure of freely evolving, continuously stratified, quasi-geostrophic flow is investigated. We predict the final state organization, and in particular its vertical structure, using statistical mechanics and these predictions are tested against numerical simulations. The key role played by conservation laws in each layer, including the fine-grained enstrophy, is discussed. In general, the conservation laws, and in particular that enstrophy is conserved layer-wise, prevent complete barotropization, i.e., the tendency to reach the gravest vertical mode. The peculiar role of the $\\beta$-effect, i.e. of the existence of planetary vorticity gradients, is discussed. In particular, it is shown that increasing $\\beta$ increases the tendency toward barotropization through turbulent stirring. The effectiveness of barotropisation may be partly parameterized using the Rhines scale $2\\pi E_{0}^{1/4}/\\beta^{1/2}$. As this parameter decreases (beta increases) then barotropization can progress further, because...

  15. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  16. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, James

    2007-01-01

    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  17. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  18. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  19. Measurements of sin 2 $\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A

    2000-01-01

    A review of the most recent measurements of the CP violating parameter sin 2 beta from LEP and CDF is reported. These yield an average value of sin 2 beta =0.91+or-0.35, giving a confidence level that CP violation in the B system has been observed of almost 99%. (10 refs).

  20. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  1. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  2. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  3. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  4. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, nabumetone, differentially inhibits beta-catenin signaling in the MIN mouse and azoxymethane-treated rat models of colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Hemant K; Karolski, William J; Wali, Ramesh K; Ratashak, Anne; Hart, John; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2005-01-20

    The mechanisms through which beta-catenin signaling is inhibited during colorectal cancer chemoprevention by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents is incompletely understood. We report that nabumetone decreased uninvolved intestinal mucosal beta-catenin levels in the MIN mouse with a concomitant increase in glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta levels, an enzyme that targets beta-catenin for destruction. However, in the azoxymethane-treated rat, where beta-catenin is frequently rendered GSK-3beta-insensitive, nabumetone failed to alter beta-catenin levels but did decrease beta-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity as gauged by cyclin D1. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the differential mechanisms for beta-catenin suppression may be determined, at least partly, by GSK-3beta.

  5. Chronic beta-blocker treatment in patients with advanced heart failure - Effects on neurohormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teisman, ACH; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Boomsma, F; de Kam, PJ; Pinto, YM; de Zeeuw, D; van Gilst, WH

    2000-01-01

    Background: To date, the use of beta-blockers in treating patients with chronic heart failure gains support, this since several large clinical trials reported reduced mortality after chronic beta-blockade. Part of these beneficial effects may result from inhibition of deleterious neurohormone activa

  6. Genes involved in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and the risk of intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, Y. M.; Tan, S.; Medic, J.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Wijmenga, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The 19q13.3 locus for intracranial aneurysms (IA) partly overlaps with the 19q13 locus for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A common genetic risk factor located in this locus for the two aneurysm types seems plausible. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signallin

  7. Structure of the human G gamma-A gamma-delta-beta-globin gene locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Little, P.F.R.; Annison, F.; Williamson, R.; Flavell, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    We have constructed a physical map of the human G gamma-, A gamma-, delta-, and beta-globin genes. The previously described maps of the fetal and adult beta-like globin genes have been linked to one another by identification of a DNA fragment, generated by BamHI, that contains part of each of the A

  8. Resposta não linear do vácuo a distribuições de correntes na ausência de um campo externo de fundo e suas aplicações a pulsares e estrelas de quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Vinicius Costa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Nesta dissertação de mestrado, nós encontramos a correção não linear aos campos elétrico e magnético produzidos por distribuições de cargas estacionárias, como o monopolo elétrico e o dipolo magnético homogeneamente polarizado em repouso, no vácuo, ou seja, imersas em um campo externo de fundo nulo. A função de resposta não linear é dada pelo tensor de polarização de quarta ordem, devido ao espalhamento de dois fótons, e é escrita dentro da aproximação da ação efetiva em eletrodinâmica quânti...

  9. Análisis dinámico de la rendición de cuentas de las comunidades autónomas y los organismos de control externo

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Barrios, Elviz Daniel

    2013-01-01

    La situación actual en el contexto legal y de control económico-financiero de la rendición de cuentas en las administraciones públicas en general, ha evolucionado en función de la descentralización y la delegación de competencias, está realidad se refleja en las tendencias, actuaciones y contenido de los informes de fiscalización de los Entes de Control Externo. La presente tesis doctoral desarrolla un análisis dinámico de la rendición de cuentas de las Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA) y los corr...

  10. Goniometria da articulação tíbio-tarsal após imobilização temporária com fixador esquelético externo em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Alievi Marcelo Meller; Schossler João Eduardo; Teixeira Marcelo Weinsten

    2004-01-01

    Neste experimento, foram utilizados 10 cães clinicamente sadios, submetidos à imobilização temporária das articulações tíbio-tarsal, intertarsal e tarso-metatarsiana direita com fixador esquelético externo, tendo por objetivo avaliar através da mensuração da flexão, da extensão e da amplitude articular os danos provocados por esta imobilização. O aparelho de fixação esquelética externa manteve a articulação em um ângulo aproximado de 135masculine e permaneceu por 45 dias. Os animais apresenta...

  11. Crystal Structure of a Full-Length [beta]-Catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yi; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Liu, Jing; Berndt, Jason D.; Zheng, Jie J.; Moon, Randall T.; Xu, Wenqing (UW-MED); (SJCH)

    2008-08-19

    {beta}-catenin plays essential roles in cell adhesion and Wnt signaling, while deregulation of {beta}-catenin is associated with multiple diseases including cancers. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length zebrafish {beta}-catenin and a human {beta}-catenin fragment that contains both the armadillo repeat and the C-terminal domains. Our structures reveal that the N-terminal region of the C-terminal domain, a key component of the C-terminal transactivation domain, forms a long {alpha} helix that packs on the C-terminal end of the armadillo repeat domain, and thus forms part of the {beta}-catenin superhelical core. The existence of this helix redefines our view of interactions of {beta}-catenin with some of its critical partners, including ICAT and Chibby, which may form extensive interactions with this C-terminal domain {alpha} helix. Our crystallographic and NMR studies also suggest that the unstructured N-terminal and C-terminal tails interact with the ordered armadillo repeat domain in a dynamic and variable manner.

  12. Modeling Amyloid Beta Peptide Insertion into Lipid Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Maddox, M W; Longo, M J; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Maddox, Michael W.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recent suggestions that the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (A-beta), can insert into cell membranes and form harmful ion channels, we model insertion of the peptide into cell membranes using a Monte Carlo code which is specific at the amino acid level. We examine insertion of the regular A-beta peptide as well as mutants causing familial Alzheimer's disease. We present our results and develop the hypothesis that partial insertion into the membrane, leaving the peptide in one leaflet, increases the probability of harmful channel formation. This hypothesis can partly explain why these mutations are neurotoxic simply due to peptide insertion behavior, and also explains why, normally, A-beta 42 is more toxic to some cultured cells than A-beta 40, but the E22Q mutation reverses this effect. We further apply this model to various artificial A-beta mutants which have been examined experimentally, and offer testable experimental predictions contrasting the roles of aggregation and insertion with regard ...

  13. Investimento direto externo no Brasil: uma análise para o período de alta inflação Foreign direct investment in Brazil: an anlysis of the high inflation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o comportamento do investimento direto externo no Brasil no período que se estende de 1980 a 1994. Seguindo a proposta metodológica originalmente desenvolvida por Castro (1979 e Possas (1983, o artigo apresenta a evolução do Investimento Direto Externo (IDE no país como reflexo das condições vigentes no plano doméstico e no plano internacional. Com base em tal abordagem, procura-se demonstrar que as condições vigentes na década de 1980 não foram favoráveis à expansão dos IDEs no Brasil. Ademais, o período marca uma transição importante no papel e na composição setorial dos IDEs no país, acompanhando mudanças econômicas, tecnológicas e políticas no âmbito doméstico e internacional.This paper discusses the performance of foreign direct investment in Brazil between 1980 and 1994, a period highlighted by high inflation in the economy. Following the methodology originally developed by CASTRO (1979 and POSSAS (1983 the article presents the evolution of FDI in the country as a reflection of domestic and international conditions. Based on this approach, the authors argue that during the 1980s these conditions were not conducive to the expansion of FDI in Brazil. In addition, this period marks an important transition in the role and sector composition of FDI, at the same time as critical economic, technological and political changes, from both a Brazilian and international perspective, were taking place.

  14. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  15. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  16. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  17. A simple method for the preparation and purification of C1 complement cleaved beta 2-microglobulin from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Johansen, B; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    1997-01-01

    dissolving the precipitate containing the C1 complement in Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.6, efficient conversion of added beta 2-microglobulin to desLys58 beta 2-microglobulin was observed. Addition of a specific carboxypeptidase B inhibitor (Plummers inhibitor) could partly prevent the deletion of Lys-58 from...... cleaved beta 2-microglobulin, whereby Lys58-cleaved beta 2-microglobulin was obtained. The proteolytically processed forms were subsequently purified by G-75 Sephadex gel filtration followed by chromatofocusing. A yield of 10-40% of proteolytically processed beta 2-microglobulin was obtained. Only one...

  18. Niveles de insatisfacción del usuario externo en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Lima, Perú Levels of dissatisfaction of external users of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (National Institute of Child Health in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Shimabuku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los cambios de los niveles de insatisfacción del usuario externo del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional basado en un programa para la evaluación de encuestas de usuarios en salud (SEEUS. La población estuvo conformada por todos los acompañantes del usuario externo en consulta ambulatoria, hospitalización y emergencia en los años 2008, 2009 y 2010. Para el cálculo del tamaño muestral se empleó la proporción de usuarios insatisfechos de cada servicio del año anterior, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un error estimado del 5%. Resultados. Se obtuvo una muestra de 2051 acompañantes, en la cual se constató una tendencia decreciente de los niveles de insatisfacción en consulta ambulatoria, y un aumento de la insatisfacción en la dimensión capacidades médicas en hospitalización y emergencia. Se encontró además, índices de insatisfacción menores de 0,20 en las dimensiones capacidades médicas en consulta ambulatoria. En contraste, los mayores índices de insatisfacción se encontraron en las dimensiones de higiene durante los años 2009 (0,25 y 2010 (0,25, y otros en emergencia durante el 2009 (0,25. Conclusiones. Las dimensiones en las que hubo un incremento en el índice de insatisfacción fueron aspectos tangibles, higiene y otros en hospitalización y emergencia. Por otra parte, la dimensión capacidades médicas en consulta ambulatoria mostró una disminución de los niveles de insatisfacción durante el periodo evaluado.Objectives. To determine the changes in the levels of dissatisfaction of the external users of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. Observational study based on a software to evaluate surveys completed by health care users (Software de Evaluación de Encuestas de Usuarios en Salud - SEEUS. The population consisted of every person accompanying external users to outpatient visits

  19. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  20. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  1. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  3. Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Bey, A; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Elomaa, V; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J; Adimi, N; De France, G; Thomas, J C; Voltolini, G; Chaventré, T

    2008-01-01

    Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. 62Ga is one of the heavier Tz = 0, 0+ -> 0+ beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the Vud quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of 62Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR= 99.893(24)%, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed beta decay of 62Ga.

  4. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  5. Concurrent tests of Lorentz invariance in $\\beta$-decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    Modern experiments on neutron and allowed nuclear $\\beta$ decay search for new semileptonic interactions, beyond the ``left-handed'' electroweak force. We show that ongoing and planned $\\beta$-decay experiments, with isotopes at rest and in flight, can be exploited as sensitive tests of Lorentz invariance. The variety of correlations that involve the nuclear spin, the direction of the emitted $\\beta$ particle, and the recoil direction of the daughter nucleus allow for relatively simple experiments that give direct bounds on Lorentz violation. The pertinent observables are decay-rate asymmetries and their dependence on sidereal time. We discuss the potential of several asymmetries that together cover a large part of the parameter space for Lorentz violation in the gauge sector. High counting statistics is required.

  6. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  7. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  8. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  9. Planetary companions in K giants beta Cancri, mu Leonis, and beta Ursae Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B -C; Park, M -G; Mkrtichian, D E; Hatzes, A P; Kim, K -M

    2014-01-01

    Auns. The aim of our paper is to investigate the low-amplitude and long-period variations in evolved stars with a precise radial velocity (RV) survey. Methods. The high-resolution, the fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) was used from 2003 to 2013 for a radial velocity survey of giant stars as part of the exoplanet search program at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO). Results. We report the detection of three new planetary companions orbiting the K giants beta Cnc, mu Leo, and beta UMi. The planetary nature of the radial velocity variations is supported by analyzes of ancillary data. The HIPPARCOS photometry shows no variations with periods close to those in RV variations and there is no strong correlation between the bisector velocity span (BVS) and the radial velocities for each star. Furthermore, the stars show weak or no core reversal in Ca II H lines indicating that they are inactive stars. The companion to beta Cnc has a minimum mass of 7.8 M_Jup in a 605-day orbit wi...

  10. Límites críticos internos y externos en condiciones de organopónicos con el uso de la cachaza como abono orgánico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Vento Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se llevó a cabo un estudio con el objetivo de lograr mayor precisión en la fertilización de los sustratos y obtener a su vez incrementos sostenidos de los rendimientos, sin que se deterioren los mismos además lograr plantas bien nutridas; para lo que se determinaron los niveles críticos externos (P2O5, K2O, MO, Ca y Mg y los internos (N, P, K, Ca y Mg; se evaluaron además, los efectos combinados de dosis de cachaza (0, 5, 10 y 15 kg.m-2 y la aplicación en tres momentos (al inicio, alternamente y en cada cultivo en una secuencia de hortaliza, durante tres años; mediante un diseño de bloque al azar con arreglo factorial y cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron muestreos foliares al término de cada cultivo durante la rotación, para el limite critico interno, y muestreo del sustratos cada vez que termino un ciclo para los externos. Del análisis de los resultados se obtuvieron los límites críticos internos (2.98 % de N, 0.80 % de P, 2.90 % de K, 1.90 % de Ca y 0.68 % de Mg y los externos (7.65 mg.100g-1 P2O5, 8.85 mg.100g-1 K2O, 6.20 mg.100g-1 de Ca 5.57 mg.100g-1 de Mg y 20.00 % de M.O; cuando los valores obtenidos estén por debajo de los que se plantean, se debe aplicar 5 kg.m-2 de cachaza cada dos cultivos, para lograr rendimientos por encima de 40.0 kg.m-2 de hortalizas.ciclo-1, si los valores están por encima, no se aplica el abono orgánico. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CRITICAL LIMITS IN ORGANOPONICS CONDITIONS WITH CACHAZA USE AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER. ABSTRACT. It was carried out a study with the aim of achieving greater precision in the fertilization of substrates and in turn obtain sustained increases in yields, without that they will deteriorate further achieve well-nourished plants, for which the critical levels were determined external (P2O5 , K2O, MO , Ca and Mg and internal (N, P , K , Ca and Mg further evaluated the combined effects of dose of cachaza (0, 5, 10 and 15 kg/m 2 and the application at three points (begining

  11. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor; Metodologia para determinacao da eficiencia de um monitor de gases emissores de particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Marcos Rodrigues de

    1995-07-01

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, {sup 204}Tl and {sup 45}Ca beta sources. (author)

  12. Alterations of expression and regulation of transforming growth factor beta in human cancer prostate cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchère, M; Saunier, E; Mestayer, C; Broshuis, M; Mowszowicz, I

    2002-11-01

    TGF beta can promote and/or suppress prostate tumor growth through multiple and opposing actions. Alterations of its expression, secretion, regulation or of the sensitivity of target cells can lead to a favorable environment for tumor development. To gain a better insight in TGF beta function during cancer progression, we have used different cultured human prostate cells: preneoplastic PNT2 cells, the androgen-dependent LNCaP and the androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. We have studied by specific ELISA assays in conditioned media (CM), the secretion of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 in basal conditions and after hormonal treatment (DHT or E2) and the expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA by Northern blot. We have also compared the effect of fibroblast CM on TGF beta secretion by the different cell types. Compared to PNT2 cells, cancer cell lines secrete lower levels of active TGF beta which are not increased in the presence of fibroblast CM. LNCaP cells respond to androgen or estrogen treatment by a 10-fold increase of active TGF beta secretion while PC3 and DU145 are unresponsive. In conclusion, prostate cancer cell lines have lost part of their ability to secrete and activate TGF beta, and to regulate this secretion through stromal-epithelial interactions. Androgen-sensitive cancer cells may compensate this loss by hormonal regulation.

  13. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  14. Avaliar a correlação entre a concentração da hemoglobina e a medida ecográfica do diâmetro biventricular externo em fetos anêmicos de gestantes isoimunizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Rosangela Lopes Miranda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe correlação significativa entre a medida ecográfica do diâmetro biventricular externo e a concentração sérica da hemoglobina fetal pré-transfusional e se essa medida ecográfica poderá vir a ser utilizada como marcador não invasivo da anemia fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo, no qual foram selecionadas 65 cordocenteses realizadas em 36 fetos anêmicos de mães portadoras de isoimunização pelo fator Rh. Obteve-se a medida do diâmetro biventricular externo (DBVE, por meio do modo M, utilizando-se aparelho de ultra-som convencional. Anterior à transfusão foi obtida amostra de 0,5ml de sangue fetal, para dosagem da hemoglobina, sendo a medida imediatamente realizada através de espectrofotometria, no equipamento Hemocue®. Como análise estatística foi utilizada a regressão dos mínimos quadrados, aceitando-se p<0,05 e análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas correlação inversa entre a concentração da hemoglobina no sangue fetal no momento prévio à transfusão e a medida do DBVE e correlação direta entre a medida do DBVE e a idade gestacional, e, também, através da análise multivariada que, à medida que a concentração de hemoglobina fetal cai, o DBVE aumenta, independentemente da influência da idade gestacional nesse parâmetro. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação inversa entre a concentração da hemoglobina no sangue fetal e a medida do DBVE, independente da idade gestacional. Os achados sugerem que o DBVE poderá vir a ser um marcador ecográfico de predição do nível de hemoglobina de fetos de gestantes isoimunizadas.

  15. Comportamento aerodinâmico e efeito de enrijecimento externo em silos cilíndricos sob a ação do vento Aerodynamic behaviour and external stiffening effect in cylindrical silos under wind action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano J. de Andrade Júnior

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os silos metálicos, quando vazios, são suscetíveis ao amassamento das chapas do corpo cilíndrico pela ação do vento. Este trabalho compara os efeitos do enrijecimento interno e externo com colunas, no comportamento aerodinâmico de silos cilíndricos com telhado cônico. Os estudos teóricos conduziram a ensaios em túnel de vento, que foram realizados em dois tipos de modelos reduzidos: um com superfície lisa (enrijecimento interno e o outro com superfície nervurada (enrijecimento externo, ambos em duas relações geométricas de altura/diâmetro do cilindro (0,5 e 1,0 e inclinação da cobertura cônica de 27º. Com base nos ensaios, foram obtidos os coeficientes de pressão externa e os coeficientes de arrasto nos cilindros, bem como os coeficientes de arrasto e de sustentação na cobertura. Com isso, identificou-se o melhor tipo de enrijecimento ao projeto otimizado de silos para resistir adequadamente à ação do vento. O resultado final é um conjunto de dados atualizado, oriundo de ensaios com características de semelhança geométrica e aerodinâmica definidas, que é aplicável a qualquer tipo de silo cilíndrico.Steel cylindrical silos, when empty, are susceptible to the crumpling of the sheeting of the cylinder by the wind action. This paper compares the effects of internal and external stiffening with columns on the aerodynamic behavior of cylindrical silos with conical roof. The theoretical studies leaded to wind tunnel experiments, which have been carried out on two types of scaled silo models, one with smooth surface (internal stiffening, the other with ribbed surface (external stiffening, both with two geometric height/diameter ratio of cylinder (0.5 and 1.0 and a conical roof pitch equal to 27º. Based on the information gained during these experiments, external coefficients of pressure and drag and lift coefficients are derived for the cylinders, as well as the drag and lift coefficients for the conical roofs. With

  16. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, K

    2006-01-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  18. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  19. Study of the Six-Loop Beta Function of the $\\lambda\\phi^4_4$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shrock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the six-loop beta function of the $\\lambda \\phi^4_4$ theory exhibits evidence for an ultraviolet zero. As part of our analysis, we calculate and analyze Pad\\'e approximants to this beta function. Extending our earlier results at the five-loop level, we find that in the range of $\\lambda$ where the perturbative calculation of the six-loop beta function is reliable, the theory does not exhibit robust evidence for an ultraviolet zero.

  20. Transforming growth factor: beta signaling is essential for limb regeneration in axolotls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lévesque

    Full Text Available Axolotls (urodele amphibians have the unique ability, among vertebrates, to perfectly regenerate many parts of their body including limbs, tail, jaw and spinal cord following injury or amputation. The axolotl limb is the most widely used structure as an experimental model to study tissue regeneration. The process is well characterized, requiring multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. The preparation phase represents the first part of the regeneration process which includes wound healing, cellular migration, dedifferentiation and proliferation. The redevelopment phase represents the second part when dedifferentiated cells stop proliferating and redifferentiate to give rise to all missing structures. In the axolotl, when a limb is amputated, the missing or wounded part is regenerated perfectly without scar formation between the stump and the regenerated structure. Multiple authors have recently highlighted the similarities between the early phases of mammalian wound healing and urodele limb regeneration. In mammals, one very important family of growth factors implicated in the control of almost all aspects of wound healing is the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-beta. In the present study, the full length sequence of the axolotl TGF-beta1 cDNA was isolated. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of TGF-beta1 in regenerating limbs shows that this gene is up-regulated during the preparation phase of regeneration. Our results also demonstrate the presence of multiple components of the TGF-beta signaling machinery in axolotl cells. By using a specific pharmacological inhibitor of TGF-beta type I receptor, SB-431542, we show that TGF-beta signaling is required for axolotl limb regeneration. Treatment of regenerating limbs with SB-431542 reveals that cellular proliferation during limb regeneration as well as the expression of genes directly dependent on TGF-beta signaling are down-regulated. These data directly implicate TGF-beta

  1. Beta Regio rift system on Venus: Geologic interpretation of Magellan images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Bobina, N. N.; Borozdin, V. K.; Burba, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan SAR images and altimetric data were used to produce a new geologic map of the Northern part of Beta Regio within the frames of C1-30N279 mapsheet. It was part of our contributions into C1-formate geologic mapping efforts. The original map is at 1:8,000,000 scale. The rift structures are typical for Beta Regio on Venus. There are many large uplifted tessera areas on Beta upland. They occupy areas of higher topography. These tessera are partly burried by younger volcanic cover of plain material. These observations show that Beta upland was formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonical uplifting, and only partly was constructed by volcanic activity. A number of rift valleis traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. The largest rift crosses Beta N to S. Typical width of rifts is 40 to 160 km. Rift valleis in this region are structurally represented by crustal grabens and half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. A lot of them have shoulder uplifts with the relative high up to 0.5-1 km and width 40 to 60 km. Preliminary analysis of the largest rift valley structural cross-sections leads to the conclusion that it originated due to a 5-10 percent crustal extension. The prominent shield volcano - Theia Mons - is located at the center of Beta rift system. It could be considered as the surface manifestation of the upper mantle hot spot. Most of the rift belts are located radially to Theia Mons. The set of these data leads to conclusion that Beta rift system has an 'active-passive' origin. It was formed due to the regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by the upper mantle hot spot located under the center of passive extension (under Beta Regio).

  2. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J Diaz; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Petersburg, R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Soin, A; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C -H; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{76}$Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  3. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O׳Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radiopurity required for this rare decay search.

  4. Los déficits gemelos: el déficit externo y el déficit público.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul Craig

    2011-01-01

    El reciente Incremento inesperado en el déficit comercial mensual de Estados Unidos (antes de noviembre de 1989), ha despertado una nueva serie de diagnósticos errados por parte de los economistas y de los voceros del mundo financiero. De acuerdo al periódico The Wall Street Journal "muchos economistas están de acuerdo en que grandes disminuciones en el déficit presupuestal de los Estados Unidos, son necesarias antes de que una consiguiente mejoría en el déficit comercial pueda ocurrir. Esto ...

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay: 2015 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dell’Oro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino masses through the observation of oscillations boosted the importance of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. In this paper, we review the main features of this process, underlining its key role from both the experimental and theoretical point of view. In particular, we contextualize the 0νββ in the panorama of lepton number violating processes, also assessing some possible particle physics mechanisms mediating the process. Since the 0νββ existence is correlated with neutrino masses, we also review the state of the art of the theoretical understanding of neutrino masses. In the final part, the status of current 0νββ experiments is presented and the prospects for the future hunt for 0νββ are discussed. Also, experimental data coming from cosmological surveys are considered and their impact on 0νββ expectations is examined.

  6. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  7. Estimating $\\beta$-mixing coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or ``mixing' of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, nor are there methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the $\\beta$-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is $L_1$-risk consistent.

  8. Beta-carotene as antioxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Plas, R.M. van der; Berg, H. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Beta-carotene has been shown to exhibit a good radical-trapping antioxidant activity in vitro. We were interested to see if dietary β-carotene in combination with various intake levels for vitamin A would also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Design: Sixty male Wistar rats received vitamin A (

  9. FREQUÊNCIA DE OCORRÊNCIA E CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS EXTERNOS DE PEIXES MARINHOS DE CAIÇARA DO NORTE, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreira Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O litoral de Caiçara do Norte é considerado uma área de maior produção pesqueira artesanal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a frequência de ocorrência, as características morfológicos externos de peixes marinhos de Caiçara do Norte, RN. Durante o período de julho de 2012 a agosto de 2013, foi registrada a ocorrência de cinco ordens (Beloniformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Perciformes, Siluriformes, 13 famílias (Ariidae, Exocoetidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Coryphaenidae, Haemulidae, Hemiramphidae, Istiophoridae, Lutjanidae, Mugilidae, Sparidae, Serranidae,  Scombridae e 29 espécies de peixes marinhos. Os resultados do presente trabalho podem enriquecer o conhecimento da ictiofauna das águas costeiras de Caiçara do Norte, além de fornecer informações para o futuro planejamento da gestão e conservação dos recursos pesqueiros do litoral do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Palavras chave: Águas costeiras; pesca artesanal; recursos pesqueiros; litoral norte do RN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p55-63

  10. A new highly efficient beta-glucosidase from the novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette

    , combined with Celluclast 1.5L, substitute the use of Novozym 188 in hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. In the wake of this, focus was placed on beta-glucosidases. A screening for beta-glucosidase activity was conducted, using wheat bran as substrate in simple submerged fermentation, testing selected strains...... mainly opens up the cell wall structure and partly hydrolyzes hemicellulose, so that cellulose is the main target for enzyme hydrolysis. Beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) play an essential role in efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. By hydrolysis of cellobiose, beta-glucosidases relieve inhibiting...... preparations Novozym 188 (mainly beta-glucosidase activity) and Celluclast 1.5L (mainly cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase activity) (Novozymes A/S) have been used in combination for hydrolysis of pretreated biomass, and recently complete enzyme cocktails have been launched, Cellic CTec (Novozymes A...

  11. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R

    2012-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  12. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M

    2006-01-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury, Microglia, and Beta Amyloid

    OpenAIRE

    Mannix, Rebekah C.; Whalen, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TBI and AD share many pathologic features including chronic inflammation and the accumulation of beta amyloid (A\\(\\beta\\)). Data from both AD and TBI studies suggest that microglia play a central role in A\\(\\beta\\) accumulation after TBI. This paper focuses on the current research on the role of microglia response to A\\(\\beta\\) after TBI.

  14. Neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and low scale leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The extension of the Standard Model by right handed neutrinos with masses in the GeV range can simultaneously explain the observed neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis. It has previously been claimed that the requirement for successful baryogenesis implies that the rate of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay in this scenario is always smaller than the standard prediction from light neutrino exchange alone. In contrast, we find that the rate for this process can also be enhanced due to a dominant contribution from heavy neutrino exchange. In a small part of the parameter space it even exceeds the current experimental limit, while the properties of the heavy neutrinos are consistent with all other experimental constraints and the observed baryon asymmetry is reproduced. This implies that neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay experiments have already started to rule out part of the leptogenesis parameter space that is not constrained by any other experiment...

  15. The beta(2)-subtype of adrenoceptors mediates inhibition of pro-fibrotic events in human lung fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamyel, F.; Warnken-Uhlich, M.; Seemann, W. K.; Mohr, K.; Kostenis, E.; Ahmedat, A. S.; Smit, M.; Gosens, R.; Meurs, H.; Miller-Larsson, A.; Racke, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis is part of airway remodelling observed in bronchial asthma and COPD. Pro-fibrotic activity of lung fibroblasts may be suppressed by beta-adrenoceptor activation. We aimed, first, to characterise the expression pattern of beta-adrenoceptor subtypes in human lung fibroblasts and, second, to p

  16. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  17. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  18. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  19. Perfil do doente renal crônico no ambulatório multidisciplinar de um hospital universitário Perfil del enfermo renal crónico de consultorios externos multidisciplinario de un hospital universitario Demographic profile of individuals with chronic renal disease from a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic of a university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Martins Rembold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil do cliente com doença renal crônica em tratamento conservador no Ambulatório Multidisciplinar do Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro. MÉTODOS: O estudo é descritivo tendo sido analisados 72 prontuários de pacientes atendidos nos anos de 2006 a 2008. Os dados foram processados eletronicamente com o auxílio dos programas EXCEL 2007 e SPSS 13.0. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi 59 + 14 anos sendo 60% do sexo feminino. Em relação à escolaridade, 42% tinham ensino fundamental incompleto. A maior parte encontrava-se no estágio 4 da doença renal crônica, sendo as principais doenças de base o diabetes mellitus e a hipertensão arterial. Mais de 80% usavam anti-hipertensivos, e mais da metade usava diuréticos. O sintoma predominante foi a noctúria. Apenas em sete pacientes foi confeccionada fístula artério-venosa. CONCLUSÃO: A população atendida no referido ambulatório consistiu, na sua maior parte de pacientes na quinta ou sexta década de vida, com predominância do sexo feminino. A maioria encontrava-se no estágio 4 da classificação do DOQI para doença renal crônica sendo diabetes a principal causa da doença renal.OBJETIVO: Describir el perfil del cliente con enfermedad renal crónica en tratamiento conservador en Consultorio Externo Multidisciplinario del Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo en el que se analizaron 72 historias clínicas de pacientes atendidos en los años de 2006 a 2008. Los dados fueron procesados electrónicamente con la ayuda de los programas EXCEL 2007 y SPSS 13.0. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue entre 59 + 14 años siendo el 60% del sexo femenino. En relación a la escolaridad, el 42% tenían primaria incompleta. La mayor parte se encontraba en la fase 4 de la enfermedad renal crónica, siendo las principales enfermedades de base la diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial. Más del

  20. Purification and characterisation of an extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase from a Lactobacillus pentosus strain isolated from fermented fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Gram, Lone; Rattray, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus B235, which was isolated as part of the dominant microflora from a garlic containing fermented fish product, was grown in a chemically defined medium With inulin as the sole carbohydrate source. An extracellular fructan beta- fructosidase was purified to homogeneity from...... fructan), but also hydrolysed garlic extract, (a beta(2-->1)-linked fructan with beta(2-->6)-linked fructosyl sidechains), 1,1,1-kestose, 1,1-kestose, 1-kestose, inulin (beta(2-->1)-linked fructans) and Sucrose at 60, 45, 39, 12, 9 and 3%, respectively, of the activity observed for levan. Melezitose...

  1. Purification and characterisation of an extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase from a Lactobacillus pentosus strain isolated from fermented fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Gram, Lone; Rattray, Fergal P

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus B235, which was isolated as part of the dominant microflora from a garlic containing fermented fish product, was grown in a chemically defined medium with inulin as the sole carbohydrate source. An extracellular fructan beta-fructosidase was purified to homogeneity from...... fructan), but also hydrolysed garlic extract, (a beta(2-->1)-linked fructan with beta(2-->6)-linked fructosyl sidechains), 1,1,1-kestose, 1,1-kestose, 1-kestose, inulin (beta(2-->1)-linked fructans) and sucrose at 60, 45, 39, 12, 9 and 3%, respectively, of the activity observed for levan. Melezitose...

  2. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R.; De Bernardi, F.; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G.; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in...

  3. Productos de innovaciones teoricas Hi desarrollo de la actividad mental-cerebral mediado por sistemas fisiológicos y agentes externos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Frank Charris Peredo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La variedad de opiniones que se levantan con el propósito de explicar con alguien grado de proximidad la mente del hombre, resultan ocasionalmente incompletas, pero cada una de esas afirmaciones termina por hacer parte, de una solo concepción donde todas las posibilidades tanto neurofisiológicas como psicológicas se pueden aplicar. Partiendo de la apreciación que la conciencia es la máxima expresión de la evolución mental, por ser una facultad que implica interacción de funciones mentales superiores, podríamos tener bajo cierta medida una aproximación a lo que implica la actividad mental, conociendo que el cerebro implica mecanismos fisiológicos y químicos con una funcionalidad que probablemente se moldee con el tiempo. Existen diferentes mecanismos implicados en la actividad mental superior, algunos como la memoria, se explican bajo razones fisiológicas, otros, necesitan una análisis más profundo para intentar cuando menos entender como suceden. Nuestro psiquismo no progresa únicamente por la vía de la maduración mecánica de aptitudes biológicas, condicionadas estas por el sistema nervioso central, este se organiza y desarrolla en el procedimiento de la necesidad humana de interactuar con el medio y relacionarse con sus semejantes. 

  4. First measurement of several $\\beta$-delayed neutron emitting isotopes beyond N=126

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Folch, R; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ameil, F; Arcones, A; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Borzov, I N; Bowry, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cortés, G; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García, A R; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Y; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marketin, T; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, C; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, Ch; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Taín, J L; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P; Yeremin, A

    2015-01-01

    The $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities of neutron rich Hg and Tl nuclei have been measured together with $\\beta$-decay half-lives for 20 isotopes of Au, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in the mass region N$\\gtrsim$126. These are the heaviest species where neutron emission has been observed so far. These measurements provide key information to evaluate the performance of nuclear microscopic and phenomenological models in reproducing the high-energy part of the $\\beta$-decay strength distribution. In doing so, it provides important constraints to global theoretical models currently used in $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  5. Status of international benchmark experiment for effective delayed neutron fraction ({beta}eff)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, S.; Sakurai, T.; Mukaiyama, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    To improve the prediction accuracy of the {beta}eff, the program of the international benchmark experiment (Beta Effect Reactor Experiment for a New International Collaborative Evaluation: BERNICE) was planned. This program composed of two parts; BERNICE-MASURCA and BERNICE-FCA. The former one was carried out in the fast critical facility MASURCA of CEA, FRANCE between 1993 and 1994. The latter one started in the FCA, JAERI in 1995 and still is going. In these benchmark experiments, various experimental techniques have been applied for in-pile measurements of the {beta}eff. The accuracy of the measurements was better than 3%. (author)

  6. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifyin

  7. Homogenization of. beta. -solid solution during fast heating of two-phase titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Zhuravlev, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    Using model alloy Ti-10%Mo as an example the homogenization of high-temperature ..beta..-phase during fast heating has been studied by calculational and experimental methods. The effect of heating rate and the initial structure disoersion on the homogenization is shown. A method is suggested for evaluation of the concentration state of ..beta..-solid solution depleted parts of commercial two-phase titanium alloys. The method has been used to study the homogenization process.

  8. Future double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, Modane (France); Centre d' Etudes Nucleaire, Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)

    2013-02-15

    The search of neutrinoless double beta decay is very challenging because of the expected half-life of the process and the backgrounds from the natural radioactivity. Many projects exist to try to reach a sensitivity of ∼50 meV on the effective neutrino mass corresponding to a mass of isotopes of ∼100 kg. In this article some of the futur projects are presented.

  9. Crystal structure of inhibitor of ;#954;B kinase [beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guozhou; Lo, Yu-Chih; Li, Qiubai; Napolitano, Gennaro; Wu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Xuliang; Dreano, Michel; Karin, Michael; Wu, Hao (Weill-Med); (Merck-Serono); (UCSD); (EMD Serono)

    2011-07-26

    Inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK) phosphorylates I{kappa}B proteins, leading to their degradation and the liberation of nuclear factor {kappa}B for gene transcription. Here we report the crystal structure of IKK{beta} in complex with an inhibitor, at a resolution of 3.6 {angstrom}. The structure reveals a trimodular architecture comprising the kinase domain, a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) and an elongated, {alpha}-helical scaffold/dimerization domain (SDD). Unexpectedly, the predicted leucine zipper and helix-loop-helix motifs do not form these structures but are part of the SDD. The ULD and SDD mediate a critical interaction with I{kappa}B{alpha} that restricts substrate specificity, and the ULD is also required for catalytic activity. The SDD mediates IKK{beta} dimerization, but dimerization per se is not important for maintaining IKK{beta} activity and instead is required for IKK{beta} activation. Other IKK family members, IKK{alpha}, TBK1 and IKK-i, may have a similar trimodular architecture and function.

  10. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  11. Hypertension. Part 2: The Role of Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the differences between exercise alone and exercise with medication (e.g., diuretics, beta blockers, and ACE inhibitors) for treating hypertensive patients. Guidelines are presented for physicians wanting to change the therapeutic regimen or to step down from medical therapy, noting exercise must always be part of the program. (SM)

  12. Tratamento do cotovelo rígido com artroplastia de interposição associada ao fixador externo articulado Stiff elbow treatment by interposing arthroplasty associated to hinged external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da técnica de artroplastia de interposição do cotovelo com fascia lata associada ao uso de fixador externo articulado no tratamento do cotovelo rígido. MÉTODOS: Entre 2001 e 2006 foram operados e acompanhados cinco casos de cotovelo rígido pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa Misericórdia de São Paulo, tendo como critérios de inclusão: pacientes com arco de movimento do cotovelo menor que o funcional associado a degeneração dessa articulação que não tiveram indicação de prótese total. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 21 e 55 anos (média de 38. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (quatro casos e, em todos, o membro dominante foi o operado. Quanto à etiologia, houve dois casos de sequela de artrite infecciosa, um de sequela pós-traumática e dois de artrite reumatoide. O arco de movimento no período pré-operatório variou em torno de 20 a 30º de flexoextensão; em dois casos existia contratura fixa em flexão em 30º e 65º. Os pacientes foram avaliados segundo os critérios da AMA modificados por Bruce. RESULTADOS: O seguimento médio foi de 54 meses. Todos os pacientes obtiveram melhora no índice de Bruce, que no pré-operatório era de 43,5 e foi para 88,2 no pós-operatório. Houve dois casos excelentes, um bom, um regular e um ruim. CONCLUSÃO: A artroplastia de interposição com fascia lata associada ao uso de fixador externo dinâmico no cotovelo rígido é uma alternativa viável para pacientes que não têm indicação de artroplastia total de cotovelo.OBJECTIVE: Assess the results of the elbow/ fascia lata interposing arthroplasty technique associated to the use of a hinged external fixator in the treatment of stiff elbow. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2006, five cases of stiff elbow were operated and followed up by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Santa Casa Misericórdia de São Paulo Medical Sciences School, establishing the following

  13. A variação na aquisição de regras de sândi externo em português brasileiro Variation in the acquisiton of external sandhi rules in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Komatsu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a variação na aquisição do sândi externo por uma criança adquirindo português brasileiro. Nossos resultados mostram que essas regras aparecem tão logo a criança começa a combinar duas palavras, mas não são uniformes durante o período de aquisição, estabilizando-se somente por volta de 3;6 anos. Mostramos que a criança usa a elisão como estratégia default, que as exigências segmentais das regras são adquiridas posteriormente às exigências prosódicas e que o uso dessas regras para implementação rítmica não ocorre nos períodos iníciais. Finalmente, nossa análise corrobora a proposta de Scarpa (1997 de que a aquisição prosódica se inicia nos níveis mais altos da hierarquia.This paper discusses the acquisition of external sandhi rules by one child learning Brazilian Portuguese. We show that these rules appear as soon as the child start putting two words together, but the rules are not uniform in the beginning of the process and are adult-like only around 3;6 years-old. We also show that the child use elision as a default strategy, that the prosodic properties of the rules are acquired before the segmental ones, and that the rules are not used for rhythmic optimization in the beginning of the acquisition process. Finally, our analysis provides support for Scarpa's analysis that prosodic acquisition proceeds from the higher to the lower levels.

  14. $\\beta$-particle energy-summing correction for $\\beta$-delayed proton emission measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Crawford, H L; Cyburt, R H; Grinyer, G F; Langer, C; Montes, F; Schatz, H; Smith, K

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to studying $\\beta$-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the $\\beta$-delayed proton emitting ($\\beta$p) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the $\\beta$-particle emitted from the $\\beta$p nucleus, an effect referred to here as $\\beta$-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for $\\beta$-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the $\\beta$p nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + $\\beta$) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  15. Emprego de fixador externo circular no tratamento de complicações de fraturas do rádio e ulna em cães de raças pequenas Use of circular external fixator in the treatment of fracture complications of radius and ulna in small breed dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Canevese Rahal

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o método de Ilizarov no tratamento de complicações de fraturas do rádio e ulna em cães de raças pequenas. Um fixador de Ilizarov miniatura composto por anéis de alumínio e hastes de aço foi usado em três cães da raça poodle miniatura (casos 1, 2 e 3 e em um pinscher (caso 4. Os cães 1 e 4 apresentavam consolidação atrasada das porções médio-distal e distal, respectivamente, devido a prévio tratamento com tala externa. Foi aplicada uma montagem constituída por dois anéis proximais e um distal. Ambas as fraturas consolidaram, sendo que a do poodle apresentou leve desvio cranial das extremidades fraturadas. Os outros dois casos (2 e 3 consistiam de fraturas previamente tratadas por procedimento cirúrgico. O caso 2 apresentava rotação lateral do membro torácico e não-união do aspecto distal da diáfise radial com presença de pino intramedular e dois fios de cerclagem. O pino intramedular e um dos fios de cerclagem foram removidos e realizou-se a derrotação do foco da fratura. O aparelho foi montado como nos casos 1 e 4. A consolidação da fratura foi obtida com moderado desvio caudal do eixo ósseo. No caso 3, havia reabsorção óssea na diáfise do rádio e ulna devido ao emprego inadequado de fixador externo resina-pino. Empregou-se o transporte ósseo com o fixador de Ilizarov para induzir a regeneração óssea. Entretanto, este foi interrompido por falta de resposta. Manteve-se o fixador e o defeito ósseo foi tratado com enxerto esponjoso autólogo e biomateriais. A ulna ocupou parte do defeito segmentar do rádio. Foi possível concluir que o método de Ilizarov pode ser usado no tratamento de consolidação atrasada e não-união, mas o fixador externo circular é de difícil aplicação em cães de raças pequenas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the Ilizarov’s method for treating complications of radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs. A miniature Ilizarov

  16. Efeitos do peso externo nos chutes espontâneos de lactentes nos primeiros dois meses de vida Effects of external load on spontaneous kicking by one and two-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Landgraf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o padrão de chutes espontâneos de lactentes nas idades de um e dois meses, bem como verificar se o peso externo modifica o padrão dos chutes nessas idades. MÉTODOS: Oito lactentes foram filmados nas idades de um e dois meses, estando em supino em uma cadeira infantil reclinada a 0º, na qual havia um móbile na extremidade superior e um painel na extremidade inferior. O experimento teve a duração de seis minutos e 20 segundos, durante os quais foram observados os movimentos de chutes nas situações sem e com peso de 1/10 e 1/3 da massa do membro inferior do lactente. Os pesos externos foram adicionados nos tornozelos do lactente. Pela análise das imagens coletadas por filmadoras digitais, foram verificados a freqüência de chutes e de contatos dos pés em um painel, os movimentos uni e bipodais, a preferência podal e o padrão de coordenação intramembro. RESULTADOS: O teste qui-quadrado revelou aumento significativo da freqüência de chutes nas idades de dois meses e nas situações de peso de 1/10 e pós-peso. Na situação de peso de 1/3 da massa do membro, verificaram-se diminuição do contato dos pés no painel e, na idade de dois meses, aumento da freqüência de contatos. Em todas as situações e idades, houve predomínio por chutes unipodais, não havendo preferência por um dos membros. Além disso, o padrão de coordenação intramembro dos chutes foi caracterizado como em-fase em ambas as idades. CONCLUSÕES: Fatores intrínsecos como a idade e extrínsecos como o peso externo referente a 1/10 da massa do membro inferior promoveram o aumento da freqüência dos chutes espontâneos em lactentes nas idades de um e dois meses.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the spontaneous kicking patterns among one and two-month-old infants, and find whether an external load can modify such patterns at this age. METHODS: Eight infants were filmed at the ages of one and two months, while in the supine position in a baby

  17. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  18. Ressuscitação cardiopulmonar com a utilização do desfibrilador externo semi-automático: avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem Resucitador cardiopulmonar con utilización del disfibrilador externo semiautomático: evaluación del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with semi-automated external defibrillator: assessment of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos demonstram que a sobrevida após uma parada cardíaca diminui 10% para cada minuto de atraso na desfibrilação, e que a taxa de sobrevivência é de 98% quando ela é conseguida em 30 segundos. No atendimento de uma parada cardíaca, é primordial que seja incluído no treinamento a utilização dos desfibriladores externos semi-automáticos (DEA. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a Habilidade Psicomotora e o Conhecimento Teórico de leigos na técnica da ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP utilizando o DEA, antes e após treinamento. A amostra constituiu-se de 40 funcionários administrativos de uma instituição pública que receberam treinamento da técnica da RCP, utilizando o DEA, em laboratório. O aumento significativo de acertos nos itens do instrumento de avaliação da Habilidade Psicomotora e do Conhecimento Teórico, após o treinamento, indica que houve melhora no desempenho dos participantes.Los estudios demuestran que la sobrevida después de un paro cardíaco disminuye el 10% por cada minuto de atraso en la desfibrilación y que la tasa de supervivencia es del 98% cuando se consigue en 30 segundos. En la atención de un paro cardíaco es primordial que se incluya en la capacitación la utilización de los desfibriladores externos semi-automáticos (DEA. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la Habilidad Psicomotora y el Conocimiento Teórico de legos en la técnica de la resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP utilizando el DEA, antes y después de la capacitación. La muestra estuvo formada por 40 empleados administrativos de una institución pública que recibieron capitación en la técnica de RCP, utilizando el DEA, en laboratorio. El aumento significativo de aciertos en los ítems del instrumento de evaluación de la habilidad Psicomotora y del Conocimiento teórico, después de la capacitación, indica que hubo mejora en el desempeño de los participantes para realizar la RCP con el uso del DEA.Studies demonstrate

  19. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  20. $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR applied in chemistry and biochemistry

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnesium ions, Mg$^{2+}$, are essential in biological systems, taking part in practically all phosphate chemistry, in photosynthesis as an integral component of chlorophyll, and they are regulated via transport through selective membrane proteins. Nonetheless, the function of magnesium ions in biochemistry is difficult to characterize, as it is practically invisible to current experimental techniques. With this proposal we aim to advance the use of $^{31}$Mg $\\beta$-NMR to liquid samples, building on the experience from the successful Letter of Intent INTC-I-088 “$\\beta$-NMR as a novel technique for biological applications”. Initially a series of experiments will be conducted aiming to characterize the coordination chemistry of Mg$^{2+}$ in ionic liquids (ILs), demonstrating that it is possible within the lifetime of the radioisotope to achieve binding of Mg$^{2+}$ to a molecule dissolved in the IL. ILs are chosen as they display a very low vapor pressure, and are thus straightforwardly compatible with t...

  1. First Beta-Beating Measurement in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; Kain, V; Morita, A; Tomás, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J

    2009-01-01

    This note reports on the first LHC beta-beating and coupling measurements. Thanks to an excellent functioning of the BPM system and the related software, injection oscillations were recorded for the first 90 turns at all BPMs of Beam 2. Three different algorithms are used to measure the optics parameters from the BPM data. All algorithms show consistent measurements but feature different accuracy. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach shows a high resolution despite the limited number of turns. The vertical beta-beating is observed to be about a factor of two larger than in the horizontal plane. This asymetry is partly due to sextupoles misalignments but also suggests the possible existance of focusing errors at defocussing locations. Rather large coupling is observed since no skew quadrupole was excited at the time of the data acquisition. We also report a list of suspected malfunctioning BPMs identified through various analyses.

  2. Novel nuclear structure aspects of the O{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J; Poves, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, and IFT, UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Caurier, E; Nowacki, F, E-mail: alfredo.poves@uam.es [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037-Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influence of the deformation on the nuclear matrix elements of the neutrinoless double beta decay (NME), concluding that the difference in deformation -or more generally in the amount of quadrupole correlations- between parent and grand daughter nuclei quenches strongly the decay. We correlate these differences with the seniority structure of the nuclear wave functions. In this context, we examine the present discrepancies between the NME's obtained in the framework of the Interacting Shell Model and the Quasiparticle RPA. In our view, part of the discrepancy can be due to the limitations of the spherical QRPA in treating nuclei which have strong quadrupole correlations. We surmise that the NME's in a basis of generalized seniority are approximately model independent, i. e. they are 'universal'.

  3. Effects of ultrasound on Transforming Growth Factor-beta genes in bone cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic ultrasound (US is a widely used form of biophysical stimulation that is increasingly applied to promote fracture healing. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, which is encoded by three related but different genes, is known to play a major part in bone growth and repair. However, the effects of US on the expression of the TGF-beta genes and the physical acoustic mechanisms involved in initiating changes in gene expression in vitro, are not yet known. The present study demonstrates that US had a differential effect on these TGF-beta isoforms in a human osteoblast cell line, with the highest dose eliciting the most pronounced up-regulation of both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 at 1 hour after treatment and thereafter declining. In contrast, US had no effect on TGF-beta2 expression. Fluid streaming rather than thermal effects or cavitation was found to be the most likely explanation for the gene responses observed in vitro.

  4. beta-Keratins in crocodiles reveal amino acid homology with avian keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changjiang; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Amato, George

    2010-03-01

    The DNA sequences encoding beta-keratin have been obtained from Marsh Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) and Orinoco Crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius). Through the deduced amino acid sequence, these proteins are rich in glycine, proline and serine. The central region of the proteins are composed of two beta-folded regions and show a high degree of identity with beta-keratins of aves and squamates. This central part is thought to be the site of polymerization to build the framework of beta-keratin filaments. It is believed that the beta-keratins in reptiles and birds share a common ancestry. Near the C-terminal, these beta-keratins contain a peptide rich in glycine-X and glycine-X-X, and the distinctive feature of the region is some 12-amino acid repeats, which are similar to the 13-amino acid repeats in chick scale keratin but absent from avian feather keratin. From our phylogenetic analysis, the beta-keratins in crocodile have a closer relationship with avian keratins than the other keratins in reptiles.

  5. Effects of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Wei-Xing; Yu, Jia; Li, Jin-You; Liu, Lei

    2011-06-15

    Pancreatic beta cells produce and release insulin, which decreases the blood glucose level. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). The 150kD oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) took part in the process of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study investigated the effect of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells in ANP. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The severity of ANP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A(2,) and pancreatic histopathology. The changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells were detected by light and electron microscopy and the levels of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. ORP150 expression was studied using western blot and immunohistochemisty assay. The expression of ORP150 mainly appeared on pancreatic beta cells and decreased gradually during the pathogenesis of ANP. The results of light and electron microscopy indicated pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death, concomitant with elevation of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in ANP. These results imply a probable role of ORP150 in the changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis, through the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  6. p16(Ink4a)-induced senescence of pancreatic beta cells enhances insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Aharon; Klochendler, Agnes; Azazmeh, Narmen; Gabai, Yael; Horwitz, Elad; Anzi, Shira; Swisa, Avital; Condiotti, Reba; Granit, Roy Z; Nevo, Yuval; Fixler, Yaakov; Shreibman, Dorin; Zamir, Amit; Tornovsky-Babeay, Sharona; Dai, Chunhua; Glaser, Benjamin; Powers, Alvin C; Shapiro, A M James; Magnuson, Mark A; Dor, Yuval; Ben-Porath, Ittai

    2016-04-01

    Cellular senescence is thought to contribute to age-associated deterioration of tissue physiology. The senescence effector p16(Ink4a) is expressed in pancreatic beta cells during aging and limits their proliferative potential; however, its effects on beta cell function are poorly characterized. We found that beta cell-specific activation of p16(Ink4a) in transgenic mice enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In mice with diabetes, this leads to improved glucose homeostasis, providing an unexpected functional benefit. Expression of p16(Ink4a) in beta cells induces hallmarks of senescence--including cell enlargement, and greater glucose uptake and mitochondrial activity--which promote increased insulin secretion. GSIS increases during the normal aging of mice and is driven by elevated p16(Ink4a) activity. We found that islets from human adults contain p16(Ink4a)-expressing senescent beta cells and that senescence induced by p16(Ink4a) in a human beta cell line increases insulin secretion in a manner dependent, in part, on the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ proteins. Our findings reveal a novel role for p16(Ink4a) and cellular senescence in promoting insulin secretion by beta cells and in regulating normal functional tissue maturation with age.

  7. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  8. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  10. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  11. Beta decay of 252Cf on the way to scission from the exit point

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, K; Quentin, P

    2015-01-01

    Upon increasing significantly the nuclear elongation, the beta-decay energy grows. This paper investigates within a simple yet partly microscopic approach, the transition rate of the beta decay of the 252Cf nucleus on the way to scission from the exit point for a spontaneous fission process. A rather crude classical approximation is made for the corresponding damped collective motion assumed to be one dimensional. Given these assumptions, we only aim in this paper at providing the order of magnitudes of such a phenomenon. At each deformation the energy available for beta decay, is determined from such a dynamical treatment. Then, for a given elongation, transition rates for the allowed (Fermi) beta decay are calculated from pair correlated wave functions obtained within a macroscopic-microscopic approach and then integrated over the time corresponding to the whole descent from exit to scission. The results are presented as a function of the damping factor (inverse of the characteristic damping time) in use in...

  12. Gingivectomía a bisel externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Burgos Fuentes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl propósito de este reporte es describir el alargamiento coronario como tratamiento estético periodontal. La gingivectomía es un tratamiento quirúrgico antiguo. La indicación para la gingivectomía es la eliminación completa de la bolsa periodontal, hiperplasias. El diseño fisiológico del margen libre gingival por el medio quirúrgico debe ser tomado en consideración. Se reporta un caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 32 años de edad que exhibe gran cantidad de encía cuando sonríe. El logro de resultados estéticos excelentes en la terapia no es una cuestión de azar, es algo planificado antes de iniciar el tratamiento. (Duazary 2008; 125-128AbstractThe purpose of this report is to describe the external level gingivectomy as a periodontal esthetic treatment; the gingivectomy is the oldest surgical approach in periodontal therapy. Indication for performance of the gingivectomy is the complete elimination of the periodontal pocket and hyperplasia gingival. The physiologic design of the free gingival margin by surgical means, gingivoplasty, must be taken under consideration. A clinic case is been reported, a 32 years old with a big amount of gum tissue when she smiles. The achievement of excellent esthetics results on a therapy is not a matter of luck, must be into the treatment plan before starting this one.Key words: periodontal treatment; gingivectomy; gingival hyperplasia.

  13. Gingivectomía a bisel externo

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita Burgos Fuentes; Diana Marcela Palomino Romero; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2014-01-01

    ResumenEl propósito de este reporte es describir el alargamiento coronario como tratamiento estético periodontal. La gingivectomía es un tratamiento quirúrgico antiguo. La indicación para la gingivectomía es la eliminación completa de la bolsa periodontal, hiperplasias. El diseño fisiológico del margen libre gingival por el medio quirúrgico debe ser tomado en consideración. Se reporta un caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 32 años de edad que exhibe gran cantidad de encía cuando sonríe. ...

  14. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  15. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  16. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  17. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  18. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  19. Hemoglobina C em homozigose e interação com talassemia beta Homozygous hemoglobin C and its interaction with beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemoglobina C (Hb C é originária do oeste da África e é detectada por migração lenta na eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose. Consiste na mutação do gene da globina beta no códon 6 (GAG-AAG, resultando na substituição do sexto aminoácido da cadeia beta da hemoglobina humana, o ácido glutâmico, pelo aminoácido lisina. A cromatografia de alto desempenho (HPLC separa completamente as frações C e A2, permitindo caracterizar a presença da interação com talassemia beta. Esta entidade (Hb CC, em homozigoze é considerada benigna em relação à doença falciforme, já que a falcização não faz parte de sua fisiopatologia. A raridade do diagnóstico C homozigoto e C talassemia beta nos pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatias nos alertou para a necessidade de se conhecer melhor e estudar aspectos clínicos e hematológicos dos casos dessa mutação em homozigose e na interação com a talassemia beta no ambulatório de anemias do Centro Regional de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.Hemoglobin C (Hb C originated in the west of Africa and is detected by alkaline electrophoresis by slow migration in cellulose acetate. It consists of a mutation of the beta globin gene in codon 6 (GAG-AAG, resulting in a substitution of glutamic acid, the sixth amino acid of the beta string of the human hemoglobin, for lysine. High performance chromatography (HPLC separates the C and A2 fractions completely, allowing the characterization of the presence of interactions with thalassemia beta. This entity (Hb CC is considered benign in respect to sickle cell disease, as sickle cells are not part of its physiopathology. The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood

  20. Indicación de antibióticos en niños con faringoamigdalitis aguda y test positivo para estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima – Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Ubillús, Gloria; Universidad de San Martin de Porres; Patiño, Lilian; Maza, Giovanna; Vicuña, Raúl; Pregúntegui, Ivethe; Reyes, Patricia Reyes; Ríos, Carol; Lancho, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVOConocer la frecuencia de la indicación de antibióticos en niños con diagnóstico clínico de faringoamigdalitis aguda (FAA) y test rápido positivo para estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A atendidos en consultorios externos de Pediatría, y el tipo de antibiótico indicado con más frecuencia.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOEstudio descriptivo, transversal. La muestra fue de 351 niños de 3 a 15 años diagnosticados como FAA. Abordados a la salida de la consulta y con firma del consentimiento informado ...

  1. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  2. Differentiation-dependent expression of retinoid-binding proteins in BFC-1 beta adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovich, D C; Orologa, A; Okuno, M; Kong, L W; Talmage, D A; Piantedosi, R; Goodman, D S; Blaner, W S

    1992-07-15

    Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue plays an important role in retinol storage and retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis. Our data suggested that RBP expression in adipose tissue is dependent on the state of adipocyte differentiation. To examine this possibility, we explored the differentiation-dependent expression of RBP using BFC-1 beta preadipocytes, which can be stimulated to undergo adipose differentiation. Total RNA was isolated from undifferentiated (preadipocytes) and differentiated (adipocytes) BFC-1 beta cells and analyzed by Northern blotting. RBP mRNA was not detected in the preadipocytes, but considerable RBP mRNA was present in differentiated BFC-1 beta cells. In BFC-1 beta cells, induced to differentiate with insulin and thyroid hormone, RBP mRNA was first detected after 4 days, reached a maximum level by day 10, and remained at this maximum level for at least 2 more days. Cellular retinol-binding protein was expressed at low levels in the BFC-1 beta preadipocytes and the level of expression increased for 6 days after induction to differentiate and slowly declined on later days. Neither the maximum level of RBP expression nor the day on which this level was reached was influenced by the level of retinol provided in the BFC-1 beta culture medium. BFC-1 beta cells secreted newly synthesized RBP into the culture medium at a rate of 43 +/- 14 ng RBP/24 h/10(6) adipocytes. When the BFC-1 beta adipocytes were provided 1.0 microM retinol in the medium, they accumulated the retinol and synthesized retinyl esters. These studies with BFC-1 beta cells confirm that RBP synthesis and secretion and retinol accumulation are intrinsic properties of differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, they suggest that RBP and cellular retinol-binding protein gene expression are regulated as part of a package of genes which are modulated during adipocyte differentiation.

  3. Multiple roles of mesenchymal beta-catenin during murine limb patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theo P; Taketo, Makoto M; Birchmeier, Walter; Hartmann, Christine

    2006-04-01

    Recently canonical Wnt signaling in the ectoderm has been shown to be required for maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and for dorsoventral signaling. Using conditional gain- and loss-of-function beta-catenin alleles, we have studied the role of mesenchymal beta-catenin activity during limb development. Here, we show that loss of beta-catenin results in limb truncations due to a defect in AER maintenance. Stabilization of beta-catenin also results in truncated limbs, caused by a premature regression of the AER. Concomitantly, in these limbs, the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4 and Bmp7, and of the Bmp target genes Msx1, Msx2 and gremlin, is expanded in the mesenchyme. Furthermore, we found that the expression of Lmx1b, a gene exclusively expressed in the dorsal limb mesenchyme and involved in dorsoventral patterning, is reduced upon loss of beta-catenin activity and is expanded ventrally in gain-of-function limbs. However, the known ectodermal regulators Wnt7a and engrailed 1 are expressed normally. This suggests that Lmx1b is also regulated, in part, by a beta-catenin-mediated Wnt signal, independent of the non-canoncial Wnt7a signaling pathway. In addition, loss of beta-catenin results in a severe agenesis of the scapula. Concurrently, the expression of two genes, Pax1 and Emx2, which have been implicated in scapula development, is lost in beta-catenin loss-of-function limbs; however, only Emx2 is upregulated in gain-of-function limbs. Mesenchymal beta-catenin activity is therefore required for AER maintenance, and for normal expression of Lmx1b and Emx2.

  4. Imobilização de fraturas femorais em gatos usando pino intramedular conectado ou não ao fixador esquelético externo Immobilization of femoral fractures in cats using intramedullary pin tied-in or not with the external skeletal fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Canevese Rahal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a consolidação óssea e a função do membro, em 18 gatos com fraturas transversas femorais tratadas com pino intramedular e fixador esquelético externo tipo Ia (grupo I, n=9 ou com pino intramedular associado ao fixador externo em uma configuração "tie-in" (grupo II, n=9. Independente da configuração utilizada, após a remoção dos implantes, todos os animais apresentaram função normal do membro operado. Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação à densidade mineral óssea do calo externo mensurada pela densitometria óptica por imagens radiográficas. O tempo para consolidação foi significativamente maior para as fraturas tratadas com pino intramedular e fixador tipo Ia. As fraturas que receberam a configuração "tie-in" tiveram menos proliferação de calo ósseo.The aim of this study was to compare bone healing and limb function in 18 cats with transverse femoral fractures treated with either intramedullary pin and a type Ia external skeletal fixator (Group 1, n=9 or a tie-in configuration (Group 1, n=9. All animals showed normal function of the operated limb after implant removal, independently of the configuration used. The optic bone densitometry in radiographic images showed no difference in bone mineral density of the external bone callus between the groups. Fractures treated with intramedullary pin and type Ia external fixator had significantly more time to fracture healing, and fractures treated with the tie-in configuration had less proliferation of bone callus.

  5. SU(5)-inspired double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, Renato M

    2015-01-01

    The short-range part of the neutrinoless double beta amplitude is generated via the exchange of exotic particles, such as charged scalars, leptoquarks and/or diquarks. In order to give a sizeable contribution to the total decay rate, the masses of these exotics should be of the order of (at most) a few TeV. Here, we argue that these exotics could be the "light" (i.e weak-scale) remnants of some $B-L$ violating variants of $SU(5)$. We show that unification of the standard model gauge couplings, consistent with proton decay limits, can be achieved in such a setup without the need to introduce supersymmetry. Since these non-minimal $SU(5)$-inspired models violate $B-L$, they generate Majorana neutrino masses and therefore make it possible to explain neutrino oscillation data. The "light" coloured particles of these models can potentially be observed at the LHC, and it might be possible to probe the origin of the neutrino masses with $\\Delta L=2$ violating signals. As particular realizations of this idea, we pres...

  6. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  7. Double Star Measurements of Beta Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Sean; Funk, Benjamin; Schlosser, Ruth; Brown, Alana; Cruz, Mallikai; McCarthy, Jeff; Rhoades, Breauna; Spreng, Bill

    2016-10-01

    Eight observers met at the Lewis Center for Educational Research in Apple Valley, California. These observers studied the distance and position angle between ß1 and ß2 of the beta Scorpii star system. They used the drift method to calibrate the telescope-eyepiece, which was a Celestron C8 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope equipped with an astrometric eyepiece. The star system g Cassiopeia was used to determine the scale constant of 4.6 arcseconds per division mark, using the average of twelve observations made of the star system using the drift method. A separation of 15.4 arcseconds and a position angle of 14.3 was determined using a Bader Planetarium Micro Guide eyepiece with marking similar to a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece. A large difference was found compared to WDS due in part to a smoky sky, an incoming storm, and the novice level of the team members, who had a difficult time reading the labels on the eyepiece.

  8. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  9. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  10. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  11. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  12. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  13. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J J

    1993-06-01

    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  14. Efecto de la aplicación de un programa de motivación al recurso humano y su relación con el grado de satisfacción del cliente externo en el laboratorio clínico ROE – sede central San Isidro-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Camacho, Cristy Medalit

    2013-01-01

    Siendo el recurso humano el potencial de toda organización, se le debe brindar vital importancia ya que hoy en día casi todas las organizaciones buscan un continuo mejoramiento del ambiente de trabajo, para así alcanzar satisfacer las expectativas de sus clientes internos y externos,es por ello que surge la necesidad de establecer un programa de motivación al recurso humano de manera que canalice en forma adecuada el comportamiento del personal para conseguir un buen ambiente de trabajo qu...

  15. Actuación y Responsabilidad del Contador Público, en su Función como Auditor Externo, según la modificación introducida en la ley 25.246 ante la sanción de la ley 26.683

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A través de este trabajo, se investigará las nuevas obligaciones y responsabilidades que afectan a los Contadores públicos que actúen como Auditores Externos, ante la sanción de la ley 26.683 que modifica a la ley 25.246 sobre el lavado de dinero y financiación del terrorismo. A raíz de esta modificación en la ley, tanto la Unidad de Información Financiera como la Federación Argentina de Consejos Profesionales de Ciencias Económicas emitieron resoluciones (65/11 y la 420/11 ...

  16. Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basińska, Agnieszka; Floriańczyk, Bolesław

    2003-01-01

    beta-glucoronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage.

  17. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  18. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  19. Experimental beta-alaninuria induced by (aminooxyacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurozumi Y

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental beta-alaninuria was induced in rats by injection of (aminooxyacetate (AOA, a potent inhibitor of aminotransferases, in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of hyper-beta-alaninemia. A 27-fold increase of beta-alanine (BALA excretion was induced by subcutaneous injection of 1 5 mg of AOA per kg of body weight. A 13-fold and a 9-fold increase of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, respectively, were also induced simultaneously by the AOA injection. Identification of BALA and BAIBA isolated from the rat urine was performed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. The effects of AOA injection on the tissue levels of these amino acids were also studied. Contents of BALA in the liver and kidney and GABA in the brain increased significantly in response to AOA injection. The present study indicates that BALA transaminase is involved in hyper-beta-alaninemia.

  20. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  1. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Korsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro combined heat and power system and a dynamic model thereof were presented in part one of the publication. In the following, the control system and dynamic performance of the system are presented. The model is subjected to a measured consumption pattern of 25 Danish single family...... houses with measurements of heat, power and hot water consumption every 15th minute during one year. Three scenarios are analyzed ranging from heat following only (grid compensation for electricity) to heat and power following with net export of electricity during high and peak load hours. Average...

  2. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  3. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  4. Painlev\\'e representation of Tracy-Widom$_\\beta$ distribution for $\\beta = 6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rumanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    In \\cite{betaFP1}, we found explicit Lax pairs for the soft edge of beta ensembles with even integer values of $\\beta$. Using this general result, the case $\\beta=6$ is further considered here. This is the smallest even $\\beta$, when the corresponding Lax pair and its relation to Painlev\\'e II (PII) have not been known before, unlike cases $\\beta=2$ and $4$. It turns out that again everything can be expressed in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of PII. In particular, a second order nonlinear ODE for the logarithmic derivative of Tracy-Widom distribution for $\\beta=6$ involving the PII function in the coefficients, is found, which allows one to compute asymptotics for the distribution function. The ODE is a consequence of a linear system of three ODEs for which the local Painlev\\'e analysis yields series solutions with exponents in the set $4/3$, $1/3$ and $-2/3$.

  5. 20F beta spectrum shape and weak interaction tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Chuna, Thomas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Hughes, Max; Huyan, Xueying; Minamisono, Kei; Paulauskas, Stanley

    2016-09-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of beta spectra can test our understanding of the weak interaction. We are carrying out a measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of β particles from 20F decay. The primary motivation is to test the so-called strong form of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The measurement should also enable us to place competitive limits on the contributions of exotic tensor couplings in beta decay. We aim to achieve a relative precision better than 3% on the linear contribution to the shape. This represents an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous experiments in 20F. In order to control systematic effects, we are using a technique that takes advantage of high energy radioactive beams at the NSCL to implant the decaying nuclei in scintillation detectors deeply enough that the emitted beta particles cannot escape. The β-particle energy is measured with the implantation detector after switching off the implantation beam. Ancillary detectors are used to identify the 1.633-MeV γ-rays following the 20F β decay for coincidence measurements in order to tag the transition of interest and to reduce backgrounds. We report on the status of the analysis. Supported in part with Awards from the NSCL PAC and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1506084.

  6. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A

    2006-01-01

    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  7. Reconocimiento de expresiones faciales empleando memorias asociativas Alfa-Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Olivera, Moisés Vicente

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis orienta su atención en la compleja tarea del reconocimiento automático de las expresiones faciales, el propósito principal es probar la asertividad y competitividad de las memorias asociativas de tipo Alfa-Beta en el reconocimiento automático de expresiones faciales. La primera parte de la tesis brinda una breve introducción, la cual enfatiza la importancia de las expresiones faciales en la comunicación humana, incluyendo los estudios más relevantes dedicados a...

  8. The Proposed Majorana 76Ge Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E; Anderson, Dale N; Arthur, Richard J; Avignone, Frank; Baktash, Cryus; Ball, Thedore; Barabash, Alexander S; Bertrand, F; Brodzinski, Ronald L; Brudanin, V; Bugg, William; Champagne, A E; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Cianciolo, Thomas V; Collar, J I; Creswick, R W; Descovich, M; Di Marco, Marie; Doe, P J; Dunham, Glen C; Efremenko, Yuri; Egerov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, Steven R; Emanuel, A; Fallon, Paul; Farach, H A; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, Victor; Grzywacz, Robert; Hallin, A; Hazma, R; Henning, R; Hime, Andrew; Hossbach, Todd W; Jordan, David V; Kazkaz, K; Kephart, Jeremy; King, G S; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S; Kouzes, Richard T; Lesko, Kevin; Luke, P; Luzum, M; Macchiavelli, A O; McDonald, A; Mei, Dongming; Miley, Harry S; Mills, G B; Mokhtarani, A; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L; Palms, John M; Poon, Alan; Radford, D C; Reeves, James H; Robertson, R G. H.; Runkle, Robert C; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P; Saburov, Konstantin; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Tornow, W; Tull, C; van de Water, R G; Vanushin, Igor; Vetter, Kai; Warner, Ray A; Wilkerson, John F; Wouters, Jan M; Young, A R; Yumatov, V

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Majorana experiment is based on an array of segmented intrinsic Ge detectors with a total mass of 500 kg of Ge isotopically enriched to 86% in 76Ge. Background reduction will be accomplished by: material selection, detector segmentation, pulse shape analysis, electro-formation of copper parts, and granularity of detector spacing. The predicted experimental sensitivity for measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay mode of 76Ge, over a data acquisition period of 5000 kg•y, is ~ 4 x 1027 y.

  9. Beta decay of medium and high spin isomers in sup 9 sup 4 Ag

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; Döring, J; Galanopoulos, S; Grawe, H; Harissopoulos, S V; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Kirchner, R; Mazzocchi, C; Ostrowski, A N; Plettner, C; Rainovski, G; Roeckl, E; Schmidt, K

    2002-01-01

    The very neutron-deficient isotope sup 9 sup 4 Ag was produced at the GSI on-line mass separator by using the reaction sup 5 sup 8 Ni( sup 4 sup 0 Ca, p3n). The beta-decay properties of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were studied by detecting for the first time beta-delayed gamma rays and beta-gamma-gamma coincidences. Both the population of excited levels in the daughter nucleus sup 9 sup 4 Pd and the beta-decay half-life of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were investigated. The major part of the feeding was assigned to the decay of an I suppi=(7 sup +) isomer with a half-life of (0.36+-0.03) s. A weak beta-decay branch was found to populate high-spin levels in the sup 9 sup 4 Pd daughter with I>=18. It is tentatively assigned to the decay of a high-spin parent state in sup 9 sup 4 Ag with I>=17 and a half-life (0.3+-0.2) s. The measured beta-decay properties as well as the level structure of sup 9 sup 4 Ag and sup 9 sup 4 Pd are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions.

  10. Interleukin-1 beta impairs brain derived neurotrophic factor-induced signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liqi; Balazs, Robert; Soiampornkul, Rungtip; Thangnipon, Wipawan; Cotman, Carl W

    2008-09-01

    The expression of IL-1 is elevated in the CNS in diverse neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. The hypothesis was tested that IL-1 beta renders neurons vulnerable to degeneration by interfering with BDNF-induced neuroprotection. In trophic support-deprived neurons, IL-1 beta compromised the PI3-K/Akt pathway-mediated protection by BDNF and suppressed Akt activation. The effect was specific as in addition to Akt, the activation of MAPK/ERK, but not PLC gamma, was decreased. Activation of CREB, a target of these signaling pathways, was severely depressed by IL-1 beta. As the cytokine did not influence TrkB receptor and PLC gamma activation, IL-1 beta might have interfered with BDNF signaling at the docking step conveying activation to the PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways. Indeed, IL-1 beta suppressed the activation of the respective scaffolding proteins IRS-1 and Shc; this effect might involve ceramide generation. IL-1-induced interference with BDNF neuroprotection and signal transduction was corrected, in part, by ceramide production inhibitors and mimicked by the cell-permeable C2-ceramide. These results suggest that IL-1 beta places neurons at risk by interfering with BDNF signaling involving a ceramide-associated mechanism.

  11. Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, I.; Lutostansky, Yu; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2016-01-01

    For the nucleosynthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei fission becomes very important when the r-process runs in a very high neutron density environment. In part, fission is responsible for the formation of heavy nuclei due to the inclusion of fission products as new seed nuclei (fission cycling). More than that, beta-delayed fission, along with spontaneous fission, is responsible in the late stages of the r-process for the suppression of superheavy element yields. For beta-delayed fission probability calculations a model description of the beta-strength- functions is required. Extended theoretical predictions for astro-physical applications were provided long ago, and new predictions also for superheavy nuclei with uptodate nuclear input are needed. For the further extension of data to heavier transactinides the models of strength- functions should be modified, taking into account more complicated level schemes. In our present calculations the strength-function model is based on the quasi-particle approximation of Finite Fermi Systems Theory. The probabilities of beta-delayed fission and beta-delayed neutron emission are calculated for some transfermium neutron-rich nuclei, and the influence of beta-delayed fission upon superheavy element formation is discussed.

  12. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators.......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  13. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  14. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  15. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids is, in part, determined by the isoenzymes 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and type 2, interconverting inert cortisone and active cortisol. Increased tissue activity of cortisol may play a part in features...... of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...

  16. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  17. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1beta by hispidin derivatives isolated from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Sil; Kang, Il-Jun; Won, Moo Ho; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lim, Soon Sung

    2010-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1beta (PTP1beta) acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Selective inhibition of PTP1beta has served as a potential drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Phellinus linteus against PTP1beta as part of our ongoing search for natural therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetes mellitus. Fractions of the P. linteus extract were found to exhibit significant inhibitory activities against PTP1beta. In an attempt to identify bioactive components, we isolated, from the most active ethyl acetate fraction, five hispidin derivatives (phelligridimer A, davallialactone, hypholomine B, interfungins A, and inoscavin A) and four phenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, and ellagic acid). The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with published data. All the compounds strongly inhibited PTP1beta activity in an in vitro assay; their IC50 values ranged from 9.0 +/- 0.01 to 58.2 +/- 0.3 microM. Our results indicated that the hispidin skeleton may be an important moiety for inhibitory activity of the above compounds against PTP1beta. Thus, hispidin derivatives could be a potent new class of natural PTP1beta inhibitors.

  18. Dosimetry of Low-Energy Beta Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Jette

    Useful techniques and procedures for derermination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy beta radiation were studied and evaluated. The four techniques included were beta spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical...... low-energy beta radiation field a moderated spectrum from a carbon-14 source was used. The measured responce of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreemant with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated response to electrons...

  19. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    CERN Document Server

    Gironi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate beta-gamma events from those induced by alpha particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  20. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    -interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... must be presumed to be of value not only in the diagnosis of cerebral AIDS and other (latent) CNS infections but also to demonstrate complicating cerebral malignant lymphomata at an early stage....

  1. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  2. Treatment with beta-blockers in nurse-led heart failure clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Schou, Morten; Videbaek, Lars

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers (BBs) are a cornerstone in the treatment of chronic heart failure (HF), but several surveys have documented that many patients are not offered treatment or are not titrated to target doses. In part to address this problem, specialized, nurse-led HF clinics have been...

  3. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: Measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldo, S R; Benavente, J A; Da Silva, T A

    2016-11-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (BSS 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, the reliability of the CDTN BSS2 system was verified through measurements in the (90)Sr/(90)Y and (85)Kr beta radiation fields. Absorbed dose rates and their angular variation were measured with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. The feasibility of using both methods was analyzed.

  4. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  5. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  6. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-06-14

    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  9. RELAP-7 Beta Release: Summary of Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Building upon the decades of software development at the INL, we began the development of RELAP-7 in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. As part of this development, the first lines of RELAP-7 code were committed to the software revision control repository on November 7th, 2011. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. RELAP-7 is built using the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). MOOSE provides improved numerical calculations (including higher-order integration in both space and time, yielding converged second-order accuracy). The RELAP-7 code structure is based on multiple physical component models such as pipes, junctions, pumps, etc. Each component can have options for different fluid models such as single- and two-phase flow. This component-based and physics-based software architecture allows RELAP-7 to adopt different physical models for different applications. A relatively new two-phase hydrodynamic model, termed the ''7-Equation model'' for two phasic pressures, velocities, energies, and volumetric fraction, is incorporated into RELAP-7 for liquid-gas (water-steam) flows. This new model allows second-order integration because it is well-posed, which will reduce the numerical error associated with traditional systems analysis codes. In this paper, we provide a RELAP-7 capability list describing analysis features, range of applicability, and reactor components that will be available for the December 15th, 2014 beta release of the software.

  10. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beta 2 Microglobulin, Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for ... monitor persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Excess B2M can accumulate in joint spaces ( synovitis ) in ...

  11. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  12. Phenomenology of neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status and future outlook of neutrinoless double beta decay searches, which try to provide an answer to the fundamental question of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles.

  13. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  14. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T

    1998-07-01

    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  15. [Allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, D; Petitpierre, S; Spertini, F; Bart, P-A

    2012-04-18

    Beta-lactam antibiotics allergies are common. Up to 10% of the population describe a former allergy to penicillins. However only 10 to 15% of these individuals are actually allergic. In most cases, beta-lactam antibiotics will be avoided and replaced by other antibiotics such as quinolones. This fear of a serious allergic reaction has an economic impact and may lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A thorough allergic work-up can accurately determine true allergic patients. Most of the patients with a proven allergy will be able to tolerate other antibiotics belonging to the beta-lactam family. This article focuses on the management of beta-lactam allergic patients.

  16. Metabolic response to various beta-adrenoceptor agonists in beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice: evidence for a new beta-adrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preitner, F; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Seydoux, J; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Lafontan, M; Giacobino, J P

    1998-08-01

    The beta3-adrenoceptor plays an important role in the adrenergic response of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT). In this study, in vitro metabolic responses to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation were compared in adipose tissues of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout and wild type mice. The measured parameters were BAT fragment oxygen uptake (MO2) and isolated white adipocyte lipolysis. In BAT of wild type mice (-)-norepinephrine maximally stimulated MO2 4.1+/-0.8 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (dobutamine 5.1+/-0.3, terbutaline 5.3+/-0.3 and CL 316,243 4.8+/-0.9 fold, respectively); in BAT of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the beta1- and beta2-responses were fully conserved. In BAT of wild type mice, the beta1/beta2-antagonist and beta3-partial agonist CGP 12177 elicited a maximal MO2 response (4.7+/-0.4 fold). In beta3-adrenoceptor knockout BAT, this response was fully conserved despite an absence of response to CL 316,243. This unexpected result suggests that an atypical beta-adrenoceptor, distinct from the beta1-, beta2- and beta3-subtypes and referred to as a putative beta4-adrenoceptor is present in BAT and that it can mediate in vitro a maximal MO2 stimulation. In isolated white adipocytes of wild type mice, (-)-epinephrine maximally stimulated lipolysis 12.1+/-2.6 fold. Similar maximal stimulations were obtained with beta1-, beta2- or beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists (TO509 12+/-2, procaterol 11+/-3, CL 316,243 11+/-3 fold, respectively) or with CGP 12177 (7.1+/-1.5 fold). In isolated white adipocytes of beta3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, the lipolytic responses to (-)epinephrine, to the beta1-, beta2-, beta3-adrenoceptor selective agonists and to CGP 12177 were almost or totally depressed, whereas those to ACTH, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were conserved.

  17. Anti-TGF-beta strategies for the treatment of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Katja; Haas, Stephan; Wiercinska, Eliza; Singer, Manfred V; Dooley, Steven

    2005-11-01

    Permanent alcohol abuse may lead to chronic liver injury with deleterious sequelae such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mechanisms of fibrogenesis encompass recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of injury and cytokine mediated activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) with accumulation of interstitial collagens. HSC transdifferentiation and accompanying apoptosis result in destruction of liver architecture and are therefore key steps of disease progression. TGF-beta represents the main profibrogenic cytokine in liver fibrosis and other fibroproliferative disorders by inducing extracellular matrix deposition as part of the wound healing response. In parallel, TGF-beta triggers hepatocytes that are strongly responsive for this cytokine, to undergo apoptosis, thereby providing space for HSC proliferation and generation of a collagenous matrix. Anti TGF-beta approaches were established and successfully utilized for the treatment of experimental fibrogenesis. Dominant negative TGF-beta receptors (TbetaR), generated by fusing the Fc domain of human IgG and the N-terminal (extracellular) fragment of TbetaRII (Fc:TbetaRII) were applied to suppress fibrosis. Similarly TGF-beta binding proteins like decorin, antagonistic cytokines such as bone morphogenetic protein-7, hepatocyte growth factor, IL-10, or IFN-gamma were as efficient as camostat mesilate, a protease inhibitor that possibly abrogated proteolytic activation of TGF-beta. Further, our group recently overexpressed Smad7 in bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis and achieved efficient inhibition of intracellular TGF-beta signaling, thereby counteracting profibrogenic effects in cultured HSC and in vivo. A direct link between the effect of alcohol and TGF-beta exists through reactive oxygen species that are generated in liver cells by alcohol metabolism and represent activators of TGF-beta signaling. Thus, soluble TbetaRII expression reduced experimental fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo

  18. Genes and mechanisms involved in beta-amyloid generation and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Capell, A; Leimer, U; Haass, C

    1999-01-01

    article, we like to give an overview on mechanisms involved in the proteolytic generation of Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), the major pathological player of this devastating disease. In the second part of this article recent results will be described, which demonstrate an unexpected biological and pathological function of an AD associated gene.

  19. Smad4 and ERK2 stimulated by transforming growth factor beta1 in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua; ZHANG Hong-ying; WANG Shou-li; YE Lü; YANG Guang-hua; BU Hong

    2007-01-01

    . Moreover, there may be some other tanglesome relationships between the TGF-beta1/Smads pathway and the MAPK pathway which takes part in the development, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells.

  20. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald PJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI (adrenaline affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Preclinical studies have shown that manipulation of the levels or receptors of NE and EPI with drugs affects experimentally induced cancers. Psychological stress may play an etiological role in some cases of cancer (which has been shown epidemiologically, and this could be partly mediated by NE and EPI released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the body’s “fight or flight” response. A less well-appreciated phenomenon is that the genetic tone of NE/EPI may play a role in cancer. NE and EPI may affect cancer by interacting with molecular pathways already implicated in abnormal cellular replication, such as the P38/MAPK pathway, or via oxidative stress. NE/EPI-based drugs other than beta blockers also may prevent or treat various types of cancer, as may cholinesterase inhibitors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, which could be tested epidemiologically.Keywords: clonidine, guanfacine, aspirin, acetylcholine, epinephrine, adrenaline, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, inflammation

  1. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  2. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  3. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  4. beta(2)-Glycoprotein I : evolution, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. G.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    beta(2)-Glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) is a protein that circulates in blood at high concentrations. The function of beta(2)-GPI has long been an enigma. More than 20 years ago, it was discovered that beta(2)-GPI is the major antigen for the circulating antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome. How

  5. Xanthophylls are preferentially taken up compared with beta-carotene by retinal cells via a SRBI-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Alexandrine; Doraiswamy, Sundari; Harrison, Earl H

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. beta-carotene(beta-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7-9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken up by cells to an extent 2-fold higher than beta-C (P < 0.05). At 9 weeks, cellular uptakes were 1.6, 2.5, and 3.2%, respectively, for beta-C, LUT, and ZEA. Similar extents were observed when carotenoids were delivered in either Tween 40 or "chylomicrons" produced by Caco-2 cells. Differentiated ARPE-19 cells did not exhibit any detectable beta-C 15,15'-oxygenase activity or convert exogenous beta-C into vitamin A. When using specific antibodies against the lipid transporters cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), cellular uptake of beta-C and ZEA were significantly decreased (40-60%) with anti-SR-BI but not with anti-CD36. Small interfering RNA transfection for SR-BI led to marked knockdown of SR-BI protein expression (approximately 90%), which resulted in decreased beta-C and ZEA uptakes by 51% and 87%, respectively. Thus, the present data show that RPE cells preferentially take up xanthophylls versus the carotene by a process that appears to be entirely SR-BI-dependent for ZEA and partly so for beta-C. This mechanism may explain, in part, the preferential accumulation of xanthophylls in the macula of the retina.

  6. News on $\\beta$-delayed particle emission from $^{14}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Jeppesen, H; Borge, M J G; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Fedoseyev, V N; Hansper, V Y; Jonson, B; Markenroth, K; Mishin, V I; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K

    2002-01-01

    $\\beta$-delayed charged particles from $^{14}$Be have been measured and give an upper limit on $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$-particles of B($\\beta\\alpha$) < $\\,6.7\\times\\!10^{-5}$ and a tentative branching ratio on $\\beta$-delayed tritons of $7.5\\times\\!10^{-5}$ < B($\\beta$t) < $\\,3.9\\times\\!10^{-4}$. We combine the knowledge on $\\beta$-delayed particles from $^{14}$Be to deduce information on the $\\beta$-strength distribution.

  7. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  8. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...or S, Abram CL, Lowell CA, Mocsai A. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):493-501. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Immunore...ceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-

  9. Des-Lys58-beta 2m and native beta 2m in rheumatoid arthritis serum and synovial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Malone, C C; Nissen, Mogens Holst;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Levels of beta 2-microglobulin and modified beta 2-microglobulin (Des-Lys58-beta 2m) were measured in serum and synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders using rabbit antisera prepared against the beta 2m peptide VEHSDLSFS...

  10. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  11. Amyloid Beta as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Mordhwaj S.; Gregory J. Brewer

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with synapse loss, memory dysfunction and pathological accumulation of amyloid beta in plaques. However, an exclusively pathological role for amyloid beta is being challenged by new evidence for an essential function of amyloid beta at the synapse. Amyloid beta protein exists in different assembly states in the central nervous system and plays distinct roles ranging from synapse and memory formation to memory loss and neuronal cell death. Amyloid beta is pres...

  12. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  13. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention.

  14. Beta Gyres in Global Analysis Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Hee KIM; H.Joe KWON; R.L.ELSBERRY

    2009-01-01

    A three-component decomposition is applied to global analysis data to show the existence of a beta gyre,which causes Tropical Cyclone (TC) to drift from a large-scale environmental steering current.Analyses from the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA),the Global Forecast System (GFS) of NCEP,and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used in this study.The structure of the beta gyre obtained in our analyses is in good agreement with the theoretical structure,with a cyclonic circulation to the southwest of the TC center,an anticyclonic circulation to the northeast,and a ventilation flow directed northwestward near the center.The circulation of the beta gyre is strongest at the 850-hPa level where the cyclonically swirling primary circulation is strongest,and decreases with height,in a pyramid shape similar to the primary circulation.The individual structure of the beta gyre is case- and model-dependent.At a certain analysis time,one model may clearly reveal a well-defined beta gyre,but the other models may not.Within one model,the beta gyre may be well defined at some analysis times,but not at other times.The structure of the beta gyre in the analysis field is determined by the nature of the vortex initialization scheme and the model behavior during the 6-h forecast in the operational data assimilation cycle.

  15. [Transforming growth factor-beta controls pathogenesis of Crohn disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; di Mola, F F; Egger, B; Scheuren, A; Kleeff, J; Zimmermann, A; Büchler, M W

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms which contribute to the progression of Crohn's disease are still not known. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and its subtypes are multifunctional polypeptides which regulate immunological processes as well as the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and fibrogenesis. In the present study, Crohn's disease tissue samples of 18 patients undergoing intestinal resection were analyzed by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining for TGF-beta 1-3 and the TGF-beta receptors type I-III (T beta R-I, T beta R-II, T beta R-III). There was a marked overexpression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 3 and T beta R-II in 94% of the Crohn's disease tissue samples. TGF-beta 2 and T beta R-I ALK5 and T beta R-III were enhanced in 72%, 72% and 82% of the Crohn tissue samples, respectively. In situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed that there was frequent coexpression of TGF-beta with its signaling receptors. Our data indicate that TGF-beta and their receptors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Their enhanced expression might contribute to the increase in extracellular matrix resulting in fibrosis and subsequently in intestinal obstruction.

  16. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD - A concern for nonselective beta-blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, HJ; Zaagsma, J; Postma, DS; Winter, TH; van Hulst, M; Aalbers, R

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: beta-Blockers are known to worsen FEV1 and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma. Both characteristics determine the outcome of COPD, a disease with frequent cardiac comorbidity requiring beta-blocker treatment. Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized,

  17. Ion beta dependence on the development of Alfvénic fluctuations in reconnection jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The generation of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) to ion-scale fluctuations in collisionless magnetic reconnection is discussed using a two-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. It is shown that reconnection jets become turbulent specifically in low beta conditions, βi0dynamics in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and a current sheet. We suggest that PSBL ion dynamics play an important part in excitation and suppression of waves. PSBL beam ions drive Alfvén waves in MHD to ion scale, kλicorrelated with that of inflowing ions, the waves decay by cyclotron damping as the value of the inflow ion beta increases. Local linear analysis suggests that this damping signature changes in βi0˜0.1-0.2 and suppresses the wave activity of Alfvén modes in high beta reconnection jets.

  18. Subtleties in the beta-function calculation of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L. [ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Sampaio, Marcos [ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [CFisUC, Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Coimbra (Portugal); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate some peculiarities in the calculation of the two-loop beta function of N = 1 supersymmetric models which are intimately related to the so-called ''anomaly puzzle''. There is an apparent paradox when the computation is performed in the framework of the covariant derivative background field method. In this formalism, there is obtained a finite two-loop effective action, although a non-null coefficient for the beta function is achieved by means of the renormalized two-point function in the background field. We show that if the standard background field method is used, this two-point function has a divergent part which allows for the calculation of the beta function via the renormalization constants, as usual. Therefore, we conjecture that this paradox has its origin in the covariant supergraph formalism itself, possibly being an artifact of the rescaling anomaly. (orig.)

  19. Rigidity and pH dependent Morphology of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayetsky, Lisa; Armstead, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Beta-Lactoglobulin is a milk protein that will denature in acidic solution (less than 2.0 pH) and if heated for extended periods (greater than 18 hours) it will form radial structures called Spherulites. Spherulites, along with the amyloid fibrils that compose them, are of practical importance because they form in the human body and cause the amyloidosis diseases. Different amyloidosis are caused by different types of denatured proteins occurring in different parts of the body. Since it is believed that Spherulite formation is a generic protein characteristic, Beta-Lactoglobulin is a legitimate and easy to use protein to study these structures. In this study we are quantifying the shape of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites to determine if the pH of the protein solution has an impact on the morphology due to side chain interactions or other causes. We are also testing the rigidity of these structures to determine the relevance of small shape changes.

  20. Regulation of neural progenitor proliferation and survival by beta1 integrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Dino P; Relvas, João B; Campos, Lia S;

    2005-01-01

    Neural stem cells give rise to undifferentiated nestin-positive progenitors that undergo extensive cell division before differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. The precise control of this process is likely to be, at least in part, controlled by instructive cues originating from...... the extracellular environment. Some of these cues are interpreted by the integrin family of extracellular matrix receptors. Using neurosphere cell cultures as a model system, we show that beta1-integrin signalling plays a crucial role in the regulation of progenitor cell proliferation, survival and migration....... Following conditional genetic ablation of the beta1-integrin allele, and consequent loss of beta1-integrin cell surface protein, mutant nestin-positive progenitor cells proliferate less and die in higher numbers than their wild-type counterparts. Mutant progenitor cell migration on different ECM substrates...

  1. Ligand-dependent inhibition of beta-catenin/TCF signaling by androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, Dennis R; Isaacs, William B

    2002-12-01

    Beta-catenin signaling may contribute to prostate cancer (CaP) progression. Although beta-catenin is known to upregulate T cell factor (TCF) target gene expression in CaP cells, recent evidence demonstrates its capacity to enhance ligand-dependent androgen receptor (AR) function. Thus, we wished to further understand the interaction between these two pathways. We find in both CaP cells (CWR22-Rv1, LAPC-4, DU145) and non-CaP cells (HEK-293, TSU, SW480, HCT-116) that beta-catenin/TCF-related transcription (CRT), as measured by activation of a synthetic promoter and that of cyclin D1, is inhibited by androgen treatment. This inhibition is AR-dependent, as it only occurs in cells expressing AR endogenously or transiently, and is abrogated by AR antagonists. Additional analyses convey that the ligand-dependent nature of CRT suppression depends on transactivation-competent AR in the nucleus, but not on indirect effects stemming from AR target gene expression. Given the recent work identifying an AR/beta-catenin interaction, and from our finding that liganded AR does not prompt gross changes in the constitutive nuclear localization of TCF4 or mutant beta-catenin, we hypothesized that transcription factor (i.e. AR and TCF) competition for beta-catenin recruitment may explain, in part, androgen-induced suppression of CRT. To address this idea, we expressed an AR mutant lacking its DNA-binding domain (DBD). This receptor could not orchestrate ligand-dependent CRT repression, thereby providing support for those recent data implicating the AR DBD/LBD as necessary for beta-catenin interaction. Further supporting this hypothesis, TCF/LEF over-expression counteracts androgen-induced suppression of CRT, and requires beta-catenin binding activity to do so. Interestingly, TCF4 over-expression potently antagonizes AR function; however, this inhibition may occur independently of beta-catenin/TCF4 interaction. These results from TCF4 over-expression analyses, taken together, provide

  2. Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Viswaprakash; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sista, Srinivas; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2007-04-25

    Development of real-time sensor based on the target-specific probe that make possible sensitive, rapid and selective detection and monitoring of the particular antigen molecules could be of substantial importance to the many applications. Because of its high specificity to the target molecules, excellent temperature stability, and easy production, bacterial phage might serve as a powerful biorecognition probe in biosensor applications. Here, we report extremely sensitive and specific label-free direct detection of model antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The beta-gal specific landscape phage 1G40 has been immobilized on the gold surface of SPR SPREETA sensor chip through physical adsorption [V. Nanduri, A.M. Samoylova, V.Petrenko, V. Vodyanoy and A.L.Simonian, Comparison of optical and acoustic wave phage biosensors, 206th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 3-8, (2004)]. Another non-specific to the beta-gal phage, a wild-type phage F8-5, was used in the reference channel. The concentration-dependent binding of beta-gal in both channels were assessed by monitoring the sensor optical response as a function of time under different experimental conditions, and the concentration of beta-gal was computed in differential mode. Concentrations of beta-gal between 10(-12) M and 10(-7) M could be readily detected, with linear part of calibration curve between 10(-9) M and 10(-6) M. When beta-gal was pre-incubated with different concentrations of free 1G40 phage prior to exposure to the biosensor, concentration-dependent inhibition was observed, indicating on biosensor high specificity toward beta-gal. Apart from a flow through mode used to deliver the samples to the surface for the SPR sensor, batch mode sensing was also employed to study the binding of beta-gal to immobilized phage on the SPR sensor surface. Experiments using a flow through mode provided more consistent results in the

  3. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  4. Longitudinal beta regression models for analyzing health-related quality of life scores over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunger Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL has become an increasingly important outcome parameter in clinical trials and epidemiological research. HRQL scores are typically bounded at both ends of the scale and often highly skewed. Several regression techniques have been proposed to model such data in cross-sectional studies, however, methods applicable in longitudinal research are less well researched. This study examined the use of beta regression models for analyzing longitudinal HRQL data using two empirical examples with distributional features typically encountered in practice. Methods We used SF-6D utility data from a German older age cohort study and stroke-specific HRQL data from a randomized controlled trial. We described the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models and compared both models to the commonly used linear mixed model in terms of overall fit and predictive accuracy. Results At any measurement time, the beta distribution fitted the SF-6D utility data and stroke-specific HRQL data better than the normal distribution. The mixed beta model showed better likelihood-based fit statistics than the linear mixed model and respected the boundedness of the outcome variable. However, it tended to underestimate the true mean at the upper part of the distribution. Adjusted group means from marginal beta model and linear mixed model were nearly identical but differences could be observed with respect to standard errors. Conclusions Understanding the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models is important for their proper use in the analysis of longitudinal HRQL data. Beta regression fits the typical distribution of HRQL data better than linear mixed models, however, if focus is on estimating group mean scores rather than making individual predictions, the two methods might not differ substantially.

  5. IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and outcomes of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hany; Khashaba, Mohamed T; El-Ayouty, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Osman; Hasanein, Bothina M

    2006-04-01

    The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of brain injury and their relation to neurological outcomes of asphyxiated neonates is not fully defined. We hypothesize that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlate with the severity of brain injury and can predict neurological deficits in infants who suffered from hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A prospective study was conducted on 24 term infants diagnosed with HIE and 13 controls. HIE was clinically classified into mild, moderate and severe according to Sarnat and Sarnat grading. Blood and CSF samples were obtained from all infants in the first 24h of life as part of routine investigations for suspected meningitis and/or sepsis. Neurological examination and Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II) were performed at 6 and 12 months of life. IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were all significantly increased in HIE infants when compared to control. IL-1beta in the CSF correlated with the severity of HIE (r=0.61, P=0.001) more than IL-6 (r=0.45, P=0.004) or TNF-alpha (r=0.47, P=0.003). IL-1beta exhibited the highest CSF/serum ratio among the three studied cytokines suggesting its local release in the brain after the initial hypoxic injury. Abnormal neurological findings and/or abnormal DDST II at 6 and 12 months were best predicted by IL-1beta in the CSF (sensitivity=88% and specificity=80%). This study confirms the role of IL-1beta in the ongoing neuronal injury that occurs in the latent phase following the original HIE insult.

  6. Fibrinogen variant B[beta]D432A has normal polymerization but does not bind knob 'B'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowley, Sheryl R.; Lord, Susan T.; (UNC)

    2009-10-23

    Fibrinogen residue B{beta}432Asp is part of hole 'b' that interacts with knob 'B,' whose sequence starts with Gly-His-Arg-Pro-amide (GHRP). Because previous studies showed B{beta}D432A has normal polymerization, we hypothesized that B{beta}432Asp is not critical for knob 'B' binding and that new knob-hole interactions would compensate for the loss of this Asp residue. To test this hypothesis, we solved the crystal structure of fragment D from B{beta}D432A. Surprisingly, the structure (rfD-B{beta}D432A+GH) showed the peptide GHRP was not bound to hole 'b.' We then re-evaluated the polymerization of this variant by examining clot turbidity, clot structure, and the rate of FXIIIa cross-linking. The turbidity and the rate of - dimer formation for B{beta}D432A were indistinguishable compared with normal fibrinogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed no significant differences between the clots of B{beta}D432A and normal, but the thrombin-derived clots had thicker fibers than clots obtained from batroxobin, suggesting that cleavage of FpB is more important than 'B:b' interactions. We conclude that hole 'b' and 'B:b' knob-hole binding per se have no influence on fibrin polymerization.

  7. Beta decay of {sup 103}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Kavatsyuk, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); National Taras Shevcjenko Univ. of Kyiv (Australia); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); Univ. di Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kirchner, R.; Mandal, S.; Mazzocchi, C.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Blazhev, A. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Sofia (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw (Poland); Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica (Spain); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mukha, I. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Inst. Moscow (Russian Federation); Muralithar, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The {beta} decay of {sup 103}Sn, a three-neutron-particle nucleus with respect to the {sup 100}Sn core, was investigated at the GSI on-line mass separator using an array of 17 germanium crystals and a total absorption spectrometer. A total of 31 {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays (29 new) of the {sup 103}Sn{yields}{sup 103}In decay were observed and, on the basis of {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences, the {sup 103}Sn decay scheme was established for the first time. By means of total absorption spectroscopy, {beta} intensities, the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the summed Gamow-Teller strength value of 3.5{+-}0.5 were determined for this decay. Its half-life and Q{sub EC} value were found to be 7.0{+-}0.2 s and 7.64{+-}0.7 MeV, respectively. The {beta}-delayed proton branching ratio was measured to be 1.2{+-}0.1%. The results are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions based on realistic and empirical interactions. (orig.)

  8. Beta-thalassemia and beta[A] globin gene haplotypes in Mexican mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Bustos, R; Casas-Castañeda, M; Gutiérrez, E; Perea, F J; Thein, S L; Ibarra, B

    1997-04-01

    B-globin haplotypes of 20 beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and 87 beta(A) Mexican mestizo chromosomes were analyzed to ascertain the origin of the beta-thal alleles and the frequencies and distribution of the beta(A) haplotypes among northwestern Mexican mestizos. Sixteen beta-thal chromosomes carried six Mediterranean alleles [five codon 39 C-->T; two IVS1:1 G-->A; two IVS1:5 G-->A; three IVS1:110 G(A; one codon 11 (-T) and three (deltabeta)zero-thal]; the remaining four were linked to three rare alleles (two -28 A-->C and one each: -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG). Among the 87 beta(A) chromosomes, 17 different 5' haplotypes with frequencies for 1, 3, 2 and 5 of 39.0%, 17. 2%, 9.2% and 6.9%, respectively, were observed. The beta-haplotype analysis showed that 13 out of 16 Mediterranean chromosomes could easily be explained by gene migration; however, one codon 39 associated with haplotype 4 (----+ +-), one IVS1:1 with haplotype 1(+----++) and one IVS1:5 G-->A, may represent separate mutational events. Analysis of the rare alleles showed that the -28 A-->C mutation was associated with the commonest beta(A) haplotype in Mexican mestizos, Mediterraneans and the total world population; therefore an independent origin cannot be ruled out. The -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG were found with beta-haplotypes different from the reported ones, suggesting an indigenous origin.

  9. State of the Art in Beta Titanium Alloys for Airframe Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James D.; Briggs, Robert D.; Boyer, Rodney R.; Tamirisakandala, Sesh; Russo, Patrick; Shchetnikov, Nikolay; Fanning, John C.

    2015-06-01

    Beta titanium alloys were recognized as a distinct materials class in the 1950s, and following the introduction of Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al in the early 1960s, intensive research occurred for decades thereafter. By the 1980s, dozens of compositions had been explored and sufficient work had been accomplished to warrant the first major conference in 1983. Metallurgists of the time recognized beta alloys as highly versatile and capable of remarkable property development at much lower component weights than steels, coupled with excellent corrosion resistance. Although alloys such as Ti-15V-3Al-3Sn-3Cr, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and Ti-3AI-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr (Beta C) were commercialized into well-known airframe systems by the 1980s, Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al was largely discarded following extensive employment on the SR-71 Blackbird. The 1990s saw the implementation of specialty beta alloys such as Beta 21S and Alloy C, in large part for their chemical and oxidation resistance. It was also predicted that by the 1990s, cost would be the major limitation on expansion into new applications. This turned out to be true and is part of the reason for some stagnation in commercialization of new such compositions over the past two decades, despite a good understanding of the relationships among chemistry, processing, and performance and some very attractive offerings. Since then, only a single additional metastable beta alloy, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-0.5Fe, has been commercialized in aerospace, although low volumes of other chemistries have found a place in the biomedical implant market. This article examines the evolution of this important class of materials and the current status in airframe applications. It speculates on challenges for expanding their use.

  10. Effects of modified {beta}-cyclodextrin on thermal stability and conformation of lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Tadashi, E-mail: kamiyama@chem.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Satoh, Megumi; Tateishi, Takahiro; Nojiri, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Kimura, Takayoshi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of cyclodextrin on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD influences the hydrophobic interaction of lysozyme by the inclusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD relatively destabilized the folded state by stabilizing the unfolded state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The destabilization depends on the concentration and the substituent of CD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conformation of lysozyme was more spread at unfolded state by inclusion of CD. - Abstract: Effects of cyclic oligosaccharide cyclodextrin (CD) on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified thermodynamically and rheologically by DSC, viscosity, and circular dichroism measurements. The modified {beta}-CD relatively destabilized the folded state of lysozyme by stabilizing the unfolded state due to inclusion of hydrophobic part into the hydrophobic interior of CD. The order of higher destabilization effect was acetyl-{beta}-CD > methyl-{beta}-CD > hydroxypropyl-{beta}-CD. Apparent number of bound CD to unfolded state for methyl-, hydroxypropyl-, and acetyl-{beta}-CD is 6.7 {+-} 0.7, 4.2 {+-} 1.1, and 18.6 {+-} 4.3 and the binding constant is 5.5 {+-} 0.8, 6.7 {+-} 2.4, and 4.4 {+-} 1.2 L mol{sup -1}, respectively. The viscosity for unfolded state was increased with an increase in the each modified {beta}-CD concentration, suggesting that the inclusion of CD on a part of hydrophobic core at unfolded state leads to break the hydrophobic core, then lysozyme would be more spread structure. The substituent of CD can accelerate instability by directly breaking hydrogen bond and/or can restrain instability by increase in hydrophobic interaction. The fact that the each modified CDs has different destabilization effect shows a possibility to control the stability of protein by the substitution of CD.

  11. Language-motor interference reflected in MEG beta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Anne; Niccolai, Valentina; Buccino, Giovanni; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The involvement of the brain's motor system in action-related language processing can lead to overt interference with simultaneous action execution. The aim of the current study was to find evidence for this behavioural interference effect and to investigate its neurophysiological correlates using oscillatory MEG analysis. Subjects performed a semantic decision task on single action verbs, describing actions executed with the hands or the feet, and abstract verbs. Right hand button press responses were given for concrete verbs only. Therefore, longer response latencies for hand compared to foot verbs should reflect interference. We found interference effects to depend on verb imageability: overall response latencies for hand verbs did not differ significantly from foot verbs. However, imageability interacted with effector: while response latencies to hand and foot verbs with low imageability were equally fast, those for highly imageable hand verbs were longer than for highly imageable foot verbs. The difference is reflected in motor-related MEG beta band power suppression, which was weaker for highly imageable hand verbs compared with highly imageable foot verbs. This provides a putative neuronal mechanism for language-motor interference where the involvement of cortical hand motor areas in hand verb processing interacts with the typical beta suppression seen before movements. We found that the facilitatory effect of higher imageability on action verb processing time is perturbed when verb and motor response relate to the same body part. Importantly, this effect is accompanied by neurophysiological effects in beta band oscillations. The attenuated power suppression around the time of movement, reflecting decreased cortical excitability, seems to result from motor simulation during action-related language processing. This is in line with embodied cognition theories.

  12. E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in breast medullary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, C; Bonnier, P; Garcia, S; Andrac, L; Crebassa, B; Dorel, M; Lavaut, M N; Allasia, C

    1999-08-01

    The initial step of cancer invasion and metastasis is the escape of tumour cells from the primary site, involving disruption of normal cell-cell adhesion and E-cadherin (E-cad) and beta-catenin (beta-cat) down-regulation, as shown in various types of human malignancies including breast carcinomas. Medullary carcinomas are high grade and poorly differentiated tumours with syncytial typical pattern, and prognosis unexpectedly better than that in high grade breast carcinomas. In a series of 55 breast typical medullary carcinomas diagnosed according to the strict use of Ridolfi et al (Cancer 40: 1365-1385, 1977) criteria, E-cad and beta-cat were investigated using quantitative (SAMBA 2005 system) immunocytochemical assays on frozen sections. Results were compared to that obtained on paraffin sections and in a series (n=55) of grade 3 ductal carcinomas. It was shown that medullary carcinomas significantly (p<0.001) expressed more E-cad and beta-cat than grade 3 ductal carcinomas. E-cad and beta-cat correlated with high expression of P53, of c-erbB, and of Ki-67 antigens, and with lack of hormone receptors antigenic sites (p<0.001). It was concluded that favourable prognosis and syncytial pattern of typical breast medullary carcinomas likely results, at least partly, from a particular expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules, significantly limiting tumour growth and efficiently mastering the tumour cell dissemination, opposing to high proliferative activity (grade 3).

  13. The mechanism of beta-glycerophosphate action in mineralizing chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A L; Guidon, P; Doty, S B; Stiner, D; Leboy, P; Binderman, I

    1996-11-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells plated in micromass culture form a cartilage matrix that can be mineralized in the presence of 4 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi), and 1 mM calcium. Previous studies showed that when beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP) is used in place of Pi, the mineral crystals formed are larger and differ in distribution. The present study shows that the difference in distribution is not associated with alterations in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, or with collagen, proteoglycan core protein, or alkaline phosphatase gene expression. Cultures with 2.5, 5, and 10 mM beta GP did show different levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and in the presence of low (0.3 mM) Ca had different Pi contents (4, 6 and 9 mM, respectively), indicating that the increase in CaxP product may in part be responsible for the altered pattern of mineralization. However, cultures with beta GP in which alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited with levamisole still had an altered mineral distribution as revealed by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The presence of a casein kinase II-like activity in the mineralizing cultures, the ability of specific inhibitors of this enzyme to block mineralization, and the known ability of beta GP to block phosphoprotein phosphatase activity suggests that altered patterns of matrix protein phosphorylation may influence mineral deposition in these cultures.

  14. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  15. Pre-stimulus beta and gamma oscillatory power predicts perceived audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Li, Haijiang; Liu, Peiduo; Yuan, Hong; Huang, Xiting

    2016-09-01

    Pre-stimulus oscillation activity in the brain continuously fluctuates, but it is correlated with subsequent behavioral and perceptual performance. Here, using fast Fourier transformation of pre-stimulus electroencephalograms, we explored how oscillatory power modulates the subsequent discrimination of perceived simultaneity from non-simultaneity in the audiovisual domain. We found that the over-scalp high beta (20-28Hz), parieto-occipital low beta (14-20Hz), and high gamma oscillations (55-80Hz) were significantly stronger before audition-then-vision sequence when they were judged as simultaneous rather than non-simultaneous. In contrast, a broad range of oscillations, mainly the beta and gamma bands over a great part of the scalp were significantly weaker before vision-then-audition sequences when they were judged as simultaneous versus non-simultaneous. Moreover, for auditory-leading sequence, pre-stimulus beta and gamma oscillatory power successfully predicted subjects' reports of simultaneity on a trial-by-trial basis, with stronger activity resulting in more simultaneous judgments. These results indicate that ongoing fluctuations of beta and gamma oscillations can modulate subsequent perceived audiovisual simultaneity, but with an opposing pattern for auditory- and visual-leading sequences.

  16. The Beta Pictoris Phenomenon in A-Shell Stars: Detection of Accreting Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, Mario R.; Talavera, A.; McCollum, B.; Rawley, L. A.; England, M. N.; Schlegel, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of an expanded survey of A-shell stars using IUE high-dispersion spectra and find accreting, circumstellar gas in the line of sight to nine stars, in addition to the previously identified beta Pic, HR 10, and 131 Tau, which can be followed to between +70 and 100 km/s relative to the star. Two of the program stars, HD 88195 and HD 148283, show variable high-velocity gas. Given the small number of IUE spectra for our program stars, detection of high-velocity, accreting gas in 2/3 of the A-shell stars sampled indicates that accretion is an intrinsic part of the A-shell phenomenon and that beta Pic is not unique among main-sequence A stars in exhibiting such activity. Our program stars, as a group, have smaller column densities of high-velocity gas and smaller near-IR excesses compared with beta Pic. These features are consistent with greater central clearing of a remnant debris disk, compared with beta Pic, and suggest that the majority of field A-shell stars are older than beta Pic.

  17. Interactions between PPAR Gamma and the Canonical Wnt/Beta-Catenin Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes and Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Victor

    2017-01-01

    In both colon cancer and type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes induced by upregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) may help account for the frequent association of these two diseases. In both diseases, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. In colon cancer, upregulation of the canonical Wnt system induces activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and deactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. As a result, a large part of cytosolic pyruvate is converted into lactate through activation of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate is extruded out of the cell by means of activation of monocarboxylate lactate transporter-1. This phenomenon is called Warburg effect. PPAR gamma agonists induce beta-catenin inhibition, while inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activates PPAR gamma.

  18. Infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing in many parts of the world. An epidemiologic survey of infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from February 1977 to December 1985 (106 months) showed that the incidence rose from 4.8% (two cases) in 1977 to 49.4% (39 cases) by the end of 1985. The highest incidence of gonococcal infections was found to be in the group aged 20-39 years; the male-to-female ratio was 1.55:1. The mean inhibitory concentrations of benzylpenicillin were 0.12 microgram/ml for non-beta-lactamase-producing strains and 16 micrograms/ml for isolates of N. gonorrhoeae that produce beta-lactamase.

  19. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients via histograms

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series often assumes asymptotic independence or "mixing" of data sources. Beta-mixing has long been important in establishing the central limit theorem and invariance principle for stochastic processes; recent work has identified it as crucial to extending results from empirical processes and statistical learning theory to dependent data, with quantitative risk bounds involving the actual beta coefficients. There is, however, presently no way to actually estimate those coefficients from data; while general functional forms are known for some common classes of processes (Markov processes, ARMA models, etc.), specific coefficients are generally beyond calculation. We present an l1-risk consistent estimator for the beta-mixing coefficients, based on a single stationary sample path. Since mixing coefficients involve infinite-order dependence, we use an order-d Markov approximation. We prove high-probability concentration results for the Markov approximation and show...

  20. Beta decay of {sup 61}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Walter, G. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Liu, W.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Postfach 110552, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-06-01

    The {beta} decay of {sup 61}Ga to its mirror nucleus {sup 61}Zn has been measured for the first time by using on-line mass separation and {beta}-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy. The observed decay strength to the ground state implies superallowed character in accordance with the systematics of the mirror decays in the sd and fp shell. The {beta} feedings observed to four excited states in {sup 61}Zn are consistent with earlier spin-parity assignments based on in-beam experiments. The ground-state spin and parity for {sup 61}Ga were determined to be 3/2{sup -}. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  1. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-01-01

    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  2. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  3. Steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Dracaena draco and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Ide, A; Kameyama, A; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    1999-03-01

    Chemical examination of the aerial parts of Dracaena draco has led to the isolation of a total of nine steroidal saponins, including five new ones. The structures of the new saponins were determined by spectral data and a few chemical transformations to be (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranosyl} 24-O-beta-D-fucopyranoside, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta, 23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranoside}, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(4-O- acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyransoide} , (23S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside} and (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L- arabinopyranoside}. The isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytostatic activity on leukemia HL-60 cells.

  4. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  5. The background in the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment GERDA

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Heider, M Barnabe; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjas, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gotti, C; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Csathy, J Janicsko; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knoepfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Palioselitis, D; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pessina, G; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schoenert, S; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2014-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the Q-value of the decay, Q_bb. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around Q_bb. The main parameters needed for the neutrinoless double beta decay analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around Q_bb with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8*10^{-3} counts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model...

  6. Synthesis of {beta}-haloacids by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia

    1995-10-01

    Hydrogen halides add to alkenes yielding the corresponding haloalkane. The addition of HX ordinally follows the course of Markownikoff`s rule. In this paper we analyze the HBr addition reaction to unsaturated carboxylic acids. The course of the addition is anti-Markownikoff. This implies that the reaction goes through free radical mechanism and the haloacid formed is in the {beta}-position. The acids under study are fumaric, itaconic, citraconic acids and the methyl ester of fumaric acid. The {beta}-haloacids formed are easily purified from the bulk solutions. (author).

  7. Volume Effects in Discrete beta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

  8. Population screening for beta-thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, S D; Flatz, G

    1980-09-01

    The graphic recording of time to 50% haemolysis in a glycerine-saline solution is a simple, reproducible method of determining erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Studies on a normal population yielded an upper limit of normal of 90 s. In 250 healthy males from Northern Thailand all 19 with beta-thalassaemia minor had abnormal osmotic indices, and the value of the test was confirmed in beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes in Europe. Of 23 patients with iron deficiency 18 had abnormal osmotic indices. However, this is not thought likely to be a significant source of false positives in the screening of populations at risk of haemoglobinopathies but in whom iron deficiency is rare.

  9. Detecting Double Beta Decays Using Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Dracos, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Neutrino nature and absolute mass scale are major questions in particle physics which cannot be addressed by the present neutrino oscillation program. To answer these two questions, several neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are underway or planed for the near future. These experiments, mainly use bolometric techniques or gaseous counters coupled with scintillator detectors. The energy resolution is better in bolometric experiments but experiments coupling tracking with calorimetry have the advantage of observing the two electron tracks and remove many background sources. Here, we present a proposal of using nuclear emulsions to observe double beta decays. This technique has the advantage of precise tracking and vertexing even for low energy electrons.

  10. American ginseng modulates pancreatic beta cell activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Luguang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanism of the beneficial effects of Panax quinquefolius (Xiyangshen, American ginseng on diabetes is yet to be elucidated. Recent studies show that Panax quinquefolius increases insulin production and reduces the death of pancreatic beta cells. Mechanism studies indicate that Panax quinquefolius improves cell's immuno-reactivity and mitochondrial function through various factors. Clinical studies show that Panax quinquefolius improves postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Further studies to identify the component(s of Panax quinquefolius linked with pancreatic islets/beta cells in vitro and in vivo are warranted for better understanding of the full effects of Panax quinquefolius.

  11. The NEXT double beta decay experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  12. Helicity and nuclear $\\beta$ decay correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ran; García, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We present simple derivations of nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics through exercises using simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear $\\beta$-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental vantage. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  13. Beta-decay of {sup 56}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhane, M.; Baumann, P.; Knipper, A.; Walter, G. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Janas, Z.; Plochocki, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Pentilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Liu, W.; Grawe, H.; Hu, Z.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Brown, B.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-02-01

    By measuring positrons and {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of {sup 56}Cu(4{sup +},T{sub z}=-1,T=1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 56}Ni was studied for the first time. The half-life of {sup 56}Cu was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays were assigned to its decay. The resulting experimental data on Fermi and Gamow-Teller strength are compared with shell-model predictions. (orig.)

  14. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, H.S. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Arthur, R.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Avignone, F.T. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Barabash, A.S. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Brodzinski, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Collar, J.I. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Courant, H. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)); Garcia, E. (University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Guerard, C.K. (University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)); Kirpichnikov, I.V. (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kl

    1994-05-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete [sup 100]Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9[mu]Bq/g of [sup 210]Pb in lead shielding were obtained. ((orig.))

  15. Simulated progress in double-beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, H. S.; Arthur, R. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. J.; Courant, H.; Garcia, E.; Guerard, C. K.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Ruddick, K.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    1994-05-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to accurately simulate double-beta decay measurements. Coincident gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete 100Mo nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra obtained in the Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, for the purpose of extremely sensitive materials assay for the construction of new, large, enriched germanium detectors. Assays as low as 9 μBq/g of 210Pb in lead shielding were obtained.

  16. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2000-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  17. Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in beta-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human beta-globin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C; Rivella, S; Callegari, J; Heller, G; Gaensler, K M; Luzzatto, L; Sadelain, M

    2000-07-06

    The stable introduction of a functional beta-globin gene in haematopoietic stem cells could be a powerful approach to treat beta-thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease. Genetic approaches aiming to increase normal beta-globin expression in the progeny of autologous haematopoietic stem cells might circumvent the limitations and risks of allogeneic cell transplants. However, low-level expression, position effects and transcriptional silencing hampered the effectiveness of viral transduction of the human beta-globin gene when it was linked to minimal regulatory sequences. Here we show that the use of recombinant lentiviruses enables efficient transfer and faithful integration of the human beta-globin gene together with large segments of its locus control region. In long-term recipients of unselected transduced bone marrow cells, tetramers of two murine alpha-globin and two human betaA-globin molecules account for up to 13% of total haemoglobin in mature red cells of normal mice. In beta-thalassaemic heterozygous mice higher percentages are obtained (17% to 24%), which are sufficient to ameliorate anaemia and red cell morphology. Such levels should be of therapeutic benefit in patients with severe defects in haemoglobin production.

  18. Nuclear Matrix Elements for the $\\beta\\beta$ Decay of the $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Horoi, M

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for two-neutrino double-beta (2 n$\\beta\\beta$ ) and zero-neutrino double-beta (0 n$\\beta\\beta$) decay of 76 Ge are evaluated in terms of the configuration interaction (CI), quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and interacting boson model (IBM) methods. We show that the decomposition of the matrix elements in terms of interemediate states in 74 Ge is dominated by ground state of this nucleus. We consider corrections to the CI results that arise from configurations admixtures involving orbitals out-side of the CI configuration space by using results from QRPA, many-body-perturbation theory, and the connections to related observables. The CI two-neutrino matrix element is reduced due to the inclusion of spin-orbit partners, and to many-body correlations connected with Gamow-Teller beta decay. The CI zero-neutrino matrix element for the heavy neutrino is enhanced due to particle-particle correlations that are connected with the odd-even oscillations in the nuclear masse...

  19. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Dale M. (Richland, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Froelich, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Carter, Gregory L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws.

  20. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  1. Double-loaded liposomes encapsulating Quercetin and Quercetin beta-cyclodextrin complexes: Preparation, characterization and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Shaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-cyclodextrin (CD inclusion complexes of Quercetin were formed and characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy. Plain Quercetin liposomes using phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were prepared and optimized. Factors such as ratio of lipids employed, drug:lipid ratio, etc. were fine tuned and optimized to achieve maximum entrapment of the Quercetin into the bilayer. Entrapment was further enhanced by double loading the liposomes. These were prepared by incorporating Quercetin as a plain drug as well as the inclusion complexes within the lipid bilayer and the aqueous compartment, respectively, of the liposomes using the thin film hydration technique. The highest entrapment was achieved with a lipid ratio of 9:1, and the amount of plain drug entering the bilayer was 1/10 th the amount of lipid employed. Double loading increased this value to one part of drug per five parts of lipid when Quercetin-beta-CD (1:1 mol/mol was entrapped. The release of Quercetin from liposomes was highest when the drug was entrapped in the form of a complex with beta cylodextrin. The high entrapment ability of Quercetin in the form of plain drug as well as beta cylodextrin-Quercetin complexes in comparison with plain drug is an indubitable advantage of this approach.

  2. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S

    2007-05-02

    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of human recombinant thyrotropin (rec-hTSH) with a chimeric {beta}-subunit (rec-hTSH{beta}-CTPE hCG{beta}); Sintese e caracterizacao do hormonio tireotrofico humano recombinante (rec-hTSH) contendo uma subunidade {beta} quimerica (rec-hTSH{beta}-CTPE hCG{beta})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Yoko

    1995-12-31

    Recombinant hTSH is now successfully being used in clinical studies of thyroid cancer. Because of its therapeutic potential, we have constructed a longer acting analog of hTSH by fusing the carboxy terminal extension peptide (CTEP) of hCG{beta} onto hTSH{beta}. When coexpressed either with {alpha}-subunit complementary DNA or {alpha}-minigene in African green monkey (Cos-7) and human embryonic kidney (293) cells, the chimera was fully bioactive in vitro and exhibited enhanced in vivo potency associated with a prolonged plasma half-life. The addition of 29 amino acids with 4 O-linked oligosaccharide chains did not affect the assembly and secretion of chimeric TSH. Wild type (WT) and chimeric hTSH secreted by Cos-7 and 293 cells displayed wide differences in their plasma half-lives, presumably due to the difference in the terminal sialic acid and sulfate of their oligosaccharide chains. Chimeric and WT hTSH secreted by both cell lines demonstrated similar bioactivity in cAMP production, with some differences in [{sup 3} H]-thymidine incorporation. Chimeric hTSH secreted by Cos-7 appears to be more active than that secreted by 293 cells, as judged by growth assay. Cos-7 produced chimeric hTSH showed the maximum increase in half-life, indicating the importance of sialic acid in prolonging half-life and in vivo potency. Sulfation of both subunits, predominantly {beta} and to a lesser extent {alpha}, appears to be responsible, at least in part, for the increased metabolic clearance of WT and chimeric TSH secreted by 293 cells. Apart from its therapeutic potential, chimeric TSH produced in various cell lines can be used as a tool to delineate the roles of sulfate and sialic acid in the in vivo clearance and, thereby in the in vivo bioactivity. (author). 104 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J

    2000-01-01

    of new reactive groups, including hydroperoxides. These processes can result in the loss of structural or enzymatic activity. Backbone fragmentation is known to occur via a number of mechanisms, most of which involve hydrogen abstraction from the alpha-carbon site on the backbone. In this study, we...... demonstrate that initial attack at a side chain site, the beta-position (C-3), can give rise to formation of alpha-carbon radicals, and hence backbone cleavage, via the formation and subsequent beta-scission of C-3 alkoxyl radicals. This beta-scission reaction is rapid (k estimated to be >10(7) s(-)(1)) even...

  5. Spectroscopy with {beta}2p and {beta}-{nu} recoil shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U. E-mail: hans.fynbo@cern.ch; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Borge, M.J.G.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Thaysen, J.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F

    2002-04-22

    The beta-delayed proton emission from the lightest Ar-isotopes has been measured with a high-granularity, large solid-angle Si-detector setup. Although designed for the detection of beta-delayed two-proton and three-proton events, the setup also permitted measurement of proton energy shifts due to the beta-neutrino recoil. We discuss how spectroscopic information can be extracted from such measurements, even at the drip line. For the case of {sup 31}Ar, the ground-state spin could be determined as 5/2.

  6. Strain-dependent differences in sensitivity of rat beta-cells to interleukin 1 beta in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether strain-dependent differences in beta-cell sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 1 beta exist in vitro and in vivo and if so, whether these differences correlate to variations in IL-1 beta-induced islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression....../kg) or vehicle for 5 days. All the strains investigated were susceptible to IL-1 beta-induced changes in body weight, food intake, temperature, and plasma glucagon and corticosterone. However, IL-1 beta induced hyperglycemia and impairment of beta-cell glucose responsiveness in WK/Mol and LS/Mol rats...

  7. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Future Neutrino Oscillation Precision Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S

    2005-01-01

    We discuss to what extent future precision measurements of neutrino mixing observables will influence the information we can draw from a measurement of (or an improved limit on) neutrinoless double beta decay. Whereas the Delta m^2 corresponding to solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations are expected to be known with good precision, the parameter theta_{12} will govern large part of the uncertainty. We focus in particular on the possibility of distinguishing the neutrino mass hierarchies and on setting a limit on the neutrino mass. We give the largest allowed values of the neutrino masses which allow to distinguish the normal from the inverted hierarchy. All aspects are discussed as a function of the uncertainty stemming from the involved nuclear matrix elements. The implications of a vanishing, or extremely small, effective mass are also investigated. By giving a large list of possible neutrino mass matrices and their predictions for the observables, we finally explore how a measurement of (or an improve...

  8. Hereditary and sporadic beta-amyloidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral amyloidoses are chronic, progressive neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by the aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins in the central nervous system, and lead to cognitive deficits, stroke, and focal neurological dysfunction including cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs. Among them, beta-amyloidoses are a heterogenous set of conditions characterised by the deposition of beta-amyloid protein in brain parenchyma and/or vessel walls that lead to the development of two main clinico-pathological entities: Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which may be sporadic or familial, and may also co-exist in the same patient. The aim of this review is to describe the most important differences in the pathways leading to parenchymal and cerebrovascular beta-amyloidoses, and the main clinical, neuropathological and biochemical characteristics of the two conditions. It also discusses the phenotypes associated with a series of familial and sporadic beta-amyloidoses in more detail in order to highlight the clinical and neuropathological features that may help to distinguish the different forms of disease.

  9. beta-decay of O-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, HH; Fynbo, HOU; Borge, MJG; Boutami, R; Dendooven, P; Diget, CA; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fraile, LM; Fulton, B; Huikary, J; Jeppesen, HB; Jokinen, AS; Jonson, B; Kankainen, A; Moore, [No Value; Nieminen, A; Nyman, G; Penttila, H; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Tengblad, O; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Aysto, J

    2005-01-01

    The beta decay of O-13 has been studied at the IGISOL facility of the Jyvaskyla accelerator centre (Finland). By developing a low-energy isotope-separated beam of O-13 and using a modern segmented charged-particle detector array an improved measurement of the delayed proton spectrum was possible. Pr

  10. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  11. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...

  12. Graphene oxide strongly inhibits amyloid beta fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Akhavan, Omid; Ghavami, Mahdi; Rezaee, Farhad; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin

    2012-01-01

    Since amyloid beta fibrillation (AbF) plays an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and their protein-coated surfaces on the kinetics of Ab fibrillation in the aqueous solution. We showed that GO and their protein-covered

  13. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  14. Tests of fundamental symmetries with beta decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanKlinken, J

    1996-01-01

    Since the fall of parity in electroweak interactions the discrete transformations of parity, charge conjugation and time reversal are under close scrutiny for any sign of deviation from maximality where symmetry breaking seems to be complete (like P violation in beta decay) and for any sign of symme

  15. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sankarshan, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides (32P, 89Sr, 90Sr-90Y, 90Y, 91Y, 208Tl, 210Bi, 234Pa and 40K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to 90Sr-90Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Zmod) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study.

  16. Alpha and Beta at the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; /Frascati

    2007-10-15

    We review recent experimental results on time-dependent CP asymmetries in the B system from the BABAR and Belle experiments. Measurements of the {alpha} and {beta} angles of the Unitarity Triangle of the CKM matrix are discussed. These measurements constitute stringent tests of the Standard Model, and are also used to search for new physics.

  17. Universality in Chiral Random Matrix Theory at $\\beta =1$ and $\\beta =4$

    CERN Document Server

    Sener, M K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the kernel for spectral correlation functions of the invariant chiral random matrix ensembles with real ($\\beta =1$) and quaternion real ($\\beta = 4$) matrix elements is expressed in terms of the kernel of the corresponding complex Hermitean random matrix ensembles ($\\beta=2$). Such identities are exact in case of a Gaussian probability distribution and, under certain smoothness assumptions, they are shown to be valid asymptotically for an arbitrary finite polynomial potential. They are proved by means of a construction proposed by Brézin and Neuberger. Microscopic universality for all three chiral ensembles then follows from universal behavior for $\\beta =2$ both at the hard edge (shown by Akemann, Damgaard, Magnea and Nishigaki) and at the soft edge of the spectrum (shown by Kanzieper and Freilikher).

  18. RESEARCH OF BETA AS ADEQUATE RISK MEASURE-IS BETA STILL ALIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Perković

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The capital asset pricing model (CAPM is one of the most important models in financial economics and it has a long history of theoretical and empirical investigations. The main underlying concept of the CAPM model is that assets with a high risk (high beta should earn a higher return than assets with a low risk (low beta and vice versa. The implication which can be drawn out of this is that all assets with a beta above zero bear some risk and therefore their expected return is above the return of the risk-free rate. In this research observation on monthly stock prices on Croatian stock market from January 1st 2005 until December 31st 2009 is used to form our sample. CROBEX index is used as proxy of the market portfolio. The results demonstrate that beta can not be trusted in making investment decisions and rejects the validity of the whole CAPM model on Croatian stock market.

  19. Conformation, molecular packing and field effect mobility of regioregular beta,beta'-dihexylsexithiophiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Kiriy, A.; Bocharova, V.

    2004-01-01

    by the pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) technique was found to be Sigmamu(min) = 3.9 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1), which is comparable with the PR-TRMC mobility found for alpha,omega-DH6T. The field-effect mobility (FEM) of beta,beta'-DH6T was found to be on the order of 10(-5) cm(2......) V-1 s(-1), which is considerably less than the FEM of alpha,omega-DH6T. To understand the reason for such poor macroscopic electrical properties, the conformation and the molecular packing of beta,beta'-DH6T were systematically studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy...

  20. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  1. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces thrombocytosis in mice: Possible implication of IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Shikama, Y.; Okano, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Uchida, T.; Maruyama, Y. (Fukushima Medical College (Japan))

    1990-12-15

    We administered recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the common mediator of inflammation process, to C57B1/6 male mice (0.5 microgram, every 12 hours over five times) intraperitoneally and consequently induced a remarkable thrombocytosis. Day 1 was designated as the following day of the last injection in the morning. A significant thrombocytosis was observed on days 1 through 5 with a peak on day 2 (162 +/- 9 x 10(4)/mm3) compared with the control mice injected with heated IL-1 beta (101 +/- 11 x 10(4)/mm3). A striking increase in mean size of marrow megakaryocytes was noted on days 1 and 2. The incorporation of 75Se-selenomethionine into circulating platelets as a measure of platelet production was about 2.3 times higher in IL-1 beta-treated mice than in control mice. To determine which factor(s) is responsible for elicited thrombocytosis, the in vitro studies and bioassays for several hematopoietic factors were performed. IL-1 beta by itself did not stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, suggesting that the thrombocytosis is attributed to other factor(s) via IL-1 beta stimulation. Serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity after a single IL-1 beta (0.5 microgram) injection, monitored by colony assay with 10% tested serum, peaked at 3 hours. Formed colonies were mostly granulocyte (G) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-types, and studies using rabbit anti-mouse GM-CSF serum or using human marrow as target cells showed that the CSF activity of the tested serum consisted of, at least, GM-CSF and G-CSF. Addition of IL-3 concomitantly with the tested serum gave rise to a greater number of megakaryocytic colonies. Serum IL-3, monitored by IL-3-dependent cell line 32D clone 5, and erythropoietin activities were not detected at serum level in IL-1 beta-treated mice.

  2. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    was accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight......On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test....

  3. Ghrelin inhibits insulin secretion through the AMPK-UCP2 pathway in beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Nishi, Masahiro; Doi, Asako; Shono, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yasushi; Shimada, Takeshi; Furuta, Hiroto; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Nanjo, Kishio

    2010-04-16

    Ghrelin inhibits insulin secretion partly via induction of IA-2beta. However, the orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that ghrelin's inhibitory effect on insulin secretion also occurs through the AMPK-UCP2 pathway. Ghrelin increased AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 mRNA expression in MIN6 insulinoma cells. Overexpression or downregulation of UCP2 attenuated or enhanced insulin secretion, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activator had a similar effect to ghrelin on UCP2 and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin's inhibitory effect on insulin secretion is partly mediated by the AMPK-UCP2 pathway, which is independent of the IA-2beta pathway.

  4. Effect of heating rate on temperature of titanium alloy (. cap alpha. +. beta. ). -->. beta. transformaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of doping of two-phase titaniums alloys and morphology of initial structure on the Tsub(t) temperature shift value of (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta.. transformation depending on heating rate is investigated. It has been found that the Tsub(t) shift occurs in the strictly determined temperature range depending on chemical alloy composition. The Tsub(t) shift is directly proportional to the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient applied as a quantitative alloying characteristic as well as a dimensional factor equal either to the plate thickness or the ..cap alpha..-phase globule diameter depending on the type of initial structure. In the limits of this temperature range the (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta..-transformation occurs completely according to the diffusion mechanism. The critical heating rate at which maximum permissible Tsub(t) value is attained and above which its stabilization is observed is determined by the same parameters - the alloy doping degree characterized by the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient and the ..cap alpha..-phase crystal dimensions in the initial structure.

  5. TGF-beta and BMP in breast cancer cell invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Hildegonda Petronella Henriëtte

    2012-01-01

    TGF-beta and BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines which play an important role in a multitude of processes. In cancer, TGF-beta is known for its dual role: in early stages it inhibits cancer cell proliferation, whereas in later stages it promotes invasion and metastasis. In this

  6. First forbidden beta decay of some strongly deformed nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, Siebren Ysbrand van der

    1971-01-01

    In this thesis we present measurements of the shape factors of the first forbidden beta decays of the nuclei Tm^170, Re^186, Re^188 and Lu^176m. For Lu^176m, also the beta gamma directionalcorrelation was measured. In chapter I formulas for the observable quantities in first forbidden beta decay and

  7. Partial beta-amylolysis retards starch retrogradation in rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Jingmin; Ding, Xiaolin

    2003-07-02

    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The current work investigated the effect of partial beta-amylolysis on the retrogradation of rice starch and the potential of beta-amylase in preparing rice products with extended shelf life. Isolated amylopectin, whole rice starch, and rice flour from a regular rice cultivar were partially hydrolyzed by either reagent-grade or food-grade beta-amylase. The degree of beta-amylolysis was expressed as average external chain length () for isolated amylopectin or the degree of hydrolysis (%) for other starch systems. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor starch retrogradation during storage at 4 degrees C. The results indicated that partial beta-amylolysis using reagent-grade beta-amylase retarded amylopectin retrogradation by shortening the of amylopectin. When was below DP 11.6, the amylopectin retrogradation was essentially inhibited. Partial beta-amylolysis had a similar effect on the amylopectin retrogradation in the whole starch system. The maltose produced in beta-amylolysis might slightly attenuate the retrogradation-retarding effect of partial beta-amylolysis. The effect of food-grade beta-amylase on starch retrogradation was also evident, although less effective than that of reagent-grade beta-amylase. The retrogradation-retarding effect of food-grade beta-amylase was also demonstrated in rice flour system, indicating a potential method for controlling the starch retrogradation of rice products.

  8. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates towards firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, hybrid betas carry a significant price of risk in the cros

  9. Mechanisms of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity : Perspectives of pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T; Abraham, [No Value; Konya, C; Nyakas, C; Zarandi, M; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM

    2000-01-01

    One of the characteristic neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the extracellular accumulation of beta -amyloid peptides (A beta) in neuritic plaques, Experimental data indicate that different molecular forms of A beta affect a wide array of neuronal and glial functions and ther

  10. Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

  11. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N;

    1991-01-01

    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth...

  12. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  14. Right tail expansion of Tracy-Widom beta laws

    CERN Document Server

    Borot, Gaëtan

    2011-01-01

    Using loop equations, we compute the large deviation function of the maximum eigenvalue to the right of the spectrum in the Gaussian beta matrix ensembles, to all orders in 1/N. We then give a physical derivation of the all order asymptotic expansion of the right tail Tracy-Widom beta laws, for all positive beta, by studying the double scaling limit.

  15. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  16. Gen IV Materials Handbook Beta Release for Structural and Functional Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Luttrell, Claire [ORNL

    2006-09-12

    Development of the Gen IV Materials Handbook is briefly summarized up to date. Current status of the Handbook website construction is described. The developed Handbook components and access control of the beta version are discussed for the present evaluation release. Detailed instructions and examples are given to provide guidance for evaluators to browse the constructed parts and use all the currently developed functionalities of the Handbook in evaluation.

  17. Meiotic recombination in the beta globin gene cluster causing an error in prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Camaschella, C.; Serra, A.; Saglio, G; Bertero, M T; Mazza, U; Terzoli, S; Brambati, B; Cremonesi, L.; Travi, M; Ferrari, M

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a prenatal diagnosis for beta thalassaemia by linkage analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, a homozygous beta thalassaemia fetus was misdiagnosed as beta thalassaemia trait. Extensive studies of the polymorphic sites within the beta globin gene cluster in all the members of the family resulted in the conclusion that the paternal chromosome 11 of the newborn was different from that expected. Paternity was confirmed by HLA typing and blood group studies. The an...

  18. Inter-MAR association contributes to transcriptionally active looping events in human beta-globin gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Di, Li-Jun; Lv, Xiang; Zheng, Wei; Xue, Zheng; Guo, Zhi-Chen; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chi-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are important in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Although it is known that there are a number of MAR elements in the beta-globin gene cluster, it is unclear that how these MAR elements are involved in regulating beta-globin genes expression. Here, we report the identification of a new MAR element at the LCR (locus control region) of human beta-globin gene cluster and the detection of the inter-MAR association within the beta-globin gene cluster. Also, we demonstrate that SATB1, a protein factor that has been implicated in the formation of network like higher order chromatin structures at some gene loci, takes part in beta-globin specific inter-MAR association through binding the specific MARs. Knocking down of SATB1 obviously reduces the binding of SATB1 to the MARs and diminishes the frequency of the inter-MAR association. As a result, the ACH establishment and the alpha-like globin genes and beta-like globin genes expressions are affected either. In summary, our results suggest that SATB1 is a regulatory factor of hemoglobin genes, especially the early differentiation genes at least through affecting the higher order chromatin structure.

  19. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  20. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

  2. Wind-Forced Baroclinic Beta-Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmadani, A.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.; Schneider, N.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    A planetary beta-plume is a classical example of oceanic circulation induced by a localized vorticity source or sink that allows an analytical description in simplistic cases. Its barotropic structure is a zonally-elongated, gyre-like cell governed by the Sverdrup circulation on the beta-plane. The dominant zonal currents, found west of the source/sink, are often referred to as zonal jets. This simple picture describes the depth-integrated flow. Previous studies have investigated beta-plumes in a reduced-gravity framework or using other simple models with a small number of vertical layers, thereby lacking representation of the vertical structure. In addition, most previous studies use a purely linear regime without considering the role of eddies. However, these jets are often associated with strong lateral shear that makes them unstable under increased forcing. The circulation in such a nonlinear regime may involve eddy-mean flow interactions, which modify the time-averaged circulation. Here, the baroclinic structures of linear and nonlinear wind-forced beta-plumes are studied using a continuously-stratified, primitive equation, eddy-permitting ocean model (ROMS). The model is configured in an idealized rectangular domain for the subtropical ocean with a flat bottom. The surface wind forcing is a steady anticyclonic Gaussian wind vortex, which provides a localized vorticity source in the center of the domain. The associated wind stress curl and Ekman pumping comprise downwelling in the vortex center surrounded by a ring of weaker upwelling. Under weak forcing, the simulated steady-state circulation corresponds well with a theoretical linear beta-plume. While its depth-integrated transport exhibits a set of zonal jets, consistent with Sverdrup theory, the baroclinic structure of the plume is remarkably complex. Relatively fast westward decay of the surface currents occurs simultaneously with the deepening of the lower boundary of the plume. This deepening suggests

  3. Distinct down-regulation of cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in different human heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfath, M; Geertz, B; Schmitz, W; Scholz, H; Haverich, A; Breil, I; Hanrath, P; Reupcke, C; Sigmund, M; Lo, H B

    1991-02-01

    Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor density and beta 1- and beta 2-subtype distribution were examined in human left ventricular myocardium from transplant donors serving as controls and from patients with mitral valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and ischaemic cardiomyopathy respectively. The total beta-adrenoceptor density was similar in transplant donors and patients with moderate heart failure (NYHA II-III) due to mitral valve stenosis, but was markedly reduced in all forms of severe heart failure (NYHA III-IV) studied. A reduction of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was found in patients with severe heart failure due to mitral valve stenosis or ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In contrast, a selective down-regulation of beta 1-adrenoceptors with unchanged beta 2-adrenoceptors and hence a relative increase in the latter was observed in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and aortic valve stenosis. It is concluded that the extent of total beta-adrenoceptor down-regulation is related to the degree of heart failure. Selective loss of beta 1-adrenoceptors is not specific for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy but also occurs in aortic valve stenosis. Changes in beta 1- and beta 2-subtype distribution are rather related to the aetiology than to the clinical degree of heart failure.

  4. Rheumatoid factors from patients with rheumatoid arthritis react with Des-Lys58-beta 2m, modified beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R C; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Malone, C C

    1993-01-01

    Ten polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) preparations, affinity-purified from IgG columns, from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied for their ELISA reactivity with native beta 2m in parallel with Lys58-cleaved beta 2m and Des-Lys58-beta 2m, the latter representing cleavage products...

  5. E-Combretastatin and E-Resveratrol Structural Modifications: Antimicrobial and Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Beta-E-Nitrostyrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a broad-based SAR investigation of E-resveratrol (strong sirtuin activator and antineoplastic) and the anticancer vascular-targeting combretastatin-type stilbenes, a series of twenty-three beta-E-nitrostyrenes was synthesized in order to evaluate potential antineoplastic, antitubulin poly...

  6. Clinical characteristics of patients with myositis and autoantibodies to different fragments of the Mi-2 beta antigen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Vree Egberts, W.T.M.; Seelig, H.P.; Lundberg, I.E.; Moutsopoulos, H.M.; Doria, A.; Mosca, M.; Vencovsky, J.; Venrooij, W.J.W. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical implications of autoantibodies directed against different parts of the Mi-2 beta autoantigen in patients with myositis. METHODS: A systematic assessment of the clinical, laboratory, and histological characteristics of 48 anti-Mi-2 positive patients from six Europea

  7. A novel beta-glucosidase from the cell wall of maize (Zea mays L.): rapid purification and partial characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, W. P.; Roux, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Plants have a variety of glycosidic conjugates of hormones, defense compounds, and other molecules that are hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.21). Workers have reported several beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae), but have localized them mostly by indirect means. We have purified and partly characterized a 58-Ku beta-glucosidase from maize, which we conclude from a partial sequence analysis, from kinetic data, and from its localization is not identical to any of those already reported. A monoclonal antibody, mWP 19, binds this enzyme, and localizes it in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles. An earlier report showed that mWP19 inhibits peroxidase activity in crude cell wall extracts and can immunoprecipitate peroxidase activity from these extracts, yet purified preparations of the 58 Ku protein had little or no peroxidase activity. The level of sequence similarity between beta-glucosidases and peroxidases makes it unlikely that these enzymes share epitopes in common. Contrary to a previous conclusion, these results suggest that the enzyme recognized by mWP19 is not a peroxidase, but there is a wall peroxidase closely associated with the 58 Ku beta-glucosidase in crude preparations. Other workers also have co-purified distinct proteins with beta-glucosidases. We found no significant charge in the level of immunodetectable beta-glucosidase in mesocotyls or coleoptiles that precedes the red light-induced changes in the growth rate of these tissues.

  8. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  9. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  10. Anxiolytics not acting at the benzodiazepine receptor: beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, P

    1992-01-01

    1. Although there is clear evidence for many controlled trials in the past 25 years that beta blockers are effective in anxiety disorders clear indications for their use are lacking. 2. The balance of evidence suggests that the mechanism of action of beta-blocking drugs is through peripheral blockade of beta-mediated symptoms. 3. Most evidence to the efficacy of beta-blockers comes from study of their use in generalized anxiety and in acute stress. 4. Because beta-blockers carry no risks of pharmacological dependence they may be preferred to many other anti-anxiety drugs.

  11. Probing the N = Z Line via {beta} Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markku Oinonen

    1999-12-31

    This contribution reports several beta-decay studies performed at ISOLDE On-Line Mass Separator at CERN recently for nuclei close to N = Z line. Beta decay of {sup 58}Zn provides a possibility to compare Gamow-Teller strength extracted from complementary beta-decay studies and charge-exchange reactions. Measurement on beta-decay half-life of {sup 70}Kr shows importance of experimental information in modeling the path of the astrophysical rp process. Decay of {sup 71}Kr is an example of a mirror beta decay and extends the systematics of these particular decays towards highly deformed region close to A = 80.

  12. Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity.

  13. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Hannechi, N; Boukadida, N; Ben Said, H; Elmherbech, H; Errai, S

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role and importance of beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis and its relative susceptibility to antibiotics, we cultured samples from 143 patients (age range: 3-72 years) who presented over a 5-month period in 2001 at three primary health care centres in Sousse, Tunisia. The cultures yielded 80 beta-haemolytic streptococci (59 group A streptococci and 21 non-group A streptococci). All strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin. Susceptibility was variable in erythromycin, tetracycline, fosfomycin, telithromycin and levofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E-test for penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin. Our results confirm that penicillin is still the reference treatment for acute pharyngitis. However, to minimize the potential for complications arising from its use, continued vigilance is required.

  14. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  15. On Schr\\"odinger equation with potential U = - {\\alpha}r^{-1} + {\\beta}r + kr^{2} and the bi-confluent Heun functions theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsiyuk, E; Veko, O

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that Schr\\"odinger equation with combination of three potentials U = - {\\alpha} r^{-1} + {\\beta} r + kr^{2}, Coulomb, linear and harmonic, the potential often used to describe quarkonium, is reduced to a bi-confluent Heun differential equation. The method to construct its solutions in the form of polynomials is developed, however with additional constraints in four parameters of the model, {\\alpha}, {\\beta}, k, l. The energy spectrum looks as a modified combination of oscillator and Coulomb parts.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoreceptors in rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolszczuk, M.; Pelletier, G.

    1988-12-01

    The inhibitory effects of catecholamines on uterine smooth muscle are known to be mediated through beta-adrenergic receptors. To investigate further the distribution of these receptors in the rat uterus, we utilized in vitro autoradiography using ( SVI)-cyanopindolol (CYP), a specific beta-receptor ligand that has equal activity for both beta 1- and beta 2-receptor subtypes. The specificity of the labeling and the characterization of receptor subtypes in different cell types were achieved by displacement of radioligand with increasing concentrations of zinterol, a beta-adrenergic agonist with preferential affinity for the beta 2-adrenoreceptor subtype, and practolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist that binds preferentially to the beta 1-subtype. Quantitative estimation of ligand binding was performed by densitometry. It was shown that the vast majority of beta-adrenoreceptors were of the beta 2-subtype and were found in high concentration not only in the myometrium but also in the endometrial and serosal epithelia. Specific labeling was also observed in glandular elements. These results suggest that beta-adrenoreceptors might be involved in different functions in the uterus.

  17. Beta Testing of Persistent Passive Acoustic Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    solution. This translates into longer deployments on platforms such as gliders with limited hotel load. 2. the DMON is specifically designed for low...filter or filter bank may improve performance • Glider and Profiler motors and pumps are noisy , however duty cycle of noise is low. Therefore they are...power making it ideal for low hotel load autonomous vehicles like gliders. The format shown here was provided to beta-test clients working on gliders and

  18. SPL and Beta Beams to the Frejus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzetto, M

    2005-01-01

    Physics potential of a conventional neutrino beam generated by the 2.2 GeV, 4MW, Superconducting Proton Linac and of a Beta Beam fired to a gigantic water Ccaronerenkov detector hosted below Frejus, 130 km away from CERN, are briefly summarized. theta/sub 13/ sensitivity could be improved by up to 3 orders of magnitude with respect to the present experimental limit and a first sensitive search for leptonic CP violation could be performed.

  19. Beta-decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdhane, M; Baumann, P; Knipper, A; Walter, G; Janas, Z; Plochocki, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Jokinen, A; Oinonen, M; Pentila, H; Liu, W; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hu, Z; Kirchner, R; Klepper, O; Roeckl, E; Fujita, Y; Brown, BA

    1998-01-01

    By measuring positrons and P-delayed gamma-rays emitted from mass-separated sources, the decay of Cu-56 (4(+),T-z = -1,T = 1) to states in the doubly-magic nucleus Ni-56 was Studied for the first time. The half-life of Cu-56 was measured to be 78(15) ms, and four beta-delayed gamma-rays were assigne

  20. A background free double beta decay experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Giomataris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this conc...

  1. Alpha-beta bidirectional associative memories

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Acevedo Mosqueda; Cornelio Yáñez Márquez

    2006-01-01

    Most models of Bidirectional associative memories intend to achieve that all trained pattern correspond to stable states; however, this has not been possible. Also, none of the former models has been able to recall all the trained patterns. In this work we introduce a new model of bidirectional associative memory which is not iterative and has no stability problems. It is based on the Alpha-Beta associative memories. This model allows perfect recall of all trained patterns, with no ambiguity ...

  2. Precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Moltz, D M; Kern, B D; Noma, H; Ritchie, B G; Toth, K S

    1981-01-01

    A technique for precise determination of beta endpoints with an intrinsic germanium detector has been developed. The energy calibration is derived from gamma -ray photopeak measurements. This analysis procedure has been checked with a /sup 27/Si source produced in a (p, n) reaction on a /sup 27/Al target and subsequently applied to mass separated samples of /sup 76/Rb, /sup 77/Rb and /sup 78/Rb. Results indicate errors <50 keV are obtainable. (29 refs).

  3. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  4. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  5. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  6. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  7. Reinvestigation of the beta-decay of {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.; Dendooven, P.; Hankonen, S.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    The beta-decay of the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo, separated by the IGISOL on-line mass separator from other fission products, has been investigated by using beta-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence techniques. The decay scheme of {sup 110}Mo has been revised, including 3 new excited states and 7 new {gamma} transitions in {sup 110}Tc. The {beta}-feedings were measured and log ft values and B(GT) values were deduced based on a Q{sub {beta}}-value from systematics. Three excited 1{sup +} states in {sup 110}Tc fed by spin-flip allowed-unhindered beta transitions were identified. The deduced beta-decay strengths are compared with the Gamow-Teller strength distribution obtained from a macroscopic-microscopic calculation. The role of the asymptotic quantum numbers in the context of the allowed beta-decay is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R

    2006-01-01

    tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin......-null phenotype in vivo. Surprisingly, neither the substitution of the tyrosines with phenylalanine nor the aspartic acid with alanine resulted in an obvious defect. These data suggest that the NPXY motifs of the beta1 integrin tail are essential for beta1 integrin function, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation......Akey feature of integrins is their ability to regulate the affinity for ligands, a process termed integrin activation. The final step in integrin activation is talin binding to the NPXY motif of the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains. Talin binding disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha/beta...

  9. Rare association between two genetic conditions: turner syndrome and beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina STOICANESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare disorders are defined as diseases, including those of genetic origin, which are life-threatening or chronically debilitating, which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them. We present a case with a rare association between two genetic conditions: Turner phenotype and beta thalassemia minor. Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is characterized by the absence of all or part of a second sex chromosome in some or all cells. This condition occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,000 girls. The physical features include webbing of the neck, short stature, delayed growth of the skeleton, broad chest, cardivascular abnormalities and gonadal dysgenesis. Women with this disorder are usually infertile due to ovarian failure. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the cytogenetic and by FISH analysis, which revealed the presence of only one X chromosome. Treatment may include human growth hormone and estrogen replacement therapy. On the other hand, thalassemias are genetic conditions that result from imbalance in the normal coordinated synthesis of the globin subunits that make up the hemoglobin tetramer, leading to decreased and defective production of hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia syndromes are hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of beta-globin chains. Beta thalassemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Thalassemia minor usually presents as an asymptomatic mild microcytic anemia, but our case also had splenomegaly and required splenectomy.

  10. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  11. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  12. Scintillation spectroscopy for beta ray dose measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vapirev, E.I.; Jordanov, T.; Amin, S.; Stoilov, N.; Georgieva, K. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-11-01

    Two methods have been developed and tested for the measurement of beta ray dose with a scintillation probe. According to the first method the energy absorbed in plastic filters is calculated from the difference between the energy E of the incident and filtered beta spectrum with an expression of the type E {approx} c{Sigma}iN(i)/{Delta}m, where c is a calibration constant (keV per channel), i is the channel number, N(i) is the detected beta spectrum, and {Delta}m is the filter thickness. According to the second `dE/dx` method the energy deposited in the surface layer of the scintillator is calculated by E {approx} c{Sigma}dE/dx(i)N(i), where dE/dx is the specific energy loss for tissue-equivalent media. The methods were tested for the cases of normally incident electrons and surface contamination. The scintillation probe used is stillbene and the test sources are thin {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs. The results are close to the expected doses as calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. (Author).

  13. The Dust and Gas Around beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H; Bohac, C; Kim, K H; Watson, D M; van Cleve, J; Houck, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Werner, M W; Rieke, G; Su, K; Marengo, M; Backman, D; Beichman, C; Fazio, G

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained Spitzer IRS 5.5 - 35 micron spectroscopy of the debris disk around beta Pictoris. In addition to the 10 micron silicate emission feature originally observed from the ground, we also detect the crystalline silicate emission bands at 28 micron and 33.5 micron. This is the first time that the silicate bands at wavelengths longer than 10 micron have ever been seen in the beta Pictoris disk. The observed dust emission is well reproduced by a dust model consisting of fluffy cometary and crystalline olivine aggregates. We searched for line emission from molecular hydrogen and atomic [S I], Fe II, and Si II gas but detected none. We place a 3 sigma upper limit of <17 Earth masses on the H2 S(1) gas mass, assuming an excitation temperature of Tex = 100 K. This suggests that there is less gas in this system than is required to form the envelope of Jupiter. We hypothesize that some of the atomic Na I gas observed in Keplerian rotation around beta Pictoris may be produced by photon-stimulated desorpti...

  14. Beta decay of {sup 101}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Kavatsyuk, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv (Ukraine); Mazzocchi, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Miernik, K.; Plochocki, A.; Zylicz, J. [University of Warsaw (Poland); Banu, A.; Becker, F.; Bruechle, W.; Doering, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Klepper, O.; Kirchner, R.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Batist, L. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Blazhev, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Univ. of Sofia (Bulgaria); Faestermann, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Jungclaus, A. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, UAM, Madrid (Spain); La Commara, M.; Romoli, M. [Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mukha, I. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Damrstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Rykaczewski, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Schmidt, K. [Continental Teves AG and Co., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schwengner, R. [Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The {beta} decay of the very neutron-deficient isotope {sup 101}Sn was studied at the GSI on-line mass separator using silicon detectors for recording charged particles and germanium detectors for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Based on the {beta}-delayed proton data the production cross-section of {sup 101}Sn in the {sup 50}Cr+{sup 58}Ni fusion-evaporation reaction was determined to be about 60nb. The half-life of {sup 101}Sn was measured to be 1.9(3)s. For the first time {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays of {sup 101}Sn were tentatively identified, yielding weak evidence for a cascade of 352 and 1065keV transitions in {sup 101}In. The results for the {sup 101}Sn decay as well as those from previous work on the {sup 103}Sn decay are discussed by comparing them to predictions obtained from shell model calculations employing a new interaction in the {sup 88}Sr to {sup 132}Sn model space. (orig.)

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a National External Quality Control Program for Cervical Cytology in Mexico Instrumentación y evaluación de un programa nacional de control de calidad externo para citología cervical en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flisser

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate cytology laboratories and the performance of cytotechnologists for establishing efficient external quality control for Mexico's National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer. Material and Methods. During January and February 1998, an on-site evaluation of all cytology laboratories of the Ministry of Health found that only 70% of the microscopes were in adequate working conditions, reagents were out of date, and working conditions were sub-optimal. A program for external quality control based on proficiency testing was established for cytotechnologists. Fifty slide sets with 20 Papanicolaou slides and 10 photographic slides were prepared. The sets were given to the cytotechnologists for evaluation and again one year later by courier. Results. Twenty-one percent of microscopes were repaired and 9% replaced; reagents were distributed and laboratory facilities improved. Only 16% of cytotechnologists passed the initial proficiency test. Cytotechnologists received a refresher training course: one year later 67% of them passed the proficiency test. To ascertain that each slide was correctly diagnosed, 41 sets were rescreened by expert cytopathologists or cytologists and their diagnoses compared to the original ones. Thirty-seven sets had 86% to 96% concordance. Conclusions. This new system for external quality control of cervical cytology allowed the opportune and reliable evaluation of the performance of cytotechnologists.Objetivo. Evaluar los laboratorios de citología y la capacidad de los citotecnólogos para establecer un programa eficiente de control de calidad externo para el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de Cáncer Cérvico Uterino de México. Material y métodos. Se realizó una evaluación de todos los laboratorios de citología de la Secretaría de Salud; sólo 70% de los microscopios estaban en buenas condiciones de trabajo, había reactivos caducos y condiciones subóptimas de

  16. Effects of calcium impurity on phase relationship, ionic conductivity and microstructure of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUNG-TAE LEE; DAE-HAN LEE; SANG-MIN LEE; SANG-SOO HAN; SANG-HYUNG LEE; SUNG-KI LIM

    2016-06-01

    Ca-doped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina was synthesized using a solid-state reaction. The changes in the properties of Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina resulting from the presence of Ca impurity were studied. Ca (0–5 wt%) was added to the respective samples, which were then sintered. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanningelectron microscopy, densimetry and impedance analysis. In the sintered specimens, the $\\beta"$-alumina phase fraction decreased as Ca content increased, whereas the relative sintered density increased. The surface morphology of Cadoped Na$^{+}$-$\\beta/beta"$-alumina specimens showed a Ca-rich layer, which was the main cause of increase in the specificresistance.

  17. Uso do desfibrilador automático externo no ambiente pré-hospitalar peruano: melhorando a resposta a emergências na América Latina Use of automated external defibrillator in Peruvian out-of-hospital environment: improving emergency response in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lister

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso reporta o atendimento pré-hospitalar de um paciente com fatores de risco atendido pelo serviço pré-hospitalar ao ser acometido por uma parada cardíaca e apresentar fibrilação ventricular. O paciente foi atendido seguindo os padrões de suporte básico de vida e suporte cardiovascular avançado. Um desfibrilador automático externo (DAE foi aplicado com resultados favoráveis e o paciente se recuperou do quadro de perigo de vida com sucesso. Este é o primeiro relato documentado com resultados favoráveis no Peru, na área de atendimento pré-hospitalar e enfatiza a necessidade de serem adotadas políticas de acesso público à desfibrilação precoce.El presente reporte de caso, relata la atencion prehospitalaria de un paciente con factores de riesgo atendido en el area prehospitalaria al sufrir arresto cardiaco y presentar fibrilacion ventricular. El paciente fue atendido bajo estandares de Soporte Basico Vital y Soporte Cardiovascular Avanzado Vital, se aplico un Desfibrilador Automatizado Externo (DEA con resultado favorable y exito al recuperar al paciente de su condicion de compromiso de vida. Este es el primer reporte documentado con resultado favorable en el pais, en el area prehospitalaria y refuerza la conveniencia de adoptar politicas de Acceso Publico a la Desfibrilacion Temprana.This case report relates out-of-hospital care to a patient with risk factors treated in the out-of-hospital services after cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation. The patient was treated according to the standards of basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support; by applying an automated external defibrillator (AED with favorable outcome and successful recovery of the patient from his risk of life condition. This is the first documented report with a favorable outcome in Peru, in out-of-hospital services and stresses the desirability of adopting policies for public access to early defibrillation.

  18. Goniometria da articulação tíbio-tarsal após imobilização temporária com fixador esquelético externo em cães Tarsocrural joint goniometry after temporary immobilization with external skeletal fixation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Meller Alievi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, foram utilizados 10 cães clinicamente sadios, submetidos à imobilização temporária das articulações tíbio-tarsal, intertarsal e tarso-metatarsiana direita com fixador esquelético externo, tendo por objetivo avaliar através da mensuração da flexão, da extensão e da amplitude articular os danos provocados por esta imobilização. O aparelho de fixação esquelética externa manteve a articulação em um ângulo aproximado de 135º e permaneceu por 45 dias. Os animais apresentaram desconforto à manipulação articular para a realização do exame goniométrico no dia da retirada do aparelho, demonstrando dor na flexão e na extensão passiva do membro imobilizado, sendo que tal dificuldade desapareceu após três dias. Foi observado que a imobilização articular temporária obtida pela fixação esquelética externa promove perda estatisticamente significativa nos graus de flexão, de extensão e de amplitude articular tíbio-tarsal imediatamente após a remoção do fixador externo. Porém, após sete dias desta remoção para extensão e quinze dias para flexão e amplitude articular, esta perda não é mais verificada.In this study, 10 clinically healthy adult mongrel dogs were submitted to the temporary immobilization of the hock with external skeletal fixation. The aim of this procedure was to evaluate, using a manual goniometer, the flexion, the extension and the range of motion of the tarsocrural joint after immobilization in a functional angle of 135º for 45 days. The animals presented discomfort in relation to the articular manipulation for the goniometric exam on the day of the removal of the apparatus, demonstrating pain in the passive flexion and extension of the limb, and such difficulty disappeared after three days. It was observed that the temporary immobilization of the articulation obtained by the external skeletal fixation promotes statistically significant loss in the degree of flexion

  19. Óbitos perinatais evitáveis e ambiente externo ao sistema de assistência: estudo de caso em município da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Avoidable perinatal deaths and the environment outside the health care system: a case study in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. G. Rosa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa compreender a contribuição de fatores do ambiente externo ao sistema de assistência na ocorrência de óbitos perinatais em maternidades, que em 1994, compunham a rede de atendimento obstétrico em um município da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Dividiram-se os elementos em quatro grupos de variáveis, para entender a relação entre falhas no atendimento e deficiências no ambiente externo e institucionalizado: repasse de recursos para custeio, fatores geográficos e temporais, características organizacionais e administrativas e ação/participação de grupos de interesse. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas. Os resultados indicaram as seguintes falhas: repasses de recursos para custeio insuficientes para manter cuidados de qualidade, sobretudo nos casos das maternidades privadas; nenhuma regionalização ou hierarquização formal ou informal dos cuidados obstétricos no município; desconhecimento das normas do Ministério da Saúde nas maternidades estudadas e as adotadas em três das quatro maternidades não faziam referência nem aos procedimentos para a admissão, nem ao seguimento do trabalho de parto, nem ao seguimento fetal e o nível de participação não era o efetivamente implementado.This paper focuses on the role of environmental factors external to the health care system in the occurrence of perinatal deaths in maternity hospitals belonging to the local health system in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro in 1994. Elements from the political and administrative context that contribute to an understanding of the relationship between failures in health care and structural deficiencies in these maternity hospitals were divided into four groups of variables: distribution of resources, spatial and temporal factors, organizational and managerial features, and action by interest groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The study concluded that poor performance in four groups

  20. Beta-blockers and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, John M

    2010-01-01

    The life-time risk of developing HF is about 20% (40% if hypertension present). With increasing longevity in the developed world the burden of HF (hospitalisation) is set to increase over the next 10-20 years. CAD and hypertension are the two main causes of HF; CAD (and obesity) in the case of systolic HF and hypertension in the case of diastolic HF (mainly in the elderly). BB have become the corner-stone (alongside ACE-inhibitors) in the treatment of systolic HF. Bisoprolol, metoprolol and carvedilol (on an ACE-inhibitor background) have reduced all-cause death by 34-5%. The presence of intrinsic sympathomemetic activity (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) diminishes efficacy in the treatment of systolic HF. First-line bisoprolol has proved "non-inferior" to first-line enalapril in reducing all-cause death and is probably superior in reducing sudden death. The main mode of action of BB in treating systolic HF is inhibition of chronic beta-1 stimulation-induced myocardial apoptosis/necrosis/inflammation. The combination of pure beta-1 blockade (low-dose bisoprolol) and pure beta-2 blockade (clenbuterol) may prove invaluable in the treatment of end-stage systolic HF (thus avoiding cardiac transplantation). The appropriate treatment of diastolic HF has yet to be determined. Beta-blockade is effective in the prevention of HF i) in the post-MI period and ii) as first-line agents in the treatment of young/middle-aged hypertension and as second-line agents (to first-line diuretics) in the treatment of elderly systolic hypertension. BB are highly effective in reversing LVH in young/middle-aged hypertensives (LVH pre-disposes to HF in young/middle-aged hypertension) and are (bisoprolol) at least as good as ACE-inhibitors. Choice of BB is important as benefit is not a class-effect. ISA (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) markedly diminishes efficacy. The choice is between bisoprolol, metoprolol succinate and carvedilol for optimal efficacy. Adverse reactions are associated

  1. A new dedicated {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup for LISE-GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rydt, M., E-mail: marieke.derydt@fys.kuleuven.b [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lozeva, R.; Vermeulen, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Oliveira Santos, F. de; Grevy, S. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Himpe, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Stoedel, C.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Vingerhoets, P.; Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-12-21

    A new {beta}-NMR/{beta}-NQR setup is developed to study nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments at the LISE fragment separator at GANIL. Two key elements make the new design very powerful: the homogeneous magnet and the strong radio-frequency amplifier. The combination of both makes it possible to examine a broad spectrum of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Several factors have an influence on the detection efficiency and on the sensitivity of the setup to observe a resonant change in the {beta}-asymmetry: the thickness and the tilting angle of the implantation crystal, the material in the vacuum chamber, the applied magnetic field and the Q{sub b}eta-value of the decaying nuclei. A detailed study of these effects is made using a dedicated GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code.

  2. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  3. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  4. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  5. Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, W.; Fanni, D.; Nemolato, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Van Eyken, P.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (96%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression. PMID:24704991

  6. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Theunissen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing. Recently, a role for beta-thymosins has been proposed in the process of carcinogenesis as both peptides were detected in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To this end, the expression pattern of both peptides was analyzed in liver samples obtained from 23 subjects diagnosed with HCC. Routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver samples were immunostained by indirect immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to Tβ4 and Tβ10. Immunoreactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 was detected in the liver parenchyma of the surrounding tumor area. Both peptides showed an increase in granular reactivity from the periportal to the periterminal hepatocytes. Regarding HCC, Tβ4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30% and Tβ10 reactivity in 22/23 (97% cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. Intriguing finding was seen looking at the reactivity of both peptides in tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding liver. Where Tβ10 showed a strong homogeneous expression, was Tβ4 completely absent in cells undergoing stromal invasion. The current study shows expression of both beta-thymosins in HCC with marked differences in their degree of expression and frequency of immunoreactivity. The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for Tβ10 in HCC progression.

  7. 21beta-Hydroxy-oleanane-type triterpenes from Hippocratea excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Castillo, David; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2008-02-01

    Stem bark of Hippocratea excelsa afforded six pentacyclic triterpenes, five oleanane and one ursane types. They were identified as 11beta,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene-3-one (2), 3alpha,11alpha,21beta-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene (3), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-diene (5), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (6) and 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-urs-12-ene, isolated as its diacetate derivative (7), as well as 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (1) previously isolated from the root bark. The known alpha- and beta-amyrin, oleanoic and ursolic acids, trans-polyisoprene, and the ubiquitous beta-sitosterol were also isolated. Structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The antigiardial activity of compounds 2-5 was not significant.

  8. Substitution of isoleucine-31 by helical-breaking proline abolishes oxidative stress and neurotoxic properties of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Aksenova, Marina; Schöneich, Christian; Butterfield, D Allan

    2002-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is characterized by excess deposition of the 42-amino acid amyloid beta-peptide [A(beta)(1-42)]. AD brain is under intense oxidative stress, and we have previously suggested that A(beta)(1-42) was associated with this increased oxidative stress. In addition, we previously demonstrated that the single methionine residue of A(beta)(1-42), residue 35, was critical for the oxidative stress and neurotoxic properties of this peptide. Others have shown that the C-terminal region of A(beta)(1-42) is helical in aqueous micellar solutions, including that part of the protein containing Met35. Importantly, Cu(II)-binding induces alpha-helicity in A(beta) in aqueous solution. Invoking the i + 4 rule of helices, we hypothesized that the carbonyl oxygen of Ile31 would interact with the S atom of Met35 to change the electronic environment of the sulfur such that molecular oxygen could lead to the production of a sulfuramyl free radical on Met35. If this hypothesis is correct, a prediction would be that breaking the helical interaction of Ile31 and Met35 would abrogate the oxidative stress and neurotoxic properties of A(beta)(1-42). Accordingly, we investigated A(beta)(1-42) in which the Ile31 residue was replaced with the helix-breaking amino acid, proline. The alpha-helical environment around Met35 was completely abolished as indicated by circular dichroism (CD)-spectroscopy. As a consequence, the aggregation, oxidative stress, Cu(II) reduction, and neurotoxic properties of A(beta)(1-42)I31P were completely altered compared to native A(beta)(1-42). The results presented here are consistent with the notion that interaction of Ile31 with Met35 may play an important role in the oxidative processes of Met35 contributing to the toxicity of the peptide.

  9. A proteomics strategy to discover beta-glucosidases from Aspergillus fumigatus with two-dimensional page in-gel activity assay and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hong; Brown, Kimberly M; Harris, Paul V; Langston, James A; Cherry, Joel R

    2007-12-01

    Economically competitive production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is currently limited, in part, by the relatively high cost and low efficiency of the enzymes required to hydrolyze cellulose to fermentable sugars. Discovery of novel cellulases with greater activity could be a critical step in overcoming this cost barrier. beta-Glucosidase catalyzes the final step in conversion of glucose polymers to glucose. Despite the importance, only a few beta-glucosidases are commercially available, and more efficient ones are clearly needed. We developed a proteomics strategy aiming to discover beta-glucosidases present in the secreted proteome of the cellulose-degrading fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. With the use of partial or complete protein denaturing conditions, the secretory proteome was fractionated in a 2DGE format and beta-glucosidase activity was detected in the gel after infusion with a substrate analogue that fluoresces upon hydrolysis. Fluorescing spots were subjected to tryptic-digestion, and identification as beta-glucosidases was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Two novel beta-glucosidases of A. fumigatus were identified by this in situ activity staining method, and the gene coding for a novel beta-glucosidase ( EAL88289 ) was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed beta-glucosidase showed far superior heat stability to the previously characterized beta-glucosidases of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Improved heat stability is important for development of the next generation of saccharifying enzymes capable of performing fast cellulose hydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures, thereby lowering the cost of bioethanol production. The in situ activity staining approach described here would be a useful tool for cataloguing and assessing the efficiency of beta-glucosidases in a high throughput fashion.

  10. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K.; Laurent, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  11. BETA. A code for {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yuichi; Okajima, Shigeaki; Sakurai, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The code BETA has been developed to calculate the following reactor physics parameters which are used for the {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis; Diven factor, Spatial correction factor (g-factor) for neutron correlation experiment, Adjoint weighted g-factor, Fission rate integrated in whole reactor and Adjoint weighted fission rate integrated in whole reactor: The code also calculates the effective delayed neutron fraction with different evaluated delayed neutron data. These parameters are calculated with using the forward and adjoint fluxes given by SLAROM, POPLARS or TWOTRAN-II. This report describes the input data and job control statements instructions, file requirements and sample input output data. (author)

  12. beta. -. gamma. directional correlations in the. beta. -decay of /sup 208/Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, O.A.; Krmpotic, F.; Szybisz, L.

    1984-02-13

    The relevance of the quenching effects induced by charge-exchange collective fields and ..delta..-isobar-hole excitations is discussed in the case of the ..beta..-..gamma.. angular correlations in the decay of /sup 208/Tl to the 5/sup -//sub 1/, 4/sup -//sub 1/ and 5/sup -//sub 2/ levels in /sup 208/Pb. It is found that, although these effects give rise to a large hindrance of the ..beta..-moments, they influence the anisotropy factor only very weakly. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data is obtained for all the transitions.

  13. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The extremely halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis, isolated from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, produced beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase activities. Both enzymes were active over a broad NaCl range from near zero to 30% NaCl when tested with culture broth. A broad NaCl optimum was observed......-xylosidase activity was optimal at 65degreesC. SDS-PAGE and zymogram techniques revealed the presence of two xylan-degrading proteins of approximately 45 and 67 kDa in culture supernatants. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on hemicellulose-degrading enzymes produced by an extremely halophilic archaeon....

  14. Conversion of embryonic stem cells into pancreatic beta-cell surrogates guided by ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Justin G; Tuch, Bernard E

    2006-05-01

    Cellular therapies to treat Type 1 diabetes are being devised and the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offers a solution to the issue of supply, because hESCs can be maintained in a pluripotent state indefinitely. Furthermore, hESCs have advantages in terms of their plasticity and reduced immunogenicity. Several strategies that have so far been investigated indicate that hESCs are capable of differentiating into insulin producing beta-cell surrogates. However the efficiency of the differentiation procedures used is generally quite low and the cell populations derived are often highly heterogenous. A strategy that appears to have long term potential is to design differentiation procedures based on the ontogeny of the beta-cell. The focus of this strategy is to replicate signaling processes that are known to be involved in the maturation of a beta-cell. The earliest pancreatic progenitors found in the developing vertebrate fetus are produced via a process known as gastrulation and form part of the definitive endoderm germ layer. hESCs have recently been differentiated into definitive endoderm with high efficiency using a differentiation procedure that mimics the signaling that occurs during gastrulation and the formation of the definitive endoderm. Subsequent events during pancreas development involve a section of the definitive endoderm forming into pancreatic epithelium, which then branches into the pancreatic mesenchyme to form islet clusters of endocrine cells. A proportion of the endocrine precursor cells within islets develop into insulin producing beta-cells. The challenge currently is to design hESC differentiation procedures that mimic the combined events of these stages of beta-cell development.

  15. Presence of beta-linked GalNAc residues on N-glycans of human thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Akira; Hosomi, Osamu; Nishijima, Hironori; Ohe, Yoshihide; Sugahara, Kunio; Sagi, Morihisa; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Chizuko; Kogure, Tadahisa; Mukai, Toshiji

    2007-01-16

    Hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor, which may mediate the clearance of circulating thyroglobulin, is known to have a high affinity for GalNAc. Recently, the receptor has been reported to be present also in the thyroid, implicating interaction with thyroglobulin. Here, mammalian thyroglobulins were analyzed for GalNAc termini by Western blotting with GalNAc-recognizing lectins labeled with peroxidase or (125)I. Wistaria floribunda lectin was found to bind human thyroglobulin and, to some extent, bovine, but not porcine thyroglobulin. After desialylation, the lectin bound all of the thyroglobulins tested. The binding was inhibited by competitive inhibitor GalNAc. Peptide N-glycanase treatment of human desialylated thyroglobulin resulted in the complete loss of reactivity with W. floribunda lectin, indicating that the binding sites are exclusively on N-glycans. The binding sites on human desialylated thyroglobulin were partly sensitive to beta-galactosidase, and the remainder was essentially sensitive to beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. On the other hand, the binding sites of bovine and porcine desialylated thyroglobulins were totally sensitive to beta-galactosidase. Thus the lectin binds beta-Gal termini, as well as beta-GalNAc. GalNAc-specific Dolichos biflorus lectin also bound human thyroglobulin weakly. In contrast to W. floribunda lectin, desialylation diminished binding, suggesting that these two lectins recognize different GalNAc-terminated structures. Again, the binding was inhibited by GalNAc and by treatment with peptide N-glycanase. These results strongly indicate the presence of distinct GalNAc termini of N-glycans on human thyroglobulin.

  16. Condiciones asistenciales y administrativas que potencialmente influirían en la satisfacción del cliente interno y externo de un servicio de salud: Implicaciones para la gestión operacional

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Clavijo, July Marcela; Morales Quevedo, Jairo Alonso; Villanueva Vera, Maicol Javier

    2013-01-01

    Calidad en salud y Satisfacción en salud son dos fenómenos de naturaleza distinta, sin embargo la literatura reporta que en las mediciones de ambas parecen evaluarse factores similares en la prestación de los servicios de salud. La calidad en salud hace referencia a las ¨creencias que como forma de la percepción forman parte de la cognición mientras que la satisfacción concebida como un juicio de valor positivo o negativo que construye el sujeto que ha recibido el servicio de acuerdo al cumpl...

  17. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  18. Role of beta-adrenoceptors in memory consolidation: beta3-adrenoceptors act on glucose uptake and beta2-adrenoceptors on glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    Noradrenaline, acting via beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptors (AR), enhances memory formation in single trial-discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving changes in metabolism of glucose and/or glycogen. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks implicated beta(3)- rather than beta(2)-ARs in enhancement of memory consolidation by glucose, but did not elucidate whether stimulation of glucose uptake or of glycolysis was responsible. This study examines the role of glucose transport in memory formation using central injection of the nonselective facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor cytochalasin B, the endothelial/astrocytic GLUT-1 inhibitor phloretin and the Na(+)/energy-dependent endothelial glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor phlorizin. Cytochalasin B inhibited memory when injected into the mesopallium (avian cortex) either close to or between 25 and 45 min after training, whereas phloretin and phlorizin only inhibited memory at 30 min. This suggested that astrocytic/endothelial (GLUT-1) transport is critical at the time of consolidation, whereas a different transporter, probably the neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT-3), is important at the time of training. Inhibition of glucose transport by cytochalasin B, phloretin, or phlorizin also interfered with beta(3)-AR-mediated memory enhancement 20 min posttraining, whereas inhibition of glycogenolysis interfered with beta(2)-AR agonist enhancement of memory. We conclude that in astrocytes (1) activities of both GLUT-1 and SGLT are essential for memory consolidation 30 min posttraining; (2) neuronal GLUT-3 is essential at the time of training; and (3) beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs consolidate memory by different mechanisms; beta(3)-ARs stimulate central glucose transport, whereas beta(2)-ARs stimulate central glycogenolysis.

  19. Microbial degradation of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Castellà, J; Lafuente, R; Urmeneta, J; Goodwin, S; Guerrero, R

    1994-01-01

    The search for new materials that are not hazardous to the environment has become a major issue in our society, engaged as it is in the attainment of sustainable development. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA), produced exclusively by prokaryotes, can be used as thermoplastics and are fully biodegradable and innocuous to the environment. Biodegradability testing has quantified the capacity of microorganisms to degrade such new chemical compounds, particularly polyhydroxyalkanoates. Standardized tests may also discover new microorganisms and environmental conditions that accelerate biodegradation. We evaluate various techniques used to assess the biodegradability of PHA, and which may also be applied to test other kinds of polymers.

  20. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.